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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8–August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2585

Crypting Image in a Communication Media
Abhilasha yadav
1,
Prashant Ahlawat
2



Abhilasha Yadav
1
Research Scholar, Dept of CSE, GITM, Gurgaon, India.

Prashant Ahlawat
2
Associate Professor, Dept of CSE, GITM, Gurgaon, India.


Abstract-- Crypti ng i nformati on i s an effi ci ent
method of transmitti ng the image securel y. In thi s
paper, an effi ci ent secret image hi ding method i s
proposed. The science of protecting data and keeping
information private and secure from unauthorized Users
by writing in secret code. This paper discusses through the
experimental result that the proposed scheme secretly
transmit the image and then reconstructed original image
only when sufficient number of possibly different types of
shares are combined together This proposed approach
comprises of the important algorithm namely secret image
generation algorithm and reconstruction algorithm. In
secret image generation algorithm generate the share of
secret image and the reconstruction algorithm combines
the encrypted secure parts to get the original image with a
high level of security.

Key words: security, image secret sharing, share
generation, recovery.

I. INTRODUCTION

The essential aspect for secure communications is that
of cryptography. Cryptography presents various
methods for taking legible, readable data, and
transforming it into unreadable data for the purpose of
secure transmission, and then using a key to transform it
back into readable data when it reaches its destination.
The most secure techniques use a mathematical
algorithm and a variable value known as a 'key' i.e.
changing data so that it is unrecognizable[5] and useless
to an unauthorized person and decrypt a message i.e.
changing it back to its original form.

In this paper, we present a security approach by
combining the advantages of encryption and decryption
techniques for secure transmission. And rest of this
scheme takes a lot of time to generate the image shares
at the sender end and to reconstruct the original image at
receiver.
Secret transmission of information is associate important
task to preserve the information from the probable
threats and misuse. varied techniques have been
projected for secure transmission of information that



may be a difficult task to accomplish. The text will still
be decoded and recognized by the system exploitation
brute force techniques, however a picture can't be easily
decoded by the system as there's nothing to match with
it utterly. Even knowledge[6] will be transmitted a lot of
securely by changing it into an image.

II. RELATED WORK
Adi Shamir[1] has conferred associate economical secret
sharing theme for secret knowledge transfer. During this
section we have a tendency to describe Shamir’s theme
and justify the suitableness of same for secret image
transfer.
Adi Shamir’s theme could be a numerical analysis
approach for secret sharing. During this theme the key
ought to be reveled only if there are l threshold shares.
However, the first info cannot be achieved by
combining (l-1) or fewer shares of the sent information.
It is long as additional shares is created simply by
calculative the polynomial for higher values,
additionally totally different weights (by range of
shares) is appointed to different authorities. These
produces the shares from the key at sender finish and
reproduce the key from the shares at receiver finish with
in an exceedingly short time. Shamir’s theme divides the
key image into m range of shares employing a
polynomial and therefore the degree of polynomial is
determined by the edge l (number of shares are needed
to create the key from the m shares). For the edge worth
l the degree of polynomial are going to be (l-1) as shown
in following polynomial f(x) =a0 +a1 x +…+at-1 xl-1.
Coefficients of polynomial f(x) of degree k by point (xi,
yi), 1≤ i ≤ l are given by

F(x)=


l
i
yi
1


  
 
i J l j
xi x xi x
! , 1
/

In this scheme the modulo taken for computing the
values of every constituent secret to create the share to
limit in size of that secret. however it doesn't work
utterly within the secret image sharing as a result of it
works for sure set of shares out of m shares and doesn't
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8–August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2586

work for all potential set of shares. so a compromise
should be created on security.

iii. PRINCIPLE of PROPOSED SCHEME
The propose scheme that consists of 2 formulas
specifically Share generation formula and combination
algorithm. The share generation formula works at sender
finish to supply variety of shares of the initial image
whereas the mixture formula is applied at receiver finish
to mix the set of share of cardinality less then number of
shares to retrieve the initial image. In share generation
formula a worth that is calculated for every picture
element is saved into shares that results in recover the
image almost like original one with all subsets of m
shares. alternative good thing about this theme it give a
lot of higher security than that provided by Shamir’s
scheme.

(A) Proposed Algorithm For Encryption

At the sender finish the sharing method undergoes the
subsequent steps for a selected threshold l (number of
shares), to retrieve the key from total variety of shares
m, where m>l.
Step 1: choose any polynomial for generating share as
follows:
c x a
l
l i
i
i


 


1
1
0


where ai is any random constant for ith share constituent
and c represents the constituent worth.

Step 2: per variety of shares decide the constituent
worth.

Step 3: For decide the every constituent of the key
image repeat step2.

Step 4: The m shares are fashioned for secret
transmission of the first image by considering the
constituent values computed in Step three.

(B)Proposed Algorithm For Reconstruction of image

At the receivers finish all the shares of the transmitted
image area unit think about for reconstruction of secret
image. the mix of any l (out of m) or a lot of share is
employed to reconstruct image. the subsequent 5 steps
describe the reconstruction method.
Step 1: Out of total m shares received, take any set of
shares with cardinality l or a lot of.
Step 2: Retrieve all the picture element values saved in l
shares of the set into account.

Step3: Apply Lagrange’s formula given in (1) on these
values to reconstruct the key image.

Step 4: Repeat Step two for every picture element worth
within the set of shares.

Step 5: mix the values computed in Step four to retrieve
the initial image from the shares.
















NO

YES








Fig.3.1: Flow chart of proposed scheme for generating share

The figure 3.1 and figure 3.2 shows the flow chart of
proposed scheme for generating share and decoding
algorithm for reconstruction of original image.





TAKE ANY
POLYNOMIAL
CALCULATE THE
PIXEL VALUE ACC TO
THE NO OF SHARE
PIXEL
VALUE

M SHARE ARE FORMED
END
START
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8–August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2587































Fig.3.2: Flow chart of decoding algorithm for reconstruction of
original image






(C) Analysis of Proposed Scheme
The time complexness of planned scheme is incredibly
less. At the receiver finish the planned theme recombine
the l or a lot of shares to urge the helpful data
concerning the first image. To reveal the secret the
intruder must get a minimum of l shares. If he / she
somehow get the values of l-1 shares then still the values
of pixels within the lth share ought to be guessed. as an
example if we tend to produce a (5,3) sharing theme
taking the values of parameters of equation every which
way as a1=500, a2=400 and x =five the vary values for
every pixel in lth share are zero to14755. Therefore, the
full range of guesses to be created for original image are
256 x 256 x 14755! for a 256 x 256 pixels secret image.
This is often nearly not possible for any trespasser to do
such an oversized range of permutations to work out the
helpful contents of the first protected image from such
an oversized range of potentialities. If we tend to use
Shamir’s scheme to images one must guess 256 x 256 x
255! Values. Therefore, it's evident the planned scheme
is a lot of sturdy than Shamir’s theme.

iv. EXPERIMENT RESULT
The experiments are distributed on range of grayscale
moreover as color pictures. The results are generated by
planned scheme on pictures. it's determined by
experiment that the planned share generation
algorithmic rule take terribly tiny time to produces the
key shares and none of those shares has any similitude
with the initial image.

Figure 1 Figure2 (a)


Figure2 (b) Figure2(c)
COMBINE THE VALUE OF PIXEL
OF SHARE FOR
RECONSTRUCTION
TAKE ANY SUBSET
OF SHARE WITH
CARDINALITY 1
RETRIEVE PIXEL
VALUE ACC TO THE
NO OF SHARE

PIXEL
VALUE

APPLY LEGRANGE FOR
RECONSTRUCTION

END
START
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8–August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2588


Figure2 (d) Figure2 (e)

Figure3(a) Figure3(b)

Figure3(c)
The experimental results for one representative image
has been shown in Figure (1) to work (3) for (5, 3)
scheme. Figure (1) shows the initial image. Figure 2(a)
to Figure 2(e) shows the shares made by the proposed
algorithmic rule. Figure 3(a) and 3(b) shows the
recovered images for the subset of shares {1,2,3} and
{5,4,1} using proposed scheme respectively.
During the experiment it had been observed that by
increasing the values of l the time and space complexity
will increase while not
significant increase in security level. To extend the
security level the limit of random constant ai should be
accumulated therefore, the space complexness increases.
it's clear from the preliminary analysis and the
experimental results that the planned scheme is simple,
economical and far strong scheme to share a picture
secretly.



v. CONCLUSION
It is a stronger scheme to achieve secure transmission of
pictures. In this scheme no one will come back to grasp
the whole useful data concerning the image. A minimum
of l shares out of m shares square measure needed for
reconstruction of the key image. It is found that the
planned scheme works with success on grayscale still as
color pictures.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

It is with deep sense of gratitude & reverence that I
express my sincere thanks to my supervisor Mr.
Prashant Ahlawat for his guidance, encouragement,
help and useful suggestions throughout. His untiring and
painstaking efforts, methodical approach and individual
help made it possible for me to complete this work in
time. His guidance and scientific approach served a
veritable incentive for completion of this work. This
acknowledgment will remain incomplete if I fail to
express my deep sense of obligation to my parents for
their consistent blessings & encouragement.


References
[1] A. Shamir, “How to Share a Secret,”Communications of
ACM,” 1979.
[2] G. R. Blakley, “Safeguarding cryptographic keys,” I.
Proc. of The National Computer Conference (NCC), AFIPS
Conference Proceedings, vol. 48, pp. 313-317, 1979.
[3] C. Blundo, A.D. Santis, M. Naor, “Visual Cryptography
for grey level images,” Information Processing Letters, vol. 75, pp.
255-259, 2000.
[4] C. -C. Thien, J. -C. Lin, “Secret image sharing,”W.A.
Grandia,” NDE Applications of Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Transducers”
Quality Material Inspection Inc., Costa Mesa, CA 92627 National
Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80303 Computers
and Graphics, Vol. 26, pp.765-770, 2002.
[5] D. R. Stinson, “Cryptography: Theory and Practice,” CRC Press,
Boca Raton 1995.
[6] Blakley “Safeguarding cryptographic keys,” Proc. AFIPS, 1979
NCC, Vol. 48, Arlington, Va., June 1979, pp. 313-317.
[7] Vivek Relan, “Secret Sharing,” CMSC 652: Cryptology Spring
2009.