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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 8August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2595



Energy-Efficient Dynamic Routing Protocol
for Wireless Sensor Networks

Gurpreet Singh
1
, Amandeep Kaur
2

1
Research Scholar,
2
Asst. Professor
1,2
Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab.

Abstract Wireless detector nodes are deployed on a
battleground and organize themselves in an exceedingly large-
scale ad-hoc network. Traditional routing protocols don't take
into consideration that a node contains solely a restricted
provided energy. Optimal routing tries to maximise the length
over that the sensing task is performed, however needs future
knowledge. The proposed work use to simulate sensor network
implementation and proceeded with saving energy for sensors.
At initial phase basic functionality and collection of
information (simulator, basic sensor functions etc) has been
done. Network simulator has been used to provide the
simulation and results of the proposed work. The results show
that the performance of the proposed scheme for saving
resources in wireless sensor network is better. Traditional
AODV process scheme provide good solution for
communication but proposed scheme have much better
performance in saving resources and to increase packet
delivery ratio.

KeywordsWireless Sensor Network, Clusters, Delay,
Energy Efficiency, Mobile nodes.

I. INTRODUCTION

Wireless sensor networks consist of collections of small,
low-powered nodes that interface or interact with the
physical environment. Once deployed sensor networks are
expected to operate for extended periods of time without
any human intervention. [3] Substantial research effort has
been directed toward increasing network lifetime by
reducing radio communication, the largest source of
energy drain.
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are networks usually
comprised of a large number of nodes with sensing and
routing capabilities [1]. Multi-hop routing is usually
implemented for the transport of the sensed data to special
data collection nodes (the sinks). Among the challenges
posed by the problem of data delivery to the sinks one that
has recently received considerable attention concerns the
minimization of the node energy consumption for
increasing the overall network lifetime.
Previous research aimed toward this major goal has been
prevalently concerned with developing techniques for
topology control [1], energy efficient MAC and routing.
networks does not improve network lifetime since the
conventional clustering scheme assumes the cluster heads
to be fixed, and thus requires themto be high-energy
nodes. To alleviate this deficiency, an adaptive clustering
scheme called Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy
(LEACH) is proposed in [3] that employ the technique of
randomly rotating the role of a cluster head among all the
nodes in the network. The operation of LEACH is
organized in rounds where each round consists of a setup
phase and a transmission phase. During the setup phase,
the nodes organize themselves into clusters with one node
serving as the cluster head in each cluster. The decision to
become a cluster head is made locally within each node,
and a predetermined percentage of the nodes serve as local
cluster heads in each round, on average. During the
transmission phase, the self-elected cluster heads collect
data from nodes within their respective clusters and apply
data fusion before forwarding them directly to the base
station. At the end of a given round, a new set of nodes
becomes cluster heads for the subsequent round.
Furthermore, the duration of the transmission phase is set
much larger than that of the setup phase in order to offset
the overhead due to cluster formation. Thus, LEACH
provides a good model where localized algorithms and
data aggregation can be performed within randomly self-
elected cluster heads, which help reduce information
overload and provide a reliable set of data to the end user.
Wireless sensor networks are being widely used all over
the world in many applications including military
surveillance, habitat monitoring, combat field
reconnaissance ,object tracking, traffic monitoring, etc.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are extensively used
whenever there is a need to monitor areas that cannot be
accessed easily and to detect and alert hazardous
conditions, such as fires, pollution or enemy approaching.
This has been made practically feasible by significant
advances in micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)
technology, radio communications and digital electronics.
Real life applications take advantage of the fact that WSN
consist of hundreds or thousands of small devices
communicating over the radio channel and battery
powered. Sensors are tiny devices that are deployed in an
ad-hoc manner in the area of interest to monitor events and
gather data about the environment. Hundreds or thousands
of sensor nodes can be networked in many applications
like target field imaging, weather monitoring, distributed
computing, intrusion detection, combat field surveillance,
detecting ambient conditions such as temperature,
movement sound, light or the presence of certain objects,
disaster management, security and inventory control. In
many applications, the sensor nodes are tightly constrained
in energy and communication bandwidth. Such constraints
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 8August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2596

combined with a typical deployment of large number of
sensor nodes pose many challenges to the design and
management of WSNs and necessitate energy-awareness
at all layers of the networking protocol stack. The node
batteries of these sensor nodes are difficult to recharge due
to dense deployment and unattended nature of WSNs.
Therefore, energy awareness is an essential design issue in
WSNs. The sensor network in the applications described
above can be deployed either manually or in random
fashion.
In WSNs, each of the sensor nodes collects and route data
either to an external base station (BS) or to other sensors.
The sensor nodes communicate either among each other or
directly to an external base station. A base station may be
a fixed or mobile node which helps in communications
among the sensor nodes. A large number of these sensors
are used for sensing over larger geographical regions.
Such networks vary from other wireless networks like
mobile ad hoc networks or cellular networks due to the
following characteristics:
It is not possible to build a global addressing
scheme for the deployment of a large number of
sensor nodes. It is because the WSNs contain a
large number of sensor nodes. Thus, the overhead
of ID maintenance of thousands of sensor nodes
is very high.
WSNs may have redundant data that needs to be
exploited by the use of various routing protocols
so that energy and bandwidth constraints can be
controlled.
The sensor nodes have limited energy. The
batteries of the sensor nodes are not easily
rechargeable. Hence, the WSNs need proper
resource management.
Location of the sensor nodes in a network also
plays a significant role.
In many applications, the sensor nodes are
stationary. But some sensor nodes have little
mobility. So they can move and change their
locations.
The design requirements of the sensor networks
vary with application which makes them
application-specific.

II. REVIEW OF RELATED WORK

K. Padmanabhan, Dr. P. Kamalakkannan in 2012 [4]
explained that Recent developments in the sensor
networks have made the researchers to find the energy
efficient routing protocols. Sensor nodes are normally
energy constrained and cannot be replaced in most cases.
The need for energy efficiency in wireless sensor network
is increasing considerably. This article proposed a new
model to reduce the energy consumption by the sensor
nodes. Our proposed model Energy Efficient Dynamic
Clustering Protocol (EEDCP) distributes the energy
consumption evenly among all sensor nodes to increase
the life-time of the network. The simulation results show
that the EEDCP outperforms its counterparts.

Luis Javier Garca Villalba , Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco,
Alicia Trivio Cabrera and Cludia Jacy Barenco Abbas in
2009 [8] explained that the applications of wireless sensor
networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of
them, the network is composed of a significant number of
nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes
are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is
supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols
are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in
the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular
routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the
nodes and on the application requirements. This paper
presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed
for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper
includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on
developing optimization techniques in the area of routing
protocols for wireless sensor networks.

Fahed Awad, Eyad Taqieddin, Asmaa Seyam in 2012 [10]
elaborates the concept of Energy efficiency and sensing
coverage are essential metrics for enhancing the lifetime
and the utilization of wireless sensor networks. Many
protocols have been developed to address these issues,
among which, clustering is considered a key technique in
minimizing the consumed energy. However, few
clustering protocols address the sensing coverage metric.
This paper proposes a general framework that addresses
both metrics for clustering algorithms in wireless sensor
networks. The proposed framework is based on applying
the principles of Virtual Field Force on each cluster within
the network in order to move the sensor nodes towards
proper locations that maximize the sensing coverage and
minimize the transmitted energy. Two types of virtual
forces are used: an attractive force that moves the nodes
towards the cluster head in order to reduce the energy used
for communication and a repulsive force that moves the
overlapping nodes away from each other such that their
sensing coverage is maximized. The performance of the
proposed mechanismwas evaluated by applying it to the
well-known LEACH clustering algorithm. The simulation
results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism
improves the performance of the LEACH protocol
considerably in terms of the achieved sensing coverage,
and the network lifetime.

K.Suganthi, Dr.B.Vinayaga Sundaram, K.S.Vishwa
Kumar, J.Syed Ashim, S.Saravana Kumar in 2011 [14]
authors propose a novel method for establishing reliable
and efficient data transmission in wireless sensor
networks. In this approach we achieve energy efficiency
by using hierarchical clustering method to formclusters in
the sensor network. Network lifetime is increased by using
this technique. To increase reliability and to utilize energy
much more effectively multiple mobile sinks are used
along with base station. Mobile sink nodes are used to
enhance the performance metrics. The performance
evaluation results shows that this method is better than
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 8August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2597

already proposed methods on energy aware and network
lifetime prolonging techniques.
This work gives a stabilized application oriented
architecture for sensor networks with clustering approach
by which the network lifetime is increased and energy of
all nodes is utilized effectively for small scale sensor
networks such as for 100 sensor nodes. The major
application of this method would be in tracking multiple
object scenarios. In the proposed approach architecture
setup and clustering approach is concentrated more.
Development in better routing protocols; congestion
control mechanisms would still increase the network
lifetime and reliability in data transfer.

Z. Maria Wang, Stefano Basagni, Emanuel
Melachrinoudis and Chiara Petrioli in 2012 [10] explains
the idea of exploiting the mobility of data collection points
(sinks) for the purpose of increasing the lifetime of a
wireless sensor network with energy-constrained nodes.
We give a novel linear programming formulation for the
joint problems of determining the movement of the sink
and the sojourn time at different points in the network that
induce the maximum network lifetime. Differently from
previous solutions, authors objective function maximizes
the overall network lifetime (here defined as the time till
the first node dies because of energy depletion) rather
than minimizing the energy consumption at the nodes. For
wireless sensor networks with up to 256 nodes proposed
model produces sink movement patterns and sojourn times
leading to a network lifetime up to almost five times that
obtained with a static sink. Simulation results are
performed to determine the distribution of the residual
energy at the nodes over time. These results confirmthat
energy consumption varies with the current sink location,
being the nodes more drained those in the proximity of the
sink. Furthermore, the proposed solution for computing
the sink movement results in a fair balancing of the energy
depletion among the network nodes.

III. ADVANCE SCHEME FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY

In this proposed work, we implement the scheme of
energy efficiency for clustering based on the mobile
wireless sensor nodes. Experimentation will be done with
various mobility profiles to find the performance of the
proposed network. Mobile devices will be move within the
cluster only. Range for mobile nodes will be decided by
uniform equal distance fromthe cluster head selected.
3.1 Proposed Model

The proposed work proceeded with implementation of
mobile sensor communication in clusters only to obtain
the better results. Some of the milestones which need to be
fulfilling to simulate research proposed concept is given
below:
To minimize the energy consumption of sensors.
Find the solution for better communication in
between sensor and sink with variation in
mobility.
A proposed concept of clustering scheme in which
communication is done within clusters is used to avoid the
battery drain of the wireless sensor network. For
experimentation we have used network simulator version 2
with animation for the concept of clustering with predicted
clustering heads. Various parameters used for
experimentation is below table 1:

Table 1: Parameters used for the experimentation

Parameters Value
Simulator NS2
Simulation Time 90
No of nodes 10
Routing Protocol AODV
Traffic Model CBR
Pause Time 100 sec
Speed 11 mps
Number of sources 2
Sub-packet size 256 bytes
Transmit Power 15mW
Receiving Power 13 mW
Initial battery power 100j
MAC layer 802.11


3.2 Proposed Methodology

Cluster Construction Phase: In the cluster construction
phase, all the sensor nodes send their location and energy
information to the base station. The Base station calculates
the average energy level for the network. The sensor nodes
which have energy level more than the average energy
level will become cluster heads. Then the Base Station
broadcasts the cluster-head selection information to the
non-cluster head nodes. The base station forms the clusters
based on the location information sent by the sensor
nodes. [4] The cluster heads will have balanced cluster
size. The non-cluster head nodes send their join request to
the cluster head. Then the cluster head send the schedules
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 8August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2598

to the noncluster head nodes. The schedule follows the
TDMA slots. It is to avoid the collision on data
transmission. At the end of every round, the nodes send
their location and energy information to the base station
for the next cluster head selection.
Data Communication Phase: In the data communication
phase, each sensor node transmits the sensed data to its
own cluster head according to TDMA slot. The nodes
which are not transmitting the data turn off their radio and
goes into sleep mode. They will wake-up only when their
turn to transmit the data. Cluster heads gather data from
sensor nodes and do aggregation, fusion and compression.
The cluster head nodes are connected through a path based
on the minimum spanning tree algorithm. The cluster head
which has more energy level than the other cluster head
nodes will collect the data fromother cluster heads and
transmit the entire data to the base station. The energy
level is evenly balanced in this approach. The base station
passes raw data out through the Internet or cellular
networks, and it stores energy level information of each
sensor node to use for the next cluster construction phase.
[4] Now, the base station can calculate total energy level
of sensor networks and know the number of sensor nodes
in sensor networks by using data that cluster heads sent.
The base station can use various kinds of algorithms to
calculate the suitable number of cluster heads considering
size of sensor networks and number of sensor nodes.
In this proposed work, mobility is the main concept added
to the related concept. Mobile sensor could be the tricky
part in sensor environment.
The proposed work use to simulate sensor network
implementation and proceeded with saving energy for
sensors. At initial phase basic functionality and collection
of information (simulator, basic sensor functions etc) has
been done. Network simulator has been used to provide
the simulation and results of the proposed work. Fig 1,
shows he concept approach for experimentation. Sensing
area consider as 670 670 meters with variation of nodes
around 20 nodes. Various parameters for experimentation
are shown in table 1. The transmitting and receiving power
has been configured with basic energy carried by sensor
nodes. The initial state is for selecting cluster heads based
on the residual energy of the nodes. Further we have
implemented a simple scenario for sensor nodes. After
this, we have implemented the variation of mobility to
sensors. Mobile nodes can move freely inside cluster but
not beyond that boundary. Range for mobility has been
calculated by uniform equal distance fromcluster head.
We have implemented the complete communication
process for sensor network which works in different sense
fields. Finally we have compared the base scenario with
proposed scenario for finding the difference and fetching
the information about energy consumption.

Fig 1: Simulation scenario for experimentation
The detailed experimentation has been consider in the
network simulator 2 with clustering approach within
sensor area network which in turns save energy
consumption as less number of communications is
required with proposed concept.
Fig 2: Initialization phase of the cluster head selection
Fig 2 shows the concept of initializing and Fig 3 shows
concept of cluster head prediction based on the uniform
distance measure to form best cluster head. Fig 1 shows
the clustered approach for distribution of the number of
nodes. In figure clustering of the nodes has been shown as
number of nodes are moving in accordance to the
clustering approach opted.

Fig 3: Cluster head prediction
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 8August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2599

IV. RESULTS

The results are based on the simulation of proposed
scheme concept in sensing field for wireless sensor
network. Fig 4 shows the number of packet flow in termof
packet delivery ratio comparison for the proposed work
and normal AODV protocol in sensor network. The
comparison shows the packet delivery ratio is much higher
in case of proposed scheme as compared to the packet
delivery ratio of the normal AODV.


Fig 4: Comparison of AODV and Clustered AODV in termof packet
delivery ratio
Fig 4 shows the packet delivery ratio for both scenarios.
In particularly clustering, RSSI value for distance
calculation and increased number of packet delivered. As
discussed earlier, packet delivery is based on the clusters
only so no outer interference is there so the packet
delivery ratio increases.
Fig 5 shows the number of hops comparison for the
proposed work and normal AODV protocol in sensor
network. The comparison shows that the numbers of hops
are less in case of proposed clustered AODV than the
normal AODV protocol.


Fig 5: Comparison of AODV and Clustered AODV in termof number of
hops
Fig 6 shows that the throughput of proposed work and
normal AODV protocol in sensor network. The
comparison shows that the throughput is more in case of
proposed work than normal AODV.


Fig 6 Comparison of AODV and Clustered AODV in termof throughput
The results shown above summarized the performance of
the proposed scheme for saving resources in wireless
sensor network. Traditional AODV process scheme
provide good solution for communication but proposed
scheme have much better performance in saving resources
and to increase packet delivery ratio. The number of hops
is also less in case of clustered approached AODV in
wireless sensor network as compared to the normal AODV
process. The purpose of clustering of the network is to
provide the better flow of the communication with least
resources possible in wireless sensor network.

V. CONCLUSION

This proposed work is based on the concept of saving of
resources in the wireless sensor network area by bringing
concept of clustered AODV. This research is very useful
in saving resources and in process to improve the lifetime
of the wireless sensor network. This particular research
has considered clustering of the nodes and various cluster
head selection priority. In wireless sensor network link
stability is key issue due to different data transmission
frequencies and high energy dissipation of the sensor
node, our proposed work address this key issue by
calculated average residual energy of the cluster head with
concern data transmission frequencies and ratio of
transmissions to sink node. Simulation mainly evaluated
the network performance in terms of number of hops and
packet delivery ratio in the network. The proposed
simulation results show the higher throughput in case of
clustered AODV.
Moreover lifetime of wireless sensor network is improved
with implementation of better cluster heads in the network.
Further the congestion in the network has also been
improved as compared to the previous scenarios.

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