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CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES

IN A HIGH RISE BUILDING
SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:
Prof.J.Soneji S.Naraana Raj! "#$%#$&'
S.Si(a Tar!n "#$%#)*'
An!+ee, Ra(i-eja"#$%.*.'
NATIONAL INSTITUTE O/ CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH
PUNE
NICMAR
ABSTRACT:
Buildings are becoming higher and higher nowadays in maximising land use and
investment return.Construction of high rise residential developments are considered as a
focal point of the construction industry in view of its huge labour contents and turnovers
evolved due to its own nature of wors and investments involved from the
investors.Investors tend to build everything possible in a small piece of and to increase the
return from their investment in the !uicest possible manner."racticioners in the
construction industry are looing for different means and methods in enhancing effeiciency
and meeting re!uirements from the stautory bodies and the clients.#he purpose of this
thesis is to loo into the considerations re!uired nowadays in construction planning for
construction of high rise buildings.
A complementary relationship exists between technology and constructivism$ the
implementation of each one benefiting the other.#he public nature of a high rise building
can be understood in two ways.%isually it is an expression of architectural
imagery."hysically it is a layout of attached public spaces in which people can
interact.Recently high rise buildings have grown in terms of their asthetics as well as their
height.&ith the aid of various technologies of high rise buildings the symbolic
representation and the public nature of high rise buildings are examined.In addition the
Cambridge house and Marvel's Brisa case studies are illustrated to show that high rise
buildings is moving towards a focus on construction technology and building style.
#he study of these technologies for high rise buildings provides a basis for method
that would serve as a basis in predicting the technology that would be most suitable in the
current Indian scenario which is heading rapidly towards vertical development.
2
INDE0
Con1-r!2-ion of Hi34 Ri1e B!i5+in31
C4a,-er Na6e Pa3e No
Chapter( ) Introduction *
).) +b,ective of -tudy .
). / -cope of -tudy .
). 0 Need of -tudy .
).* Methodology 1

Chapter (/ 2 3I#4RA#5R4 R4%I4& 6
/.) Introduction 6
/./ 3iterature Review 6
/.0 "recast Concrete Construction 7
/.* Categories of "recast Building -ervices )8
/.. 3arge "anel -ystem )8
/.1 9rame -ystem )0
/.: -lab(Column -ystems with -hear walls )*
/.6 4arth!uae "erformance ):
/.7 -eismic -trengthening #echnologies )7
/.)8.) Introduction /8
/.)8./ Component #echnologies of 3arge -ystem /8
/.)8.0 +utline of -ystems /)
/.)8.* 3ift up -ystems /)
/.)8.. Automated Conveying -ystems /)
/.)8.1 Automated -teel Assembling -ystems //
/.)8.: Automated &elding -ystems //
/.)8.6 Automated #ransportation and Installation of "refabricated
Materials and 4!uipment //
/.)8.7 Information Controlling -ystems /0
/.)8.)8 Application of the -mart -ystem in Construction of the Nagoya
;urou Ban Building /0
/.)8.)) Construction "rocedure /0
3
/.)8.)/ 4ffects of -ystems /0
/.)8.)0 Conclusion /.
C<A"#4R 0 2 R494R4NC4- 08
0.) Articles and Boos 08
0./ &ebilography 0)
CHAPTER7%
4
%.INTRODUCTION:
According to the statistics from the Indian government the area of the country is
about 0$/6:$/10 s!.m.#herefore$land resource is very vital to the Indian people.In such a
case$a high rise building provides space for people and their activities.In India$land is very
limited and the governement spends many resources to upgrade the housing
conditions.#herefore$ developer=owner will construct building as big >large floor area and
high rise? as they can.many technologies are used in high rise buildings >eg. "restressing
beam and slab$ high strength concrete?.-ince devoplers also borrow money from ban to
buy the land @therefore$ they will use a !uicer method to use the interestA.
Many technologies high rise buildings have fasinated manind from the beginning
of civilisation.#he egyptian pyramids$ one amoung the seven wonders of the world$
constructed in /188B.C. are amoung such ancient high rise buildings. -uch structures were
constructed for defence and to the prode of the population in their civilsation.#he growth in
modern multistoreyed buildings construction$which began in the late )7
th
centuary is
intended largely for commercial and residential purposes.
5ndeniably the high rise building is seen as a wealth generating mechanism in an
urban ecenomy.<igh rise buildings are constructed largely because they can create a lot of
real estate out of a fairly small piece of land.Bue to avaliability of global technology and
the growing demand for real estatem$syscrappers are seen as the most fitting solution to
any city i.e. spacially challenged and cant comfortably house its inhabitants.#hus it may be
said that when you compare the population in our cities to the amount of land we have$ only
way to provide better living conditions is by building higher.
#all buildings are increasingly being constructed across IndiaCs modern landscape
as the country grapples with the huge influx of people arriving in its ma,or cities from rural
areas.&ith .8 percent of IndiaCs population expected to live in urban areas by /808$there is
a great demand for tall buildings and high rise structures in the residential and commercial
space.
#he definition of high rise building differs from country to the next.9or our
purposes $we will proceed on the basis of a minimum height of 08m and will restrict our
selves to buildings used for residential or office purposes.Bespite the various critical voices
raised$ the construction of high rise buildings has by no means reached its Denith.
%.%.OBJECTI8E O/ STUDY:
5
#o study the different construction techni!ues lie cast(in(situ and precast adopted
by ma,or players for high rise development$ analyse and compare them to determine the
ones that would be most suitable in the Indian high rise construction scenario.
%.#.SCOPE O/ STUDY:
#he study encompasses the analysis of construction techni!ues used for high rise
buildings which would be suitable for large scale used in the Indian scenario.
%...NEED O/ STUDY:
#he development of the high rise building has followed the growth of the city
closely.#he process of urbanisation that started with the age of industrialisation is still in
progress in developing countries lie India.Industrialisation causes migration of people to
urban centres where ,ob oppurtunities are significant.#he land available for buildings to
accomodate this migration is becoming scarce$ resulting in rapid increase in cost of
land.#hus developers have looed towards the sy to mae their profits.#he results is multi
storied building$ as they provide a large floor area in a relatively small area of land in urban
centres.
#heir is enough demand for high rises for both$ residential and commercial
spaces.#here is no reason to believe that the demand is short term.#he demand for
developments is seen for residential$ commercial$ retail and hospitaility too.
%.* METHODOLOGY:
6
7
CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES IN A HIGH RISE
BUILDINGS
AIMS,OBJECTIVES,N
EEDS
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LITERATURE STUD5
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ANAL5SIS
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CASE STUD5
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CHAPTER -2
LITERATURE RE8IE9
#.% INTRODUCTION
Buildings are becoming higher and higher nowadays in maximising land use and
investment return.Construction of high rise residential developments are considered as a
focal point of the construction industry in view of its huge labour contents and turnovers
evolved due to its own nature of wors and investments involved from the
investors.Investors tend to build everything possible in a small piece of and to increase the
return from their investment in the !uicest possible manner."racticioners in the
construction industry are looing for different means and methods in enhancing effeiciency
and meeting re!uirements from the stautory bodies and the clients.#he purpose of this
thesis is to loo into the considerations re!uired nowadays in construction planning for
construction of high rise buildings.#he following are the research done by eminent people
in the field of developing new technologies in the building of high rise buildings.
#.# LITERATURE RE8IE9
 According to -vetlana BrDev$ British Columbia Institute of #echnology$ and
Canada #eresa Euevara("ereD$ Architect$ %eneDuela did research on the precast
concrete construction and published the papers in the following ,ournals.
)? Befinition of @Mass "roductionA in @Industrial 4ngineering and "roduction
ManagementA Britannica Macropaedia$ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica$ ).th 4dition$
%ol. /)$ p. /8*$ )767.
/? 5NIB+$ )760. Besign and Construction of "refabricated Reinforced Concrete 9rame
and -hear(&all Buildings. Building Construction 5nder -eismic Conditions in the Balan
Region. %olume /.5NB"=5NIB+ "ro,ect R4R=:7=8).$ %ienna$ Austria.
0? 44RI >)767?. Armenia 4arth!uae Reconnaissance Report. -pecial -upplement to
4arth!uae -pectra$ 4l Cerrito$ California.
:
2.3 PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
#he concept of precast >also nown as @prefabricatedA? construction includes those
buildings where the ma,ority of structural components are standardiDed and produced in
plants in a location away from the building$ and then transported to the site for assembly.
#hese components are manufactured by industrial methods based on mass production
in order to build a large number of buildings in a short time at low cost. #he main
features of this construction process are as follows2
F #he division and specialiDation of the human worforce
F #he use of tools$ machinery$ and other e!uipment$ usually automated$ in the
production of standard$ interchangeable parts and products
#his type of construction re!uires a restructuring of the entire conventional construction
process to enable interaction between the design phase and production planning in order
to improve and speed up the construction. +ne of the ey premises for achieving that
ob,ective is to design buildings with a regular configurationin plan and elevation.
5rban residential buildings of this type are usually fiveto ten stories high >see 9igures )
and /?. Many countries used various precast building systems during the second half of
the /8
th
century to provide low(income housing for the growing urban population. #hey
were very popular after the -econd &orld &ar$ especially in 4astern 4uropean countries
and former -oviet 5nion republics. In the former -oviet 5nion$ different precast
buildings systems are denoted as @-eria$A whereas in Romania they are called
@-ecGiunea.A
In general$ precast building systems are more economical when compared to conventional
multifamily residential construction >apartment buildings? in many countries. #he reader
is referred to the 5NIB+
/
report for detailed coverage on precast systems and their
earth!uae resistance.
Figure 1: Typical large-panel buildings in Kyrgyzstan (WHE Report 38 and Russian
Federation (WHE Report !!
8;
Figure ": # typical precast slab-colu$n building
(WHE Report %8& 'erbia and (ontenegro
#.* CATEGORIES O/ PRECAST BUILDING SYSTEMS
"recast buildings constitute a significantfraction of the building stoc in the republics of
the former -oviet 5nion and 4astern 4uropean countries. #hese systems have been
described in the following eight &<4 reports2 0/ >HaDahstan?I 00$ 06$ and 07
>HyrgyDstan?I .. >Russian 9ederation?I 11 >5Dbeistan?I 16 >-erbia and Montenegro?I
and 60 >Romania?.
Bepending on the load(bearing structure$ precast systems described in the &<4 can be
divided into the following categories2
F 3arge(panel systems
F 9rame systems
F -lab(column systems with walls
F Mixed systems
)
#.: Lar3e7Pane5 S1-e61
#he designation @large(panel systemA refers to multistory structures composed of large
wall and floor concrete panels connected in the vertical and horiDontal directions so that
the wall panels enclose appropriate spaces for the rooms within a building. #hese panels
form a box(lie structure >see 9igure 0?. Both vertical and horiDontal panels resist gravity
load. &all panels are usually one story high. <oriDontal floor and roof panels span either
as one(way or two(way slabs. &hen properly ,oined together$ these horiDontal elements
act as diaphragms that transfer the lateral loads to the walls
Figure 3: # large-panel concrete building under
construction (WHE Report !!& Russian
Federation
Bepending on the wall layout$ there are three basic configurations of large(panel
buildings2
F Cross(wall system. #he main walls that resist gravity and lateral loads are placed
in the short direction of the building.
F 3ongitudinal(wall system. #he walls resisting gravity and lateral loads are placed
in the longitudinal directionI usually$ there is only one longitudinal wall$ except
for the system with two longitudinal walls developed in HaDahstan >&<4
Report 0/?.
F #wo(way system. #he walls are placed in both directions >Romania$ &<4 Report
60?.
#hicness of wall panels ranges from )/8 mm for interior walls >HyrgyDstan$ &<4
report 06? to 088 mm for exterior walls >HaDahstan$ &<4 Report 0/?. 9loor panel
thicness is 18 mm >HyrgyDstan?. &all panel length is e!ual to the room length$
typically on the order of /.: m to 0.1 m. In some cases$ there are no exterior wall panels
and the faJade walls are made of lightweight concrete >Romania$ &<4 Report 60?. A
typical interior wall panel is shown in 9igure *.
Figure *: +recast interior ,all panel ,it- steel do,els and
groo.es (WHE Report 38& Kyrgyzstan
"anel connections represent the ey structural components in these systems. Based on
their location within a building$ these connections can be classified into vertical and
horiDontal ,oints. Vertical joints connect the vertical faces of ad,oining wall panels and
primarily resist vertical seismic shear forces. Horizontal joints connect the horiDontal
faces of the ad,oining wall and floor panels and resist both gravity and seismic loads.
Bepending on the construction method$ these ,oints can be classified as wet and dry. Wet
joints are constructed with cast(in(place concrete poured between the precast panels. #o
ensure structural continuity$ protruding reinforcing bars from the panels >dowels? are
welded$ looped$ or otherwise connected in the ,oint region before the concrete is placed.
Dry joints are constructed by bolting or welding together steel plates or other steel inserts
cast into the ends of the precast panels for this purpose. &et ,oints more closely
approximate cast(in(place construction$ whereas the force transfer in structures with dry
,oints is accomplished at discrete points.
9igure . shows a plan of a large(panel building from HaDahstan with the connection
details. In this system$ vertical wall panel connections are accomplished by means of
groove ,oints$ which consist of a continuous void between the panels with lapping
horiDontal steel and vertical tie(bars. <oriDontal ,oint reinforcement consists of dowels
pro,ected from the panels and the hairpin hoos site(welded to the dowelsI the welded
length of the lapped bars depends on the bar diameter and the steel grade. %ertical tie(
bars are designed for tension forces developed at the panel intersections.
3ateral stability of a large(panel building system typical for Romania is provided by the
columns tied to the wall panels >&<4 Report 60?. Boundary elements >called @bulbsA in
Romania? are used instead of the columns as @stiffeningA elements at the exterior$ as
shown in 9igure 1. #he unity of wall panels is achieved by means of splice bars welded
to the transverse reinforcement of ad,acent panels in the vertical ,oints.
3ongitudinaldowel
Figure !: +lan o/ a large-panel
building s-o,ing .ertical
connection details (WHE Report
3"& Kaza0-stan
Figure %: #
typical building
plan s-o,ing t-e
locations
o/ boundary
$e$bers (WHE
Report 83&
Ro$ania
bars placed in vertical and horiDontal ,oints provide an increase in bearing area for
the transfer of tension across the connections. &all(to(floor connection is similar to
that shown in 9igure ..
#.; /ra6e S1-e61
"recast frames can be constructed using either linear elements or spatial beam(column
sub assemblages. "recast beam(column sub assemblages have the advantage that the
connecting faces between the sub assemblages can be placed away from the critical
frame regionsI however$ linear elements are generally preferred because of the
difficulties associated with forming$ handling$ and erecting spatial elements. #he use of
linear elements generally means placing the connecting faces at the beam(column
,unctions. #he beams can be seated on corbels at the columns$ for ease of construction
Figure 1: 2o$ponents o/ a precast rein/orced concrete /ra$e syste$ o/
'eria 33'-4* (WHE Report %%& 5zbe0istan
and to aid the shear transfer from the beam to the column. #he beam(column ,oints
accomplished in this way are hinged. <owever$ rigid beam(column connections are
used in some cases$ when the continuity of longitudinal reinforcement through the
beam(column ,oint needs to be ensured. #he components of a precast reinforced
concrete frame are shown in 9igure :.
"recast reinforced concrete frame with cruciform and linear beam elements >-eria )81? is
an example of a frame system with precast beam(column sub assemblages >HyrgyDstan$
&<4 Report 00?. #he system was developed in HyrgyDstan in )7:.. #he load(bearing
structure consists of a precast reinforced concrete space frame and precast floor slabs. #he
space frame is constructed using two main modular elements2 a cruciform element and a
linear beam element >9igure 6?. #he cruciform element consists of the transverse frame
,oint with half of the ad,acent beam and column lengths. #he longitudinal frames are
constructed by installing the precast beam elements in between the transverse frame
,oints. #he precast elements are ,oined by welding the pro,ected reinforcement bars
>dowels? and casting the concrete in place. ;oints between the cruciform elements
Figure 8: # perspecti.e dra,ing s-o,ing cruci/or$ and linear units (WHE Report 33&
Kyrgyzstan
Figure 6: Hollo,-core precast slab (WHE Report 33& Kyrgyzstan
are located at the mid(span of beams and columns$ whereas the longitudinal precast
beam(column connections are located close to the columns. <ollow(core precast slabs
are commonly used for floor and roof structures in this type of construction$ as shown in
9igure 7.
#.$ S5a<7Co5!6n S1-e61 =i-4 S4ear 9a551
#hese systems rely on shear walls to sustain lateral load effects$ whereas the slab(column
structure resists mainly gravity loads. #here are two main systems in this category2
F 3ift(slab system with walls
F "restressed slab(column system
3ift(slab systems were introduced in the last decade of the -oviet 5nion >period
)768()767? in some of the -oviet Republics$ including HyrgyDstan$ #ad,iistan$ and the
Caucasian region of Russia$ etc. #his type of precast construction is nown as @-eria H5B.A
#he load(bearing structure consists of precast reinforced concrete columns and slabs$ as
shown in 9igure )8. "recast columns are usually two stories high. All precast structural
elements are assembled by means of special ,oints. Reinforced concrete slabs are
Figure 14: # li/t-slab building o/
7'eria K589 under construction
(WHE Report 36& Kyrgyzstan
Figure 11: +lan o/
a typical li/t-slab
building (WHE
Report 36& 7'eria
K58&9 Kyrgyzstan
poured on the ground in forms$ one on top of the other$ as shown in 9igure )). "recast
concrete floor slabs are lifted from the ground up to the final height by lifting cranes.
#he slab panels are lifted to the top of the column and then moved downwards to the
final position. #emporary supports are used to eep the slabs in the position until the
connection with the columns has been achieved.
In the connections$ the steel bars >dowels? that pro,ect from the edges of the slabs are
welded to the dowels of the ad,acent components and transverse reinforcement bars are
installed in place. #he connections are then filled with concrete that is poured at the site.
Most buildings of this type have some ind of lateral load(resisting elements$ mainly
consisting of cast(in(place or precast shear walls$ etc. In case lateral load(resisting
elements >shear walls$ etc.? are not present$ the lateral load path depends on the ability of
the slab(column connections to transfer bending moments. &hen the connections have
been poorly constructed$ this is not possible$ and the lateral load path may be
incomplete. <owever$ properly constructed slab(column ,oints are capable of
transferring moments as shown by several full(scale vibration tests performed in
HyrgyDstan on buildings of this type.
Another type of precast system is a slab(column system that uses horiDontal prestressing
in two orthogonal directions to achieve continuity. #he precast concrete column elements
are ) to 0 stories high. #he reinforced concrete floor slabs fit the clear span between
columns. After erecting the slabs and columns of a story$ the columns and floor slabs are
prestressed by means of prestressing tendons that pass through ducts in the columns at the
floor level and along the gaps left between ad,acent slabs >see 9igure )/?. After
prestressing$ the gaps between the slabs are filled with in situ concrete and the tendons
then become bonded with the spans. -eismic loads are resisted mainly by the shear walls
>precast or cast(in(place? positioned between the columns at appropriate locations. #his
technology has been used in Kugoslavia during the last *8 years under the proprietary
name$ @IM- Building -ystem$A and it can be found in all ma,or Kugoslav cities$ including
Belgrade$ Novi -ad$ Nis$ and in other countries$ such as Cuba$ the "hilippines$ and 4gypt.
A typical building under construction is shown in 9igure )0.
Figure 1": +ost-tensioned slab-colu$n connection (WHE Report %8&
'erbia and (ontenegro
Figure 13: #sse$bly o/ precast colu$ns in progress
(WHE Report %8& 'erbia and (ontenegro
#.) EARTHQUA>E PER/ORMANCE
#here is a general concern among the earth!uae engineering community
regarding the seismic performance of precast construction. Based on experience
in past earth!uaes in 4astern 4uropean and in Central Asian countries where
these systems have been widely used$ it can be concluded that their seismic
performance has been fairly satisfactory. <owever$ when it comes to earth!uae
performance$ the fact is that @bad newsA is more widely publiciDed than @good
news.A 9or example$ the poor performance of precast frame systems of -eria )))
in the )766 -pita >Armenia? >M:..? earth!uae is well nown >see 9igure )*?.
<owever$ few engineers are aware of the good seismic performance >no damage?
of several large(panel buildings under construction at the same site$ as shown in
9igure ).I these large(panel buildings were of a similar seria as the large(panel
buildings described in the &<4 Report .. from the Russian 9ederation >-eria
*1*?. #he buildings of -eria ))) were similar to the precast concrete frame
system of -eria II-$ described in the &<4 report 11 >5Dbeistan?.
#he precast prestressed slab(column system >IM- Building -ystem? described
in &<4 Report 16 >-erbia and Montenegro? has undergone extensive
laboratory testing that predicted excellent resistance under simulated seismic
loading. #hese building have been sub,ected to several moderate earth!uaes
without experiencing significant damage.
Bue to their large wall density and box(lie structure$ large(panel buildings are
very stiff and are characteriDed with a rather small fundamental period. 9or
example$ a 7(story building in HaDahstan has a fundamental period of 8.0. to 8.*
sec >&<4 Report 0/?. In general$ large(panel buildings performed very well in the
past earth!uaes in the former -oviet 5nion$ including the )766 Armenia
earth!uae and the)7:1 EaDly earth!uaes. It should be noted$ however$ that
large(panel buildings in the area affected by the )7:1 EaDly earth!uaes were not
designed with seismic provisions. Most such buildings performed well in the
firstearth!uae >M :.8?$ but more damage was observed in the second earth!uae
that occurred the same year >M :.0?$ as some buildings had been already
weaened by the firstearth!uae >Russian 9ederation$ &<4 Report ..?. 3arge(
panel buildings performed well in the )7:: %rancea >Romania? earth!uae >M
:./? and in subse!uent earth!uaes in )761 and )778 >Romania$ &<4 Report 60?.
Figure 1*: 8uilding collapse in t-e 1688
'pita0 (#r$enia eart-:ua0e
(WHE Report %%& 5zbe0istan
Figure 1!: ;arge-panel
concrete buildings
re$ained unda$aged in
t-e 1688 'pita0 (#r$enia
eart-:ua0e (/ar bac0&
,-ereas t-e precast /ra$e
buildings su//ered
e<tensi.e da$age
(/oreground
3
(WHE Report
3"& Kaza0-stan
2.9 SEISMIC-STRENGTHENING TECHNOLOGIES
According to &<4 reports$ no ma,or efforts have been reported regarding seismic
strengthening of precast concrete buildings. <owever$ seismic strengthening of
precast frame buildings was done in 5Dbeistan >&<4 Report 11?. #he
techni!ues used include the installation of steel straps at the column locations >see
9igure )1? and reinforcing the ,oints with steel plates to provide additional lateral
confinement of the columns.
Figure 1%: 'eis$ic strengt-ening o/ precast colu$ns ,it- steel straps
 According to ;.Maeda did extensive research in Bevelopment and Application of the
-MAR# -ystem and Miyatae$ K. >)770?.L-MAR# -ystem2 A 9ull -cale
Implementation of Computer Integrated ConstructionL$ #he )8th International
-ymposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction$ May )770.
#.%?.% INTRODUCTION
In ;apan$ in spite of the increased demands of construction there are growing shortages in the
wor force which is also ageing . -illed craftsmen are particularly in short supply .It has been
pointed the first time. #aing these results into consideration$ the technology was introduced in a
full fledged manner on a pro,ect in the city of Nagoya$ in the fall of )77). #he construction by
-MAR# has successfully completed in the fall of )770 >"hoto. )?.
In this paper$ the pro,ect in Nagoya is used as an example to explain the basic concept of the
system$ technologies applied$ construction procedures used and results for the application.
"lans for future development and improvement of the system are also discussed out that the
bacground to this is that construction operations involve heavy worloads with much wor
carried out in very adverse environments . Compensating for this shortage in the wor force and
reducing accidents on the wor site $ together with improving productivity as a means for
shortening construction periods $ are some of the serious tass faced by the ;apanese construction
industry today.
5nder such circumstances $there has been$ for many years$ a lot of activity in the development
of robots and automation for construction wor . &ith this basis of automation technology we
see to achieve maximum integration of the various technologies which lead to moderniDation of
construction i.e. technologies for industrialiDation and systematiDation of the various components
of building and computeriDation of site management. -everal ma,or construction companies in
;apan have pursued the development of systems based on similar ideas and to date there are a
number of proposals . #he -himiDu Manufacturing -ystem by Advanced Robotics #echnology
>-MAR#? system of the -himiDu Corporation controls all phases of building construction from
underground wor and superstructure wor to finishing and MM4 wor. It also controls various
construction management tass for the automated construction of high rise buildings. #he
formulation of system started in the fall of )778 and the core technology for the system
was implemented at an actual construction site for
#.%?.# COMPONENT TECHNOLOGIES O/ SMART SYSTEM
#he -MAR# system secures a safe and comfortable woring environment$ and also provides a
setting for construction which is not affected by wind or rain. 9urthermore$ it aims for a
considerable reduction in labour and management man(hour re!uirements$ and shortening of
the construction period. In addition$ to respond to the prevailing social demand for protection
of the global environment$ a system to reduce waste materials from construction is sought.
#his system is applicable for high rise office and hotel buildings which are of steel frame
construction and involve large amounts of repetitive wors.
#.%?.. OUTLINE O/ SYSTEM
In the -MAR# -ystem$ the top floor of the building ><at(truss? is first assembled on the ground$
and an operating platform for transporting and assembling structural steel and precast concrete
floor plans is formed there. &hile this platform is being ,aced up floor by floor$ lower floors
are constructed in se!uence$ as if to add on building blocs$ and the superstructure part of the
building completed >9igure )?. Members such as columns$ beams$ floor plans$ and wall panels
used in the building are hauled continuously using a multiple trolley hoists$ overhead cranes and
a special vertical crane. A one touch ,oint system suited to automation and mechaniDation is used
to connect structural steel members and member ,oints are welded automatically by welding
robots. #he roof and outer perimeter parts of the floor under construction are completely covered
by protective sheets$ and the exterior wall panels for that whole single floor are installed prior to
,acing up so that the floor is unaffected by wind or rain. -afety of wor is also enhanced and a
comfortable woring environment achieved which is unaffected by adverse weather.
#.%?.* LI/T UP SYSTEM
#he lift up system is composed of four ,acing towers which support the entire operating
platform and the lifting mechanisms installed at each ,acing tower.. Buring the assembly
operations of a floor$ the tower bases are seated on the steel beams of the building. Buring
lifting operation$ three hydraulic cylinders in each lifting mechanism are operated and the
lifting mechanisms are raised by one story height >approximately *m? to rest on the steel beams
of the storey above. Next$ while supporting the operating platform on these steel beams$ the
hydraulic cylinders are again operated and the towers themselves are raised. &hen the towers
have risen one story height$ the bases are seated on the structural steel beams of that upper
story to complete the lift up operation. 9igure / shows the main components of the lift up
system. #he total weight of the entire operating platform lifted up is approximately )$/88 tons
and the operating time for one storey height is ).. hours.
#.%?.: AUTOMATED CON8EYING SYSTEM
9or conveying the many inds of members$ ten overhead travelling cranes$ five trolley hoists for
horiDontal conveying$ and a special vertical lifting crane which ascends and descends by wire
drive is used instead of the large conventional tower cranes. A trolley hoist lifts up a load from
the ground$ rides onto the rails of the above mentioned cranes in succession and reaches its
destination$ all controlled by computer. 3iewise$ the picing up of a load and conveying this to
positioning is all done automatically without manual assistance. 9igure 0 shows the components
of the automated conveying system. &hen a member is hoisted$ it is conveyed in a continuous
operation to reach the destination. #hus$ the assembly of members can be done with less waiting
time with an increase in the wor per day. "hotograph / shows a steel column which has been
hoisted and$ having reached its destination$ is being installed into place. "hotograph 0 shows the
vertical lifting crane located outside of the building. A control room is located inside the <at(
truss and one operator controls all of the system.
#.%?.; AUTOMATED STEEL ASSEMBLING SYSTEM
In order to achieve a smooth setting of a load at a designated place$ the shapes of various ,oints
of steel structures had to be modified. ;oints between steel column members and between
columns and beams were modified to insert types$ designed to realiDe free standing upon
insertion. "hotograph * shows a ,oint between steel column members. #rolley hoists are
e!uipped with hoisting ,igs having automatic load releasing functions and which automatically
unfasten hoisting wires after assembly of members. In order to assure accuracy of the steel
frames when assembling$ an automatic measuring system using laser beams was developed and
introduced on this pro,ect. A laser beam produced from a laser emitting apparatus set on the floor
is received by a reception device installed at the top of the steel column and the inclination of the
steel column from the reference line is detected. #he detected value is digitised$ and the operator
on reading the value$ corrects the inclination. #his system is also used for measurements to
ascertain the accuracy of a completed floor after completion of welding wors.
#.%?.$ AUTOMATED 9ELDING SYSTEM
&elding of column to column and beam to column of structural steel is done automatically using
robots. #he composition of the welding system between column and column is shown in 9igure
*. #he welding of a ,oint between columns would be horiDontal multi(layeredI three units of
newly developed welding robots were introduced on this pro,ect. "hotograph . shows a column
welding robot in operation. #he robot maes it possible to weld automatically whole groove of a
column including corner portions in continuity. #he configuration of a ,oint is detected by laser
sensor$ and wor is done under optimised welding conditions referring to a data base . #he robot
proper is compact and light$ weighing )7g$ and handling is easy. Because of the high level of
automation$ it is possible for a single worer to control / to 0 robots at one time$ and therefore to
result in reduction of re!uired manpower. 9our special welding robots for ,oining together
columns and beams have been introduced$ and welding of beam flanges has been automated.
#.%?.) A!-o6a-e+ Tran1,or-a-ion an+ In1-a55a-ion of Prefa<ri2a-e+ Ma-eria51 an+
E@!i,6en-
3arge siDed precast concrete floor plans >fabricated in a "C factory?$ are automatically
transportedA and installed to the designated position$ and the ,oints between two plans are filled
up by concrete. "hotograph 1 shows installation of a concrete floor plan. In finishing and
e!uipment wors$ beginning with industrialisation of interior finish materials$ modularisation of
exterior curtain wall panels$ unitisation of e!uipment piping and pipe shafts$ *18 and pacaging
of e!uipment are aggressively carried out$ and automated transporting and installation are done.
"hotograph : shows transportation of an exterior wall panel installed window pane and air
conditioning e!uipment.
#.%?.& IN/ORMATION CONTROLLING SYSTEM
9or the purpose of construction management of the entire ,ob site$ a computer integrated
management system is introduced. %arious systems such as those for labour safety control$
!uality control$ scheduling$ temporary e!uipment management$ woring drawings preparation$
and overall construction co(ordination are operated through field office. #he production control
system is developed$ which performs inputting construction procedures$ compiling construction
records$ and monitoring the conditions of apparatus. #he system is connected to the computer for
controlling the -MAR# system.
#.%?.%? APPLICATION O/ THE SMART SYSTEM IN CONSTRUCTION O/ THE
NAGOYA JURO>U BAN> BUILDING
#he -MAR# system is first applied in construction of the Nagoya ;urou Ban building in
Nagoya$ ;apan. #he pro,ect was started in +ctober )77) and is scheduled to be completed by the
end of 9ebruary )77* . #he building will stand 66 meters tall upon completion$ /8 stories above
ground and / stories underground . #he total floor area measures /8$888 s!uare meters.
#.%?.%% Con1-r!2-ion Pro2e+!re
#he construction procedure in use of the -MAR# system is shown in 9igure .. &hen wor on
the substructures has been completed$ the parts for the roof story ><at(truss? of the building are
assembled on the floor slab of the first story. #hen$ the conveying devices for the superstructure
construction and weather protection cover are installed. At the same time$ ,acing towers for lift
up are installed and lifting mechanisms are attached. Next$ the <attruss is raised$ and when this
has been fixed to the top of the towers$ assembly of the operating platform has been completed.
Conveying members$ setting them in position$ and ,oining them are performed by this operating
platform. &hen construction wor for one floor has been completed$ the entire operating
platform is lifted up$ and construction of the next floor follows. In this way$ systematic
construction$ story upon story$ is carried out$ including interior = exterior finishes and e!uipment.
&hen construction up to the uppermost story has been completed$ all(weather protection sheets
and the reinforced frames are removed$ the <at(truss is lowered and connected to the structural
part of the building already constructed. "hotograph 6 shows dismantling of the protection
sheets. At the same time$ the devices maing up the operating platform are disassembled$ and
hauled out. &hen all the frames and devices have been removed$ automated construction by the
-MAR# system is completed.
#.%?.%# Effe2-1 of -4e S1-e6
4ffects realised due to use of the -MAR# system which have come to light through its
application in the Nagoya pro,ect are as described below2
" I ' I6,ro(e6en- of =orBin3 en(iron6en-
#hrough its all(weather protection >&eather "rotection Cover?$ wor can be performed safely
and in comfort$ without being affected by the weather. 9or example$ welding can be done in a
normal manner even on a rainy day. Buring the construction by the -MAR# system$ *1)
approximately/8N of the period were rainy or windy days. <owever $ there was no interruption
of wor due to weather.
"#' E5i6ina-ion of +an3ero!1 an+ 4ea( =orB
&orers have been freed from operations with heavy worloads such as assembling structural
steel and welding. Although not completely unmanned wor $human wors can be limited to
intelligent wor such as monitoring $ maintenance$ and !uality assurance. <aDardous and heavy
lab or has been made entirely unnecessary. -afety of wor has been drastically enhanced through
extensive introduction of automation and robotisation technologies$ implementation of all(
weather protection$ and adoption of layered construction method.
".' Re+!2-ion of 6an74o!r on 1i-e
&ith effects of introducing computerised control and robotics$ and also prefabrication and
modularisation$ it has been made possible for man(hour re!uirements to be reduced. It is
estimated that for this pro,ect including structural $ finishing and e!uipment wors $ a reduction
of about 08N in lab or can be achieved. 4specially$ as for wors which are involved in the
-MAR# system$ about .8N in lab or were reduced. >9igure 1?
"*' Re+!2-ion of =orBin3 +a1 for ea24 f5oor
Buring the construction$ the number of days re!uired to complete each floor by the -MAR#
system is greatly reduced from 7 days to . days at the last stage$ due to the improvement of
software program$ woring method and practice of worers. It is expected about /8N to *8N
reduction of construction period for the next application of the system.
":' Re+!2-ion of =orB5oa+ on 1i-e 6ana3e6en-
#he worload on site management personnel has been greatly lightened through introduction of a
,ob site information management system controlled by computer. >1? Reduction of construction
wastes It has been made possible for construction wastes to be reduced through wide scale
adoption of modularisation of materials and prefabrication. Comparing to the conventional site$
about :8N >:88 ton? of wastes were reduced in this pro,ect. 9igure : shows the comparison of
the construction wastes.
#.%?.%. CONCLUSION
#hrough its application to the Nagoya ;urou Ban building$ an outloo has been gained for
realisation of a safe and comfortable wor site unaffected by weather $ reduction in labour and
management re!uirements$ elimination of haDardous and heavy worload operations$ and
reduction of construction wastes. 9or further improvements in productivity$ we must realise more
reduction in manpower re!uirements and shortening of construction periods $ even greater level
of automation$ and more intensification of industrialisation such as those in prefabrication$ and
constitution of an overall site management system. In the future$ establishment of a building
design suited to automated construction and realisation of an information system integrating
design and construction programs$ construction management$ and construction operations will
come to be sought.
It is from such a viewpoint that -himiDu Corporation is striving to upgrade the level of the
-MAR# system to establish it as a building production system of a new image advancing
toward the /)st century.
CHAPTER 7.
RE/ERENCES
..% Ar-i25e1 an+ BooB1
• Amold %an Acer L"recast Concrete( &hat and &hyL$ #he Indian Concrete ;ournal$ "ublished
By ACC limited$ %ol(6.'Becember /8))
• -hubhangiBidvwe And -hriyal-ethumadhavanL #he <igh 3ifeL$ Construction &orld. %ol(
)0'9ebruary /8))
• International -peas L #all BuildingsL$ Construction &orld. %ol()0'9ebruary /8))
• CharuBhariL Eaining 9ormL$ Construction &orld. %ol()0'9ebruary /8))
• &oods ;ohn L Multi 9amilyL$ <igh Rise Concrete %ol()';anuary /886
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%ol'+ctober /881
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)767.
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• 44RI >)767?. Armenia 4arth!uae Reconnaissance Report. -pecial -upplement to
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• Hudoh R $ @ Implementation of an Automated Building Construction -ystem A "roc. +f
the )0
th
International CIB &orld Building Congress$)77..
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Buildings A "roc. +f :
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I-ARC$ )778
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• Miyatae$ K. >)770?.L-MAR# -ystem2 A 9ull -cale Implementation of Computer
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Robotics in Construction$ May )770
..# 9e<5io3ra,4
• www.iea.org=papers=/881=pwPhighrise.pdf
• www.highriseconcrete.com=multifamilyParticle.pdf
• www.allindiaarchitects.com=studentPartical=).)1.)185rbanismP+ctP81.pdf
• http2==civil(resourses.blogspot.com=/8)8=81=formwor.html
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