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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1.Background
Reading is an important skill in a second language, particularly in English as a second
or foreign language (ESL/EFL) learning. Reading is necessary when students want to
continue from elementary school until university level. They need good reading skill
for acquiring knowledge and learning new information. As Krashen (1983:131) stated
that reading is one of English language skills which can serve as an important source
of comprehensible input and may take a significant contribution to the development
of overall proficiency.
Over the past few years, the teaching of reading in Indonesia has been raised
to be a crucial thing. Huda (1997:149) states that reading becomes the main point in
curriculum 1994 in Indonesia that has to be mastered by students. She explains, ―The
objective of teaching is the development of communicative ability in English
embracing four language skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking) with an
emphasis on reading ability‖ (p.149). She further stated that the order of language
skills to be taught has been changed from reading, listening, writing and speaking to
reading, listening, speaking and writing. Reading skill is still given a first priority.
As mentioned above that in the language teaching there are four skills that
have to be mastered by students, reading is integrated in the teaching and learning
process. Students must have the ability to read in a wide range of English texts


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because it is useful for them in following written directions both in the classroom and
in common everyday experience. Meanwhile, Students have to follow the
examination in the school which demands them to answer the questions in the
examination as a requirement for them to graduate from school. They need reading
skill that helps them to know the instruction of the text and the content of reading
task. Therefore, teacher has to emphasize in reading rather than other skills.
Furthermore, Bond (1984:10) states that the importance of reading is to obtain
the information which can be used to solve problem and for pleasure, particularly in
the elementary and intermediate levels. Students need to read to confirm their spoken
language and to be able to acquire other skills like listening, speaking and writing.
So, it is clear that reading becomes the essential point that has to be emphasized in
teaching of language in Indonesia.
Although the techniques of teaching reading have already been developed by
the experts, but in fact there are still many students who are poor in their reading
comprehension. One of the problems leads to the poorness of students‘ reading
comprehension is the inappropriate technique that teacher uses in presenting material.
So, students fell boring in teaching and learning process.
The English teacher has an important role in teaching learning process. The
teacher must work hard to improve the students‘ achievement and improve their
achievement in reading comprehension. Therefore, the teacher are hoped to use a
good technique and method in reading English and improve their motivation in
learning. besides, based on researcher‘s observation in SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo on


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Friday, January 29
th
2010, it seemed that the teaching of English reading in that
school is still facing difficulties. The researcher observed that most students got
difficulties when doing task that related to reading text. It is supported by students
score in daily test in which the mean score of the result of reading test from 23
students is only 63 which is categorized poor (see on Appendix 12). So, the writer
gave a reading comprehension test and the result of students‘ mean value is 50,9 (see
on appendix 13). On the other hand, the researcher also got some information that
reading is difficult for students, so that they feel difficult to express ideas and the
students are also difficult to make a good question and sentence in good grammatical
structure. In addition, the students difficult to comprehend report text either general
structure or language feature.
Besides, in teaching and learning process especially in teaching reading, the
English teacher said that the students at the class XI
IPA
in learning reading were still
difficult to comprehend a reading text (see on appendix 1). It is because the students
at class XI
IPA
have poor motivation and interest in learning English. From above
problem, the researcher tried to overcome the problem by applying KWL (Know-
Want-Learn) technique. KWL technique was designed as a strategy to develop
reading comprehension by helping students create a connection between their prior
knowledge and what they read, hear, or view. In this case, KWL technique can be
beyond students‘ ideas.



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Actually, there were some researchers who have conducted study about
teaching of reading under KWL technique; they were Malik (2009), Haofu (2002),
and Dharmawati (2009). They had been trying to investigae the effectiveness of KWL
technique in teaching and learning reading with quasy experiment design. They just
found the effectiveness of KWL technique by comparing pre-test and post-test after
doing the similar treatment without any improvement or what the weakness happened
in each meeting. However, their entire previous researcher found a good result in
their study. They stated that KWL technique is effective in improving students
reading ability.

1.2.Research Question
Research question of this study is can KWL technique improve students‘ reading
achievement at class XI
IPA
of SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo?

1.3.The Objective of the Study
The objective of this study is to improve students‘ reading achievement through
KWL technique at class XI
IPA
of SMA Negeri I Amonggedo.
1.4.Significance of the Study

The significant of this study are as follows:
1. To become a reference for the English teachers in applying KWL technique for
increasing the students reading achievement.


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2. To become one of information resource for further studies who want to conduct a
research by using KWL technique.
3. To increase the students‘ reading achievement through KWL techniques at SMA
Negeri I Amonggedo class XI
IPA
.
4. To be a source input to the English teacher particularly at SMA Negeri I
Amonggedo in increasing learning and teaching process in the classroom to the
increasing of students‘ reading achievement.

1.5.The Scope of the Study
This study focuses on content of reading text to get students‘ reading comprehension.
To make more specific, the researcher limits the comprehension on literal and
interpretive comprehension. . Genre of text for reading material in this study is report
text.

1.6.Definition of Term
To avoid some misunderstanding about this study, the researcher will give some
definitions of term are as follow:
1. According to Ogle (1987: 626-631), KWL is an instructional reading strategy that
is used to guided the students through a text. in other words, it could means very
helpful to assisst comprehension toward reading passages. K - stands for helping
students recall what they KNOW about the subject, W - stands for helping
students determine what they WANT to learn, and L - stands for helping students
identify what they LEARN as they read.


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CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter contains the theoretical framework to support this research. It covers; the
nature of reading, Reading Comprehension in EFL Context, the concept of KWL
Technique in tecahing Reading, schemata theory, teaching procedure of applying
KWL technique, review of related study.

2.1.The Nature of Reading
Reading plays an important role in learning a language. By reading, language learners
can absurd knowledge and information. Walker (1996:87) states that, ―reading is an
activate process (not product like history) in which reader shift between sources of
information (what they know and what the text says) elaborate meaning and
strategies, chek their interprettation (revising when appropriate) and use the social
context to focus their response‖. This means that reading is a process performed and
used by the reader to grasp message being dellivered by the writer in the medium of
words and writen language. In addition, with Nunan in Nasrudin (1998: 7) points out
that ―reading is an interactive process between what a reader already knows about a
given topic/subject and what the writer writes. One success in reading if sh or he has
ability to extract and comprehend the writer‘s message‖. Thus, reading is not only to
identify or spell words but also to have better comprehension of ideas coming from
the words.


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Furthermore, Haffer and Jally in Rusli (1982: 28) said that ―Reading is a
process of looking writen language and symbols, converting into overt speech
symbols and manipulating them so that both the direct (overt) and implied (convert)
ideas intended by the authors may understood‖. Regarding from those theories, we
can say that reading is not only an activity of calling out the words but also it must
involve the essensial thing in reading that is grasping meaning of the reading in other
words reading with comprehension. Another definition of reading which sound
similar to the expression above is given by Nunan who says, ―Redaing is an
interactive process between what the reader already knows about a given topic or
subject and what the writer writes‖. (Nunan in Nasrudin, 1998: 7). In dealing with the
teacing reading, Lado defines ―toread is to grasp language pattern from their
representation‖.
From the explanation above, the writer concluded that comprehension refers
to comprehend the written language (reading) related with the intellectual and mental,
so that the reading comprehension factors is the ability to acquire ideas of reading
materials and to understand the whole information of the text. the aim of reading is to
grasp the writers‘ message, not only to identify or spell words but also to have better
comprehension of ideas coming from the words. There is always a medium, namely
written or printed material. So, reading activity only takes places when there is a
written or printed material. There is an indirect communication between the readers
and the writers.it means that, the reader can understand what the wriiter‘s aim in his
book.


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Reading also can be interpreted as a method of communication with our
selves and sometime with the other or communication with written and implies
symbols. Even, there is the supposed that reading stability to see on written symbols
and then to change them by process to understand the implied or written ideas of the
text. the correlation degree between meaning to be written by writer and the reader
interpretation determine the practice of the raeding process.

2.2.Reading Comprehension in EFL Context
All reader when they read some reading materials are aimed to get a complete
understanding of what the.y have already been read or what the author has written.
Naswia (2008:18) states that reading comprehension involves process of specific
thinking. Comprehension occurs as a result of reading slowly, because our short term
memory can only retain information for a few second. (p.18). In addition, Betty
(1978:144) says reading comprehension is process that occurs in the brain, which
cannot be seen. Although the students can discuss about the reading content, answer
questions based on the text and express their answers, but the process of actual
meaning cannot be observed.
Betty (1978) further explains:
―Reading comprehension is processing written language to get ideas, relating
ideas to experiences, organizing ideas, evaluating ideas, and utilizing ideas.
Therefore, the reader must have some basic intellectual equipment in order to
comprehend. The reader must have intelligence, language and experience‖. (p,
145).



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So, when students try to comprehend the text, they have to interpret the
written idea and connect what they have interpreted to their experiences until they can
use that idea.
Similarly, Redway (1992) has stated reading comprehension is a process to
know the ideas by predicting and relating them to others ideas in written language. As
a result, in reading comprehension, reader not only has to understand the material but
also they have to analyze, evaluate and connect what they have already read with
their experience. It is because of reading comprehension is reader‘s activity in
understanding the meaning of material in written language or implied meaning (as
cited in Nadjili,2002.p.18) .
Therefore, reading comprehension aspects involved the ability to understand
words, sentence structures, sentence patterns, the ability to note and remember
significant details or find answer to specific questions and the ability to make a
relationship between his/her experience and the meaning written language.

2.2.1. Factors Affecting Reading Comprehension
Pamungkas (1992) says that reader‘s factor is important to do reading
comprehension. He said that there are five aspects, which influence reading
comprehension, they are as follow: firstly is reader‘s background experience.
Reader‘s background experience means that the ability to comprehend the text is
different between one person and another. One of the important factors is reader‘s
background experience. They will understand well the passage prepared when they


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have background knowledge about it. This background experience is of course
emphasized by the educational level.
The second is the ability to use language either by written or orally. The
ability in using language is very important for students. If the students have disability
in using language, it can influence or obscure the comprehension of reading material.
The reader will not catch what is the message of the reading when they have low
ability of language. This is also influenced by language component such as
vocabulary and grammar. When the reader has enough vocabulary and good
grammatical skill, so he/she will understand well what she/he is reading.
The third is thinking ability. Thinking ability refers to the reader‘s ability of
thinking. This is different between one and another because it is closely related with
level of intelligence of each person. Betty (1978:155) states that some factors
contribute to development of thinking skills as follow: (1) the reader should
concentrate completely on the content they are reading. (2) The reader should
understand what means to demand meaning from reading. (3) The reader should be
interest and have stimulated to the reading materials.
The fourth is reading purpose. Reading purpose is the process to understand
or comprehend reading material. It is influenced by the aim of reading, such as
reading to gain knowledge, information or reading for pleasure. The last is
motivation, attitude, interest, conviction and feeling. Other factors like motivation,
interest, conviction and feeling means that the reader‘s knowledge about knowledge
or language ability is important thing; because it can give positive effect for the


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readers in comprehend the text. Those aspects refer to the reader. If the reader has
high motivation and interest, he can easily to understand the meaning in context
besides thinking ability and his experience and his language knowledge.
Thus, the successes in comprehending a text depends on students' language
ability and language difficulty level that used by the writer. Thereby, reading material
or text should be selected based on students‘ language ability. This is important in
considering that students will be more motivated to read a text which they can
comprehend.

2.2.2. Level of Reading Comprehension
Betty, et al (1978) divided reading comprehension in four levels; they are literal
comprehension, interpretive comprehension, evaluative (critical) comprehension and
creative comprehension. Those levels of reading comprehension will be elaborated on
paragraphs below:
The first level is literal comprehension. Literal comprehension is concerned
with ideas that directly stated in the text. It includes identification and recall of main
idea and details what is necessary to comprehend for this level is understand of word
meaning, sentence meaning and paragraph meaning. The questions can be answered
by quoting the content of the text. In the types of literal comprehension there are
characteristic, such as: recognizing and recalling main ideas, recognizing and
recalling details, recognizing and recalling sequences, following direction and
recognizing cause and effect. Test in this category are objective test dealing with true/


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false, multiple choice and fill- the blank questions. Common question can be used to
this type of comprehension are who, what, when, and where questions.
The second level is interpretive comprehension. Interpretive comprehension
concerned with deeper meanings. The reader should try to understand what the
author means by the words he or she has written. Readers must arrive at
understandings that are not stated in test. They should synthesize information from
their experience with information from reading context. The characteristics of
interpretive comprehension are recognizing the author purposes drawing conclusions,
making generalizations. Common question can be used in this type of comprehension
are like why if, what caused, and how.
The third level is critical comprehension. In this level, the readers make
judgments about the quality, value and validity of the content of the text. It depends
on the ability to read well in the literal and interpretive level. The critical reader must
be able to differentiate fact from opinion. In order to read critically the reader must
begin with an understanding about what the author has said. The general
characteristics of this type of reading comprehension are the readers have to analyze
or synthesize information and apply it to other information. Example of common
questions can be used in this type of comprehension are which one is true, which one
is not true, why is…? etc.
The fourth level is creative comprehension. This level of comprehension is
similar with critical comprehension because it comprehends beyond the lines of print.
However, there is difference between them, where in creative level the reader read to


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find new ways of viewing ideas, incidents or characters that may stimulate the new
production of ideas. Thus creative comprehension occurs after the reader has read and
understood idea, a new story, a design, a painting, can improve product or method or
an invitation. Creative comprehension can be encouraged through using stimulating
content and questions. The examples of common questions usually used in this level
are (example the question after read a story): paint, draw, sketch, or model the way
you visualize…? Rewrite this story setting in modern times!, reread the introduction
to the story and analyze how the story would have changed it….!
So, the writer can restate that the critical comprehension and creative
comprehension levels are depend on the readers‘ ability in literal and interpretive
level.
2.3.Achievement in learning
There is an opinion said that a person will experience the change by learning, like
increasing the knowledge, understanding, attitude, habitation, etc. From the case of
course the condition of a students has learned is not same again with his condition
before doing learning. Its relationship with learning achievement is the changing of
the behaviour or the changing of knowledge that has been experience by a student
who has learned, and achievement is the result of that.
According to W.S.Winkel (1994: 102) points out that:
―Prosess belajar yang dihasilkan oleh murid menghasilkan perubahan-
perubahan oleh murid dalam bidang pengetahuan, keterampilan, nilai dan sikap.
Adanya perubahan itu tampak dalam prestasi belajar yang dihasilkan oleh murid
terhadap pertanyaan atau persoalan/tugas yang diberikan oleh guru‖



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Hence, the change of the happened to a student who has studied visible
become an achievement via questions or evaluation that gaven by the teacher on tests
form, and then, we can see the achievement.
Another words W.S.Winkel points out that ―Prestasi adalah bukti keberhasilan
usaha yang didapat‖
So, in these cases, we can say that achievement is the indicator of changing
level that has reached by a student who has done the learning activity and directly to
knowledge authority capability/skill, and attitude that has been reached.
The teacher‘s role towards students‘ achievement here is very ascertain. The
teacher‘s job is how to initiative in helping their students to reach the change as much
as possible. Therefore, a teacher must know about the factors that influence of
teaching and learning process.

2.4.Reading Achievement
By more specific field of achievement, Winkel (1987: 189) stated that students‘
achievement is the level of improvement that is obtained in relation to the certain
lesson. In relation to reading, it can be said that reading achievement is the students‘
level of improvement that is obtained in reading. In this case, Djiwandono (1996: 63)
states that ―sometime reading achievement needs to be measured through reading
test‖. For that reason, the writer will use reading test in obtain the data of this study.
So, the students‘ reading achievement will be determined through their score that
obtained after doing reading test.


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2.5.The Concept of KWL Technique in Teaching Reading
Conner (1990) states that KWL is an instructional reading strategy that is used to
guide students through a text. Students begin by brainstorming everything they Know
about a topic. This information is recorded in the K column of a KWL chart. Students
then generate a list of questions about what they Want to Know about the topic. These
questions are listed in the W column of the chart. During or after reading, students
answer the questions that are in the W column. This new information that they have
Learned is recorded in the L column of the KWL chart.
Provides an opportunity for students to expand ideas beyond the text. Here,
students begin by brainstorming everything they know about a topic. This
information is recorded in the K column of a KWL chart. Students then generate a list
of question about what they want to know about the topic. These questions are listed
in the W column of the chart. During or after reading, students answer the questions
that are in the W column. This new information that they have learned is recorded in
the L column of the KWL chart. Step of KWL are explain as follow:

1. K (What Students Know)
One of the most important tasks of teaching is to help students activate their
prior knowledge. Brainstorming accomplishes this by having students generate,
discuss and categorize their association on a topic. Malik (2009) states that
brainstorming is a great way to begin a reading lesson because engages students


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including the more silent ones may not be talking, but are in fact listening to their
peers.
As students brainstorming, the teacher and students record these association in
the K column of their chart. To make students be more active, teacher may ask some
questions to help students brainstorming their ideas, for example: tell me everything
you know about the topic. It is for stating the lesson. Then, the teacher may ask an
advance question like : ―what do you think about that?‖ to encourage the students to
explain their associations. This is especially important for those associations that are
vague or usual.

2. W (What Students Want to Know)
The second part of KWL formula is helping the students what they want to
learning. In this case, the teacher and the student list the question in W part of KWL
chart before reading the test. Malik (2009) states that it is the most effective way to
do this. When they begin to read, they will confirm of verify any of their questions.
While reading, the students have to think about what is read, monitor their learning
and perhaps generate additional questions to guide their reading.
In this step, teacher may contribute to give an alternative question for
generating ideas for the W column ―What do you want to know from this topic?‖, or
―what would you like to learn about this idea. If students respond with statements,
teacher can turn them into questions before recording them in the W column.


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However, in this stage, it is better if the teacher is not add too many of his/her
question.

3. L(what Students Have Learned)
In this step, students should look for the answer to the questions in their ―W‖
column while they are reading. Students can fill out their ―L‖ column either during or
after reading. Because, this is the last step of KWL technique, the lesson should help
the students become aware of what they have learned as they reflect on their reading
in a fun and engaging way.
By seeing the steps of strategy KWL above, we may concude that this strategy
can engage students right away so that they will be much more active in the lesson.

2.6.Schemata Theory
Related with KWL technique, we have known that the purpose of this technique is to
activate students‘ prior knowledge. What students will understand about new content
and concepts is heavily dependent on the knowledge they possess prior to
encountering the new information. Prior (or background) knowledge refers to what is
already known by the student which ought to be activated to get him ready for
encountering the new ideas. We know from research that the greater a student's
background with a topic, the easier and more successfully he/she will learn the new
content. Unfortunately, if we stop there, then we will perpetuate a practice whereby
we let the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.



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Schemata is a general knowledge and also called prior knowledge. It is
talking about any experience of someone. Nunan (1992) stated that a good reader is
able to relate the text and their own background knowledge efficiently. Schemata
theory is particularly significant for second language learners. Many reading passages
can only be adequately comprehended if the readers have the relevant cultural
knowledge.
A schema is one of important thing in grasping meaning in reading process.
Nunan says that: ―Reading is as an interactive process between the reader already
knows about a given topic or subject and what the writers‖.
Based on above definition we can interpret that reading is an activity of
grasping a text meaning that consists of the combination of the reader‘s schemata
related to the reader‘s intellect and emotion. Therefore, reading is a process in order
to get the meaning of the text that the researcher writes by involving the reader‘s
schemata or prior knowledge.
In teaching English reading through KWL is one of technique that has three
basic cognitive steps required, they are accessing what I Know, determining what I
Want to learn and recalling what I have Learned as a result or reading
(Pathways:1986)

2.7.The Teaching Procedure of KWL technique
Teacher are expected to be able to encourage the students to exposure with their
English. Teacher can ask the students to work in group or individually while the


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teacher monitoring the students activity. The teaching of reading under KWL
technique can be used in class (Conner: 1990):
1. Choose a text.
2. Create a KWL chart. The teacher should create a chart on the whiteboard. In
addition, the students should have their own chart on which to record information
3. Ask students to brainstorm words, terms, or phrases they associate with a topic.
The teacher and students record these associations in the K column of their
charts. This is done until students run out of ideas. Engage students in a
discussion about what they wrote in the K column.
4. Ask students what they want to learn about the topic. The teacher and students
record these questions in the W column of their charts. This is done until students
run out of ideas for questions. If students respond with statements, turn them into
questions before recording them in the W column.
5. Have students read the text and fill out the L column of their charts. Students
should look for the answers to the questions in their W column while they are
reading. Students can fill out their L columns either during or after reading.
6. Encourage students to research any questions in the W column that are not
answered by the text.
7. Discuss the information that students recorded in the L column.







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2.8.Review of Related Study
Allen (2000) in Reading History says: ―In my classroom, I often tried using a KWL
approach at the beginning of a unit or the study of an historical event. I usually met
with an amazing lack of success. I would ask my students what they knew about a
topic and they would say, ‗Nothing.‘ When I asked them what they wanted to know,
they would say ‗Nothing.‘ I finally realized that KWL was going to work with my
students only if I did something to build background and create an emotional
connection to the topic that we were going to study‖.
In addition, Malik(2009) with the title ―A cooperative study of the teaching of
reading to the second year students of SLTPN 1 Mowewe under K-W-L and Three
Phases Technique‖. The resulf of his study was K-W-L Technique was superior than
Three Phases Technique . And, the reason of the researcher is In K-W-L Students do
not only use the information from the text but also use their own prior knowledge to
interpret a message in text. Haofu (―A Study of the Teaching of Reading
Comprehension under K-W-L and Three Phases Technique at the Third Year
Students of SLTPN 2 Raha. The result of his study was K-W-L Technique was
superior than Three Phases Technique. And, the reason of the researcher was in K-W-
L Students use their own prior knowledge to interpret a message in text. and
Dharmawati (2009) ―A comparative study of reading achievement under K-W-L and
MURDER techniques of year X of SMA Negeri 2 Kendari‖. The result of her study is
K-W-L Technique was superior than MURDER techniques, and the reason of the
researcher was Both MURER and K-W-L involve prior knowledge. However, in


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MURDER, students need more speaking ability than in K-W-L which students need
writing ability more than speaking.
Both of Malik and Haofu concluded that KWL technique is superrior than
three phases technique. Therefore, Darmawati concluded that KWL technique in
superior than MURDER.



















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CHAPTER III
METODOLOGY
In this chapter the researcher presents the methodology of the study which is about
design of the study, subject of the study, procedure of the study, instrument of the
study, technique of data collection, and technique of data analysis.

3.1.Design of the Study
This study used an action research design that its focus was on improving students‘
reading achievement at SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo. It consists of four steps that
suggested by Kemmis model namely planning, action, observation and reflection. It
can be seen in following scheme:

:









Figure 1: Action Research Protocol after Kemmis (cited in Hopkins, 1985)



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3.1.1 Planning
The activities being conducted in this stage are:
1. The writer and teacher would determine action alternative through teaching
problem at SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo
2. The writer and teacher would make the lesson scenario for action by using the
model of cooperative learning type KWL that develop the aspect of
students‘activities.
3. The writer and teacher would prepare the instrument namely observation sheet
for each meeting and reading test to collect the data.
4. The writer and teacher would prepare test that will be used to know the
students‘achievement before action and during action or cycles.
5. The writer and teacher would prepare the material for teaching.

3.1.2 Action and Observation
In this session the writer and teacher would apply the action based on the planning
that have been arranged before. It means that this action would be apply the model
of KWL that appropriate with scenario which had been developed,included:
A. Pre Activity
1. Introduction (include introduction of the technique)
2. Explained the indicator of reading comperence




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B. While Activity
1. Prepared a text. The teacher took a reading text and wrote the topic of text
on the board
2. Created a K-W-L chart. The teacher should create a chart on the white/black
board. In addition, students should have their own chart on which record
information
3. Asked the students for brainstorming words, terms, or phrases they associate
with a topic. The students recorded these association in the K column of
their charts
4. Asked the students what they wanted to learn about the topic. The students
recorded this question in the W column of their charts
5. After the students had read the text and fill out the L column of their charts,
students should look for the answer to the question in their W column while
they were reading. Students could fill out their L column either during or
after reading
6. Discussed their information that students recorded in the L column
7. Encouraged students to research any question in the W column that were not
answered by the text
C. Post Activity
1. Teacher and students reviewed the material that has been learned
2. Teacher asked the students if there‘s something they didn‘t understand
3. Teacher and students gave conclusion


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4. Teacher gave homework
5. Closing

In the observation session, the researcher would do an action step, the researcher
would observe both students and teacher related apllying KWL technique.

3.1.3 Reflection
In this session, the writer and teacher worked collaboratively to find out the failure
during the implementation of action. And also decided the appropriate ways to be
applied for the next cycle. This is intended to solve the problem of the students
performance in the previous cycle by analysing the data that has been taken during
the action.
The strengthness and weakness were being found in the first cycle would
become the input for the teacher to revise again the planning for the next meeting
and it would be contiued untill target is achieved.

3.2.Subject of the Study
The subject of this study was conducted at class XI IPA of SMA Negeri 1
Amonggedo who enrolled in 2010/2011 academic year. The total number of this class
is 29 students.








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3.3.Instrument of Study
The instrument of study that would be used were the observation sheet, field notes
and reading test
a. Observation sheet.
Observation sheet was used to observe the application of teaching reading under
KWL technique. Observation through teacher activity was vocused to implement of
KWL technique and students‘ observation sheet to evaluate students‘ activity during
teaching and learning process.
b. Taking notes
Note taking used for taking the data during teaching and learning process. The
observer will take notes about how the implementation of KWL (Know-Want-Learn)
technique in teaching reading.
c. Reading Test
This instrument would be done to measure students reading comprehension in action
for each cycle.

3.4.Indicator of Success
The success of this classroom action research if the students activity achieve good
category and the result of the students‘ study attain individual completness ≥66 and
percentage ≥75%.




27


3.5.Data and Technique of Collecting Data
Kinds of data that were gotten were quantitative and qualitative data. Those data were
gotten from students‘ result that had been taught under KWL and observation sheet
a Data related with situation in teaching and learning process was gotten by using
observation sheet.
b Data related with students‘ result in learning was gotten by using test of learning
result.
c Data related with students‘ activity wass gotten by using observation sheet.
So, in this cases, quantitative data was taken through reading test. Therefore,
qualitative data was taken from observation sheet and field note.

3.6.The Technique of Data Analysis
These data in this research would be analyzed by using statistic descriptive for giving
description about the result of students‘ English learning that had been learned under
KWL technique. The formula that is used as follow:
a. Scoring the Result of Students’ Learning
Scoring students‘ achievement to describe the achievement that had been achieved by
every student by step was make data tabulation in the form of score of achievement
every item test on the appendix. Scoring would be done by weighting as follow:
Score = x 100 (Arikunto, 1998: 69)




28

b. Determining of mean value
X
N
X
i 

where : X = mean value
x
i
= score every student
N = the total of students
(Sudjana,1996: 67).
c. Determining of study completeness
% 100 % x
n
np

Where : np = total of students who success
n = total of students
For determining the result of students‘ learning, so we can categorize
them as follow:
80 – 100 : very good
66 – 79 : good
56 – 65 : moderate
46 – 55 : marginal
0 – 45 : poor (Sudjana, 1996)
d. Determining of students’ presentation who failed in joining test
%= x 100% (Arikunto, 2005).



29

CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter presents findings and discussions of the research. This finding consist of
activities of each cycle stars from cycle 1, 2, 3, result of students‘ reading
achievement and discussion of the results.
4.1.Results of the Research
4.1.1. Activities in the first cycle
A. Planning
Based on the main problem that researcher found in the pre observation, that student
had difficult to comprehend the content of reading. So, the researcher and the tecaher
tried to solve the problem by using KWL technique. The teacher and the researcher
planned the first cycle conducted in two meetings, which the teacher focused on the
comprehension of the content of reading text and the students can express their ideas.
To make teaching and learning process run effectivelly, the researcher made
lesson plan for each meeting. As standard assessment to see the students
comprehension, the researcher and the teacher put score minimally 75% of students
as subject of the study get standard score 66. To collect the data during teaching and
learning process, the researcher used observation sheet and note taking.






30

B. Applying Action and Observation
First meeting
This cycle consisted of two meeting. The first meeting was held on Friday, July 30
th

2010. The first cycle, the researcher took place as a teacher. Firstly, the teacher
explained about the indicator that would be achieved. After that, the teacher gave
some question about the last material. then, the teacher asked some question related
with students understanding such us; what do you know about chair, what do you
know about table, etc. it became a strategy for the teacher to identify the students‘
basic understanding about the technique that would be learned.
Then, the teacher explained to the students concern with KWL (Know-Want-
Learn) technique in teaching reading clearly. The teacher gave the clear explanation
related the procedure of KWL (Know-Want-Learn) technique namely step K, step W
and step L.
After that, the teacher gave an example of KWL (Know-Want-Learn)
technique related to the topic, namely ojek; such as; ―what do you know about ojek?‖,
―what do you want to know from ojek‖, etc. In process of learning, the teacher
instructed the students step by step about ojek by KWL (Know-Want-Learn)
technique. First, the teacher asked the students to record K column by what the
students know about ojek.
After the students had recorded what they knew, the teacher asked the
students to continue their activity by recording W column with what they want to
know from ojek. It means that, the students set their purpose after they studied. In


31

these cases, the students listed some question in W column before reading the text.
So, the teacher guided the students by explained simple present. It was aimed to make
the students didn‘t difficult to make WH-Question.
After that, the students looked for the answer to the question in their W
column. They read the text while filled out their L column. Then, the teacher asked
the students to collect their worksheet. The teacher guided the students to identify the
sentences that tell about the description and the general classification of the text.
Finally, the teacher asked the students to see the text. The teacher guided the
students to identify the characteristic of text. And then, the teacher and the students
gave conclusion about the text.
In this time, some students still shy and were not brave to deliver their opinion
in front of class. So, the teacher motivated them not be shy and arose their braveness
to give their answer. In addition, before the teacher close the activity, the teacher
remembered the students to bring the dictionary in the next meeting.

Second Meeting
In this meeting, the teacher continued the lesson in the previous meeting. The
teacher re-explained about Ojek. After that, the teacher gave reading test. The teacher
remembered the students about the characteristic of report text by guiding the
students to find out it either description of text, general classification of text or
language features. Before that, the teacher didn‘t forget to explain about the indicator
that would be achieved.


32

Next, The teacher explained about how to get the meaning of the text. This is
by using guessing the meaning. And also the teacher asked the students to make a list
about difficult word. At the end, the teacher asked the students to find out the
meaning. After that, the teacher explained more about how to identify the main idea
in paragraph. When the teacher explained about them, the students paid attention to
the teacher explanation. The teacher gave some example to make the students easy to
understand the material. Sometime, the teacher asked some question and the students
tried to answer. The teacher never be angry with her students when her students made
a mistakes. And also, the teacher gave some advice to the students who laugh their
students who made a mistake. it made the students enthusiast to answer the teacher‘s
question.
Finally, the teacher asked the students to give some question, if there were
something that the students didn‘t understand. And then, the teacher and the students
concluded the lesson. After that, the teacher gave reading test. While students
worked, the teacher and the researcher observed them to make sure they work
individually. Around 20 minutes later, the teacher asked them to submit their work.
Finally, the researcher closed the meeting.







33

C. Reflection
Based on the process of action that had been conducted in two meetings, the
teacher found that, the students had understood about;
1. The characteristic of report text.
2. The main idea in paragraph.
Those problems had been solved because in the first cycle, the teacher focused
to explain the characteristic about report text and how to identify the main idea in the
paragraph. Description and general classification about the topic are one of
characteristics of report text. It made those problems had solved.
Based on the process of action that had been conducted in two meetings, the
teacher found that, there were some grammatical errors. The students cannot make a
good sentence. It was based on the students‘ worksheet, especially, when they made
question. On the other hand, when the students answered reading test for cycle I,
most of students cannot make a complete answer. Such us, the question was ―what do
people call the largest kangaroos?‖ most of the students answered ―the Great
Kangaroo and the Red Kangaroo‖. Even thought the complete answer is ―people call
the largest kangaroo is the Great Kangaroo and the Red Kangaroo‖. Next, In
addition, The students result was still very low, it showed the mean score of cycle I
was 55,96. In addition, the percentage of completeness was only 34,61%. Therefore,
the percentage as classical was 75%.
Dealing with this reflection, the researcher and the teacher needed to discuss and
made a plan for the next lesson plan in the cycle two.


34



Table 4.1.1. Summary of Students’ problem in the first cycle.
No Problems Strategy to solve the problem
1.



2.


3.



4.

Grammatical errors especially
to make WH-question, simple
present.

Cannot make a complete answer


Students had difficulty to get
the meaning of the reading text.


Difficult to identify some words
that refers to
The teacher explain more about how to
make a good sentence especially
question

The teacher explain how to make a good
sentence

The teacher taught the students how to
guess the meaning of unfamiliar word in
a sentence.

The teacher explain about how to
identify some words that refers to


In addition, in this cycle, some students still noisy because they didn‘t had many
vocabularies, and they didn‘t pay attention to the teacher explanation.
Dealing with this reflection, the researcher and the teacher needed to discuss and
made a plan for the next lesson plan in the cycle two.

4.1.2. Activities in the Second Cycle
A. Planning
Based on reflection in the first cycle, the researcher and the teacher planned some
changes for improvement in the second cycle. The strategy to solve the students‘
problem like the teacher explain how to make a good sentence especially how to


35

make question, the teacher motivated students to more active to answer teacher‘s
questions, it can make them familiar in using English, and the teacher taught the
students how to guess the meaning of unfamiliar word in a sentence and how to
identify some words that refers to.
In this section, the teacher motivated the students to make teaching and
learning process ran effectively, it was planned to make lesson plan. The lesson plan
being made for the second cycle was to improve what have been made in the lesson
plan for the first cycle.
Besides, the researcher and the teacher planned some new topics that would
be used in the teaching and learning process. The topic was ―Mikrolet and becak‖.
While in collecting the data during teaching and learning process, the researcher used
observation sheet and note taking. As standard assessment to see students
improvement of their reading comprehension, the researcher put minimally 75% of
students get standard score 66. It was written in chapter III about the criteria of
success of study. In second cycle, the session would divide into two meeting. In this
cycle, the students would be understand about the text and identify the main idea on
the text.
B. Implementing Action and Observation
First Meeting
This cycle consisted of two meetings. The first meeting was held on Friday, August
6
th
2010. The topic was different with the first cycle. It was used ―mikrolet‖ as the
topic in reading activity.


36

Teacher started the teaching and learning process by asking the students about
the previous topic that had been discussed in the last meeting. The students were gave
the response very well because had a little improvement and they started felt free to
speak also they were excited to practice English. The teacher did not forget giving
motivation at the beginning of the class, which was to raise students‘ intention to
express their ideas.
After that, teacher explained simple present, and how to make a good question
(WH-Question) to remind students about the structure. It was aimed in order same
mistakes did not happen anymore. Then, the researcher asked students about mistakes
were done by the students in step of K column and W column in previous meeting.
The responses were good. Students mentioned some mistake arose. It was aimed to
bring the students to remember those mistakes and hoped that would not be repeated.
After that, the teacher started by re-explains about the step of KWL technique.
After explain briefly, the teacher checked their understanding. At the moment,
students responded well to the teacher‘s question. To make it sure, the teacher came
along to the students who sat in the back and asked them to retell what had been
explained. Students responded and gave well explanation.
In step K column, the students recorded their prior knowledge related with
mikrolet. To make students more active, the teacher asked some questions to help
students brainstorming their ideas for example; tell me everything that you know
about the topic. In W column, the teacher contributed to give an alternative question
for generating ideas for the W column ―What do you want to know about mikrolet?‖


37

to help the students to record W column, the teacher guided the students by
explaining more about simple present tense especially WH-Question. In addition, in
L column, the teacher asked the students to look for the answer to the question in
their ―W‖ column while they were reading. In those step, the students worked by their
self. After that, the teacher collected the students‘ worksheet.
After the students collected their worksheet, the teacher explained about how
to get the meaning of text by guessing the meaning. After that, the teacher asked the
students to record their opinion on KWL column in the white board. So, when the
students still had a mistake, the teacher asked their friend to give a correct
grammatical structure. It was aimed to know students understanding about
grammatical structure that had been taught and the other students had given a good
respond.

Second meeting
In second meeting was held on Saturday, August 7
th
2010. In this session, the
teacher taught about how to identify such words that refer to, and how to make a
complete answer. The topic was ―Becak". The teacher didn‘t forget to rememberred
the students about KWL technique. After that, the teacher guided the students to
record KWL column.
Next, The teacher asked the students to pay attention to the reading passage.
In this case, the teacher took some words in reading passage such as ―these‖, ―they‖,
etc and asked the students to identify such words that refer to. And the students didn‘t


38

respond well. So, the teacher explained more about anaphoric. After that, the teacher
wrote some words that was found in the first cycle, and asked the students to change
the wrong sentence became right sentence based on students‘ understanding from the
teacher explanation. The result actually the students could do it well. It seemed that
they had understood about the using of simple present and how to make WH-
question.
In addition, the teacher gave understanding about how to make a complete
answer. The teacher guided the students by asking their name, their address, etc. If
the students gave a short answer, the teacher always gave error correction. Besides,
the teacher guided the students to guess the meaning of the text and prepared some
vocabulary test to make the student easy to get the meaning of sentences.
At the end, the teacher and the students gave conclusion about the lesson. And
then, the teacher gave evaluation test to get how far students had understood about the
material.

C. Reflection
After applying the second cycle by re-explains about the procedure of KWL
(Know-Want-Learn) technique, the researcher found there was improvement of
students active in learning process, as follow:
The teacher found that the students had understood about:
1. How to make WH-question. Because to solve those problems, the teacher
explained about simple present tense either positive form, negative form or


39

interrogative form. In this case, the teacher gave them the formula of structure and
gave some example. So, it made the students easy to record KWL column.
2. How to get the meaning of the text. In this case, the teacher guided the students to
guess the meaning of text.
Based on the evalution test, the students‘ result was enough, it showed the
mean score of cycle II was 68,70. In addition, the percentage of completeness was
74,07%. Therefore, the percentage as classical was 75%.
In addition, in this cycle, some students had activated in teaching and learning
process and they gave attention to the teacher explanation. Dealing with this
reflection, the researcher and the teacher needed to discuss and made a plan for the
next lesson plan in the cycle three
Table 4.1.2. summary of students’ problem in the second cycle
No Problem Strategy to solve the problem
1


2
Some students still cannot make a
complete answer

The students had similar mistake
to identify word that refers to
the teacher explained more about how to
made a complete answer

The teacher explained more about
pronoun, etc that can solved the students
poblem

4.1.3. Activities on the Third Cycle
A. Planning
Some problem that had been found in previous cycle became the plan in the next
cycle that supposed to be solved afterwards. In this section, the teacher and the
researcher still cooperatively arranged the lesson plan that reflected to the first cycle.


40

Also researcher prepared the same instruments to observe again the process of
teaching reading under KWL (know-want-learn). Based on the second cycle, the
teacher still found some problem. They were:
1. The students still could not make a complete answer
2. The students had similar mistake to identify word that refers to.
Based on the reflection of the first cycle and second cycle, it found that the
students still had problems with students reading achievement. So, the researcher and
the teacher overcame it by looking the strong and weakness in previous cycle.
Therefore, the teacher and researcher revised plan as follow:
1. The teacher re-explained about such words that refer to. Such as, the teacher
explained more about possessive pronoun, possessive adjective, subject, object,
etc.
2. The teacher explained more about how to make a complete answer.
3. The researcher still prepared students worksheet, observation sheet, field note and
reading test as the instrument and use‖ Dump Truck‖ as the topic for reading
achievement.
4. In this session, it was focused on understanding such words that refers to. The
teacher didn‘t forget to encourage students more active and asked them to take
notes about the important information that they got from the teacher or their
friends.




41

B. Applying Action and Observing.
In this action was done on Friday, September 3
th
2010. The topic was ―Dump Truck‖.
In this cycle, the teacher asked the students about the last material. Such as, ―the
formula of present tense, who can make a good question‖. After that, the teacher gave
the indicator that would be achieved. In the main activity, the teacher guided the
students to record K column, W column, and L column. The teacher remembered the
students about the structure that would be used and how to make a good question in
W column. The teacher asked them to see the text and then asked some students
about such words that refer to, such as: ―these in paragraph two refers to?‖
In addition, the teacher explained how to make a complete answer. In this
case, the teacher asked some question one by one to know students understanding
about the material and the students‘ respond to answer the teacher‘s question by using
a complete answer.
Then, the teacher asked them about the last material. Started from the
meaning of report text until understanding about such word refers to. In this meeting,
the students were very enjoy to study because the teacher gave the students
opportunity to give some question and they were not shy to deliver their opinion,
because the teacher had determined that when their friend gave incorrect answer, they
could not laugh. It meant that they were confidence and high motivation to join the
class.


42

In this meeting, the atmosphere of class was more quiet that previous meeting.
While the teacher monitored the class, she also informed that all students to be
serious and participate well. The students gave attention to the teacher explanation.

C. Reflection
After conducting three cycles and applied KWL (Know-Want-Learn) technique. It
seemed like the problem generally were treated well in each cycle.
In this cycle was actually not significant problem that was found since the
solution from the teacher and the researcher were usefully useful to the students. All
the students had understood about report text, the characteristic of it, how to identify
the main idea, how to make WH-question, the structure of present tense, and
understand about such words that refers to. They were also enthusiast when the
teacher asked them to record their writing on KWL column on the white board.
However, the point that considered getting good improvement of reading
achievement was how the students related their prior knowledge and the topic. In this
cycle students mastery was 75% that could be seen on the result of their reading
achievement. Therefore, there was no more cycle because it had been proven that
students‘ good mark related to their prior knowledge in reading.

4.2. Result of Students’ Reading Achievement
This session is description about the result of students‘ reading achievement
on each cycle and analysis data of mean score.



43

Table 4.2.1 Data Distribution of Score about Students Reading Achievement
Cycle I

Total score (X) Result of students score Students (F) Percent (%)
13 100 1 3.84
11 84.61 1 3.84
10.5 80.76 1 3.84
10 76.92 2 7.7
9 69.23 4 15.38
8.5 65.38 3 11.53
8 61.53 3 11.53
7.5 57.69 2 7.7
7 53.84 2 7.7
6.5 50 2 7.7
6 46.15 3 11.53
5.5 42.30 2 7.7
Total 26 100
Mean score 55.96
% Completeness 34.61
The data above shown that there are 26 total of students in the class who had
followed the test. Three of them were not coming. On the cycle I the result total of
mean is 55.96 which categorized low. The highest score was 100 and the lowest score
was 42.30. In this cycle only one students who got the total of correct answer was
(13), (11), and (10.5) (3.84%). Then, two students who got the total of correct answer
was (10), (7.5), (7), (6.5), (5.5) (7.7 %), then three students who got the total of
correct answer was (8.5), 8, 6 (11.53%), one students who got the total of correct
answer was four (15.38%). From the result of students score, there are 65. 39 students
who had not achieved the minimum standard of achievement is ≥ 66.




44

Table 4.2.2 Data Distribution of Score about Students Reading Achievement
Cycle II

Total Score (X) Result of students score Students (F) Percent (%)
12 100 2 7.14
11 91.66 2 7.14
10.5 87.5 2 7.14
10 83.33 3 10.71
9.5 79.16 2 7.14
9 75 4 14.3
8.5 70.83 4 14.3
8 66.66 2 7.14
7.5 62.5 2 7.14
7 58.33 1 3.57
6.5 54.16 2 7.14
5.5 45.83 2 7.14
Total 28 100
Mean score 68.70
% completeness 74.07

The data above shown that there are 28 total of students in the class who had
followed the test. One of them was not coming. On the cycle I the result total of mean
is 68.70 which categorized moderate. The highest score was 100 and the lowest score
was 45.83. In this cycle only one students who got the total of correct answer was (7)
(3.57%). Then, two students who got the total of correct answer was (12), (11),
(10.5), (9.5), (8), (7.5), (6.5), (5.5) (7.14 %), then three students who got the total of
correct answer was (10), (10.71), four students who got the total of correct answer
was (9), (8.5) (14.3%). From the result of students score, there are 25.93 students who
had not achieved the minimum standard of achievement was ≥ 66.




45

Table 4.2.3 Data Distribution of Score about Students Reading Achievement
Cycle III

Total Score (X) Result of students score Students (F) Percent (%)
9 100 3 11.11
8 88.88 8 29.62
7.5 83.33 5 18.51
7 77.77 5 18.51
6.5 72.22 1 3.70
6 66.66 3 11.11
5.5 61.11 1 3.70
4.5 50 1 3.70
Total 27 100
Mean Score 75.85
% Completness 92.59

The data above shown that there are 28 total of students in the class who had
followed the test. One of them was not coming. On the cycle III the result of total
mean is 75.85 which categorized high. It proves the students reading were achieved in
the third cycle so target is achieved. In this cycle The highest of total score was 9 and
the result of score was 100 and the lowest of total score was 4.5 with the result of
score was 50.







46

From the data, the graphic of the students result was follow:


4.3.Discussion
Related to some problem that researcher found in SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo
as field of this study, the researcher arranged some planning to solve those problem
that applied in the classroom. As lesson plan had been planned, the teaching and
learning process was conducted by using one of individual learning techniques
namelly, KWL (Know-Want-Learn) technique. After implementing KWL (Know-
Want-Learn) technique on teaching reading for three cycles, researcher found that
there was improvement of students‘ reading achievement. The improvement of
achievement was good from cycle to cycle.
In the cycle I after applying KWL (Know-Want-Learn), the researcher and the
teacher evaluated the students to find the students‘ achievement. If related with the
result in cycle I under KWL (Know-Want-Learn), we got the describing of the
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Cycle 1 Cycle 2 cycle 3
Mean Score 55.96 68.53 75.85
T
h
e

M
e
a
n

S
c
o
r
e

o
f

S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s

R
e
s
u
l
t

Graphich of Mean Score of Students’ Result in
Every Cycle


47

strong and the weakness of cycle I. Based on the process of action that had
been conducted in two meetings, the teacher found that the students had
understood about the characteristic of report text and the students had understood
about the main idea in the paragraph. Both of the problems had been solved because
the teacher focused on the general structure of the text.
On the other hand, the students still had some weaknesses. They were:
The first, some students could not make WH-Question. It was based on the
students‘ worksheet, especially, when they made question in W column. For example;
―why becak no wear machine?‖. It should be ―why does becak not wear machine?‖.
The second, when the students answered reading test for cycle I, most of
students cannot make a complete answer. Such us, the question was ―what do people
call the largest kangaroos?‖ most of the students answered ―the Great Kangaroo and
the Red Kangaroo‖. Even thought the complete answer is ―people call the largest
kangaroo is the Great Kangaroo and the Red Kangaroo‖.
The third, the students were difficult to get the meaning of the reading text. It
was showed that there were many students always opened the dictionary to get the
meaning. The students were difficult to identify some words that refer to.
And the last, the students were difficult to identify some words that refer to.
Those problems happened because the teacher didn‘t explain more about
grammatical structure especially present tense that is used of the text. The teacher
think that, the students had understood about grammatical structure but the fact show
that, the students still made some mistake. In addition, the students still used their


48

habitual action. It is short answer when they answer some question from the teacher.
Therefore, the students had poor vocabulary that made them difficult to get the
meaning from the text.
So, the researcher continued in cycle II and used into cycle I as standard to
prepare the condition to applying KWL (Know-Want-Learn) technique as the purpose
that planning can be achieved. In reading the most important aspect should be
considered is prior knowledge. If students lack of prior knowledge, it is difficult for
the students to beyond their ideas and understanding the topic. To solved those
problems from the first cycle, the teacher re-explained about the principle of KWL
technique, the teacher explain more about how to make a good sentence especially
how to make WH-Question. In this case, the teacher explained the formula of simple
present tense in form of positive, negative and interrogative. In WH-question, the
teacher didn‘t forget to explain about the using of do/does, to be, etc. Therefore, to
solve the problem about the students were difficult to get the meaning of the text, the
teacher prepare some difficult word related to the text that would be learned and the
teacher explain more about how to guess the meaning of the text. In addition, the
teacher explained more about possessive pronoun, personal pronoun to solve the
problem about some words that refer to.
In fact show that, in cycle II, the students had understood about how to make
WH-Question and how to get the meaning of the text. On the other hand, this cycle
also still had weakness. They were; the students still cannot make a complete answer
and still had similar mistake to identify some words that refer to. Because, they still


49

didn‘t understood about that. In addition, short answer is their habitual. So, it is hard
for them to change. And the students still difficult to differentiate about the using of
these, that, this, etc. So, they were confused them. So, the teacher planned in the next
cycle.
In the third cycle, the students had understood about how to make a complete
answer and identify some words that refer to. Because, the teacher always asked the
students some question and the students answered the teacher‘s question by using a
complete answer. When the students used a short answer, the teacher always
remembered the students to used complete answer. For example; the teacher asked
the students about ―what is your name?‖. Some students answered; ―rita suryawati‖,
―Adi Gunawan‖, etc. So, the teacher explained again about how to make a complete
answer. It means that, the teacher always guided the students to make a complete
answer such us; ―my name is Rita Suryawati‖ or ―my name is Adi Gunawan‖.
So, in the cycle III, there were no problem that was found. It means that, those
problems had been solved at the cycle III.
From the result of the action in the first and the second cycle, the researcher
will compare with other researcher about KWL classroom in teaching reading has
been conducted by some research. Fisrt is Malik (2009) who studied about ―A
cooperative study of the teaching of reading to the second year students of SLTPN 1
Mowewe under K-W-L and Three Phases Technique”. He used true experimental
design. The resulf of his study was K-W-L Technique was superior than Three Phases
Technique . And, the reason of the researcher is In K-W-L Students do not only use


50

the information from the text but also use their own prior knowledge to interpret a
message in text.
The second is Haofu. His study about “A Study of the Teaching of Reading
Comprehension under K-W-L and Three Phases Technique at the Third Year
Students of SLTPN 2 Raha.”. the design of his study was experimental design. The
result of his study was K-W-L Technique was superior than Three Phases Technique.
And, the reason of the researcher was in K-W-L Students use their own prior
knowledge to interpret a message in text. The third is Dharmawati (2009). Her study
is “A comparative study of reading achievement under K-W-L and MURDER
techniques of year X of SMA Negeri 2 Kendari”. The design od her study was true
experimental design. The result of her study is K-W-L Technique was superior than
MURDER techniques, and the reason of the researcher was Both MURER and K-W-
L involve prior knowledge. However, in MURDER, students need more speaking
ability than in K-W-L which students need writing ability more than speaking.
From explanation above the sriter conclude that teaching english reading
through KWL technique can imrpove students‘ reading achievement because students
solve their problem by theirselves. .







51

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION
5.1.Conclusion
Based on the result of analysis data and discussion of the result of classroom action
research by applying KWL (Know-Want-Learn) technique at SMA Negeri 1
Amonggedo class XI IPA can be conclude that the mean score of students
achievement at SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo under KWL (Know-Want-Learn)
technique in every cycle as follow: the mean score of students‘ reading achievement
on the cycle I was 55,95, the mean score of students‘ reading achievement on the
cycle II was 68, 70 and the mean score of students‘ reading achievement on the cycle
III was 75,85.
Based on the result, after analyzing the data that had be done applying KWL
(know-Want-Learn) technique can improve students‘ reading achievement at SMA
Negeri 1 Amonggedo class XI IPA

5.2.Recommendation
Through the findings of this study, there are some recommendations from the
researcher:
1. KWL (Know-Want-Learn) technique can be used by the English teacher in
teaching reading because this technique can help students SMA Negeri 1
Amonggedo class XI IPA in increasing their reading achievement.


52

2. For school, especially SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo to be carefully to use the model
of learning because for determining the result of students‘ achievement is the
appropriate between the lesson, the students‘ condition and the model of learning.
3. For the English teacher, based on the result after conducting this research, the
researcher found that there were two students who had not achieved KKM.
Because, they were lazy. So, the researcher suggests to give them motivation or
more attention to them.































53

REFERENCES

Allen, J. (2000). Reading history. Retrieved on December 25
th
, 2009. From
http://eduref.org/cgi-bin/printlessons.cgi/Virtual/Lessons/Language_Arts/
Reading/RDG0016.html.

Arikunto, S. (1998). Dasar-dasar evaluasi pendidikan. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara

Arikunto, S. (2005). Dasar-dasar evaluasi pendidikan. Edisi Revisi. Jakarta: Bumi
Aksara

Betty, R., dkk. (1978). Reading instruction in the secondary school. Houngthoin
Mifflin Company: London.

Bond,G. (1984). Reading difficulties. Their diagnosis and correction. New Jersey
:Practice Hall,Inc.

Conner, J. (1990). Instructional reading strategy: KWL (Know-Want to Know-
Learned). Retrieved on April 16
th
, 2010. From: http://www.indiana.edu/~
l517/KWL.htm

Dharmawati. (2009). A comparative study of students‘ reading achievement under
K-W-L and murder techniques at the year X of SMA Negeri 2 Kendari.
Kendari: FKIP Unhalu Unpublished Undergraduate thesis

Haofu, Ld. (2002). A study of the teaching of reading comprehension under K-W-L
technique and three phases technique at the third yeard students of SLTPN 2
Raha‖ Kendari: FKIP Unhalu Unpublished Undergraduate thesis

Hopkinds, D. (1985). A teacher guide classroom research. Open University Press:
Philadelphia

Huda, N. (1997). Language learning and teaching, Issues and Trend. Malang:
Universitas Negeri malang.

Krashen,S. (1983).The natural approach. Language acquisition in the classroom.
Sanfransisco: Alemany Press

Malik. (2009), A comparative study of the teaching of reading to the second years
students of SLTP Negeri 1 Mowewe under K-W-L and three phases
technique‖ Kendari: FKIP Unhalu Unpublished Undergraduate thesis



54

Nadjili.(2002). The effect of group work in increasing students‘ achievement in
reading comprehension at the second year of SLTP Negeri 2 Tomia:
Kendari: FKIP Unhalu Unpublished Undergraduate thesis

Naswia.(2008). The effect of murder technique on students‘ reading acvhievement at
second years students of SLTP Negeri 6 Kendari. Kendari: FKIP Unhalu
Unpublished Undergraduate thesis

Nunan, D. (1992). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Australia:
Cambridge University Press

Ogle, D. (1987). K-W-L Plus: A strategy for comprehension and summarization.
Journal of reading. vol. 30. pp. 262-631.

Pamungkas, D. (1992). Faktor –faktor yang mempengaruhi kecepatan baca.
Retrieved on January 1
st
,2010. From: http://www.geocities.com/daudp65/e-
book/part1/succes4c.html

Pathways. (1986). K-W-L. North central regional education laboratory. Retrieved on
March 5
th
, 2010. From: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students
/learning/lrlkwlh.htm,.

Redway, M. K. (1992). Membaca cepat metode mutakhir menambah kecepatan
membaca dan meningkatkan pemahaman. Jakarta: Pustaka Binoman
Pressindo.

Sudjana. (1996). Metoda statistika. Edisi ke-6. Bandung: Tarsito


















55

Appendix 1.
THE FIRST PRE-OBSERVATION

Day/Date: Friday, February 5
th
and Saturday, February 6
th
2010
A. For the teacher
No

Aspect of
Observation
Presence Notes
First Meeting Second Meeting
Very
Good
Good Poor Very
Poor
Very
Good
Good Poor Very
Poor
1 Generates students‘
interest to start the
learning process
 
2 Does apperception
and brainstorming
 
3 The teacher explain
the topic
 
4 Does teacher use a
techniquein teaching
and learning process
 
5 Aska students to
identify some
difficult words, then
provides some words
to be mathches
theirsynonym and
antonim
 
6 The teacher monitors
and observes the
students‘ activity
 
7 Ask students to ask
about the material
that is not clear yet
 
8 Theacher concludes
the material
 
9 Teacher involves all
students in learning
process
 







56

B. For students
No

Aspect of
Observation
Presence Notes
First Meeting Second Meeting
Very
Good
Good Poor Very
Poor
Very
Good
Good Poor Very
Poor
1 Students pay
attention and
respond to the
teacher question
 
2 Students ask
question of what
they do not
understand yet
 
3 The circumstance
of students are
learning
 
4 Students do the
task that given by
the teacher
 
5 Do students‘
undersand the
material?
 



Observer

SECOND PRE-OBSERVATION SHEET

INTERVIEW WITH THE ENGLISH TEACHER OF SMA NEGERI 1
AMONGGEDO


1. Interview with the English Teacher of SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo
The interview was on Friday, January 29
th
2010. At the time, the researcher was
interview the English teacher who taught english subject at class XI
IPA.
The
researcher asked some questions are in the following:
 Based on your experience which class in the second grade who has problem in
comprehending the reading text?
 What is students‘ problem in comprehending the reading text?
 How are they in teaching and learning process?


57

Related to those question, the english teacher said that from two clasess in the
second grade, class XI
IPA
indicated has difficulty to comprehend the reading text.
It was because students at class XI
IPA
have luck of vocabulary and grammatical
aspect. So it can make the students must always open the dictionary to look at the
meaning of words. While those aspects have big contribution to comprehend the
reading text. In addition, in terms their attitude in teaching and learning process
most of students seemed passive even there were some of them who were active.
When the teacher asked them a question most of students just keep silent.
2. Giving reading comprehension test.
After conducting interview with the english teacher, the researcher and the
teacher arranged to give a reading comprenesion test at class XI
IPA
. It was aimed
to see students‘ reading comprehension before conduction the action. The test was
multple choices that is consist of 10 items. The test was taken on Friday, February
12
th
2010. The result of students comprehension test was the means score was
50,9, while the percentage of students score ≥ 66 only 13,63% who success in
teaching and learning process. In addtion, based on students‘daily examination
mean value is 63. It means that only 50% are success in teaching and learning
process. While, based on Sudjana Nana(1990) points out that one indicator of the
successfulness in teaching and learning process is minimall 75% of total students
get minimum score. The result of this test categorized that students reading
comprehension at class XI
IPA
was still low and not achieve the indicator of the
successfulness.

3. Conclusion
After conducting the second pre-observation found that students‘ at class XI
IPA
of
SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo have difficulty to comprehend the reading text. The
information got from the english teacher who taught English subject at class XI
IPA

through interview, reading comprehension, and questionare. Beside that, it also
proof by giving a reading comprehension test. It was aimed to see their reading
comprehension before conducting the action. As the reult students reading
comprehension at class XI
IPA
was categorized low.









58

Appendix 2
LESSON PLAN

School : SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo
Subject : English
Class/ Semester : XI IPA / I
Times : 2 x 45 minute
Aspect/Skill : Reading
Meeting : I

I. Standard of competency:
Understanding the meaning of functional text and simple essay in the form of
report, narrative, and analytical exposition in daily activity.
II. Basic of competency
Understanding and responding the meaning on the monolog text or essay that is
used written language varieties as accurately, fluently in the form of: report,
narrative and analytical exposition.
III. Indicator
a. To Determine specific information in reading text
b. To determine detail information in reading text
c. To determine words refers to of the text



59

IV. Objectives of Study:
Students are expected to be able to:
a. Determine specific information in reading text
b. Determine detail information in reading text
c. Determine words refers to of the text
V. Sub topic /lesson:
Ojek
VI. Material :
1. Reading text
2. Source: English SMA/MA grade XI Natural Science and Social Science
Programmes by Utami Widiati (Ed.)
VII. Teaching Technique: KWL
VIII. Teaching and learning activity
ACTIVITIES TIME
Teacher Students
Pre
Activity
1. Introduction the material (including
introduction the technique)
2. Explained the indicator and the purpose of
study
1. Students paid attention
to the teacher
explanation
15
Main
Activity
1. Informed the method that students are going
to use in the main activity

2. Explained about KWL technique clearly
3. Created a KWL chart on the white board
4. Wrote the topic that would be learned
5. Gave modeling about studying in KWL
technique
6. Gave students work sheet

7. Asked students to brainstorm words, terms,
or phrases related with the topic

8. Explained about simple present tense
1. The students paid
attention to the teacher
explanation





2. The students took the
students‘ worksheet
3. Recorded all of word,
terms, or phrase in K
column
4. Paid attention to the
60


60

9. Explained about WH-Question
10. Asked students what they want to learn about
the topic.

11. Gave the reading text
12. Asked the students to record L column.




13. Guided the students to Identify the sentences
that tell about the description and the general
classification of the text based on the text


14. Encouraged students to research any
questions in the W column that were not
answered by the text.
teacher explanation
5. Set the purpose after
studying the topic on W
column
6. Read the text
7. Answered the question
based from W column
on the reading text and
recorded them on the L
column
8. Identify the sentences
that tell about the
description and the
general classification of
the text based on the text
9. Searched some question
that had not answered
Post
Activity
1. Concluded the material
2. Asked the students if there was something
that didn‘t understand
3. Gave information about the next material
1. Concluded the material
2. Gave some question

3. Write the topic for next
material
15
IX. Evaluation:
a. Test: essay test
b. Assessment guidance
No Aspect Score
1
2
3
4
5
6
The answer is correct, grammar is correct, and spelling is correct
The answer is correct, grammar is correct, and spelling is not correct
The answer is correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is correct
The answer is correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is not correct
The answer is not correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is not correct
Does not answer the question
5
4
3
2
1
0




61

Kendari, 2010
Teacher, Researcher

Sri Hartati, S.Pd Jumria
NIP:1976011020012 2 003 A1D2 06 033

Approved by,
Headmaster of SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo


L a s a, S.Pd
NIP. 19670210199404 1 001















62

LESSON PLAN
School : SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo
Subject : English
Class/ Semester : XI IPA / I
Times : 2 x 45 minute
Aspect/Skill : Reading
Meeting : II

I. Standard of competency:
Understanding the meaning of functional text and simple essay in the form of
report, narrative, and analytical exposition in daily activity.

II. Basic of competency
Understanding and responding the meaning on the monolog text or essay that is
used written language varieties as accurately, fluently in the form of: report,
narrative and analytical exposition.

III. Indicator
a. To Determine specific information in reading text
b. To determine detail information in reading text
c. To determine words refers to of the text




63

IV. Objectives of Study:
Students are expected to be able to:
a. Determine specific information in reading text
b. Determine detail information in reading text
c. Determine words refers to of the text
V. Sub topic /lesson:
Ojek
VI. Material :
1. Reading text
2. Source: English SMA/MA grade XI Natural Science and Social Science
Programmes by Utami Widiati (Ed.)
VII. Teaching Technique: KWL
VIII. Teaching and learning activity
ACTIVITIES TIME
Teacher Students
Pre
Activity
1 Explained the indicator and the
objectives of study
2 Brainstorming about the last
material
1. Gave attention to the
teacher explanation
2. The students answer
the teacher‘s question
related with the
previous material
10
Main
Activity
1. Re-explained about the topic of last
meeting
2. Re-explained about how to identify
the sentences that tell about the
description and the general
classification of the text based on
the text
3. Gave reading text about last
meeting
1. Paid attention to the
teacher explanation





2. Took the reading text

50


64

4. Explained about how to identify the
main idea
5. Explained about how to get the
meaning of the text
6. Explained about how to make a
complete answer
7. Gave some example about which
sentences as description and general
classification of the text
8. Gave some example how to identify
the main idea based on the text
9. Gave some example about how to
guess the meaning of the text
10. Asked the students if there was
something that didn‘t understand
3. Paid attention to the
teacher explanation
4. Make a summary
about the teacher
explanation.








5. Asked some question
related the material
Post
Activity
1. Concluded the material
2. Gave a reading test for cycle I

3. Gave information about the next
material ―Mikrolet‖
1. Concluded the material
2. Did reading test as
cycle I
3. Wrote the material for
the next meeting
30

IX. Evaluation:
a. Test: essay test
b. Assessment guidance
No Aspect Score
1
2
3
4
5
6
The answer is correct, grammar is correct, and spelling is correct
The answer is correct, grammar is correct, and spelling is not correct
The answer is correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is correct
The answer is correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is not correct
The answer is not correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is not correct
Does not answer the question
5
4
3
2
1
0





65

Kendari, 2010
Teacher, Researcher

Sri Hartati, S.Pd Jumria
NIP:1976011020012 2 003 A1D2 06 033

Approved by,
Headmaster of SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo

L a s a, S.Pd
NIP. 19670210199404 1 001

















66

LESSON PLAN
School : SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo
Subject : English
Class/ Semester : XI IPA / I
Times : 2 x 45 minute
Aspect/Skill : Reading
Meeting : III
I. Standard of competency:
Understanding the meaning of functional text and simple essay in the form of
report, narrative, and analytical exposition in daily activity.
II. Basic of competency
Understanding and responding the meaning on the monolog text or essay that is
used written language varieties as accurately, fluently in the form of: report,
narrative and analytical exposition.
III. Indicator
a. To Determine specific information in reading text
b. To determine detail information in reading text
c. To determine words refers to of the text
IV. Objectives of Study:
Students are expected to be able to:
a. Determine specific information in reading text
b. Determine detail information in reading text


67

c. Determine words refers to of the text
V. Sub topic /lesson:
Mikrolet
VI. Material :
1. Reading text
2. Source: English SMA/MA grade XI Natural Science and Social Science
Programmes by Utami Widiati (Ed.)
VII. Teaching Technique: KWL
VIII. Teaching and learning activity
Activities Time
Teacher Students
Pre
activity
1. Asked the students about the
characteristic of report text and how
to identify the main idea on the
paragraph

2. Explained the indicator and the
purpose of the study
1. Explained about the
characteristic of report
text and how to identify
the main idea on the
paragraph
2. Paid attention to the
teacher‘s explanation
15
Main
activity
1. Re-explain the step of KWL
technique
2. Write the topic on the white board
3. Explained more about how to make
WH-Question
4. Explained more about possessive
pronoun, personal pronoun, etc.
5. Wrote some words as difficult word
related the text.
6. Created a KWL chart on the white
board
7. Wrote the topic that will be learned
8. Gave students‘ work sheet

9. Asked students to brainstorming
1. Paid attention to the
teacher explanation

2. Paid attention to the
teacher explanation about
the material.






3. Took the students‘
worksheet
4. Recorded all of word,
60


68

words, terms, or phrases related with
the topic in K column
10. Asked students what they wanted to
learn about the topic.

11. The teacher explained simple present
and how to make a good question
(WH-Question)
12. Gave reading text to the students
13. Guided the students to record L
column


14. Guided the students to search some
question that had not been answered
in W column
terms, or phrase in K
column
5. Set the purpose after
study the topic in W
column
6. Paid attention to the
teacher explanation about
present tense
7. Read the text
8. Answered the question
based on the reading text
and record them on the L
column
9. Searched some question
that had not answered
Post
Activity
1. Asked the students if there is
something that didn‘t understand
2. Gave information about the next
material ―Becak‖
1. Gave some question

2. Wrote the next
material
15

IX. Evaluation:
a. Test: essay test
b. Assessment guidance
No Aspect Score
1
2
3
4

5

6
The answer is correct, grammar is correct, and spelling is correct
The answer is correct, grammar is correct, and spelling is not correct
The answer is correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is correct
The answer is correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is not
correct
The answer is not correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is not
correct
Does not answer the question
5
4
3
2

1

0



69


Kendari, 2010
Teacher, Researcher

Sri Hartati, S.Pd Jumria
NIP:1976011020012 2 003 A1D2 06 033

Approved by,
Headmaster of SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo


L a s a, S.Pd
NIP. 19670210199404 1 001









70

LESSON PLAN
School : SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo
Subject : English
Class/ Semester : XI IPA / I
Times : 2 x 45 minute
Aspect/Skill : Reading
Meeting : IV
I. Standard of competency:
Understanding the meaning of functional text and simple essay in the form of
report, narrative, and analytical exposition in daily activity.
II. Basic of competency
Understanding and responding the meaning on the monolog text or essay that is
used written language varieties as accurately, fluently in the form of: report,
narrative and analytical exposition.
III. Indicator
a. To Determine specific information in reading text
b. To determine detail information in reading text
c. To determine words refers to of the text
IV. Objectives of Study:
Students are expected to be able to:
a. Determine specific information in reading text
b. Determine detail information in reading text


71

c. Determine words refers to of the text
V. Sub topic /lesson:
Becak
VI. Material :
1. Reading text
2. Source: English SMA/MA grade XI Natural Science and Social Science
Programmes by Utami Widiati (Ed.)
VII. Teaching Technique: KWL
VIII. Teaching and Learning Activity
Activities Time
Teacher Students
Pre
Activity
1. Asked the students about how to make
WH-Question and how to get the
meaning of the text

2. Explained the indicator and the purpose
of the study
1. Explained about how
to make WH-Question
and how to get the
meaning of the text
2. Paid attention to the
teacher explanation
10
During
Activity
1. Re-explain the step of KWL technique

2. Write the topic on the white board
3. Created a KWL chart on the white board
4. Wrote the topic that will be learned
5. Gave students‘ work sheet

6. Asked the students to brainstorming
words, terms, or phrases related with the
topic and recorded them on K column
7. Asked students what they wanted to
learn about the topic. It recorded on the
W column
8. Explained simple present and how to
make a good question (WH-Question)
9. Gave reading text to the students
1. Paid attention to the
teacher explanation



2. Took the students‘
worksheet
3. Recorded all of word,
terms, or phrase in K
column
4. Set the purpose after
study the topic

5. Paid attention to the
teacher explanation
6. Read the text
50


72

10. Asked the students to record L column
by answering the question from


11. Guided the students to find out some
words as possessive pronoun to look at
that word refers to

12. Asked the students about their identity
and the students answered by using a
complete answer
7. Answered the question
based on the reading
text and record them
on the L column
8. Found out some words
as possessive pronoun
to look at that word
refers to
9. Answered the
tearcher‘s question by
using a complete
answer
Post
Activity
1. Asked the students if there is something
that didn‘t understand

2. Gave evaluation test

3. Giving information about the next
material ―dump truck‖
1. Asked some question
that the students didn‘t
understand
2. The students answered
the evaluation test
3. The students wrote the
next material
30

IX. Evaluation:
a. Test: essay test
b. Assessment guidance
No Aspect Score
1
2
3
4

5

6
The answer is correct, grammar is correct, and spelling is correct
The answer is correct, grammar is correct, and spelling is not correct
The answer is correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is correct
The answer is correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is not
correct
The answer is not correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is not
correct
Does not answer the question
5
4
3
2

1

0



73

Kendari, 2010
Teacher, Researcher

Sri Hartati, S.Pd Jumria
NIP:1976011020012 2 003 A1D2 06 033
Approved by,
Headmaster of SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo


L a s a, S.Pd
NIP. 19670210199404 1 001
















74

LESSON PLAN

School : SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo
Subject : English
Class/ Semester : XI IPA / I
Times : 2 x 45 minute
Aspect/Skill : Reading
Meeting : V
I. Standard of competency:
Understanding the meaning of functional text and simple essay in the form of
report, narrative, and analytical exposition in daily activity.
II. Basic of competency
Understanding and responding the meaning on the monolog text or essay that is
used written language varieties as accurately, fluently in the form of: report,
narrative and analytical exposition.
III. Indicator
a. To Determine specific information in reading text
b. To determine detail information in reading text
c. To determine words refers to of the text
IV. .Objectives of Study:
Students are expected to be able to:
a. Determine specific information in reading text


75

b. Determine detail information in reading text
c. Determine words refers to of the text
V. Sub topic /lesson:
Dump Truck
VI. Material :
1. Reading text
2. Source: English SMA/MA grade XI Natural Science and Social Science
Programmes by Utami Widiati (Ed.)
VII. Teaching Technique: KWL
VIII. Teaching and Learning Activity
ACTIVITIES TIME
Teacher Students
Pre
Activity
1. Asked the students about how to get
the main idea in paragraph
2. Explained the indicator and basic
competence
1. Explained about the main
idea in paragraph
2. Paid attention to the
teacher explanation
10
During
Activity
1. Asked the students about the last
material

2. Explained more about possessive
pronoun, personal pronoun, etc.
3. Gave some question and hoped the
students gave a complete answer

4. Created a KWL chart on the white
board
5. Wrote the topic that will be learned
6. Remembered the students about the
structure that would be used and how
to make a good question in W
column.
7. Gave students‘ work sheet
1. Answered the teacher
question related the
previous material
2. Paid attention to the
teacher explanation
3. Answer the teacher‘s
question with complete
answer



4. Remembered the
structure that would be
used in W column

5. Took the students‘
50


76


8. Asked students to brainstorming
words, terms, or phrases related with
the topic
9. Asked students what they wanted to
learn about the topic. It recorded in W
column
10. Gave the reading text
11. Guided the students to record L
column


12. Asked the students to identify some
words that refer to.
13. Gave the students opportunity to give
some question
worksheet
6. The students record all of
word, terms, or phrase in
K column
7. Set the purpose after
study the topic

8. Read the text
9. Answered the question
based on the reading text
and record them on the L
column
10. Identified some words
that refer to.
11. The students gave some
question
Post
Activity
1. Concluded the material
2. Gave evaluation test
1. Concluded the material
2. Answered the evaluation
test
30

IX. Evaluation:
a. Test: essay test
b. Assessment guidance
No Aspect Score
1
2
3
4

5

6
The answer is correct, grammar is correct, and spelling is correct
The answer is correct, grammar is correct, and spelling is not correct
The answer is correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is correct
The answer is correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is not
correct
The answer is not correct, grammar is not correct, and spelling is not
correct
Does not answer the question
5
4
3
2

1

0



77

Kendari, 2010
Teacher, Researcher

Sri Hartati, S.Pd Jumria
NIP:1976011020012 2 003 A1D2 06 033

Approved by,
Headmaster of SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo


L a s a, S.Pd
NIP. 19670210199404 1 001




























78

Appendix 2: Students’ Worksheet for K-W-L
A. Students‘ Worksheet 1
Ojek
Ojek ―motorcycle taxis‖ began appearing in Jakarta after becak were banned
in 1994. Ojek service began as a people's initiative to provide a transportation options
for people who used to use becak from main roads into housing complexes. There is
no government licensing for or control over ojek.
By law all motorcycle passengers should wear helmets, so ojek drivers should
have a spare for you to wear. Ojek tend to congregate at t-junctions on main roads and
near smaller roads that are not serviced by bus routes. Ladies have a careful balancing
act if wearing a dress and must sit sidewise on the back of the vehicle.

Nama : S.W.
Class :XI IPA

K (What I Know) W (What I Want to
Know
L (What I’ve Learned)
1. A motorcycle taxi
driver will generally
return to his station
after delivering you to
your destination
2. The motor cycle taxi
drivers will usually
not cruise around
looking for passengers
but gather in groups at
various stations
around the city.
3. There are one
passenger of
motorcycle taxi.
1. Where we can find
it?
2. How many passenger
that is needed?

1. There are one passenger of
motor cycle taxi
2. Ojek drivers should have a
spare for you to wear.
3. We feel the risk are too high to
use ojek regularity for cross city
journeys on main roads
4. Ladies have a careful balancing
act if wearing a dress
5. Ladiest must must sit sidewise
on the back of the vehicle.









79

B. Students’ Worksheet 2
BECAK
Becak were banned within the Jakarta city limits in 1994 due to their propensity
to cause traffic jams. Former President Soeharto (and others) also wanted to eradicate
becak from the city streets because they felt the work to be degrading to the drivers.
Becak are widely missed by people who live in housing complexes off the main roads
and small roads which are not serviced by bus routes - as their sheer numbers in the
city prior to the crackdown attests to how widely they were used. It used to be a
common site in Jakarta to see becak drivers taking children to school each morning,
and women home from the pasar (traditional market).
However, you can still find a few becak drivers ignoring the ban in certain
locations within the city limits - like behind the luxurious Plaza Indonesia. Outside city
limits becak are still found at the junctions of main roads and smaller country lanes that
don't have smaller bus routes. Models of becak are different in each city they are found
in across Indonesia.
Becak fit two passengers comfortably and possibly even more, depending on
the size of the passenger. There is some protection from the sun ... and a plastic sheet
that comes down over the front helps protect passengers during rainstorms. Bargain
before you get in ... ! And don't expect the driver to have change for large bills.


Nama :Y.R.
Class : XI IPA
K (What I Know) W (What I Want to
Know
L (What I’ve Learned)
1. Becak is transportation who
already be since former.
2. Becak can come across in
the city
3. Becak only can into ascend
by or twopeople
4. Becak have three whells
1. Where can we meet
becak?
2. How many people
did becak bring the
passenger?


1. In aisle who or in
big city
2. In city of in village
3. Bring passenger and
woman home from
the market
4. There are two or
more passenger.






80

C. Students’ Worksheet 3

Mikrolet

The Mikrolet is Mikrolet are mini buses which operate on fixed routes and
also a kind of shared taxis — mix of a private transport and public. These vehicles
can take you even to the remotest corners of Indonesia.
They carry four to twelve passengers and charges per person vary with the
distance. The fare of this public vehicle is 1000 Rupiahs for minimum and 4000
Rupiahs for maximum. Never pay more than 4000 Rupiahs. Don‘t forget to pay
attention on your pockets and wallet. Put them in your bag and always put it touching
your body. Never let anything misdirects you. Never trust anyone (bad guys usually
pretending to puke or sick or get kram leg or giving you massages service). They are
all fake. Snap the ceiling twice with your finger or your nail to stop or by saying
"kiri" (pronounced 'kee ree'). It means left (vehicles in Jakarta always stop on the left
side). It is much better not to sit too far from door because it is difficult to get out
when the car is fully loaded.
Nama :JS
Class :XI IPA
K (What I Know) W (What I Want to
Know
L (What I’ve Learned)
1. Mikrolet have many
window
2. The window can be wished
off
3. Win can come and out
4. When the mikrolet have little
passenger, we can sit free.
1. How many passenger
that is needed?
2. What time mikrolet
star and finished?
1. Mikrolets carry out
four to twelve
passenger
2. The mikrolet mix s
private transport and
public bus
3. Mikrolet areminibus
which operate on
fixed routes.
4. Mokrolet carry four
to twelve passenger






81

D. Students’ Worksheet 4

Dump Truck

Some vehicle manufacturers offer chassis cabs that can be made into small dump
trucks. Such dump trucks are perfect for construction and landscaping companies that are
just getting started. Dump trucks this small are easier to maneuver and are easier on the
pocketbook as well.
Larger dump trucks for larger companies with bigger loads are usually made by
companies that strictly deal in commercial trucks. These are a major investment for any
company. The strain on your wallet can be lifted, though, by seeking out a used dump
truck. eBay Motors is a great place to start looking for a used dump truck.
Just like with passenger cars, dump trucks lose some value as soon as they're
driven off the lot. Many companies look to upgrade to larger trucks relatively soon after
they've purchased a new truck, so you're likely to find a fairly new truck without that new
truck sheen and sticker price. Dump trucks, and many other commercial trucks, are
typically in high demand, so you're likely to get a good price for your dump truck when
you're ready to sell.
Most of them can also be easily converted into other types of commercial trucks. If
you're looking for a moving van or a wrecker, some types of them just need the dump bed
removed from the chassis to become virtually any kind of truck you need. This may be a
good option if you run across a dump truck that is being sold cheaply because of a
damaged dump bed or lift.

Nama:RW
Class:XI IPA
K (What I Know) W (What I Want to
Know
L (What I’ve Learned)
1. Dump Truck is transportation
is used for to carry about some
sand, store, and rubbish
2. A large portion of the goods
that people use every day must
be transported by truck at
some point
3. Truck drivers are essentially in
most country
1. How many types
of truck?
2. What types of
truck are many in
use?
3. What is the
advantages of
dump truck?
1. Truck driver recruiting can
begin at the educational level
2. Metal is used to build body
of pick up trucks which is
quiet strong
3. Larger dump truck used
truck are considered as the
best economic deals


82

Appendix 3.

Reading test: Cycle 1
Name :
Class :
Read and understand the following text.
A Kangaroo
A kangaroo is an animal found only in Australia, although it has a smaller
relative, called a wallaby, which lives on the Australian island of Tasmania and also
in New Guinea.
Kangaroos eat grass and plants. They have short front legs, but very long, and
very strong back legs and a tail. These are used for sitting up and for jumping.
Kangaroos have been known to make forward jumps of over eight meters, and leap
across fences more than three meters high. They can also run at speeds of over 45
kilometers per hour.
The largest kangaroos are the Great Grey Kangaroo and the Red Kangaroo.
Adult grow to a length of 1.60 meters and weigh over 90 kilos.
Kangaroos are marsupials. This means that the female kangaroo has an
external pouch on the front of her body. A baby kangaroo is very tiny when it is born,
and it crawls at once into this pouch where it spends its first five months of life.
Answer the questions based on the text
1. Are kangaroos and wallabies indigenous animals of Australia?
2. What do people call the largest kangaroos?
3. Where do you find the pouch of the female kangaroo?
4. Which paragraphs tell you about the description of the kangaroo's appearance?
5. Which paragraphs tell you about the general classification of the kangaroo's appearance?





83

Appendix 4.
Reading test: Cycles 2
Name :
Class :

Read the following information on animal feed. Find the answers to the
following questions.
Animal feed
Animals get food or energy from plants and from animals that feed directly or
indirectly on plants. However, animal differ greatly in their needs each kind of animal
has its own particular needs, and each individual must have a certain amount of the
righ kind of food.
A large range area is needed to give the sheep enough grass. The sheep eat
grass right down to the roots and time must be allowed for the grass to grow back
where they have grazed. Thus they must be moved to other grazing areas fairly often.
Goat also eats grass. Cattle need grass, hay, and grain for their food; of course they
are also fed other kind of food.
The best broiler breed is well known for its white feathers, yellow skin, and
fast growth. It grows well or a relatively small amount of food. Broiler chicks are fed
a mash mixed of ground corn, meat meal, fish meal, soybean meal, minerals, and
vitamins. With 7 pounds of this food a farmer can raise a 3-pound cross bred broiler.
No animal other than the chicken is so efficient in producing meat.

Question
1. What is the main idea of the first paragraph?
2. Where do animals get food and energy?
3. What animals eat grass, hay or gain?
4. What does the word "they" in paragraph 2 refer to?
5. What is the conclusion about the topic?



84

Appendix 5.
Reading test: Cycles 3
Name :
Class :

Read the text and answer the questions.
What Is Thunder and Lightning?
Lightning is a sudden, violent flash of electricity between a cloud and the
ground, or from cloud to cloud. A lightning flash, or bolt, can be several miles long.
It is so hot, with an average temperature of 34,000° Centigrade, that the air around it
suddenly expands with a loud blast. This is the thunder we hear.
Lightning occurs in hot, wet storms. Moist air is driven up to a great height. It
forms a type of cloud called cumulonimbus. When the cloud rises high enough, the
moisture freezes and ice crystals and snowflakes are formed. These begin to fall,
turning to rain on the way down. This rain meets more moist air rising, and it is the
friction between them which produces static electricity. When a cloud is fully charged
with this electricity, it discharges it as a lightning flash.

Question!
1. What is meant by lightning?
2. When does lightning usually happen?
3. What does the word "this" in the last sentence of paragraph 1 refers to?
4. What does the word "it" in paragraph 2 line 4 refers to?








85

Appendix 7.
Answer Key of Essay Test for Cycle I
1. Are kangaroos and wallabies indigenous animals of Australia? Yes they are
2. The people call the largest kangaroos are the great kangaroo and the red kangaroo.
3. The pouch of the female kangaroo is on the front of her body
4. The description of the kangaroo‘s appearance on the second, third, and fourth paragraph.
5. The general classification of the kangaroo‘s appearance is on the first paragraph.













86

Appendix 8.
Answer Key of Essay Test for Cycle II
1. The main idea of the first paragraph is animals get food or energy from plants and from
animals that feed directly or indirectly on plants
2. Animals get food and energy from plants and animals
3. Animals eat grass, hay or gain is cattle
4. ―They‖ in paragraph 2 refers to sheep.
5. The conclusion about the topic is how the animals get food and energy.
















87

Appendix 9.
Answer Key of Essay Test for Cycle III
1. The main idea of the first paragraph is Lightning is a sudden, violent flash of electricity
between a cloud and the ground, or from cloud to cloud.
2. Lightning usually happen when a cloud is fully charged with his.
3. The word "this" in the last sentence of paragraph 1 refers to a loud blast
4. The word "it" in paragraph 2 line 4 refers to moist air rising.

































88

Appendix 10 .
SCORING CRITERIA
Cycle I
1. For the test no. 1, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 2 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students‘
answer not enough complete, so the score is 1. If the students‘ answer is wrong,
so the score is 0,5.
2. For the test no.3, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 3 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students‘
answer not enough complete, so the score is 2. If the students only answer one
point from two point, so the score is 1. If the students‘ answer is wrong, so the
score is 0,5.
3. For the test no. 3, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 2 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students‘
answer not enough complete, so the score is 1. If the students‘ answer is wrong,
so the score is 0,5.
4. For the test no. 4, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 4 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students‘
answer not enough complete, so the score is 3. If the students only mention two
point and not enough complete, so the score is 2. If the students only mention one
of the alternative answers from three, so the score is 1. If the students‘ answer is
wrong, so the score is 0,5.
5. For the test no. 5, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 2 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students‘
answer not enough complete, so the score is 1. If the students‘ answer is wrong,
so the score is 0,5.




89

Cycle II
1. For the test no. 1, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 2 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students‘
answer not enough complete, so the score is 1. If the students‘ answer is wrong,
so the score is 0,5.
2. For the test no.2, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 3 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students‘
answer not enough complete, so the score is 2. If the students only answer one
point from two point, so the score is 1. If the students‘ answer is wrong, so the
score is 0,5.
3. For the test no. 3, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 2 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students‘
answer not enough complete, so the score is 1. If the students‘ answer is wrong,
so the score is 0,5.
4. For the test no. 4, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 2 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students only
mention the alternative answers from three, so the score is 1. If the students‘
answer is wrong, so the score is 0,5.
5. For the test no. 5, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 3 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students‘
answer not enough complete, so the score is 2. If the students only mention the
alternative answer, so the score is 1. If the students‘ answer is wrong, so the score
is 0,5.






90


Cycle III
1. For the test no. 1, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 2 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students‘
answer not enough complete, so the score is 1. If the students‘ answer is wrong,
so the score is 0,5.
2. For the test no.2, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 3 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students‘
answer not enough complete, so the score is 2. If the students only answer one
point from two point, so the score is 1. If the students‘ answer is wrong, so the
score is 0,5.
3. For the test no. 3, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 2 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students‘ only
mention the alternative answer, so the score is 1. If the students‘ answer is wrong,
so the score is 0,5.
4. For the test no. 3, giving the score must be appropriate with the complete level of
students‘ answer. Score 2 if the students‘ answer is complete. If the students‘ only
mention the alternative answer, so the score is 1. If the students‘ answer is wrong,
so the score is 0,5.





91

Appendix 5. The First Pre-Observation
C. For the teacher
No

Aspect of Observation Presence Notes
First Meeting Second Meeting
Very
Good
Good Poor Very
Poor
Very
Good
Good Poor Very
Poor
1 Generates students‘
interest to start the
learning process
 
2 Does apperception and
brainstorming
 
3 The teacher explain the
topic
 
4 Does teacher use a
techniquein teaching and
learning process
 
5 Aska students to identify
some difficult words,
then provides some
words to be mathches
theirsynonym and
antonim
 
6 The teacher monitors and
observes the students‘
activity
 
7 Ask students to ask about
the material that is not
clear yet
 


92

8 Theacher concludes the
material
 
9 Teacher involves all
students in learning
process
 
D. For students
No

Aspect of Observation Presence Notes
First Meeting Second Meeting
Very
Good
Good Poor Very
Poor
Very
Good
Good Poor Very
Poor
1 Students pay attention
and respond to the
teacher question
 
2 Students ask question of
what they do not
understand yet
 
3 The circumstance of
students are learning
 
4 Students do the task
that given by the
teacher
 
5 Do students‘ undersand
the material?
 



Observer


93













Appendix 6. The Result of Observation

4. Interview with the English Teacher of SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo
The interview was on Friday, January 29
th
2010. At the time, the researcher was
interview the English teacher who taught english subject at class XI
IPA.
The researcher
asked some questions are in the following:


94

 Based on your experience which class in the second grade who has problem in
comprehending the reading text?
 What is students‘ problem in comprehending the reading text?
 How are they in teaching and learning process?
Related to those question, the english teacher said that from two clasess in the second
grade, class XI
IPA
indicated has difficulty to comprehend the reading text. It was
because students at class XI
IPA
have luck of vocabulary and grammatical aspect. So it
can make the students must always open the dictionary to look at the meaning of
words. While those aspects have big contribution to comprehend the reading text. In
addition, in terms their attitude in teaching and learning process most of students
seemed passive even there were some of them who were active. When the teacher
asked them a question most of students just keep silent.
5. Giving reading comprehension test.
After conducting interview with the english teacher, the researcher and the teacher
arranged to give a reading comprenesion test at class XI
IPA
. It was aimed to see
students‘ reading comprehension before conduction the action. The test was multple
choices that is consist of 10 items. The test was taken on Friday, February 12
th
2010.
The result of students comprehension test was the means score was 50,9, while the
percentage of students score ≥ 66 only 13,63% who success in teaching and learning
process. In addtion, based on students‘daily examination mean value is 63. It means
that only 50% are success in teaching and learning process. While, based on Sudjana
Nana(1990) points out that one indicator of the successfulness in teaching and
learning process is minimall 75% of total students get minimum score. The result of
this test categorized that students reading comprehension at class XI
IPA
was still low
and not achieve the indicator of the successfulness.

6. Conclusion
After conducting the second pre-observation found that students‘ at class XI
IPA
of
SMA Negeri 1 Amonggedo have difficulty to comprehend the reading text. The
information got from the english teacher who taught English subject at class XI
IPA

through interview, reading comprehension, and questionare. Beside that, it also proof
by giving a reading comprehension test. It was aimed to see their reading
comprehension before conducting the action. As the reult students reading
comprehension at class XI
IPA
was categorized low.











95

Appendix 7. Reading Test (Pre-Observation)

Nama:
Kelas:

Read text carefully to answer the question number 1-7
Cinderella
Once upon a time there was a beautiful girl called cinderella. She lived with her
stepsister and stepmother. They were very bossy. She had to do all the housework.
One day an invitation to the ball came to the family. Her stepsister did not let her
go. Cinderella was very sad. The stepsister went to the ball without her.
Fortunatelly, the fairy godmother came and helped her to get the ball. At the ball,
cinderella danced with the prince. The prince fell in love with her, and then he married
he. They lived happily ever after.
1. Which of the following is not true according to the text?
a. Cinderella lived with her stepsister
b. Cinderella felt happy with her husband
c. Cinderella felt ennoyed with her stepsister
d. Cinderlla was helped by a fairy to get to the ball
e. Cinderella was helped by her stepsister todo all the housework
2. The communicative purpose of this text is to....
a. Entertain the readers with a fairy tale
b. Describe how cinderella went to the ball
c. Persuade the readers to read the story
d. Inform the readers about Cinderella‘s marriage
e. Explain to the readers why Cinderella‘s stepsister hated herso much
3. ―They were very bossy.‖ (paragraph 1)
The word ―bossy” means....
a. Furious d. Offensive
b. Arrogant e. Domineering
c. Sensitive
4. The type of the text above is about a...
a. Report d. Description
b. Recount e. News item
c. Narrative
5. Who does help Cinderella to get the ball?
a. Stepsister d. Stepmother
b. Her neighbour e. Fairy godmother
c. Her family
Rare Chance to Learn Nobel Secrets
Five nobel laureates and world-renowned scientist will spend some personal time
with 360 high school students from across Asia at the Asian Science Camp (ASC) 2008 in
Sanur, Bali.


96

From this Monday until Saturday, 300 Indonesian students and 60 students from
japan, China, India, and other Asian countries will have a chance to hear the Nobel
winners, experiences and aspirations.
Chistopher Adrian, 16, a second-year student at a high school in Tangerang,
Banteng, said he hoped the rare experience would help him win a Nobel Prize one day.
―This place is filled with so many great scientist. It‘ll be great to hear them share some of
their knowledge,‖ he said.
Damar Parasdyaningtyas, 16, Cristopher‘s schoolmate, expressed similar feelings.
―I‘ve always been interested in science. I want to know their (the Nobel laureates‘) secrets
so I can learn to bea good brain surgeon in the future,‖ she said.
Johannes Surya, who chairs the steering commitee of the Asian Science Camp,
said he expected the event to guide the students toward a greater interest in science. ―The
whole event is designed to inspire Indonesia students to win a coveted Nobel Prize, or at
least become more excited about science,‖ Johannes said.
The five Nobel winners attending the camp are Prof. David Gross from the united
States (2004 Nobel prize in physics), Prof. Masatoshi Koshiba from Japan (2002 Nobel
prize in physics), Prof. Douglas Osherroff from United Sates (1996 Nobel prize in
physics), Prof. Richard Robert Ernest from Switzerland (1991 Nobel prize in chemistry),
and Prof. Yuan Tseh Lee from Taiwan (1986 Nobel Prize in chemistry).
6. Which countries outside Indonesia did NOT send their students to the Asian
science Camp in Bali 2008?
a. Japan d. China
b. India e. Malaysia
c. Australia
7. Based on the text, what does the word ‗laureate‘ mean?
a. Prizes d. Participants
b. Students e. Scientist
c. Winners
8. Who says that the Asian Science Camp helps somebody to win a Nobel Prize?
a. Damar d.(b) and (c) are both correct
b. Cristopher e. (a) and (b) are both correct
c. Johannes Surya
9. How many Nobel laurates from Asian countries won the prizein physics?
a. 1 d. 4
b. 2 e. 5
c. 3
10. Which statement is not correct?
a. The ASC began on August 5
th
, 2008
b. Damar‘s ambition is to be a brain surgeon
c. The article was taken from the Jakarta Post
d. 60 non-Indonesia students came to the ASC
e. Koshiba and asherroff are Nobel winners inphysics