International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume4Issue8–August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 Page 2834
Improving Recommendations Assortment using
Ranking Functions
Karuna Latha Thanukula
, Manda Ashok Kumar
, BetamSuresh
Karuna Latha Thanukula pursuing M.Tech(CSE), Vikas Group of Institutions (Formerly known as Mother Theresa Educational
Society Group of Institutions), Nunna, Vijayawada. Affiliated to JNTU- Kakinada, A.P, India
Manda Ashok Kumar is working as a Asst. Professor at Vikas Group of Institutions, Nunna, Vijayawada, India.
Betam Suresh ,working as an HOD at Vikas Group of Institutions (Formerly known as Mother Theresa Educational Society
Group of Institutions), Nunna, Vijayawada. Affiliated to JNTU- Kakinada, A.P, India

Abstract: - Recommendation Systems are becoming more
familiar these days to individual users and organizations because
of the personalized recommendations. This paper helps to know
more about how a recommendation is provided based on the
ranking function that can be employed matching to the proposed
scenario. With this concept we can also suggest the way to
improve the recommendation technique based on the market
requirements. The ranking based technique that is involved here
to give recommendations will have substantially higher aggregate
diversity across all users.
Keywords- Recommendation systems, personalized
recommendations, ranking function, aggregate diversity.
This paper deals with the data mining architecture. Data
mining is a tool or software with which a user can mine the
data froma very large set of data. For example, searching a
book named ABC from room which has got some hundreds of
books inside it, no doubt the book can be found fromthat
roomby taking some time but the important factor is finding it
in the less time such that time can be utilized in some other
task rather than searching a book. To do that in a smart
manner we need to apply some logic with which we can get
the best result. The same concept can be applied in the
computer technology i.e. searching for the material with the
best algorithmsuited which will save the user time. Apart
fromjust searching it will be better if the ranking mechanism
is also employed with it.

Fig 1: Data Mining Process
We now need to know about the Ranking architecture and
how it is useful to the real time application. Ranking is given
to those data which is viewed more number of times by the
users. In a search type application, two concepts i.e. data
mining and ranking function play a very vital role for giving
the best output to the user as per their expectation. When a
user search for a particular data then that is mined and from
next time if the request comes for the same data based on the
rank assigned appropriate data is fetched and given to the
user. We can manipulate the result as per our requirement.
Aggregate Diversity refers to gathering the information from
different units and displaying it in one place which will be
helpful for further manipulations. This process when it is done
using the recommendation into consideration then the output
will be even more perfect i.e. as per the expectations of the
user. That is what we are going to do here in this paper i.e. we
are first going to gather the information based on the
recommendation and then as per the ranking assigned to it we
will display it to the user from where the content can be easily

This paper mainly focuses on the content available in the
search engine related with the user requested search data. For
example in the present system when a user is searching for the
data we get number of links pertaining to that data but there is
no guarantee that the data will be available in the very first
link, user need to search fromthe first link and if the data was
not available then the second link would be checked and the
process goes on till the user has got the required data. In this
example we consider that there were totally 17 links displayed
for the user requested content but from which user has used
first 5 links and logged out from that application. In this
manner if some 10 users visit and take the data from this
search engine, for sure only initial links would be checked by
users and not the below links so this is a drawback in the
present systembecause when user is not reaching till the root
of the links he will not get an idea about the data present in
that link. The solution to this system is designed in this paper
with efficient algorithms to give good results to users in less
time and also utilize all the links.
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume4Issue8–August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 Page 2835


In this section we are going to discuss about the work analysis
which helps to understand the process of Recommendation
Diversity. Recommendation is classified into three categories
based on the approach of recommendation i.e. Content based,
Collaborative and Hybrid based. Content based approach
refers to the items that were preferred by the users in the past
analysis. Collaborative filtering refers to the search performed
based on the data which was liked by neighbors i.e. past user,
and Hybrid refers to the combination of both content based
and collaborative approaches. Recommendation can also be
classified based on the memory-based or and model based
approaches. Most commonly used recommendation technique
is model based approach.

Model based approach takes into consideration two steps i.e.
first step is that based on the request fromthe user it will
diversify the content, second is that while displaying to user it
will take the ranking into consideration.

The first step in the approach involves the heuristic process
i.e. the past data which was liked by the neighbor will be
displayed taking the ranks into consideration and the second
step is responsible for displaying the data which is not viewed
by users and which does not have any ranking. By the
implementation of the above two steps we can achieve a
application that will give links to the user from where
effective data can be accessed in less time.

We need to know the similarity between the users for a
particular itemand it can be calculated using the equation,

) =
∑ R(u,ì)-R(u
∑ R(u,ì)
∑ R(u

Where in the above equation, u is the actual user, u
refers to
other users, R(u,i) is the rating given by the user to an item
and similarly R(u
,i) is rating given by other users to that

R*(u,i) is calculated as the adjusted weighted sum of all
known ratings R(u
,i). The equation used for the manipulation


∑ sìm(u,u

∑ |sìm(u,u

The above process is for getting the diversity for the
recommendations but we will not get the effective output as
the ranking function is not associated with it and to do so we
need to include the ranking algorithm for assigning the rank.

Standard Ranking Approach:

As already said that without the ranking function the diversity
does not have that good significance because the user will
check with the repeated data again and again this may give
arise to a situation where user searching for data fromthe link
which hardly contains any data regarding the request. So, for
the above problem when we include ranking functionality then
upon the user request we will display the content which has
got more number of visits which can be in turn treated for the
ranking purpose.

The logic applied in getting the rank to the particular link
when selected by user is, increment the counter and then
assign it a value and this value should get incremented as and
when the user is visiting this link. By this process, a number
keeps on incrementing for the link associated with it but we
should know the accurate result i.e. a particular link visited by
how many number of users and is calculated as below,

For a particular link L(i) there are n users who visited m
times and the rating given by individual user is r(i). So the
average rating for this link can be given as

R(i) =

With the above generated values, we get a average rating for a
particular link and these type of rating is calculated for all
other links which will be used by users and maintained in a
database for further manipulations.

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume4Issue8–August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 Page 2836
Fig 2: Architecture Flow
Once this data is ready, when displaying the links to the user
the admin will take care about the process i.e. to display the
links which are useful to the end user and fromwhich the user
can get the data for his requested request. Displaying is done
based on the average ranking value obtained fromthe above
calculation process. And for this process we will use the sql
query in which we will check the condition on the rating
column and will display the links satisfying the condition
With the above process, half of the work is completed i.e.
displaying the links which have got some rating and if the
process is stopped here then it’s the existing systemwhich has
the same problem. To overcome the problemof the existing
applications now the admin will work on the data points
which does not have any rating given by users. Admin will
run two different queries, first is for the above process and
second to fetch the links fromnon rated data and then will
unite these two links and will display to the user in the random
manner. By this process we can assure that the complete data
in the database will be used to serve users and also the client
will be satisfied based on the content received from this
application. The main logic involved in displaying the random
values is with the help of Randomclass i.e. available from the
utility package.
Random r = new Random();
int i=r.nextInt(10);
In the above two steps written, it is telling that Random class
fromutility package is used and generating a randomnumber
frombetween the range 0 and 10.
With the help of above class we can achieve effective output
and which itself is a new implementation for the existing
problem. With this designed application when a user is trying
to access the information for a particular data there will two
sets of data that would be displayed to user in which first set
contains the rated data and second set contains non-rated data.

Fig 3- Detection rateversus delay interval

Both these outputs will be merged and then displayed to the
user, but the user will not know anything about this
background work.

Ranking function embedded in the application will have to
work continuously i.e. it can be called as Recommendation
Re-Ranking. The process that takes place here is that all the
ratings previously assigned will become secondary values and
when the search action is again performed the rank is changed
and in turn will affect the ranking function which
automatically changes rating for that particular link.
Accordingly the output to be shown to the user changes but
the implementation of the algorithmwill not change to display
the result to user.


We have proposed a Ranking Recommendation Model which
helps the user get their data with more effective data and also
in less time. The user can now use this type of applications to
save their time and can get large amount of data fromvarious
domains clubbed in a single application. In addition to the
search algorithms we also added the ranking algorithms which
give flexibility to the system designers because they can work
with other rating prediction algorithms. As discussed we have
proposed a system with recommendation diversity using
ranking based technique for the end users.


J. Delgado and N. Ishii, “Memory-Based Weighted-Majority
Prediction for Recommender Systems,”

D. Fleder and K. Hosanagar, “Blockbuster Culture’s Next
Rise or Fall: The Impact of Recommender Systems on Sales

G. Adomavicius and A. Tuzhilin, “Toward the Next
Generation of Recommender Systems: A Survey of the State-
of-the-Art and Possible Extensions,”

R. M. Bell, Y. Koren, and C. Volinsky, "The Bellkor 2008
solution to the Netflix Prize.,”

J. Bennett, and S. Lanning, “The Netflix Prize,”

D. Billsus and M. Pazzani, “Learning Collaborative
Information Filters,”

K. Bradley and B. Smyth, “Improving Recommendation

S. Breese, D. Heckerman, and C. Kadie, “Empirical Analysis
of Predictive Algorithms for Collaborative Filtering,”
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume4Issue8–August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 Page 2837

E. Brynjolfsson, Y J. Hu, and, D. Simester, “Goodbye Pareto
Principle, Hello Long Tail: The Effect of Search Costs on the
Concentration of Product Sales”

C. Anderson, “The Long Tail,”

M. Balabanovic and Y. Shoham, “Fab: Content-Based,
Collaborative Recommendation,”

R. Bell and Y. Koren, and C. Volinsky, “The BellKor solution
to the Netflix Prize,”

E. Brynjolfsson, Y. Hu, and M.D. Smith, “Consumer Surplus
in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased
Product Variety at Online Booksellers,”

J. Carbonell and J. Goldstein, “The user of MMR, diversity-
based re-ranking for reordering documents and producing


Karuna Latha Thanukula,
Pursuing M.Tech(CSE),
Vikas Group of Institutions
(Formerly Mother Teresa
Educational society Group of
Institutions), Nunna,
Vijayawada, Affiliated to
JNTU-Kakinada, A.P., India

Manda. Ashok Kumar is
working as aAsst. Professor
at Vikas Group of
Institutions, Nunna,
Vijayawada, Affliated to
JNTU-Kakinada, A.P.,
Betam Suresh, is working
as an HOD, Department of
Computer science
Engineering at Vikas Group
of Institutions (Formerly
Mother Teresa Educational
society Group of
Institutions), Nunna,
Vijayawada, Affiliated to
JNTU-Kakinada, A.P., India