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Advantages

of SDH over PDH.
• High transmission rates up to 40 Gbit/s
• Simplified add & drop function
• High availability and capacity matching
• Reliability
• Future-proof platform for new services.
• Interconnection (SONET,SDH,PDH)
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What is SDH?
• The basis of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
(SDH) is synchronous multiplexing - data
from multiple tributary sources is byte
interleaved.
• In SDH the multiplexed channels are in fixed
locations relative to the framing byte.
• De-multiplexing is achieved by gating out the
required bytes from the digital stream.
• This allows a single channel to be ‘dropped’
from the data stream without de-multiplexing
intermediate rates as is required in PDH.
Multiplexing Processes
– Multiplexing is composed of various processes:
• Mapping
–Tributaries adapted into Virtual Containers
(VC) by adding stuffing and POH
• Aligning
–Pointer is added to locate the VC inside an AU
or TU
• Multiplexing
–Interleaving the bytes of multiple paths
• Stuffing
–Adding up the fixed stuff bits to compensate
for frequency variances
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TRANSPORT OF PDH
PAYLOAD
SDH is essentially a transport mechanism for carrying a
large number of PDH payloads.
• A mechanism is required to map PDH rates into the
STM frame. This function is performed by the
container (C).
• A PDH channel must be synchronized before it can
be mapped into a container.
• The synchronizer adapts the rate of an incoming PDH
signal to SDH rate.
SDH and non synchronous signal
• At the PDH/SDH boundary Bit stuffing is
performed when the PDH signal is mapped into
its container.
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125 μsec
9
Rows
Section
Overhead
270 x N Columns
9xN
Columns
STM-N VC capacity
STM-N frame
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Concatenated Frames
Fixed
Stuff
(9N-9
bytes)
9 Rows
STM
POH
9 bytes
STM-Nc Payload Capacity
(AU-4-Nc)
N x 261 Columns
125 μsec
STM-4c = 599.040 Mbit/s
STM-16c = 2396.160 Mbit/s
N x 260 Columns
SDH terminology is using
X instead of N (X = N)
N-1 Columns
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SDH Rates
• SDH is a transport hierarchy based on
multiples of 155.52 Mbit/s.
The basic unit of SDH is STM-1:
STM-1 = 155.52 Mbit/s
STM-4 = 622.08 Mbit/s
STM-16 = 2588.32 Mbit/s
STM-64 = 9953.28 Mbit/s
• Each rate is an exact multiple of the lower rate therefore
the hierarchy is synchronous.
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Frame Structures for Each Common
Hierarchy Level
270 Columns
9 Rows
9 Rows
9 Rows
1,080 Columns
4,320 Columns
STM-1
155.52 Mbit/s
STM-4
STM-16
622.08 Mbit/s
2488.32 Mbit/s
STM-64
9 rows x 17280 columns, 9953.28 Mbit/s
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Mapping Hierarchy
C-4
C-3
C-2
C-12
C-11
VC-4
VC-3
VC-2
VC-12
VC-11
TU-3
TU-2
TU-12
TU-11
VC-3
STM-N AUG AU-4
139 Mbit/s
ATM
AU-3
TUG-3
44 Mbit/s
34 Mbit/s
TUG-2
6.3 Mbit/s
2 Mbit/s
1.5 Mbit/s
xN
x3
x1
x7
x7
x4
x3
x1
x3
STM-0
x1
AUG
Aligning
Mapping
xN
Multiplexing
x1
Containers - I.
– In SDH terminology, the original PDH payload
with special framing is called a container (C-x)
– Various container sizes with some space for
stuffing are defined
• C-11 for DS1 (25 bytes = 1.600 Mbit/s)
• C-12 for E1 (34 bytes = 2.176 Mbit/s)
• C-2 for DS2 (106 bytes = 6.784 Mbit/s)
• C-3 for DS3 or E3 (84 columns = 48.384
Mbit/s)
• C-4 for E4 (260 columns = 149.760 Mbit/s)
Virtual Containers - II.
– Various VC sizes defined:
• With 1 byte allocated for POH
– VC-11 for DS1 (26 bytes = 1.664 Mbit/s)
– VC-12 for E1 (35 bytes = 2.240 Mbit/s)
– VC-2 for DS2 (107 bytes = 6.848 Mbit/s)
• With 1 column allocated for POH
– VC-3 for DS3 or E3 (85 columns = 48.960 Mbit/s)
– VC-4 for E4 (261 columns = 150.336 Mbit/s)
Tributary Unit Structure
– TUs are defined to fit into a number of columns
• This requirement determines the size of virtual
containers and containers
• TU-3 adds up 3-byte pointer plus stuffing to VC-3
• Lower TUs add up 1 byte for pointer storage
–Organized into 4 frames (500 μs multi-frame)
–This provides V1, V2, V3, V4 TU pointer bytes
– Lower TUs also organize POH along the multi-
frame
• This provides V5, J2, Z6, Z7 POH bytes
• Lower TUs use V1, V2, V3, V4 bytes in 500 μs
multi-frame

SKG/RTTC/BBS
Adoption of 2MBPS Signal over SDH.
IF C1C1C1-111 THEN S1 IS A JUSTIFICATION BIT
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General Structure
9 columns 261 columns
270 columns
VC Capacity
(for AUG)
Section
overhead
(SOH)
1st
2nd
Order of transmission
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….. 9 1
261Byte
Information
Payload
9 Rows
125 μs
Transport
overhead
270 bytes
RSOH
pointer
3 rows
5 rows
MSOH
STM-1 frame
Synchronous Payload Envelope
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Pointer
4 Bytes
v5

VC-12
500 μsec
V1 & v2 points
V5
v1
v2
v3
TU12
S SKG/RTC/BBSR
Special OH octets:

A1, A2 Frame Synch
B1 Parity on Previous Frame
(BER monitoring)
J0 Section trace
(Connection Alive?)
H1, H2, H3 Pointer Action
K1, K2 Automatic Protection
Switching
810 Octets per frame @ 8000 frames/sec
9 rows
90 columns
1
2
Order of
transmission
A1 A2 J0 J1
B1 E1 F1 B3
D1 D2 D3 C2
H1 H2 H3
G1
B2 K1 K2 F2
D4 D5 D6
H4
D7
D8 D9 Z3
D10 D11 D12 Z4
S1 M0/1 E2 N1
3 Columns of
Transport OH
Section Overhead
Line Overhead
Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE)
1 column of Path OH + 8 data columns
Path Overhead
Data
STS-1 Frame
810x64kbps=51.84 Mbps
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STM-0 Overheads
Data Com
D8
Data Com
D4
Data Com
D7
Data Com
D10
Data Com
D5
Data Com
D11
Data Com
D6
Data Com
D9
Data Com
D12
APS
K2
APS
K1
Data Com
D1
Data Com
D3
Data Com
D2
Section Overhead

Path Trace
J1
BIP-8
B3
Signal Label
C2
Path Status
G1
User Channel
F2
Multiframe
Indicator
H4
User Channel
F3
APS
K3
Tandem
N1
Framing
A1
BIP-8
B1
Pointer
H1
BIP-8
B2
Sync
S1
Orderwire
E1
Pointer
H2
RS Trace
J0
User Channel
F1
(REI)
(M1)
Pointer
H3
Orderwire
E2
HO Path
Overhead
R-Section
Overhead
M-Section
Overhead
Framing
A2
AU pointer
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STM-1 Section Overhead
A1
A1
A1 A2 A2 A2 J0
B1 E1 F1
D1 D2 D3
H1 H1* H2 H2* H3 H3 H3
B2 K1 K2
S1 M1
E2
B2 B2
D4
D7
D10
D5
D8
D11
D6
D9
D12
H1* = 10010011

H2* = 11111111
H2* H1*
R-Section
Overhead
M-Section
Overhead
AU pointer
Δ
Δ
Δ
Δ
Δ
Δ
Δ - media
dependent
national use
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MAPPING OF VC-4 IN TO STM1
9 rows
270 bytes
9 bytes
Transport
Overhead
VC-4 Path Overhead
Trace
J1
BIP-8
B3
Label
C2
Status
G1
User
F2
Multiframe
H4
Growth
Z3
Growth
Z4
TCM
Z5
STM-1 Payload
Synchronous
Payload
Envelope
Path Overhead
• J1- Path Trace
• BIP-8 - Parity
• C2 - Payload Type Indicator
• G1 - End Path Status
• F2 - User
• H4 - Use Depends On Payload
• Z3-5 - Future Growth
AU-4 POINTER
RSOH
3ROWS
MSOH
5 ROWS
20 BLOCKS OF 13 BYTES
Asynchronous mapping of 139.264 MBPS
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7/26/2012
Payload Pointer
Section
Overhead
90 (VC-3) or 270 (VC-4) Columns
9
Rows
STM-1 Frame #1
9
Rows
STM-1
VC-3 or VC-4
125 μsec
250 μsec
STM-1 Frame #2
H1 H2 H3...
Payload Pointer marks
start of STM-1 VC-3 or
VC-4
STM-1 VC-3 or VC-4
POH column
9 rows
270 bytes
9 bytes
Transport
Overhead
Trace
J1
BIP-8
B3
Label
C2
Status
G1
User
F2
Multiframe
H4
Growth
Z3
Growth
Z4
TCM
Z5
STM-1 Payload
Synchronous
Payload
Envelope
H1H1H1H2H2H2H3H3H3
RSOH
3ROWS
MSOH
5 ROWS
20 BLOCKS OF 13 BYTES
Asynchronous mapping of 139.264 MBPS
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1 2 3 . . . . . . . . . 17 18 19 20
path
path
termination
path
termination
service (E1, E4..)
mapping
demapping
service (E1, E4..)
mapping
demapping
TM TM
multiplex section multiplex section
multipl. section
termination
ADM
or
DCS
regenerator
section
regen. section
termination
regen. section
termination
REG REG
PTE = path terminating element
TM = terminal multiplexer
REG = regenerator
ADM = add/drop multiplexer
DCS = digital cross-connect system
DXC= digital cross connect
regen.
section
regen.
section
regenerator
section
Regenerator
– A regenerator simply extends the possible
distance and quality of a line by decomposing
it into multiple sections
• Replaces regenerator section overhead
• Multiplex section and path overhead is not altered

Add-drop Multiplexer - I.
– Add/drop multiplexer (ADM)
• Main element for configuring paths on top of line
topologies (point-to-point or ring)
• Multiplexed channels may be dropped and added
• Special drop and repeat mode for broadcast and
survivability
• An ADM has at least 3 logical ports: 2 core and 1 or
more add-drop
Optical port
Optical port
Electrical port
ADM(OEO)
•Ports have different
roles
•No switching between
the core ports
•Switching only
between the add-drop
and the core ports.
Uni- and Bi-directional
Routing
– Only working traffic is shown
– Subnetwork (path) or multiplex section switching for
protection
A
C E
B F
D
Uni-directional Ring
(1 fiber)
C-A
A-C
A
C E
B F
D
Bi-directional Ring
(2 fibers)
C-A
A-C
USHR
• Working traffic is carried around the ring in
one direction only.
• Ring capacity is sum of demands between
nodes.
• Also called “Counter–Rotating–Ring”;
traffic in prot. rotates opposite.
• 1:1 (USHR/L); extended to 1:N, then not
entirely self–healing.
• 1+1 (USHR/P).
USHR-L
USHR/L
Incoming and
returning signal
routed
unidirectionally on
working ring.
On failure,
adjacent nodes
perform fold or
looping function.
Basic ADMs used
(TSI not needed).
USHR Concepts
– USHR/P = Unidirectional Self-Healing Ring / Path Switched
– 2-fiber ring topology
• Head-end bridge, tail-end switch logical topology
– 1+1 protection with uni-directional routing on each fiber
– Traffic is sent in both directions on the ring on separate
fibers
– The better signal is selected by the receiver.
BSHR Concepts - I.
– BSHR/MS = Bi-directional Self-Healing Ring /
Multiplex Section Switched
– 1:1, or 1:N redundancy options
– 2 fibers with shared protection configuration
• Half the bandwidth in each direction in a link
is reserved for the shared protection of all
traffic in that reverse direction of the link

–An even number of
STM-1s are required
– 4 fibers for dedicated protection configuration
• Bi-directional routing on 2 fibers (working
line)
• Each direction has a working and a protect
fiber


BSHR Concepts - II.
– Multiple fail-over options for 4-fiber BSHR/MS
• In normal operation traffic is sent only in the required direction
• During fiber interruption, the traffic is routed around the break in
opposite direction (long path)
– Ring switching
• Optionally if the other 2 fibers are still available, then traffic might
be routed onto the parallel 2 fibers (short path)
– Span switching
Multiplex Section Protection
Switching
– Conditions resulting in a protection switch:
• Loss of signal, loss of frame
• Line AIS (all 1’s)
• Signal degrade
– Excessive BIP-24 errors in MS overhead
LOS AIS
OCN REI
upstream
down
stream
Payload
R-Section
Overhead
M-Section
Overhead
information
controlling
protection
switching
Path Protection Switching
– Conditions resulting in a protection switch:
• Loss of pointer, STM or VC AIS
• Excessive BIP errors for STM path, BIP errors for VC
path
R-Section
Overhead
M-Section
Overhead
Info
controlling
protection
switching
Payload
STM
Path
Overhead
VC
Path
Overhead
VC
Payload
STM -N Mux
K1K2
Read/Sel
K1K2
Write
Working
STM-N
Protect
STM-N
STM-N Mux
K1K2
Write
K1K2
Read/Sel
Tributary
Channels
Tributary
Channels
MSTE
MSTE
Automatic Protection Switching - I.
– APS = Automatic
Protection Switching
• Allows network to
react to failed lines,
interfaces, or
poor signal quality
– Performed over the
entire STM-N payload
– Uses K1 and K2 bytes
of MS Overhead
Automatic Protection Switching - II.
– K1 byte:
• Type of request (bits
1-4)
• Channel requested
(bits 5-8)
– K2 byte:
• Channel selected (bits
1-4)
• Architecture (bit 5)
• Mode of operation
(bits 6-8)
– e.g. Alarm
Indication Signal
(AIS), Remote
Defect Indicator
(RDI)
STM -N Mux
K1K2
Read/Sel
K1K2
Write
Working
STM-N
Protect
STM-N
STM-N Mux
K1K2
Write
K1K2
Read/Sel
Tributary
Channels
Tributary
Channels
MSTE
MSTE
Uni- and Bi-directional APS
– Uni-directional APS
• Only traffic on the affected fiber is switched to the
protect line
– Bi-directional APS
• TX and RX are both switched when channel is
affected

Revertive and Non-revertive
APS
– Revertive switching
• Will restore to the working channel when WTR
timer expires
– Non-revertive switching
• Will not move to working channel after failure
unless requested