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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 Page 2924
A Range Queries Trigger Identification Service in
Wireless Sensor Networks
L.J othi
, Dr.R.Pugazendi
Department of computer science
K.S.Rangasamy college of Arts and Science College
Tiruchengode-637215, India

Department of computer science
K.S.Rangasamy college of Arts and Science College
Tiruchengode-637215, India

Abstract: In many wireless sensor network applications, the
information assortment sink (base station) must realize the
collective statistics of the network. Readings from sensor
nodes square measure collective at intermediate nodes to
scale back the communication price. However, the
previous optimally secure in-network aggregation
protocols against multiple corrupted nodes need two
round-trip communications between every node and
therefore the base station. The architecture of two tiered
sensor networks, wherever storage node function an
intermediate tier between sensors and sink for storing data
and process queries, has been wide adopted due to the
advantages of power and storage saving for sensors
furthermore because the potency of query process.
However, the importance of storage nodes conjointly
makes them enticing to attackers. During this paper RSA
algorithm conjointly permits a sink to observe
compromised storage node after they act. To preserve
privacy, RSA algorithm use to code each data and queries
specified a storage node will properly method encoded
queries over encoded knowledge while not knowing their
values. Our planned achieves one round-trip
communication to satisfy optimum security while not the
result-checking part, by conducting aggregation alongside
the verification. Travelling salesman problem provides a
data aggregation.
Keywords: Integrity, privacy, range queries, RSA algorithm,
travelling salesman problem, sensor networks.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely deployed
for various applications, such as environment sensing,
building safety monitoring, earthquake prediction, etc. The
architecture of two tiered sensor networks (illustrated in fig.1),
where storage nodes function an intermediate tier between
sensors and a sink for storing information and processing
queries, has been Wide adopted attributable to power and
storage saving for sensors in addition because the potency of
query process. However, a compromised storage node
imposes important threats.
First, it’s going to enable attackers to get sensitive information
hold on within the storage node. Second, it’s going to come
solid information for a query. Third, it’s going to not come all
information things that satisfy the query. many privacy and
integrity conserving protocols [1,2] are planned to forestall
attackers from gaining info from each detector collected
information and sink issued queries, and permits the sink to
sight compromised storage nodes once they act. However,
progressive protocol [1] has two main drawbacks: (1) it
permits attackers to get an inexpensive estimation on each
sensing element collected information and sink issued queries;
(2) the facility consumption and space for storing for each
sensor and storage nodes grow exponentially with the quality
of dimensions of collected information.


Data Result


Fig. 1. Architecture of two tiered sensor networks
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 Page 2925
The main objective is to develop a secure and economical
query process and to attain data privacy, query privacy and
integrity protective with low communication price in two tier
sensing element networks.
The scope is to realize confidential communication and secret
information storing, protection of information alteration. The
event of wireless sensor networks was impelled by military
applications like parcel surveillance; nowadays such networks
are utilized in several industrial and client applications, like
process monitoring and management ,machine health
monitoring and so on. Some potential applications of sensor
networks are:
 Industrial automation
 Automated and smart homes
 Video surveillance
 Traffic monitoring
 Medical device monitoring
 Monitoring of weather condition
Sensor nodes resource constraints:
A powered sensing element node typically has severe
constraints on its ability to store, process and transmit the
perceived data. As a result, the procedure quality and resource
consumption of public-key ciphers are typically thought of
unsuitable for WSNs. This introduces extra challenges for
privacy preservation.
A. System Model
In proposed all sensing element nodes and storage nodes are
unit loosely synchronized with the sink. With loosely
synchronization, it divides time into mounted length interval
and each sensing element collects data once per quantity.
From a commencement that each one sensors and also the sink
agree upon, each n time interval kind a slot. Fromidentical
commencement, when a sensing element collects data for n
times, it sends a message that contains a 3-tuple (i, t, d),
wherever i is that the sensing element ID and t is that the
sequence range of the slot within which the n data things area
unit collected by sensing element vsi.
To address privacy and integrity conserving ranges queries for
event-driven sensor networks, wherever a sensor solely
submits information to a storage node once an exact event
happens and any assume that the queries from the sink area
unit vary queries. A variety query “finding all the information
things, that area unit collected at time interval t and whose
price is within the vary [a, b]” is denoted as. Note that the
queries in most detector network application will be simply
modeled as vary queries.
Much of the present work on wireless sensing element
networks (WSNs) has centered on address the ability and
procedure resource constraints of WSNs by the look of
specific routing, MAC, and cross-layer protocols. Recently,
there is heightened privacy issues over the information
collected by and transmitted through WSNs.
The wireless transmission needed by a WSN, and therefore
the self-organizing nature of its design, makes privacy
protection for WSNs associate degree particularly difficult
B. Problem Statement
The fundamental problem for a two-tiered sensing element
network is that the following:
1) Data and query privacy: data privacy means a storage node
cannot grasp the particular values of sensing element collected
data. This ensures that an assaulter cannot perceive the
information hold on a compromised storage node. Query
privacy mean a storage node cannot grasp the particular price
of sink issued queries. This ensures that an assaulter cannot
perceive it will be protective the query results fromattackers.
2) Data integrity: if a query result that a storage node sends to
the sink includes solid data or excludes legitimate data, the
query result’s certain to be detected by the sink as invalid.
Besides these two arduous needs, a fascinating answer ought
to have low power and area consumption as a result of these
wireless devices have restricted resources.

Research is said to WSNs needs multidisciplinary studies
spanning networking, databases, Distributed computing, data
processing etc. to properly understand the challenges of
privacy preservation in WSNs and also the techniques
necessary to handle such challenges, it’s vital to initial
examine the privacy problems and privacy-preserving
techniques in such connected fields as databases, data
processing and wireless networks.
In the field of information and data processing, distributed
computing privacy considerations might arise from three
forms of system [7]: the primary is a data [9] sharing system
that involves two or a lot of reciprocally untrusted parties. The
target is to ensure that no non-public data on the far side the
minimumnecessary is disclosed throughout data sharing.
Cryptographic secure multi-party computation techniques
square measure sometimes used for this sort of systems [1],
[11]. The second may be a data assortment system wherever
one centralized data collector/analyzer collects and mines data
frommultiple distributed data suppliers. The third kind may
be a data business [2], [11] system, the target of that is to
publish data to support data analytical application while not
compromising the namelessness of individual data
homeowners. Data privacy and data protective primarily
based algorithms [13] square measure planned for privacy
protection in these systems. Privacy problems have
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 Page 2926
additionally been extensively studied within the domain of
generic networking.
Location privacy is of explicit concern with the pervasive
development of advanced wireless device, like personal digital
assistant [PDA] and with the arrival of location-based service
(LBS). In AN LBS system, a user holding a wireless device
queries the LBS server to get the closest building or hospital
to the user.
A. Anonymous proxy
A trusted-third-party primarily based framework was
planned [13]. With this framework, a user initial sends his/her
location to the centralized anonymous proxy that then queries
the LBS server with not the user’s real location however a
cloaking region that covers not solely the user however
additionally variety of alternative users. This method prevents
the LBS server from characteristic one user from several
others. However, it's unlikely to be sensible for two reasons:
initial, it's not affordable to assume the existence of a trustable
third party. Second, even though such a trusty third party
exists, it creates one point-of-failure for the system as a result
of if the third party is compromised; the privacy preservation
over the complete system can utterly collapse.
To get requirement of the need of a trusty third party, a
private-information-retrieval primarily based technique was
planned [12]. However, this method additionally suffers from
important computation and communication overhead. Besides
the direct revealing of user’s location fromquestion payload,
traffic flow data may additionally breach location privacy.
Specifically, the server might pinpoint the situation of a user
supported the user’s IP address. So as to produce traffic flow
confidentiality, The Onion Router [Tor] [10] is meant,
because the second generation onion routing [2], and becomes
a well-liked anonymous communication network that consists
of thousands of Tor routers to relay user traffic to or from
Location Based Service server.

B. Privacy-preserving techniques for WSNs
The planned work is introduces privacy protective techniques
[4] for WSNs. Data-oriented [5] and context-oriented
considerations specialize in the privacy of data collected from,
or query denote to, a WSN. On the opposite hand, context-
oriented considerations think about discourse data, like the
situation and temporal order of traffic flows in a very WSN.
Data-oriented and context-oriented privacy considerations are
also profaned by data- and traffic-analysis attacks, severally.
Depicts an easy illustration of the two forms of attacks. One
will see from that, within the case of data analysis attack, a
malicious node of the WSN abuses its ability of decrypting
data to compromise the payload being transmitted. In traffic-
analysis attacks, a third-party resister doesn't have the power
to decipher data payloads. Instead, it overhang drops the
wirelessly transmitted data and tracks the traffic flow data
C. Data-oriented privacy protection for WSNs

The privacy of data content. Here ‘‘data” see not
solely perceived data collected inside a WSN however
additionally queries exhibit to a WSN by users. Within the
preceding medical WSN example, non-public data might
embody temperature and vital sign collected fromthe WSN,
or queries on these very important signs exhibit to the WSN.
There square measure two forms of adversaries which can
compromise data-oriented privacy. One is an external resister
that overhang drop the info communication [4] between
detector nodes in a very WSN. This sort of adversaries is
effectively defended against mistreatment the standard
techniques of cryptological coding and authentication.

The second kind is an enclosed resister that is
additionally a collaborating node of the WSN, however has
been captured and manipulated by malicious entities to
compromise non-public data. Since a collaborating node is
allowed to decipher data wrongfully, the standard coding and
authentication techniques might not be effective. Thus, the
most challenge for shielding data-oriented privacy is to
forestall an enclosed resister from compromising the non-
public data, whereas maintaining the traditional operation of
the WSN. Data-oriented privacy protection techniques recall
from privacy-preserving techniques that two forms of
adversaries threatening data-oriented privacy square measure
external and internal adversaries. To defend against external
adversaries, cryptological techniques like coding and
authentication is used effectively. Specifically, a multi-level
privacy protection theme was planned in [13] to assign totally
different completely different coding keys to perceived data
that need different levels of privacy protection, so as to
properly defend against external adversaries. Compared with
external adversaries, the interior adversaries is a lot of
powerful as a result of the incorporates nodes or base stations
captured and controlled by malicious entities and so might
have information of coding keys utilized in a WSN. There
square measure two forms of data privacy during this planned
work would like to shield against internal adversaries: the
privacy of data being collected and also the privacy of queries
being exhibit to a WSN


A. Privacy scheme using RSA algorithm

1) Data privacy:
Data privacy means that a storage node cannot know that
actual values of sensor collected data. This ensures that an
attacker cannot understand the data stored on a compromised
storage node. Query privacy means that a storage node cannot
know the actual value of sink issued queries. This ensures that
an attacker cannot understand or deduce useful information
form, the queries that a compromised storage node receives.
Fig 2 represents the RSA algorithm(data privacy algorithm).

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 Page 2927
RSA Algorithm:

Step 1:

Step 2:
Step 3:

Step 4:

Step 5:

Choose two distinct prime numbers p and q.

Compute n=pq.
Compute Φ (n) =Φ (p) Φ (q) = (p-1) (q-1) where
Φ is Euler`s totient function.
Choose an integer e such that 1<e<Φ (n) and gcd
(Φ (n)) =1 i.e. e and Φ (n) are co-prime.
Determine d as d
=e (modΦ (n)) i.e: d is the
multiplicative inverse of e (moduloΦ (n)).

Fig.2 RSA Algorithm

B. Integrity Approach using TSP Algorithm

1) Data integrity: If a query result that a storage node sends to
the sink includes forged data or excludes legitimate data, the
query result is guaranteed to be detected by the sink as invalid.
Besides these two hard requirements, to preserve integrity,
travelling salesman problem algorithm provides a desirable
solution should have low power and space consumption
because these wireless devices have limited resources. Fig 3
represents the TSP algorithm(data aggregation algorithm).

TSP Algorithm:

Step 1:

Step 2:

Step 3:
First, find out all (n-1)! Possible solutions, where
n is the number of cities.
Next, determine the minimum cost by finding
out the cost of every one of these (n-1)!
Finally, keep the one with the minimum cost.

Fig.3. TSP Algorithm
c. Topological Constraints:
The restricted communication varies of detector
nodes during a WSN needs multiple hops so as to transmit
information fromthe supply to the bottom station. Such a
multi-hop theme demands completely different nodes to
require numerous traffic masses. Specially, a node nearer to
the bottomstation (i.e., information aggregation and process
server) needs to relay information from nodes any off from
base station additionally to transmission its own generated
information, resulting in higher transmission rate. Such
associate unbalanced network approach pattern brings vital
challenges to the protection of context-oriented privacy
information. Significantly, if associate human holds the
flexibility of worldwide traffic analysis, perceptive the traffic
patterns of various nodes over the entire network, it will
simply determine the sink and compromise context privacy, or
perhaps manipulate the sink node to impede the correct
functioning of the WSN. The distinctive challenges for
privacy [5] preservation in WSNs necessitate the event of
effective privacy-preserving techniques. In planned, offer the
privacy of information being collected and therefore the
privacy of queries being exhibit to [4], [5] a WSN. A review
of two main classes of privacy-preserving techniques for
shielding two styles of personal information, data-oriented and
context-oriented privacy, severally. Within the class of
information privacy, is especially discuss the way to change
the aggregation [8] of perceived information while not
violating the privacy of the info being collected and guarantee
the privacy of information query initiated by users of the
network. For context-based privacy, it analyzes the protection
of location privacy and temporal personal information.

The experimental results from our side-by-side
comparison show that our techniques significantly performthe
S&L scheme for multidimensional data in terms of power and
space consumption. For the two integrity-preserving schemes,
the neighborhood-chaining technique is better than TSP
technique in terms of both power and space consumption. The
rationale for us to include the TSP scheme is that are the
typical approach to achieving integrity.TSP and Tigger
identification to denote our schemes using distance of node
with and without Bloomfilters, respectively.












TIME =(Dt – St)
Where, Dt ->destination node time and
St ->Source node time

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 Page 2928

Fig. 4. Performance of TSP
The analysis of variance according to the computational
time as the proper responses are shown in Table1. Therefore,
comparing the TSP results against the discrete-time
approximation results represents the efficiency of the TSP
method for the time-cost trade-off in WSN networks.

This paper describes data integrity, Travelling Salesman
problemand RSA algorithmfor handle range queries in two
tiered sensor networks in privacy and integrity protective
fashion. In terms of security, RSA algorithm significantly
strengthens the security of two tiered sensor networks. Unlike
prior art, RSA algorithm prevents a compromised storage
node from obtaining a reasonable estimation on the actual
values of sensor collected data items and sink issued queries.
In terms of efficiency, our results represented performs prior
art for multidimensional data in terms of both power
consumption and storage space.


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