International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2929
Genetic Algorithm for J oint Relaying Topology
Routing and Scheduling Optimization in Multihop
Cellular Network
Prof.Rekhapatil
#1
, Shivaprasad Biradar
*2

#1
Professor, Head of the Department of computer science and engineering, Poojya doddappa Appa College of engineering,
Gulbarga, Karnataka, India,
*2
Department of computer science and engineering, Poojya doddappa Appa College of engineering, Gulbarga, Karnataka,
India,

Abstract—A multicell scenario with nonuniform traffic
distribution in multihop wireless networks, the search for the
optimum topology becomes an NP-hard (non-deterministic)
problem. In such problems, exact algorithms based on exhaustive
search are only useful for small toy models, so heuristic
algorithms such as genetic algorithms (GA) must be used in
practice. For this purpose, we present a novel sequential genetic
algorithm (SGA) to optimize the relaying topology in multihop
cellular networks aware of the intercell interference and the
spatial traffic distribution dynamics. We encode the topologies as
a set of chromosomes and special crossover and mutation
operations are proposed to search for the optimum topology. The
performance is measured by a fitness function that includes the
throughput, power consumption and delay. Improvement in the
fitness function is sequentially controlled as newer generations
evolve and whenever the improvement is sufficiently increased
the current topology is updated by the new one having higher
fitness. Numerical results show that SGA provides both high
performance improvements in the system and fast convergence
(at least one order of magnitude faster than exhaustive search) in
a dynamic network environment. We also demonstrate the
robustness of our algorithm to the initial state of the network.

Keywords— Cellular network, dynamic traffic distribution,
genetic algorithm, intercell interference, network optimization,
relaying, topology control.
I. INTRODUCTION
Multihop Cellular Networks (MCNs) [1]-[2] employ relays
to transmit information fromsource to destination nodes to
optimize coverage, resource utilization and capacity. The use
of multihop relaying requires careful consideration of
topology, propagation environment, relay selection, routing
and scheduling of user data to maximize the benefit [3]-[5].As
more hops are introduced, the throughput on each hop and
opportunity for spatial reuse may be increased, but the delay
also increases which may not be tolerated by delay-sensitive
services. Additionally, the concurrency of multiple
transmissions also increases the interference. A number of
papers have studied the gains and tradeoffs associated with
MCNs [6]. A cross layer routing protocol with constrains in
relay node selection and source to destination path selection is
proposed in [6] for a single cell scenario. In [7] the optimal
placement of relay nodes and the time allocation were studied
for the systememploying one relay in a cell with uneven
traffic distribution. The effects of the physical layer conditions
on the scheduling and hence, throughput is shown in [8] also
for one cell scenario. In [9] a multi-cell power control
optimization for interference management is presented to
improve the spatial reuse factor. These works focus on a fixed
network topology, which means that the locations of users are
assumed exactly known a priori and keep unchanged.
In a real network, where the traffic distribution changes (in
time and space) due to the available link capacities and load
demands, the network topology should be reconfigured
dynamically to track the variations in the network and
guarantee good network performance. Limited work has been
done in designing effective topology reconfiguration
algorithms to offer optimal routing solutions in MCNs. The
future data transmissions will use multiple radio access
standards and complex spectrum allocation techniques.
Topology reconfiguration has emerged as a key technological
enabler for supporting transmissions among heterogeneous
networks, adapting to the time-varying environment and
managing the joint radio resources across different spectrum
bands. In,[10] the authors provide an overview of the research
in the field of topology control for cognitive radio networks,
proposing Prediction-based Cognitive Topology Control
(PCTC) to predict the duration of link availability in mobile
ad hoc networks (MANETs). Based on this prediction, PCTC
constructs a reliable topology which is aimed at improving
network performance. Most of the works on topology control
has been done for MANETs and wireless sensor networks
(WSNs)[11]-[14].
However, the problems associated with these types of
networks are different fromthose of cellular networks. In the
former, the aim is to maintain connectivity between nodes
(usually with similar characteristics) with minimumenergy
consumption. In contrast, in cellular networks, energy
consumption is less important than link throughput and delay.
At the same time, in cellular networks, there are nodes of
different classes (e.g., base station and terminals). Topology
control algorithms for MANETs and WSNs are designed with
infrastructure less networks in mind and usually distributed,
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2930
whereas in cellular networks it is possible to use centralized
algorithms within the base station. The awareness of dynamic
changes in the traffic distribution and possible network
topology due to the node appearance/disappearance [15]
propagates slowly throughout the network. These reasons, ad
hoc networks routing algorithms are not efficient for MCNs.
Physical design follows the logical design phase, in this phase,
emphasis is put on how the requirements are to be achieved in
terms of hardware equipment’s and procedures were
formulated. The method of inputting data to the systemand to
process them so as to produce the desire output was decided
after the advantage and disadvantages of each available
alternative.

II. RELATED WORK
Broadband Radio Access Networks (BRAN); HiperMAN;
Physical(PHY) Layer, Broadband Wireless Access (BWA)
technologies provide broadband data access by wireless
means to consumer and business markets. The most common
example of BWA is Wireless LAN, but efforts are intensively
continuing to deliver ubiquitous broadband network access by
deploying adequate radio technologies like Metropolitan Area
Networks, 3G and Wireless LAN which can even be
combined in one single device to ensure seamless
operation.Broadband Wireless Access is also an attractive
option to Operators in areas that do not have a wired access
network available. Savings in speed of deployment and in
installation costs will ensure that interest in BWA Standards
continues.
Channel
Joint optimization of cooperative diversity and spatial
reuse in multihop hybrid cellular/ad hoc networks, Advanced
cellular networks are expected to use multihop transmission
(relaying) in the cells for the connection between the users and
the base station BS as well as for peer to peer connection
between two users within the same cell. Therefore they
become a mixture of cellular and ad hoc networks that will be
referred to as cellular/ ad hoc or CAH network. We apply a
conventional resource reuse scheme used for cellular networks
for inner partitioning of each cell in order to increase the
number of concurrent transmissions in the system. This
partitioning can be considered as a special formof surface
tessellation technique used in conventional network
information theory so that a number of results fromthat area
can be adapted for the analysis of peer to peer
communications (Ad Hoc segment of the network). For the
communication between the users and BS the cell partitioning
enables the use of a specific Round Robin MAC protocol
within the cluster of inner cells making the systemfeasible for
implementation. a joint optimization of cooperative diversity
and spatial reuse which maximizes the throughput in the
network. The increased number of concurrent transmissions,
enabled by spatial cell partitioning, increases the system
throughput but also increases the level of interferences that
reduces the capacity of simultaneously used links in the
network. The diameter of inner cells determines the relaying
hop range and the amount of interlink interference. All
transmissions are recorded by the neighbouring receivers and
combined in a cooperative diversity transmission. The
increased number of hops increases the diversity order but at
the same time reduces the throughput per user since the
network capacity has to be shared between the increased
number of users. By introducing a proper utility function we
can simultaneously optimize the systemthroughput, power
consumption and packet delivery delay, as a function of
relaying range. The optimum relaying range defines the
optimuminner cell partitioning and the spatial reuse in the
network. By controlling the transmission power in the
optimization process, we directly control the probability of
intercept in the system.
Cross Layer Routing for Multihop Cellular Networks, We
propose a cross-layer routing protocol for a Code Division
Multiple Access (CDMA) Multihop Cellular Network (MCN).
In designing the routing protocol for MCN, multiple
constraints are imposed on intermediate relay node selection
and end-to-end path selection. The constraints on relay nodes
include willingness for cooperation, sufficient neighbourhood
connectivity and the level of interference offered on the path.
Path constraints include end-to-end throughput and end-to-end
delay. A facile incentive mechanismis presented to motivate
the cooperation between nodes in call forwarding. In addition,
we present a route resilience scheme in the event of dynamic
call dropping. In particular, a fast neighbour detection scheme
for route resilience is proposed.
Assignment for Multihop Cellular Networks: Minimum
Delay, Multihop cellular networks (MCNs) enhance the
capacity and coverage and alleviate the dead-spot and hot-spot
problems of cellular networks. They also allow faster and
cheaper deployment of cellular networks. A fundamental issue
of these networks is packet delay because multihop relaying
for signals is involved. An effective channel assignment is the
key to reducing delay . an optimal and a heuristic channel
assignment scheme, called OCA and minimumslot waiting
first (MSWF), respectively, for a time division duplex (TDD)
wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) MCN.
OCA provides an optimal solution in minimizing packet delay
and can be used as an unbiased or benchmark tool for
comparison among different network conditions or
networking schemes. However, OCA is computationally
expensive and, thus, inefficient for large real-time channel
assignment problem. In this case, MSWF is more appropriate.
Simulation results show that MSWF achieves on average 95
percent of the delay performance of OCA and is effective in
achieving high throughput and low packet delay in conditions
of different cell sizes.


III. SYSTEM DESIGN
Systemdesign is a transition phase froma user oriented
documented systemto a purely programmatic oriented system
for programmers’ database personnel. The system design
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2931
makes the high level decisions about the overall architecture
of the system. The system design phase provides the
understanding and procedure details necessary for
implementing the system recommended study. The target
system is arranged into subsystems based on the analysis
structure and the proposed architecture.
The system design has a physical design. In a Physical
design follows the logical design phase, in this phase,
emphasis is put on how the requirements are to be achieved in
terms of hardware equipment’s and procedures were
formulated. The method of inputting data to the systemand to
process them so as to produce the desire output was decided
after the advantage and disadvantages of each available
alternative.


Fig. 1 Block diagramNetwork simulator

Fig. 2 DataFlow Diagramof path selection

SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
The implementation phase of any project development is the
most important phase as it yields the final solution, which
solves the problem at hand. The implementation phase
involves the actual materialization of the ideas, which are
expressed in the analysis document and developed in the
design phase. Implementation should be perfect mapping of
the design document in a suitable programming language in
order to achieve the necessary final product. Often the product
is ruined due to incorrect programming language chosen for
implementation or unsuitable method of programming.
It is better for the coding phase to be directly linked to the
design phase in the sense if the design is in terms of object
oriented terms then implementation should be preferably
carried out in a object oriented way. The factors concerning
the programming language and platformchosen are described
in the next couple of sections. There are three major
implementation decisions that have been made before the
implementation of this project. They are as follows:
 Selection of the Platform (Operating System).
 Selection of the programming language for
development of the application.
 Coding guidelines to be followed.
The implementation stage in a systemproject has its
own right. It involves
 Careful planning
 Investigation of the current systemand the
constraints on implementation.
 Training of staff in the newly developed system.
Selection of the Platform(Operating System).Selection of
the programming language for development of the application.

Fig. 3 Basic architecture of NS
SGA-TSL program,
1. B1: number of time slots of the initial optimum
topology TB1 for Ai (initial traffic)
2. F1: value of the fitness function (utility) associated
with the initial topology TB1
3. B’: number of time slots of the optimumtopology TB '
for a’(differential access vector)
4. f0: value of the fitness function (utility) associated
with the initialization of the new topology TB0 (after
traffic variation)
5. NA: number of active rings in the network after the
traffic variation A n Fn N = a
6. procedure Check_traffic_variation
7. ( ( )) ( ); ( ( )) ( ) F F E t t E t t λ δ a = a = {Assign
access vector aFbased on the existing traffic}
8. a’=aI XOR aF
9. If a’ ≠ 0
10. Apply TSL(a’) to obtain the optimumtopology for a’.
11. Check the value of to initialize the new topology:
12. If
n
>0, initialize the new topology as the set of
chromosomesTB0 ={PTB1 , PTB'}.
13. If
n
<0, the new topology is initialized as the set of the
Different chromosomes in both sets TB0 ={PTB1 - PTB'}
14. Calculate the fitness function (f0) by using (13) and (14)
with f
0
U
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2932
15. Initialize f =f
0
;n-m=0;a
1
=a
F

16. end
17. end
18. procedure Calculate_fitness
19. Calculate f by using (13) and (14) with f U
20. If (f-f
0
)>threshold
21. Reconfigure the systemwith T
opt
=T
new
that corresponds
to the fitness f
opt
=f
22. f
0
=f;
23. end
24. end
SGA-TSL algorithm
25. While (1)
26. Check_traffic_variation
27. for b=1 to B
0

28. T
new
=crossover( PT
b
,PT
(b+1)modB0
);
29. Calculate_fitness
30. end
31. If (n_m<N
A
) {number of mutations<number of rings
actived}
32. T
new
=mutation(T
B0
, n_m);
33. n_m++;
34. Calculate_fitness
35. end
IV. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Modules Description:
Modules
1. Network creation and routing
In this module, a network with 'n' number of nodes are
created. Every node in the network is assigned with wireless
properties such as buffer, channel information, propagation
type etc., and the nodes are deployed randomly in the network
area. Connectivity among all the nodes are checked here. If
any node is deployed in out-of-coverage area, then that node
should be re-deployed within the coverage area. All the nodes
can act as both data initiator and as well as router. A routing
protocol is implemented to test the routing process.

2. Analysis of traffic scheduling in the network
In this module, a sample data communication for 'n'
iterations is initiated across the network. Sender and receiver
nodes are assigned randomly. Traffic and data flow are
configured using CBR between the sender and receiver nodes.
Before sending the data packets, the routing protocol analyze
the network and construct the best path to route the packets.
RREQ and RREP packets are flooded across the network to
find out the best path. Then, the sender node forwards the data
packet through the forwarder nodes and finally the data
packets reach their destination. This process is repeatedly
done for 'n' number of rounds.

3. Performance analysis
In this module, the performance and impacts of the above
the above created iterations are analyzed. The performance of
the network is analyzed in terms of the network parameters
like throughput, delay, resource consumption..etc., Finally the
results are plotted in x-graph.

4. Implementation of SGA
In this module, Sequential Genetic Algorithm (SGA) is
implemented across the network. SGA helps to reduce the
communication overhead in the network. It suggests the best
path which has less congestion. The routing protocol finds out
the best path using RREQ and RREP packets. These results
are stored in a routing table. SGA access this routing table and
manipulates the routing information. Generally SGA consists
of CROSSOVER and MUTATION functions. These functions
access the best path fromthe routing table and mutate the best
paths and create a new set of paths which are traffic-free.

5. Performance analysis and result comparison, conclusion
In this module, the performance and impacts of the above
the SGA are analyzed. The performance of the network is
analyzed in terms of the network parameters like throughput,
delay, resource consumption..etc., Finally the results are
plotted in X-GRAPH. Finally, by comparing both the X-graph
results, a best solution is proposed. The solution proposes the
new method which constructs the best path in terms of less
congestion and traffic - free. So that the data packets can
reach their destination within estimated time.
V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
The basic architecture of NS2. NS2 provides users with an
executable command ns which takes on input argument, the
name of a Tcl simulation scripting file. Users are feeding the
name of a Tcl simulation script (which sets up a simulation) as
an input argument of an NS2 executable command ns. In most
cases, a simulation trace file is created, and is used to plot
graph and/or to create animation. NS2 consists of two key
languages: C++ and Object-oriented Tool Command
Language (OTcl). While the C++ defines the internal
mechanism(i.e., a backend) of the simulation objects, the
OTcl sets up simulation by assembling and configuring the
objects as well as scheduling discrete events (i.e., a frontend).
The C++ and the OTcl are linked together using TclCL.
Mapped to a C++object, variables in the OTcl domains are
sometimes referred to as handles. Conceptually, a handle (e.g.,
n as a Node handle) is just a string (e.g., _o10) in the OTcl
domain, and does not contain any functionality. Instead, the
functionality (e.g., receiving a packet) is defined in the
mapped C++object (e.g., of class Connector). In the OTcl
domain, a handle acts as a frontend which interacts with users
and other OTcl objects. It may defines its own procedures and
variables to facilitate the interaction. Note that the member
The basic architecture of NS2. NS2 provides users with an
executable command ns which takes on input argument, the
name of a Tcl simulation scripting file. Users are feeding the
name of a Tcl simulation script (which sets up a simulation) as
an input argument of an NS2 executable command ns. In most
cases, a simulation trace file is created, and is used to plot
graph and/or to create animation .NS2 consists of two key
languages: C++ and Object-oriented Tool Command
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2933
Language (OTcl). While the C++ defines the internal
mechanism (i.e., a backend) of the simulation objects, the
OTcl sets up simulation by assembling and configuring the
objects as well as scheduling discrete events (i.e., a frontend).
The C++ and the OTcl are linked together using TclCL.
Mapped to a C++object, variables in the OTcl domains are
sometimes referred to as handles. Conceptually, a handle (e.g.,
n as a Node handle) is just a string (e.g., _o10) in the OTcl
domain, and does not contain any functionality. Instead, the
functionality (e.g., receiving a packet) is defined in the
mapped C++object (e.g., of class Connector). In the OTcl
domain, a handle acts as a frontend which interacts with users
and other OTcl objects. It may defines its own procedures and
variables to facilitate the interaction. Note that the member
procedures and variables in the OTcl domain are called
instance procedures(instprocs) and instance variables
(instvars), respectively. Before proceeding further, the readers
are encouraged to learn C++and OTcl languages. We refer
the readers to [14] for the detail of C++, while a brief tutorial
of Tcl and OTcl tutorial are given in Appendices A.1 and A.2,
respectively.


Directories
Suppose that NS2 is installed in directory nsallinone-2.30.
Figure 2.2 shows the directory structure under directory
nsallinone-2.30. Here, directory nsallinone-2.30 is on the
Level 1. On the Level 2, directory tclcl-1.18 contains classes
in TclCL (e.g., Tcl, TclObject, TclClass). All NS2 simulation
modules are in directory ns-2.30 on the Level 2. Hereafter, we
will refer to directories ns-2.30 and tclcl-1.18 as ˜ns/ and ˜tclcl
/, respectively.

Fig. 4 Directory structure of NS2
VI. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
we evaluate the proposed work is a novel sequential
genetic algorithm(SGA) for joint relaying topology, routing
and scheduling optimization in MCNs with intercell
interference and traffic distribution awareness. SGA
dynamically adjusts the relaying topology to the traffic
variations in the network, reducing considerably the number
of operations required by exhaustive search, and improving
the network scalability.
Fig. 5 Nodesformation in the network

Fig. 6 Datapackets moving across the nodes



Fig.7 X graph of SGA-TSL delay
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2934


Fig. 8 X graph of SGA-TSL throughput



Fig. 9 X grph of SGA-TSL energy
VII. CONCLUSION
In a dynamic joint optimization of relaying topology,
routing (power) and inter relay scheduling in MCNs. As a
result, we have developed a specific encoding and fitness
control in a sequential genetic algorithmfor relaying topology
update. Depending on the traffic load, there may be situations
where searching for the new optimumtopology will be NP-
hard. Through numerical analysis we have shown that by
using SGA-TSL the number of operations required to
reconfigure the optimumtopology is at least one order of
magnitude less than by exhaustive search. The same order of
improvement is obtained independently of the initialization of
the algorithm. The utility function used in the optimization
process drives the solution towards the topology favoring
simultaneously isolated and short range transmissions. As
expected, within these solutions further improvements are
obtained by using network coding to reduce the number of
slots needed for transmission. We also have compared the
performance of SGA-TSL with nearest neighbor heuristic and
the value of the fitness obtained is about 50% lower than with
SGA-TSL. SGA may be implemented in one of the base
stations. Cooperating base stations must exchange information
about the traffic distribution, and the coordinating base station
should pass the information about the resulting access vector
aF back to the cooperating base stations. This level of
coordination between the base stations seems to be already
considered in practice i.e., coordinated multipoint
transmission, where a cluster of base stations jointly perform
beamforming in order to reduce intercell interference.

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