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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8–August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2935
Predetection of diseases by retinal diagnosis using
Digital image processing.

.
Vamsi Krishna Reddy Munnangi
#1
, Hemanth yadav Aradhyula
#2
, Riyan Mohammed
#3

#
4
th
year B.Tech

Students & Electronics and Communication/Computer Science & K L University
Greenfields,Vaddeswaram,Guntur District,Andhra Pradesh,India 522 502




ABSTRACT: - This paper presents linguistic process
for detecting the risk of future heart strokes and various
diseases using the retinal image. For patients, it can be
reduced the need for travel and provide the access to a
doctor. Ophthalmology lends itself easily to telemedicine
as it’s a largely image based diagnosis to know the
disease of a person earlier. The main goal of the
proposed system is to diagnose the type of disease by the
retinal image and to automatically detect and segment
retinal diseases/various diseases in human beings
without human supervision or interaction. The eyes are
one place in the body through which we can actually see
veins and arteries without surgery and without X-rays.
The eyes also reveal the disease present in the human
body like high blood pressure, diabetes and future risk
of heart strokes. Hence a retina scan can provide
sufficient results to predict risk of heart attack and other
diseases. So we can use retinal image analysis to
analyze whether a person is having high blood
pressure,diabetes,crop disease by detecting crossovers
and diameter of blood vessels in retina and this can be
processed by the digital image processing

Key Words:- telemedicine, Vascular Segmentation
,Array ,sampling, Quantization, Length filtering, Neural
Networks .

INTRODUCTION
The Retina is light sensitive posterior wall of an eye
extended from optic disc to oraserrata contain rods and
cones .The blood vessels of retinal image have a special
or unique pattern. Blood vessels in the optic fundus are a
complex network of branches that spread out fromthe
optic disc to provide nutrients and oxygen to the fundus.
In proliferative diabetic retinopathy new blood vessels are
formed that emerge from the area of the optic disc and
spread towards the macula or emerge from peripheral
vessels. Automated procedures are not required to
identify the smallest vessels that are seen by visual
inspection, but new vessel growth and small vessel
leakage that is clinically significant require attention. The
most important attribute of the automated vessel
identification and classification systemis that it provides
clinically relevant data. Segmented blood vessels can be
analysed for branching patterns, bifurcation points,
diameters and other physical attributes associated with

disease such as venous beading or tortuosity. Furthermore
pools of morphological descriptors that identify several
different attributes important in identifying blood vessels
include edge detection and to detect the blood vessels
with different diameters while leaving undesirable
artefacts such as noise out. It differs from eye to eye. We
use this unique property in identifying heart strokes and
high blood pressure. We get a continuous image fromthe
source. To analyze the image patterns we need to digitize
its co-ordinates and amplitude.

RETINAL IMAGE: The retinal architecture is lamellar.
Within this there are major cell types performing sensory,
nutritional, regulatory, immune modulatory and structural
functions .The retina is uniquely partitioned from the
vascular system by the blood-retinal barrier. The blood
supply is dual; to the inner retina it is by the retinal
circulation lying within the inner retina (the inner blood-
retinal barrier) and to the outer retina it is by the choroidal
circulation, a thick vascular layer lying outside of the
retinal pigment epithelium (the outer blood-retinal
barrier). The retinal pigment epitheliumand the choroid
are critical to retinal function.

1 IMAGE ACQUISITION:
Generally an image is a two-dimensional function
f(x,y)(here x and y are plane coordinates).The amplitude
of image at any point say f is called intensity of the
image. It is also called the gray level of image at that
point. We need to convert these x and y values to finite
discrete values to forma digital image. The input image is
a fundus taken fromstare data base and drive data base.
The image of the retina is taken for processing and to
check the condition of the person.We need to convert
the analog image to digital image to process it through
digital computer. Each digital image composed of a finite
elements and each finite element is called a pixel.









INPUT IMAGE

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8–August
2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2936

The figure is the captured by a sensor. Here photo diode
sensor is used. The sensor is constructed with silicon
material. The output voltage waveform of sensor is
proportional to light.We can also use filter to improve
selectivity.We can also make a output which has one
strong color than remaining visible colors using filter.We
can generate a 2-D image using single sensor with a
displacement in both directions of plane.The arrangement
used here is for high precision scanning where film
negative is mounted on to a drum which produce
mechanical rotation. This mechanical rotation provides
displacement in one direction. A sensor mounted on a
lead screw is used as it provides motion in perpendicular
direction. Using this we can control mechanical motion
effectively and images are obtained with high resolution.
The sensors a arranged as strips to provide imaging in
both direction. The strip provides image in one direction
while motion takes care about perpendicular direction.
This method is effectively used in airborne imaging. The
arrangement is attached to aircrafts during their flights.
One dimensional imaging sensor strips that respond to
various bands of electromagnetic spectrumare mounted
perpendicular to provide perpendicular image so as form
a 2-D image.

2 DIABETES DETECTION:
Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes
mellitus. It is the most common cause of blindness
worldwide. Although diabetes itself cannot be prevented,
complications such as blindness can be moderated if the
disease is diagnosed early. The most effective method
currently is regular screening of the fundus to detect early
signs of diabetic retinopathy. Microaneurysms – tiny
dilations of the blood vessels - are the first unequivocal
sign of diabetic retinopathy so that their detection in
fundus images through photography might be enough to
detect the disease in an early stage.
Diabetic retinopathy is a progressive disease. It begins as
mild nonproliferative retinopathy characterized by
clinical features secondary to capillary changes with
increased permeability. It may progress to moderate and
severe nonproliferative retinopathy characterized by
clinical features secondary to capillary closure as well as
increased capillary permeability. Disease progression
continues to proliferative retinopathy characterized by
growth of new blood vessels, in and on the retina and
even on the iris. Diabetic macular edema characterized by
intraretinal accumulation of fluid and lipid within the
macula can occur at any stage of the disease progression.














Fig.1 Diabetic Retinopathy













THIS FIGURE SHOWS THE SEVERE DIABETIC
MACULAR EDEMMA.

Normal macula of a diabetic with no DR

3 BLOOD PRESSURE:
Blood pressure (BP), sometimes referred to as arterial blood
pressure, is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon
the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital
signs. When used without further specification, "blood
pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure of the
systemic circulation.
High blood pressure can produce a retinopathy
characterized by micro aneurysms, intra
retinalhemorrhages, cotton wool spots, hard exudates, and
optic nerve swelling, which is related to the level of systolic
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8–August
2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2937
blood pressure. Coexistent hypertension is seen in 25% of
type 1 diabetics after 10 years and 38–68% of type 2
diabetics. Studies show hypertension to be a risk factor for
development and progression of diabetic retinopathy.

4.1 FORMATION OF IMAGE:
We have some conditions for forming an image f(x,y) as
values of image are proportional to energy radiated by a
physical source.
So f(x,y) must be nonzero and finite.
i.e. 0<f(x,y) <∞.


4.2 IMAGE FORMED DUE TO REFLECTION:
The function is characterized by two components.
1. The amount of source illumination incident on the
scene being viewed, which is called illumination
components denoted by incident ray i(x, y) and
2. The amount of illumination reflected by the objects
in the scene which is called as reflectance components
denoted by r(x,y).
We can get the image as product of intensity
f(x, y)=i(x,y)r(x,y) -----------1
0<i(x, y) <∞----------2
0<r(x, y) <1 ------------3(reflection bounded by
total absorption and reflection).
The nature of i(x, y) is determined by illumination and
r(x,y) nature is determined by characteristics of
imaged object.

4.3 NEED FOR DETECTION OF BLOOD
VESSELS IN RETINA:
For diagnosing the ocular diseases and for patient
screening and also clinical study we can use this blood
vessels detection.

4.4 STEPS INVOLVED IN THE DETECTION
OF HEART BEAT AND STROKE AND
HYPERTENSION:






Our goal is to produce a binary image of the
vasculature, b( i , j), for an image of size I x J. We
want to achieve a robust segmentation of for a
wide variety of images representing various states
of the retinal disease.












Fig. Vascular Segmentation with age-related
macular degeneration (drusen).

4.5 DETECTION OF BLOOD VESSELS FROM
FUNDUS OCULAR IMAGES:
For detecting the blood vessels we need to take care
of resolution and intensity of the image. Let us
convert image to gray scale.
Transmitivity t(x,y):
Intensity of light of light can be determined in gray
scale by 1. The intensity of monochrome image at a
point (xo,yo) is given by L=f(xo,yo).
Lmax=(imax)x(rmax);
Now grey scale interval is [Lmin, Lmax].
The interval can also be written as [0, L-1].where l=0
represents black and l=l-1 is considered white in grey
scale.

4.5 SAMPLING AND QUANTIZATION OF
IMAGE:
The output of sensors is generally a continuous voltage
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8–August
2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2938
wave. The wave amplitude and its spatial behavior(x, y)
are continuous. We need digital image hence sampling
is done to digitize coordinate values while quantization
is used to convert continuous amplitude to digital
amplitude.
Sampling: the process of sampling an image is the
process of applying a two-dimensional grid to a
spatially continuous image to divide it into a two-
dimensional array.

4.6 ENHANCEMENT OF REQUIRED IMAGE
FROM GIVEN IMAGE:
Different colors has different brightness values of
particular color. Green image has more bright than red
and blue image or blue image is blurred image and red
image is the high noise image


Gray level image of given image.


Output of the Canny filter.


Output of the sobel filter.

4.7 DETECTION OF CROSSOVERS OF
BLOOD VESSELS:
For detecting the crossovers in the retinal image we
use matched filters to verify whether the blood
vessels pattern is correct or not so that we can find
about the hypertension or about the crossovers in the
eye. The following image shows the crossovers
present in the retina image when the person is
having hypertension.

Image of eye with hypertension.


The following image shows the clear view of the
distortions present in the retina.



4.8 DETECTION OF DIAMETER OF BLOOD
VESSELS:
We need to find the blood vessel diameter to
determine the narrowing of blood vessels to
Hypertensive Retinopathy.
Steps involved in detection of diameter of
blood vessels are:
1. Input image
2. Matched filter
3. Local entropy thresholding.
4. Length filtering.
First the input is taken through image acquisition and
then a matched filter is used to detect the blood
vessels and local entropy thresholding is used.
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8–August
2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2939
Thresholding is the simplest method of
image segmentation from a grayscale image pattern.
This thresholding can be used to create binary images.
Entropy-based methods result in algorithms that use
the entropy of the foreground and background region
and the cross-entropy of the original and binarized
image, etc. Length filtering is used to obtain the
results.
Finally the output of the project is

Figure: (a) An original retinal image, (b) Matched
filtering result, (c) Local entropy thresholding result, (d)
Vascular tree, (e) One-pixel wide vascular tree, (f) One-
pixel wide vascular tree with intersections and
crossovers overlaying on gray-scaled image.


5 CLASSIFICATION OF RETINAL DISEASE
USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS:
Artificial Neural Networks has used in a number of
different ways in medicines as well as in medical
fields. The advantage of this is to generalize, adapting
to signal distortion and noise . Auto Associative
Neural Network (AANN) is a network having the
same number of neurons in input and output layer as
well as the less in the hidden one. The network is
trained by the input vector itself as the desired output.
This training leads to organize a
compression/encoding network between the input
layer and the hidden layer, and a decoding layer
between the hidden layer and output layer. Each of the
autoassociative networks is trained independently for
each class using the feature vector of the class. The
squared error between an input and the output is
generally minimized by the network of the class to
which the input pattern belongs. This property enables
us to classify an unknown input pattern. The unknown
pattern is fed to all the networks, and is classified to
the class with minimumsquared error.

















fig Auto Associative Neural Network.

6 CONCLUSION:
This paper concludes that by analyzing
the retinal images it is easy to detect the many
diseses and also risk of future heart strokes.
This process can be used effectively in clinical
purposes. By not using any x-rays and any
surgeries we can be detect the diseases by
seeing the retinal images.
The paper gives only the frame work for
diagnosing human retinal diseases. This can be
implemented using matlab. Each module can be
tested with a test data of size 100. The results can
be classified into four phases: true positive and
negative, false positive and negative. The major
goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive
reference source for the researchers involved in
automatic diagnosis of retinal images. This
framework can be extended to any number of
retinal diseases in future.

REFERENCES:
[1] David Huang, Peter K Kaiser, Retinal Imaging,
Mosby Publications, US, 2005.
[2] Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods, Digital
Image Processing, Prentice – Hall, Inc. 2002.
[3] Al Bovik, Guide to Image Processing, IInd
Edition, Elsevier, US, 2009.
[4] Petrou, M. and Bosdogianni, P.Image Processing:
The Fundamentals, John Wiley & Sons, UK, 1999.