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Energy Efficiency in

China Iron and Steel Industry
International Workshop on
Industrial Energy Efficiency
January. 27-28, 2010 New Delhi
Huang Dao
China Iron & Steel Association
Who is the text one develop quickly in steel industry  
Japan China India
The Main Steel Making countries
Germany
Russia
USA
China
Japan
Italy
Ukraine
Brazil
India
Korea
570 504 489 421 356
China Steel
output(MT
2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Year
The profitable space in
Iron & Steel Industry had been shrink
Iron & Steel
Industry of
China
Price of
ore and coal
raised
Monetary
Policy
become tight
Exportation
of steel is
restricted
Environmental
protection
pressure
increased
                 
          /             /             /  
65 ≤ 55 ≤ 60
460 ≤ 390 ≤ 415
10 ≤ - 8 ≤ 0
    215 ≤ 180 ≤ 190
    325 ≤ 280 ≤ 300
                 
                       
       
   
       
       
       
                    0.404         /        
Product
ion
Proces
ses
Major Production
Processes
Blast Furnase
Electric cooker
BOF-Basic Oxygen Furnace
Sintering
Quota Target Admittance
KgCe/Tsteel KgCe/Tsteel
KgCe/Tsteel
Note 
Forced
Commend
Forced
The norm of energy consumption per unit
product of steel making processes
The norm of energy consumption per unit product of
major procedure of crude steel manufacturing process
Heavy industrialization stage is inevitable during the whole process
of industrialization
Heavy industrialization will continue. Energy conservation is our common
responsibility and long term challenge.
China’s steel industry has made great contributions to socio-economic
development, but it’s also confronted with the imbalance between economic
growth and environmental protection and resources conservation
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Large share of industrial energy consumption
Industrial energy structure
USA Japan China
Industry
Industry
Industry
The trend of integrated energy consumption
per ton steel in China
1980~2005            
0.728
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
1
9
8
0
1
9
8
1
1
9
8
2
1
9
8
3
1
9
8
4
1
9
8
5
1
9
8
6
1
9
8
7
1
9
8
8
1
9
8
9
1
9
9
0
1
9
9
1
1
9
9
2
1
9
9
3
1
9
9
4
1
9
9
5
1
9
9
6
1
9
9
7
1
9
9
8
1
9
9
9
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
3
2
0
0
4
2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
2
0
0
7
2
0
0
8
2
0
0
9
2
0
1
0
80
   

                     
90
   

                 
21
                         
tce/t-s
       
                     
1980~2005
Steel industry
Large and middle size Steel industry
In 80’s, unit and procedure
energy saving
In 90’s, systemic energy
saving and flow optimize
In 21 century, energy
recycle and conversion
                     
• Energy consumption in Main process
Coking
Sinter BF
EAF Rolling
BOF
Second energy reusing ratio in CHN Steel
Coking Coal Gas
BOF Coal Gas BF Coal Gas
•Coal gas is about 41% of total energy consumption.
•Emission of coal gas exists.
•if blast furnace gas emission reduce 1%: 530 thousand tce
•If BOF gas reuse reach 80m
3
/t-s: save 8 Mtce
•If BOF gas reuse reach 100m
3
/t-s: save 1000 Mtce
By product of coal gas
60’s 70’s 80’s 90’s
Direct
discharge
Dilute and
discharge
End treat
Cleaner
production
  National cleaner production contents of Key Industry 
  First batch
• CDQ
• PC and rich O2 for BF
• Sintering with small ball
• Looping cooler with heat
recovery
• Electrofilter with sinter
fume
• COG desulfur with H.P.F
• Liquid CO2 recovery from
lime-kiln gas
• Ore dressing from ore
tailing
• Bag-type dust collector
with BFG
• BOF gas clean and
recycle with LT
• Hot-pressed compact
technology from LT dust
• Reduced iron powder
from rolling iron scale
• BFG uesed in boiler fuel
  Second batch
• TRT
• Double preheat regenerative
oven in rolling process
• BOF combined blow, splashing
slag and long-life line
• High efficiency CC
• Hot transfer and hot charge for
CC to hot Rolling
• AC motor frequency conversion
• Automatic control for BOF
• Power supply optimization for
EAF
• Dust cleaning for coke oven
• System optimization for
cleaning steel production
• Permanent magnetism for
magnetic separator
• High efficiency integrated
technology for BF
• Recycle and utilization for BOF
dust nud
• BOF evaporation cooling
system supply steam for
vacuum refining
21 century
Circulating
economy
“zero”
discharge
  Third batch 
• Waste plastic
treatment with coke
oven
• Pickle recovery from
cold rolling
• A/O biologic
denitriding for coke
waste water
• High efficiency use
for low heat value gas
• BOF production with
negative energy
consumption
Technology and Best Practices
Pollution control Course
in China steel industry
Sustain technology work in China steel industry
energy
Steel
products
water
material
4 Waste reuse and
resources
3 material
efficiency
2 Waste
Water Reuse
1 Energy
efficiency &
conservation
5 product
efficiency
Waste
solid
  slag
&dust
Waste
gas
Waste
water
6 I nformation
systems
Choose the technology
in 6 type Key of them
in recent years are
1 Dry dedust in BF
2 Dry dedust in BOF
3 CDQ
4 Water saving
5 electricity generation
6 Slag comprehensive
use
To provide technology
support for steel industry
development, pollutant
control and project
design.
Technology and Best Practices
BOF Dry dust
treatment and the gas
waste heat reused 
More than 30 sets.
TRT Over 560 TRT had
been built   > 2000m3
BF had been TRT 100%
used >1000m3 BF
TRT95.6%.
C
C
P
P
CDQ:More than 76sets
running about 73Mt/a
CDQ treatment capability
had been .
More than 10 companies in
China Steel section more
than 15 sets CCPP put into
production.
16 16
Dry Type TRT
270kPa
170
263kPa
155
10kPa
40
24,600
W
             
           
             
rpm
kW
   
   
     
         
     
     
         
     
       
       
       
   
     
         
270kPa
170
263kPa
155
10kPa
40
24,600
W
             
           
             
rpm
kW
   
   
     
         
     
     
         
     
       
       
       
   
     
         
• For the gas de-dusted by the
wet dust catcher  the dust
content change with the top
pressure fluctuation of BF lot
of water spray lost heat energy
and add water content in the
gas.
• Compared with wet the dry
type TRT lost gas resistance
and temperature drop is small.
The recovery power of TRT
could be improved by
25~45%. Lot of de-dusting
water saved, the energy saving
is remarkable.
Dry Type TRT succeed in 5500 M
3
Blast furnace in ShouGang
2006 12 19-20                    
          TRT       
2006        250              TRT          1000M
3
        TRT           90%                 TRT    
                                    100      
2009 10 18        
TRT           
                  500           TRT          1000M
3
        TRT            100%
                      Z&J      
                5250m3      
TRT                  “3H-TRT
    ”                  
            450        
          1   2 4200M3    
      TRT             2 5  
 
          114        
      TRT    
APP members shared The State-of-the-Art
Clean Technologies   SOACT  relating to
environmental protection and energy saving.
Sintering
Coke
making
Iron
making
BOF
Steelmaking
EAF
Steelmaking
Casting Recycling
Common
System
General
Measures
Total
11 6 11 9 6 1 4 11 5 64
The SOACT is posted on the APP website in
January, 2008 and now available to the public.
URL http://www.asiapacificpartnership. org/
Flagship Project 1
Flagship Project 1
  SOACT Handbook
SOACT Handbook
 
- 22 of environmental protection technologies
- 42 of energy saving technologies
Next Step
Update the SOACT Handbook after the Showcase (to accommodate new showcased
technologies)
Issue Version 2.0 before the Fall 2009 APP Task Force meeting
20
The waste heat of the gas is still have potential
       
43.66%
         
5%
       
9.02%
       
22.29%
           
3.76%
       
3.92%
         
5.59%
         
4.26%
         
1.59%
       
1.00%
The waste heat reuse in sinter process
BOF energy consumption and
recycle
Energy flow of BOF
The waste heat reuse in steel making process
Energy Efficiency Options for the Iron & Steel Industry
Overall Measures (measures apply to both integrated and secondary plants)
Preventativemaintenance
Energy monitoring and management systems
Variablespeed drives for fluegas control, pumps, and fans
Cogeneration
Integrated Steel Making Measures Secondary Steel Making Measures Casting and Rolling (apply to integrated and
secondary plants unless otherwise specified)
Iron Ore Preparation (Sintermaking) Electric Arc Furnace Casting
Sinter plant heat recovery Improved process control (neural networks) Adopt continuous casting
Useof wastefuels in thesinter plant Fluegas monitoring and control Efficient ladlepreheating
Reduction of air leakage Transformer efficiency measures Thin slab casting
Increasing bed depth Bottomstirring/gas injection Rolling
Improved process control Foamy slag practices Hot charging
Coke Making Oxy-fuel burners/lancing Recuperativeburners in thereheating furnace
Coal moisturecontrol
Programmed heating
Post-combustion
Eccentric bottomtapping (EBT)
Controlling oxygen levels and variablespeed drives
on combustion air fans
Variablespeed driveon cokeoven gas compressors Direct current (DC) arc furnaces Process control in thehot strip mill
Cokedry quenching Scrap preheating Insulation of furnaces
Iron Making - Blast Furnace Consteel process Energy efficient drives in thehot rolling mill
Pulverized coal injection (mediumand high levels) Fuchs shaft furnace Wasteheat recovery fromcooling water
Injection of natural gas Twin shell DC arc furnace Heat recovery on theannealing line(integrated only)
Top pressurerecovery turbines (wet type) Automated monitoring & targeting system
Recovery of blast furnacegas Reduced steamusein thepickling line
Hot blast stoveautomation
Recuperator on thehot blast stove
Improved blast furnacecontrol
Steel Making - Basic Oxygen Furnace
BOF gas & sensibleheat recovery (supressed combustion)
Variablespeed driveon ventilation fans

Benchmarking in large enterprises
We lack of recent international
comparable data
           
          , 627.4
          , 603.6
      , 651.3
      , 647.9
    , 743
    , 711.9
    , 679.76 650
    , 768.81 733.86
  , 858.79 769
400
500
600
700
800
900
               
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
kgce/ t
Benchmarking analysis table
(objective: find the weak point)
Enterpris
e
Internatio
nal level
Reached
or not
Theoretic
al value
Gap National
standard
Reached
or not
process
Cindering
Iron
prod.
Steel
prod.
......
Comparison of Energy consumption of main
equipments for example. blast furnace
Thermal
wind
temperatur
e
.TRT
power
generation
Power
consumpti
on
Fuel ratio Power
consumpti
on
Water
consumpti
on
>2000 m3
>3000 m3
>4000 m3
Analysis on the process of
not reaching standard
Enterpris
e
Tech A Tech B Tech C Tech D Tech E..... Summary
process Coverage
of
technolog
ies
Energy
Saved
Energy
saving
potential
Ratio of iron to steel in 2005 Year
USA
German
y
Japa
n
China World World(excludi
ng China)
Iron/steel 0.39
2
0.649 0.738 0.968 0.7 0.567
Energy
intensity per
ton steel
676 765.5 719.4
1
741*
EAF steel ratio 55% 30.7% 25.6
%
12.9
%
35% 56%
Energy intensity gap in China Steel Industry
China‘s steel reserves were only 51.6%of the USA and 87.4%of Japan.
Energy Structure of Iron & Steel Industry
indifferent countries
•Coal occupies 70% of total
consumption
•Low quality of coal
•Cause intensity gap 15~20
kgce/t-s 
3.20%
7.00%
20.70%
19.90%
17.00%
26.40%
16.00%
15.30%
23.70% 56.40%
55.80%
60%
69.90%
8.20%
0.50%
0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00%
Ö Ð¹ ú
à À¹ ú
µ ¹ ú
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à ºÌ ¿ Ê ¯ Ó Í Ì ì È » Æø µ ç Á ¦
Coal based energy structure caused low efficiency
Petroleum and gas could increase efficiency
China is restricted by resource condition
Promote R&D cleaning energy using technology
Based on China’s own status, scientific development
concept and requirement of industrial policy, based on
structure optimization, decreasing consumption,
environment protection and improve economic benefit,
China’s Iron and Steel Industry will provide iron and
steel with multiple specification, high quality, and
competitive price to all steel demanding industries, to
satisfy the goal of building a well-off society and
realizing quadrupled GDP per capital steel making.
Process optimization brings indirect energy saving
rate up to 67% with systematic saving and structure
optimization , annual saving rate will be 4.44%.
Strategic Position of China Iron & Steel industry
Future Development:
Thank
you!
CISA CISA
Department of Development, Technology Department of Development, Technology
and environment protection and environment protection
Huang Dao Huang Dao
HuangDao@188.com HuangDao@188.com
I believe India and
I believe India and
China will have a lot of
China will have a lot of
cooperation in the
cooperation in the
field of energy
field of energy
efficiency work in the
efficiency work in the
Iron & Steel industry
Iron & Steel industry