لمع بلطلا

يلع نميا هيطع لله
ناندعلا روبصلادبع -يرواغم 2
Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design,
construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and
application of robots and computer systems for their control, sensory
feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with
automated machines that can take the place of humans, in hazardous or
manufacturing processes, or simply just resemble humans. Many of
today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-
inspired robotics.
The concept and creation of machines that could operate autonomously
dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and
potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the !th century.
Throughout history, robotics has been often seen to mimic human
beha"ior, and often manage tasks in a similar fashion. Today, robotics is a
rapidly growing field, as we continue to research, design, and build new
robots that ser"e "arious practical purposes, whether domestically,
commercially, or militarily. Many robots do jobs that are hazardous to
people such as defusing bombs, e#ploring shipwrecks, and mines.
A scene from Karel Čapek's 1920 playR.U.R., showing three roots
!tories of artificial helpers an" companions an" attempts to create them
ha#e a long history.
$he wor" robot was intro"%ce" to the p%lic y the &'ech writer Karel
Čapek in his playR.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), p%lishe" in 1920.
$he play egins in a factory that makes artificial people
calle" robots creat%res who can e mistaken for h%mans ( tho%gh they are
closer to the mo"ern i"eas of an"roi"s. Karel Čapek himself "i" not coin the
wor". )e wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford
English Dictionary in which he name" his rother *osef Čapek as its act%al
+n 192, the Maschinenmensch -.machine/h%man.0 gynoi" h%manoi"
root -also calle" .1aro"y., .2%t%ra., .Rootri3., or the .4aria impersonator.0
was the first an" perhaps the most memorale "epiction of a root e#er to
appear on film was playe" y 5erman actress6rigitte )elm in 2rit'
7ang's film 4etropolis.
+n 1982 the science fiction writer +saac Asimo# form%late" his $hree 7aws of
Rootics an", in the process of "oing so, coine" the wor" .rootics. -see
"etails in .9tymology. section elow0.
+n 198: ;orert <iener form%late" the principles of cyernetics, the asis of
practical rootics.
2%lly a%tonomo%s roots only appeare" in the secon" half of the 20th
cent%ry. $he first "igitally operate" an" programmale root, the Unimate,
was installe" in 19=1 to lift hot pieces of metal from a "ie casting machine
an" stack them. &ommercial an" roots are wi"esprea" to"ay an" %se" to
perform >os more cheaply, or more acc%rately an" relialy, than h%mans.
$hey are also employe" in >os which are too "irty, "angero%s, or "%ll to e
s%itale for h%mans. Roots are wi"ely %se" in man%fact%ring, assemly,
packing an" packaging, transport, earth an" space e3ploration, s%rgery,
weaponry, laoratory research, safety, an" the mass pro"%ction of cons%mer
an" in"%strial goo"s.
Power source
At present mostly -lea"/aci"0 atteries are %se" as a power so%rce.
4any "ifferent types of atteries can e %se" as a power so%rce for
roots. $hey range from lea" aci" atteries which are safe an"
ha#e relati#ely long shelf li#es %t are rather hea#y to sil#er
ca"mi%m atteries that are m%ch smaller in #ol%me an" are
c%rrently m%ch more e3pensi#e. ?esigning a attery powere" root
nee"s to take into acco%nt factors s%ch as safety, cycle lifetime an"
weight. 5enerators, often some type of internal com%stion engine,
can also e %se". )owe#er, s%ch "esigns are often mechanically
comple3 an" nee" f%el, re@%ire heat "issipation an" are relati#ely
hea#y. A tether connecting the root to a power s%pply wo%l"
remo#e the power s%pply from the root entirely. $his has the
a"#antage of sa#ing weight an" space y mo#ing all power
generation an" storage components elsewhere. )owe#er, this
"esign "oes come with the "rawack of constantly ha#ing a cale
connecte" to the root, which can e "iffic%lt to manage. 1otential
power so%rces co%l" eA
 pne%matic -compresse" gases0
 hy"ra%lics -li@%i"s0
 flywheel energy storage
 organic garage -thro%gh anaeroic "igestion0
 faeces -h%man, animal0B may e interesting in a military
conte3t as faeces of small comat gro%ps may e re%se" for the
energy re@%irements of the root assistant -see ?9KA's pro>ect
!lingshot !tirling engine on how the system wo%l" operate0
A rootic leg powere" y air m%scles
Act%ators are like the .m%scles. of a root, the parts which
con#ert store" energy into mo#ement. 6y far the most pop%lar
act%ators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear, an" linear
act%ators that control in"%strial roots in factories. 6%t there are
some recent a"#ances in alternati#e types of act%ators, powere" y
electricity, chemicals, or compresse" air.
Electric motors
$he #ast ma>ority of roots %se electric motors, often r%she" an"
r%shless ?& motors in portale roots or A& motors in in"%strial
roots an" &;& machines. $hese motors are often preferre" in
systems with lighter loa"s, an" where the pre"ominant form of
motion is rotational.
Linear actuators
Cario%s types of linear act%ators mo#e in an" o%t instea" of y
spinning, an" often ha#e @%icker "irection changes, partic%larly
when #ery large forces are nee"e" s%ch as with in"%strial rootics.
$hey are typically powere" y compresse" air -pne%matic act%ator0
or an oil -hy"ra%lic act%ator0.
Series elastic actuators
A spring can e "esigne" as part of the motor act%ator, to allow
impro#e" force control. +t has een %se" in #ario%s roots,
partic%larly walking h%manoi" roots.
Air muscles
1ne%matic artificial m%scles, also known as air m%scles, are
special t%es that contract -typically %p to 80D0 when air is force"
insi"e them. $hey ha#e een %se" for some root applications.
Muscle wire
4%scle wire, also known as !hape 4emory Alloy, ;itinol or 2le3inol
<ire, is a material that contracts slightly -typically %n"er ED0 when
electricity r%ns thro%gh it. $hey ha#e een %se" for some small
root applications.
Electroactive polymers
9A1s or 91A4s are a new plastic material that can contract
s%stantially -%p to F:0D acti#ation strain0 from electricity, an"
ha#e een %se" in facial m%scles an" arms of h%manoi"
roots, an" to allow new roots to float, fly, swim or walk.
Piezo motors
Recent alternati#es to ?& motors are pie'o motors or %ltrasonic
motors. $hese work on a f%n"amentally "ifferent principle, wherey
tinypie'oceramic elements, #irating many tho%san"s of times per
secon", ca%se linear or rotary motion. $here are "ifferent
mechanisms of operationB one type %ses the #iration of the pie'o
elements to walk the motor in a circle or a straight line. Another
type %ses the pie'o elements to ca%se a n%t to #irate an" "ri#e a
screw. $he a"#antages of these motors are nanometer resol%tion,
spee", an" a#ailale force for their si'e. $hese motors are alrea"y
a#ailale commercially, an" eing %se" on some roots.
Elastic nanotubes
9lastic nanot%es are a promising artificial m%scle technology in
early/stage e3perimental "e#elopment. $he asence of "efects
incaron nanot%es enales these filaments to "eform elastically
y se#eral percent, with energy storage le#els of perhaps
10 *GcmF for metal nanot%es. )%man iceps co%l" e replace"
with an : mm "iameter wire of this material. !%ch compact
.m%scle. might allow f%t%re roots to o%tr%n an" o%t>%mp h%mans.
!ensors allow roots to recei#e information ao%t a certain
meas%rement of the en#ironment, or internal components. $his is
essential for roots to perform their tasks, an" act %pon any
changes in the en#ironment to calc%late the appropriate response.
$hey are %se" for #ario%s forms of meas%rements, to gi#e the
roots warnings ao%t safety or malf%nctions, an" to pro#i"e real
time information of the task it is performing.
&%rrent rootic an" prosthetic han"s recei#e far
less tactile information than the h%man han". Recent research has
"e#elope" a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical
properties an" to%ch receptors of h%man fingertips. $he sensor
array is constr%cte" as a rigi" core s%rro%n"e" y con"%cti#e fl%i"
containe" y an elastomeric skin. 9lectro"es are mo%nte" on the
s%rface of the rigi" core an" are connecte" to an impe"ance/
meas%ring "e#ice within the core. <hen the artificial skin to%ches
an o>ect the fl%i" path aro%n" the electro"es is "eforme",
pro"%cing impe"ance changes that map the forces recei#e" from
the o>ect. $he researchers e3pect that an important f%nction of
s%ch artificial fingertips will e a">%sting rootic grip on hel"
!cientists from se#eral 9%ropean co%ntries an" +srael "e#elope"
a prosthetic han" in 2009, calle" !mart)an", which f%nctions like a
real oneHallowing patients to write with it, type on a keyoar", play
piano an" perform other fine mo#ements. $he prosthesis has
sensors which enale the patient to sense real feeling in its
&omp%ter #ision is the science an" technology of machines that
see. As a scientific "iscipline, comp%ter #ision is concerne" with the
theory ehin" artificial systems that e3tract information from
images. $he image "ata can take many forms, s%ch as #i"eo
se@%ences an" #iews from cameras.
+n most practical comp%ter #ision applications, the comp%ters are
pre/programme" to sol#e a partic%lar task, %t metho"s ase" on
learning are now ecoming increasingly common.
&omp%ter #ision systems rely on image sensors which "etect
electromagnetic ra"iation which is typically in the form of
either #isile light or infra/re" light. $he sensors are "esigne"
%sing soli"/state physics. $he process y
which light propagates an" reflects off s%rfaces is e3plaine"
%sing optics. !ophisticate" image sensors e#en re@%ire @%ant%m
mechanics to pro#i"e a complete %n"erstan"ing of the image
formation process. Roots can also e e@%ippe" with m%ltiple
#ision sensors to e etter ale to comp%te the sense of "epth in
the en#ironment. 7ike h%man eyes, roots' IeyesJ m%st also e
ale to foc%s on a partic%lar area of interest, an" also a">%st to
#ariations in light intensities.
$here is a s%fiel" within comp%ter #ision where artificial systems
are "esigne" to mimic the processing an" eha#ior of iological
systems, at "ifferent le#els of comple3ity. Also, some of the
learning/ase" metho"s "e#elope" within comp%ter #ision ha#e
their ackgro%n" in iology.
Kther common forms of sensing in rootics
%se 7+?AR, RA?AR an" !K;AR.
Roots nee" to manip%late o>ectsB pick %p, mo"ify, "estroy, or
otherwise ha#e an effect. $h%s the .han"s. of a root are often
referre" to as end effectors, while the .arm. is referre" to as
a maniulator. 4ost root arms ha#e replaceale effectors, each
allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. !ome ha#e a
fi3e" manip%lator which cannot e replace", while a few ha#e one
#ery general p%rpose manip%lator, for e3ample a h%manoi" han".
2or the "efiniti#e g%i"e to all forms of root en"/effectors, their
"esign, an" %sage cons%lt the ook .Root 5rippers..
Mechanical grippers
Kne of the most common effectors is the gripper. +n its simplest
manifestation it consists of >%st two fingers which can open an"
close to pick %p an" let go of a range of small o>ects. 2ingers can
for e3ample e ma"e of a chain with a metal wire r%n thro%gh
it. )an"s that resemle an" work more like a h%man han" incl%"e
the !ha"ow )an", the Roona%than", ... )an"s that are of a mi"/
le#el comple3ity incl%"e ie the ?elft han", ... 4echanical grippers
can in come in #ario%s types, incl%"ing friction an" encompassing
>aws. 2riction >aws %se all the force of the gripper to hol" the o>ect
in place %sing friction. 9ncompassing >aws cra"le the o>ect in
place, %sing less friction.
Vacuum grippers
Cac%%m grippers are #ery simple astricti#e "e#ices, %t can hol"
#ery large loa"s pro#i"e" the prehension s%rface is smooth eno%gh
to ens%re s%ction.
1ick an" place roots for electronic components an" for large
o>ects like car win"screens, often %se #ery simple #ac%%m
!eneral purpose e""ectors
!ome a"#ance" roots are eginning to %se f%lly h%manoi" han"s,
like the !ha"ow )an", 4A;U!, an" the !ch%nk han". $hese
highly "e3tero%s manip%lators, with as many as 20 "egrees of
free"om an" h%n"re"s of tactile sensors.
#olling robots
2or simplicity most moile roots ha#e fo%r wheels or a n%mer
of contin%o%s tracks. !ome researchers ha#e trie" to create more
comple3 wheele" roots with only one or two wheels. $hese can
ha#e certain a"#antages s%ch as greater efficiency an" re"%ce"
parts, as well as allowing a root to na#igate in confine" places that
a fo%r wheele" root wo%l" not e ale to.
Two-wheeled balancing robots
6alancing roots generally %se a gyroscope to "etect how m%ch a
root is falling an" then "ri#e the wheels proportionally in the
opposite "irection, to co%nter/alance the fall at h%n"re"s of times
per secon", ase" on the "ynamics of an in#erte" pen"%l%m. 4any
"ifferent alancing roots ha#e een "esigne".L8EM <hile
the !egway is not commonly tho%ght of as a root, it can e
tho%ght of as a component of a root, s%ch
as ;A!A'sRoona%t that has een mo%nte" on a !egway.
One-wheeled balancing robots
A one/wheele" alancing root is an e3tension of a two/wheele"
alancing root so that it can mo#e in any 2? "irection %sing a
ro%n" all as its only wheel. !e#eral one/wheele" alancing roots
ha#e een "esigne" recently, s%ch as &arnegie 4ellon Uni#ersity's
.6allot. that is the appro3imate height an" wi"th of a person, an"
$ohok% 5ak%in Uni#ersity's .6all+1.. 6eca%se of the long, thin
shape an" aility to mane%#er in tight spaces, they ha#e the
potential to f%nction etter than other roots in en#ironments with
Spherical orb robots
!e#eral attempts ha#e een ma"e in roots that are completely
insi"e a spherical all, either y spinning a weight insi"e the all, or
y rotating the o%ter shells of the sphere $hese ha#e also een
referre" to as an or ot or a all ot.
Six-wheeled robots
Using si3 wheels instea" of fo%r wheels can gi#e etter traction or
grip in o%t"oor terrain s%ch as on rocky "irt or grass.
Tracked robots
$ank tracks pro#i"e e#en more traction than a si3/wheele" root.
$racke" wheels eha#e as if they were ma"e of h%n"re"s of
wheels, therefore are #ery common for o%t"oor an" military roots,
where the root m%st "ri#e on #ery ro%gh terrain. )owe#er, they
are "iffic%lt to %se in"oors s%ch as on carpets an" smooth floors.
93amples incl%"e ;A!A's Uran Root .Urie..
$al%ing applie& to robots
<alking is a "iffic%lt an" "ynamic prolem to sol#e. !e#eral roots
ha#e een ma"e which can walk relialy on two legs, howe#er
none ha#e yet een ma"e which are as ro%st as a h%man. $here
has een m%ch st%"y on h%man inspire" walking, s%ch as A469R
la which was estalishe" in 200: y the 4echanical 9ngineering
?epartment at $e3as AN4 Uni#ersity.LE,M 4any other roots ha#e
een %ilt that walk on more than two legs, "%e to these roots
eing significantly easier to constr%ct.LE:M LE9M <alking roots can
e %se" for %ne#en terrains, which wo%l" pro#i"e etter moility
an" energy efficiency than other locomotion metho"s. )yri"s too
ha#e een propose" in mo#ies s%ch as +, Root, where they walk
on 2 legs an" switch to 8 -armsOlegs0 when going to a sprint.
$ypically, roots on 2 legs can walk well on flat floors an" can
occasionally walk %p stairs. ;one can walk o#er rocky, %ne#en
terrain. !ome of the metho"s which ha#e een trie" areA
ZMP Technique
$he Pero 4oment 1oint -P410 is the algorithm %se" y roots s%ch
as )on"a's A!+4K. $he root's onoar" comp%ter tries to keep the
total inertial forces -the comination of earth's gra#ity an"
the acceleration an" "eceleration of walking0, e3actly oppose" y
the floor reaction force -the force of the floor p%shing ack on the
root's foot0. +n this way, the two forces cancel o%t, lea#ing
no moment -force ca%sing the root to rotate an" fall o#er0.
)owe#er, this is not e3actly how a h%man walks, an" the "ifference
is o#io%s to h%man oser#ers, some of whom ha#e pointe" o%t
that A!+4K walks as if it nee"s the la#atory. A!+4K's walking
algorithm is not static, an" some "ynamic alancing is %se" -see
elow0. )owe#er, it still re@%ires a smooth s%rface to walk on.
!e#eral roots, %ilt in the 19:0s y 4arc Raiert at the 4+$ 7eg
7aoratory, s%ccessf%lly "emonstrate" #ery "ynamic walking.
+nitially, a root with only one leg, an" a #ery small foot, co%l" stay
%pright simply y hopping. $he mo#ement is the same as that of a
person on a pogo stick. As the root falls to one si"e, it wo%l" >%mp
slightly in that "irection, in or"er to catch itself. !oon, the algorithm
was generalise" to two an" fo%r legs. A ipe"al root was
"emonstrate" r%nning an" e#en
performing somersa%lts. A @%a"r%pe" was also "emonstrate"
which co%l" trot, r%n, pace, an" o%n". 2or a f%ll list of these
roots, see the 4+$ 7eg 7a Roots page.
Dynaic balancing !controlled "alling#
A more a"#ance" way for a root to walk is y %sing a "ynamic
alancing algorithm, which is potentially more ro%st than the Pero
4oment 1oint techni@%e, as it constantly monitors the root's
motion, an" places the feet in or"er to maintain staility. $his
techni@%e was recently "emonstrate" y Anyots' ?e3ter
Root, which is so stale, it can e#en >%mp. Another e3ample is
the $U ?elft 2lame.
Passi$e dynaics
1erhaps the most promising approach %tili'es passi#e
"ynamics where the moment%m of swinging lims is %se" for
greater efficiency. +t has een shown that totally %npowere"
h%manoi" mechanisms can walk "own a gentle slope, %sing
only gra#ity to propel themsel#es. Using this techni@%e, a root
nee" only s%pply a small amo%nt of motor power to walk along a
flat s%rface or a little more to walk %p ahill. $his techni@%e promises
to make walking roots at least ten times more efficient than P41
walkers, like A!+4K.
ther metho&s o" locomotion
A mo"ern passenger airliner is essentially a flying root, with two
h%mans to manage it. $he a%topilot can control the plane for each
stage of the >o%rney, incl%"ing takeoff, normal flight, an" e#en
lan"ing. Kther flying roots are %ninhaite", an" are known
as%nmanne" aerial #ehicles -UACs0. $hey can e smaller an"
lighter witho%t a h%man pilot onoar", an" fly into "angero%s
territory for military s%r#eillance missions. !ome can e#en fire on
targets %n"er comman". UACs are also eing "e#elope" which can
fire on targets a%tomatically, witho%t the nee" for a comman" from
a h%man. Kther flying roots incl%"e cr%ise missiles,
the 9ntomopter, an" the9pson micro helicopter root. Roots s%ch
as the Air 1eng%in, Air Ray, an" Air *elly ha#e lighter/than/air
o"ies, propelle" y pa""les, an" g%i"e" y sonar.
!e#eral snake roots ha#e een s%ccessf%lly "e#elope". 4imicking
the way real snakes mo#e, these roots can na#igate #ery confine"
spaces, meaning they may one "ay e %se" to search for people
trappe" in collapse" %il"ings. $he *apanese A&4/RE snake
root can e#en na#igate oth on lan" an" in water.
A small n%mer of skating roots ha#e een "e#elope", one of
which is a m%lti/mo"e walking an" skating "e#ice. +t has fo%r legs,
with %npowere" wheels, which can either step or roll. Another
root, 1len, can %se a miniat%re skateoar" or rollerskates, an"
skate across a "esktop.
!e#eral "ifferent approaches ha#e een %se" to "e#elop roots
that ha#e the aility to clim #ertical s%rfaces. Kne approach
mimics the mo#ements of a h%man climer on a wall with
protr%sionsB a">%sting the center of mass an" mo#ing each lim in
t%rn to gain le#erage. An e3ample of this is &ap%chin, %ilt y
!tanfor" Uni#ersity, &alifornia. Another approach %ses the
speciali'e" toe pa" metho" of wall/climing geckoes, which can
r%n on smooth s%rfaces s%ch as #ertical glass. 93amples of this
approach incl%"e <allot an" !tickyot. &hina's .$echnology
?aily. ;o#emer 1E, 200: reporte" ;ew &oncept Aircraft
-P)U)A+0 &o., 7t". ?r. 7i )i% Qe%ng an" his research gro%p ha#e
recently s%ccessf%lly "e#elope" the ionic gecko root .!pee"y
2reelan"er.. Accor"ing to ?r. 7i intro"%ction, this gecko root can
rapi"ly climing %p an" "own in a #ariety of %il"ing walls, gro%n"
an" #ertical wall fiss%re or walking %psi"e "own on the ceiling, it is
ale to a"apt on smooth glass, ro%gh or sticky "%st walls as well as
the #ario%s s%rface of metallic materials an" also can a%tomatically
i"entify ostacles, circ%m#ent the ypass an" fle3ile an" realistic
mo#ements. +ts fle3iility an" spee" are comparale to the nat%ral
gecko. A thir" approach is to mimick the motion of a snake climing
a poleLcitation nee"e"M.
Swiing !like a "ish#
+t is calc%late" that when swimming some fish can achie#e
a prop%lsi#e efficiency greater than 90D. 2%rthermore, they can
accelerate an" mane%#er far etter than any man/
ma"e oat or s%marine, an" pro"%ce less noise an" water
"ist%rance. $herefore, many researchers st%"ying %n"erwater
roots wo%l" like to copy this type of locomotion. ;otale e3amples
are the 9sse3 Uni#ersity &omp%ter !cience Rootic 2ish, an" the
Root $%na %ilt y the +nstit%te of 2iel" Rootics, to analy'e an"
mathematically mo"elth%nniform motion. $he A@%a 1eng%in,
"esigne" an" %ilt y 2esto of 5ermany, copies the streamline"
shape an" prop%lsion y front .flippers. of peng%ins. 2esto ha#e
also %ilt the A@%a Ray an" A@%a *elly, which em%late the
locomotion of manta ray, an" >ellyfish, respecti#ely.
'ynamics an& %inematics
$he st%"y of motion can e "i#i"e" into kinematics an" "ynamics.
?irect kinematics refers to the calc%lation of en" effector position,
orientation, #elocity, an" acceleration when the correspon"ing >oint
#al%es are known. +n#erse kinematics refers to the opposite case in
which re@%ire" >oint #al%es are calc%late" for gi#en en" effector
#al%es, as "one in path planning. !ome special aspects of
kinematics incl%"e han"ling of re"%n"ancy -"ifferent possiilities of
performing the same mo#ement0, collision a#oi"ance,
an" sing%larity a#oi"ance. Knce all rele#ant positions, #elocities,
an" accelerations ha#e een calc%late" %sing kinematics, metho"s
from the fiel" of "ynamics are %se" to st%"y the effect
of forces %pon these mo#ements. ?irect "ynamics refers to the
calc%lation of accelerations in the root once the applie" forces are
known. ?irect "ynamics is %se" in comp%ter sim%lations of the
root. +n#erse "ynamics refers to the calc%lation of the act%ator
forces necessary to create a prescrie" en" effector acceleration.
$his information can e %se" to impro#e the control algorithms of a
+n each area mentione" ao#e, researchers stri#e to "e#elop new
concepts an" strategies, impro#e e3isting ones, an" impro#e the
interaction etween these areas. $o "o this, criteria for .optimal.
performance an" ways to optimi'e "esign, str%ct%re, an" control of
roots m%st e "e#elope" an" implemente".