# States of Matter

What do we know about water -
 hot water makes steam
 cold water can go to ice

What are learning about water -

Stuff
(wate
r)
is
of
stuff
(molecu
les)
e of
stuff
(atoms)

(Oxygen
atoms)
(Hydrogen
atoms)

 Using marbles and a tote tray we modeled how the water
molecules move in a solid, liquid and a gas.

This is how the marbles (molecules) moved:

Solid Liquid Gas

Here is what we noticed...

Solid Liquid Gas
Cold
Molecules move
slowly

Ice
Not much energy
Warm
Molecules move
medium (not fast
and not slow)
Water
Medium energy
Hot
Molecules move
fast

Steam (vapour)
Lots of energy

Kerri asked us “is there a different way you can model how atoms
move in a solid, liquid and a gas using your body?”
 We decided to go outside and use the netball court.
 For a solid we all stood close together and jiggled and wiggled.
 For a liquid we walked around in one third.
 For a gas we ran around in two thirds.

Here is what we noticed...

Solid Liquid Gas
We were jiggling
and wiggling
We were cold

There were no
collisions/crashes

We didn’t take up
much much space

Not much energy
was needed
We were walking
slowly
We started to get
warm

There were not
many
collisions/crashes
We needed
court
A medium amount
of energy
We were running
around, lots of
moving
We got hot

There were lots of
collisions/crashes

We needed lots of
of the court
We needed lots of
energy to keep
running fast.
We got excited

 Sometimes this is a bit easier when stuff (like gold) is made up of
stuff (gold atoms)
 Gold can be a solid, a liquid or a gas (really, really hot!) The
atoms of gold jiggle and wiggle as a solid, move slowly as a
liquid and move quickly as a gas (just like water.)
 question: do all solids, liquids and gases act the same?

Energy and the states of matter

How do you change from a solid to a liquid to a gas?
Here is what we think..
 When a solid gets warmer it turns into a liquid (Helen)
 When you heat it more it will turn into a gas (Luke)
 Some things go straight from solid to gas (Jayden) - Dry Ice
 A lot comes from heat (Thomas)
 Energy comes from the sun (Connor)
 Heat is energy (a type of energy)

Our experiment:
 We had some ice and an electric fry pan.
 We put the ice in the fry pan and turned it on (we left the lid off).
 We predict the ice will go from a solid to a liquid (melt) when the
fry pan is heated.

Here is what we noticed...

Ice (Solid) Water and Water, Ice
Ice and Steam

Our explanation...
To go from a solid to a liquid I need:
 When we added heat to the ice (solid) and the ice melted into
water (liquid).
 We added more heat and the water turned into steam (gas) -
evaporation.

What happened...
 Electrical energy from the power went into the electric fry pan.
 The electric fry pan turned the electrical energy into heat
energy.
 The heat energy melted the ice - did some work

In a solid * The atoms are close together, they move slowly, they
have not that much energy.
apart (and take up more room) and they moved
faster.
In a liquid *The atoms spread to take up the space, moving
quicker than in the solid.
*The atoms have more energy than the atoms in a solid.
*We add more energy and the liquid turned into a gas.
The atoms go really spread apart and they bounce
everywhere. They go really fast!

Kerri asked, “Can we change a gas to a liquid, and a liquid into a
solid?”

We think...
Yes...
 We see a gas turning to a liquid in the shower. The steam (gas)
hits the cold window and turns into a liquid - sometimes it runs
down the window like rain (Helen)
 The clouds are water gas and when it rains the gas turns to liquid
(Gracie)
 A liquid changes to solid in the freezer... our explanation
 The freezer has got cold air, the heat flows from the water into
the cold freezer air (Helen)
 The freezer slows the waters molecules down so they become
solid (Gracie)
 The freezer is taking away the heat -energy (Jayden)
 The freezer is doing work on the water (Connor)
 The freezer is removing the energy in the liquid so it becomes
solid.

ENERGY IS THE ABILITY TO DO WORK!

Energy can do lots of stuff
(Max)

Making Ice Cream
Prediction
 The cream (warm) is going to get cold...freeze (because the
warm is going to flow to the cold)
 The ice (solid) is going to melt.
 The cream and Ice will end up the same temperature because
everything wants to be the same.
Method

 We used 1 cup of milk and 1/2 a cup of cream instead of 2 cups
of milk.

Adventure 9 are exploring Ice cream

First we
prepared the
ingredients
Then we mixed
the sugar, milk,
cream and
chocolate
sauce into the
small bag.
and salt to the
big bag.

We put the
small bag into
the small beg
(making sure it
was shut
properly-no
leaks!)

Then we shook
the bags

and shook the
bag

and shook the
bag

and shook the
bag!

Lastly we tasted the ice cream.
Yummy!
It was frozen, cold and mushy.

Results
 The ice cream kind of looked like it was from the factory (Juven)
 The ice cream was colder and thicker than at the start, but not
as thick and solid as the ice cream you buy (Thomas)... perhaps
we didn’t have enough ice.
 The ice cream taste like frozen chocolate milk (Yassmine)
 Some of the ice cream was still runny and some was frozen hard
solid (Helen)
 There were lumps of the ingredients in some places...perhaps we
need to mix it more.
 The cream was doing work on the ice...the cream made the ice
warm and water (Conner)
 When we were shaking the ice the ice started melting because
of the heat flowing from our hands into the ice (Helen) Our
hands got got really, really cold!
 The ice cream melted really quickly and turned back to liquid
because of all the warm air in the class - heat flowing from warm
to cold (Gracie)

Conclusion
The ice and cream wanted to be the same temperature. Heat flows
from warm to cold. The heat from the cream melted the ice (did
work).

What are heat and cold?

Prediction
 The medium water will feel warm and nice
 The medium water will feel fizzy at the end of your finger

Method

Results
 Couldn’t feel the water with our fingers
 My hot finger felt cold and my cold finger felt hot
 My cold finger went numb and it went a bit fizzy at the end

The Science

 It may sound strange but hot and cold are the same
thing...something cold has thermal energy, something hot also
has thermal energy!
 Something is only hot or cold compared to something else, like
an ice block is cold compared to your tongue and teeth. A hot
chocolate is hot compared to my mouth but the hot chocolate
is cold compared to larva!

Our Word Bank/Glossary
Molecule - stuff like water is made of stuff. These are
the molecules
(A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.)
Atom - the basic building blocks of matter that make up everyday
objects. (Oxygen atoms)
(Hydrogen atoms)
States of matter - the different forms of matter (stuff), liquid, solid or gas.
Kinetic Energy - the energy of motion (movement)
Potential Energy - energy of position, stored energy
Energy - The ability to do work (do something)
Electricity - the presence and flow of electric charge.
Heat flow - Heat flows from warm to cold.