Name: ________________________( ) Class: _______________

Resolution of vectors
Vectors are often resolved in two components: the vertical component and the
horizontal component.

Fv F
Fh
Example: Find the horizontal and vertical and components of the 5 N.


!
F! F = 500 N

40
o
O "
#orizontal component of F$ Fx
%o find the horizontal component:
&tep ': (rop a perpendic)lar from the 5 N force to the x*axis
&tep +: Calc)late the horizontal component as ill)strated ,elow:
Fx - cos .
F

Fx - F cos .
o
%herefore$ the horizontal component of F$ Fx - F cos .
o
%o find the vertical component:
&tep ': (rop a perpendic)lar from the 5 N force to the !*axis
&tep +: Calc)late the vertical component as ill)strated ,elow:
F! - sin .
o
F

F! - F sin .
o
%herefore$ the vertical component of F$ F! - F sin .
o
Example: Find the res)ltant of the fo)r forces shown.
'
Fi/)re shows how in two dimensions vector F is split
into its two components Fv and Fh.
%he two components$ ta0en to/ether$ have exactl! the
same effect as the sin/le vector F.
%he ma/nit)de of the two components are /iven ,!
Fh - F cos φ
Fv - F sin φ
1
2n the horizontal direction to the left$ the total force is /iven ,!:
(5.5N x cos +.
o
) 3 (.+5N x cos '5
o
) 4 (5N x cos .
o
) 4 55N x cos +6
o
- .78N 3 .''N 4585N 4 +7.N
- +5+N
2n the vertical )pwards direction$ the total force is /iven ,!:
(5.5N x sin +.
o
) * (.+5N x sin '5
o
) 3 (5N x sin .
o
) 4 (55N x sin +6
o
)
- +++N 3 5+'N 4 ''N 4'5N
- +85N
9sin/ :!tha/oras;s theorem$
F
+
- +5+
+
3 +85
+
F - 5<< N
and tan θ - +5+=+85
θ - 57.5
o
%he res)ltant force F therefore has a ma/nit)de of 5<< N inclined in a direction 57
o
to
the left of verticall! )pwards.
Questions
'.
+.
+
500 N
545N
+.
o
.
o
425N 15
o
27
o
330N

F +85 N
θ
+5+N
..5 N ..5 N
.
o
.
o

> lamp is s)spended from two wires as shown in
the dia/ram. %he tension in each wire is ..5 N
a. Calc)late the ma/nit)de of the res)ltant force
exerted on the lamp ,! the wires.
,. ?hat is the wei/ht of the lamp@ Explain !o)r
answer.
%wo t)/s > and A p)ll a ship a lon/ the
direction "B. %)/ > exerts a force on the ship of
5. x '
.
N at an an/le of '5
o
to "B. %)/ A p)lls
with a force of '.8 x '
.
N at and an/le θ to "B.
a. Find the an/le θ for the res)ltant
force on the ,oat to ,e alon/ "BC
(Hint: when the resultant force is along XO,
the comonent of the resultant force in the
!irection eren!icular to XO is "ero#$
,. Find the val)e of this res)ltant force.
O
t)/ >


θ





5. > ,od! of mass ' 0/ is slidin/ down a slope inclined at 5
o
to the horizontal at
a constant speed as shown ,elow. %a0in/ / as ' m=s
+
$ calc)late
a. the component of the wei/ht alon/ the inclined plane$ hence the force needed to stop
the o,Dect from slidin/$
,. the reaction force E.
.. > microphone of mass 5 / is h)n/ from the ceilin/ ,! a wire.
E
m/
Component of the wei/ht
alon/ the inclined plane
5
o
5
'8 0N
5 0N
'5
o
t)/ A
X
a. ?hat is the tension in the wire@
,. > horizontal force F p)lls the wire to ma0e an an/le of 5
o
with the vertical as shown in
the fi/)re ,elow.
Calc)late
(i) the new tension in the wire$
(ii) (ii) the ma/nit)de of F.
.