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Resolution of vectors

Vectors are often resolved in two components: the vertical component and the

horizontal component.

Fv F

Fh

Example: Find the horizontal and vertical and components of the 5 N.

!

F! F = 500 N

40

o

O "

#orizontal component of F$ Fx

%o find the horizontal component:

&tep ': (rop a perpendic)lar from the 5 N force to the x*axis

&tep +: Calc)late the horizontal component as ill)strated ,elow:

Fx - cos .

F

Fx - F cos .

o

%herefore$ the horizontal component of F$ Fx - F cos .

o

%o find the vertical component:

&tep ': (rop a perpendic)lar from the 5 N force to the !*axis

&tep +: Calc)late the vertical component as ill)strated ,elow:

F! - sin .

o

F

F! - F sin .

o

%herefore$ the vertical component of F$ F! - F sin .

o

Example: Find the res)ltant of the fo)r forces shown.

'

Fi/)re shows how in two dimensions vector F is split

into its two components Fv and Fh.

%he two components$ ta0en to/ether$ have exactl! the

same effect as the sin/le vector F.

%he ma/nit)de of the two components are /iven ,!

Fh - F cos φ

Fv - F sin φ

1

2n the horizontal direction to the left$ the total force is /iven ,!:

(5.5N x cos +.

o

) 3 (.+5N x cos '5

o

) 4 (5N x cos .

o

) 4 55N x cos +6

o

- .78N 3 .''N 4585N 4 +7.N

- +5+N

2n the vertical )pwards direction$ the total force is /iven ,!:

(5.5N x sin +.

o

) * (.+5N x sin '5

o

) 3 (5N x sin .

o

) 4 (55N x sin +6

o

)

- +++N 3 5+'N 4 ''N 4'5N

- +85N

9sin/ :!tha/oras;s theorem$

F

+

- +5+

+

3 +85

+

F - 5<< N

and tan θ - +5+=+85

θ - 57.5

o

%he res)ltant force F therefore has a ma/nit)de of 5<< N inclined in a direction 57

o

to

the left of verticall! )pwards.

Questions

'.

+.

+

500 N

545N

+.

o

.

o

425N 15

o

27

o

330N

F +85 N

θ

+5+N

..5 N ..5 N

.

o

.

o

> lamp is s)spended from two wires as shown in

the dia/ram. %he tension in each wire is ..5 N

a. Calc)late the ma/nit)de of the res)ltant force

exerted on the lamp ,! the wires.

,. ?hat is the wei/ht of the lamp@ Explain !o)r

answer.

%wo t)/s > and A p)ll a ship a lon/ the

direction "B. %)/ > exerts a force on the ship of

5. x '

.

N at an an/le of '5

o

to "B. %)/ A p)lls

with a force of '.8 x '

.

N at and an/le θ to "B.

a. Find the an/le θ for the res)ltant

force on the ,oat to ,e alon/ "BC

(Hint: when the resultant force is along XO,

the comonent of the resultant force in the

!irection eren!icular to XO is "ero#$

,. Find the val)e of this res)ltant force.

O

t)/ >

θ

5. > ,od! of mass ' 0/ is slidin/ down a slope inclined at 5

o

to the horizontal at

a constant speed as shown ,elow. %a0in/ / as ' m=s

+

$ calc)late

a. the component of the wei/ht alon/ the inclined plane$ hence the force needed to stop

the o,Dect from slidin/$

,. the reaction force E.

.. > microphone of mass 5 / is h)n/ from the ceilin/ ,! a wire.

E

m/

Component of the wei/ht

alon/ the inclined plane

5

o

5

'8 0N

5 0N

'5

o

t)/ A

X

a. ?hat is the tension in the wire@

,. > horizontal force F p)lls the wire to ma0e an an/le of 5

o

with the vertical as shown in

the fi/)re ,elow.

Calc)late

(i) the new tension in the wire$

(ii) (ii) the ma/nit)de of F.

.

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