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in Layered Soil

Vesna Arnautovski-Toseva

(1)

, Leonid Grcev

(1)

, Spase Petkoski

(1)

and Khalil El Khamlichi Drissi

(2)

(1)

Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies

Skopje, Macedonia, Email: (atvesna,lgrcev}@feit.ukim.edu.mk

(2)

University Blaise Pascal, LASMEA

Aubire, France, Email: drissi@ lasmea.univ-bpclermont.fr

AbstractThis paper presents the ongoing research results

of the high frequency and transient grounding system

analysis in two-layer soil structure. On the basis of rigorous

electromagnetic field theory, which involves Sommerfelds

integrals, the mathematical model is formulated by the

mixed potential integral equation (MPIE). Detailed analysis

of a high frequency performance of a typical horizontal

grounding conductor placed in the upper or in the bottom

layer is given. It is shown that because of the presence of

two distinct layers the current distribution and the

impedance to ground are highly affected by the parameters

of both soil layers. Also, the current distribution in near-by

passive horizontal conductor is analyzed. At the end of the

paper some observations about the effects of two-layer soil

structure at high frequencies are given.

Keywords-grounding; electromagnetic model;

I. INTRODUCTION

The practical studies and experimental investigations

indicate that uniform soil parameters throughout the

entire area and to considerable depth of interest are

seldom found. Considering the realistic soil environment,

it is shown that non-homogenous soil could be

adequately represented by an equivalent multi-layer soil

structure, by the presence of several horizontal layers. In

practice it is assumed that the two-layer model of soil

stratification is reasonably valid for non-uniform soil

representation. The survey of the published work in this

area implies that traditional analysis of grounding

systems in two-layer soil is performed using static and

quasi-static theory concepts of images [1], and modified

images [2]. The electromagnetic model, which is

developed on the rigorous electromagnetic approach [3],

considers homogenous soil only. However, a comparison

study of exact and quasi-static model for uniform soil,

has suggested that quasi-static model is not valid at high

frequencies (HF) [4]. Our research in this field resulted in

development of a new electromagnetic model for HF

analysis of grounding systems placed within the upper

layer of two-layer soil [7]. The validation of this model is

achieved by comparison with the quasi-static model of

images [8], and the electromagnetic model developed

previously for uniform soil [9].

In this paper, we will present more general analysis of

high frequency behavior of simple horizontal grounding

conductor placed within two-layer soil, where the

position of the conductor is assumed to be within the

upper or within the bottom layer. Also, of interested in

this analysis is the frequency domain behavior of a near-

by horizontal passive conductor placed parallel to the

grounding conductor in the same layer. The main

objective of this work is to give some general observation

of the high frequency behavior of grounding systems

within two-layer soil in general, as well as to investigate

the behavior of near-by passive conductor with respect to

frequency. The mathematical model will be presented in

section 2. By comparing the results obtained by using the

two-layer soil model and the homogeneous soil model, in

section 3, we will give some observations about the

adequacy of the application of the two-layer soil model in

practical lightning studies

II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL

A. Model of the Grounding Conductor and the Soil

The electromagnetic model developed for high

frequency and transient analysis of grounding systems is

based on rigorous formulations derived from the full set

of the Maxwells equations, on the theoretical

background of antenna analysis [5]. It is based on the

integral equation for the electric field due to current and

charges along grounding wires in terms of the vector and

scalar potentials, so called: mixed potential integral

equation. The exact Greens functions involve

Sommerfeld type integrals for the layered media and their

direct numerical integration. For the excitation of the

grounding conductor by injection of current in one of its

end, this solution gives current distribution along the

grounding conductor, impedance to ground, electric field

and potentials in arbitrary points. The detailed description

978-1-4244-2737-6/08/$25.00 2008 IEEE

of the model which is developed for uniform soil is given

in [3]. Later, this model is extended for high frequency

analysis of grounding systems within the upper layer of

two-layer soil [7]. For the purpose of this paper, the brief

description of the electromagnetic model in general is

given within this section.

We consider a single x-directed horizontal electrode

of length L placed at depth H within the upper or within

the bottom layer of a two-layer soil. The passive wire

may be placed in the same or in opposite layer. Following

the thin-wire approximation, the physical model of an

electrode is based on the fictitious wire segmentation into

straight tubular segments. The harmonic current

excitation is assumed, which is simulated by an ideal

time-harmonic current generator with one terminal

connected to the grounding system and the other terminal

to infinity, which yields frequency-domain response of

the system.

To solve current distribution the method of moments

is applied using Galerkin formulation with triangular

basis and test functions [8]. The wires are segmented in

fictitious segments and the current distribution is

approximated by overlapped triangular expansion

functions (triangular dipoles). Excitation is

approximated by an additional triangular monopole.

Following matrix equation yields current distribution:

] [ ] ][ [

S S

I Z I Z = (1)

Here, the column matrix [I] represents the unknown

current samples, [Z] is generalized impedance matrix

related to mutual impedances between triangular dipoles,

[-Z

S

I

S

] is excitation matrix where I

S

is current injected at a

point in the grounding conductors and Z

S

is column

matrix related to mutual impedances between each of the

triangle dipoles and the injection triangle monopole. [Z]

matrix is symmetrical and only half of the elements have

to be evaluated. For the case of one linear wire [Z] is

Toeplitz matrix and only one row have to be computed.

0 AIR

Ig

L

1 UPPER

LAYER

2 BOTTOM

LAYER

z

y

x

H

Grounding conductor

Figure 1. General view of the end-driven single grounding electrode

and a near-by passive condutor in the same layer.

The soil and the air are modeled as linear medium

characterized by corresponding permittivity, permeability

and conductivity. Figure 1 shows a single grounding

conductor in two-layer soil and near-by passive

conductor in the same or in the opposite later. It is

assumed that the two-layer soil model consists of an

upper layer of finite height d1 and characterized by

relative permittivity r1, permeability 0 and resistivity

1; and a bottom layer which is characterized by relative

permittivity r2, permeability 0 and resistivity 2. Air is

characterized by permittivity 0 and permeability 0.

B. Calculation of the impedance matrix

To determine the impedance matrix [Z], each element

of the matrix is determined as self or mutual impedance

zmn between two wire segments (m-observation) and (n-

source) carrying current I

n

:

mn n m

mn

n n

u

z

I I

= =

E l

(2)

Here, E

n

is the tangential electric field at the surface

of the observation segment l

m

due to current I

n

along the

source segment.

( )

n n

j

n

= + E A (3)

Here, the vector and scalar potentials are represented

by their integral forms, involving current density I

n

and

charge density q

n

in the source segment of length l

n

:

=

n

l

n n A n

d I l G A ,

=

n

l

n n n

dl q G

1

n

n

n

dI

q

j dl

= (4)

Here,

A

G is the dyadic Green's function for the

magnetic vector potential, and G

Green's function due to elementary horizontal electric

dipole (HED) in layered medium. They are first obtained

in spectral domain and take into account the reflection

from the boundaries. The spectral domain Greens

functions of vector potential and scalar potential are

related to the longitudinal components of the spectral

domain fields, which are proportional to the spectral

domain transmission coefficients [6]:

0

2

xx

A

z

G

j k

TE

T (6)

2

2

1 1

2

TM

TE TE z

q

r z z

k T

G T T

j k jk z k

= +

(7)

Passive conductor

Here, T

TE

and T

TM

are plane wave transmission

coefficients from the plane of the source to the plane of

the observation; kz is vertical wave number for the layer

of the source and

2

0 0

2

0

2 2

) ( k j k k k

r r z

= = + .

The spatial domain Green's functions are obtained by

numerical solving the Sommerfeld-type integrals

=

0

0 , ,

) ( ) (

~

2

1

dk k k J k G G

q A q A

. (8)

C. Calculation of the impedance to ground

Once the currents in segments of the grounding

conductors are computed, the electric field can be

computed by summing their contributions. The voltage

between the feed point and a remote ground V

G

, might be

computed by integrating the electric field vector along a

path to infinity perpendicularly to the electrode and

starting from the surface of the conductor. However, this

is equivalent to the scalar potential at the feed point.

Therefore, impedance to ground Z

G

is:

] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [

1

1

Z Z Z Z I

I I

V

Z

S

S S

G

G

= = =

. (9)

Here [Z'] is a row matrix with scalar potentials at the

excitation segment due to currents in all segments.

III. NUMERICAL RESULTS

A. Analysis of a single grounding conductor

In this section some of the results that show the high

frequency behavior of a single horizontal grounding

conductor within two layer soil are presented.

The studied grounding conductor is typical end-

driven linear horizontal wire: short (10m) and long (50m)

with radius of 0.005m placed at depth H=-0.75m within

the upper or the bottom layer. The conductor is energized

by a time-harmonic current generator with amplitude of

1A in frequency range from 1kHz to 10MHz. Since there

is huge number of combination of parameters of the two-

layer soil model we are restricting our analysis to the

cases 1 and 2 given in the table 1.

Figure 2. Magnitude and phase of a longitudinal current along 10m

short grounding conductor within two-layer soil at frequencies

0.1MHz, 1MHz and 10MHz.

TABLE I. PARAMETERS OF BOTH LAYERS

Upper layer

depth d

1

(m)

Upper layer

1

(m)

Bottom

layer

2

(m)

Case 1

Conductor in

the upper

layer

1.0

100

a) 1000

b) 10

Case 2

Conductor in

the bottom

layer

0.5

a) 1000

b) 10

100

The layer containing the grounding conductor (upper

or bottom) is assumed by resistivity fixed to 100m. It is

assumed that the relative permittivity of both layers is 10.

The resistivity of the neighbor layer is assumed by: a)

1000m and b) 10m.

The depth of the upper layer is considered as: Case 1)

1.0m - when the grounding conductor is placed within the

upper layer and Case 2) 0.5m - when the grounding

conductor is placed within the bottom layer. In order to

compare the results obtained for homogeneous soil and

two-layer soil, it is assumed that homogeneous soil model

is characterized by resistivity of 100m.

Figure 2 shows the magnitude and phase of the

current distribution along the short 10m horizontal

conductor. The studied frequencies are: 0.1MHz (solid),

1MHz (dash) and 10MHz (dot).

Figure 3. Magnitude and phase of a longitudinal current along 50m

long grounding conductor within two-layer soil at frequencies 0.1MHz,

1MHz and 10MHz.

The results are obtained for two-layer soil with

parameters given in table I: Case 1 (blue-green), and for

Case 2 (red-magenta). For comparison, the results

obtained for homogeneous soil are represented in grey.

It is obvious that in case of a short horizontal

conductor the influence up to 0.1MHz the current

distribution profiles correspond to the typical quasi-static

behavior. The current discharged into the ground is

almost constant except at the conductor extremities,

which is in agreement with [1]. As the frequency

increases, it is observed that the longitudinal current

decreases very fast. For 1MHz, the wavelength in the

layer containing the conductor is about 22m that is

comparably to the length of the conductor. At this

frequency the current distribution profiles show

significant differences. For 10MHz, the current

distribution profiles become closer and almost overlap,

which lead to the conclusion that at very high frequencies

the short horizontal conductor placed within two-layer

soil is practically behaves like placed in homogeneous

soil.

In comparison with the previous results, the

performance of a long 50m conductor placed within two-

layer soil is much more function of the frequency, and is

also significantly influenced by the properties of the two-

layer soil model. Figure 3 shows magnitude and phase of

the current distribution along the 50m long horizontal

conductor at frequencies: 0.01MHz (solid), 0.1MHz

(dash) and 1.0MHz (dot). The results show that up to

0.01MHz the longitudinal current distribution profiles

correspond to the typical quasi-static profiles, which

correspond to [1]. Significant differences are observed

for frequencies in range of 0.1MHz (the wavelength in

the layer containing the conductor is 70m that is close to

the length of the conductor). As the frequency increases

up to 1MHz, it is observed that a large partition of the

injected current is discharged through the small section of

about 25% of the conductor length, especially in case

when next layer is slightly resistive.

B. Analysis of the passive near-by parallel conductor

In this section we present some of the results that

show the longitudinal current along passive near-by

conductor placed parallel to 10m (short) grounding

conductor in the same layer. The length of the passive

conductor is assumed to be: 10m and 20m. The passive

conductor is positioned at the same depth (-0.75m) at

0.5m parallel to the grounding conductor. Figures 4 and 5

show the current along 10m and 20m passive parallel

conductor at frequencies: 0.01MHz (solid), 0.1MHz

(dash) and 1MHz (dot).

IV. CONCLUSION

This paper presents the high frequency

electromagnetic analysis of horizontal grounding

conductor within two-layer soil. The results lead to the

following conclusions:

Figure 4. Longitudinal current along 10m passive near-by conductor

parallel to 10m grounding conductor within two-layer soil at 0.01MHz,

0.1MHz and 1MHz.

Figure 5. Longitudinal current along 20m passive near-by conductor

parallel to 10m grounding conductor within two-layer soil at 0.01MHz,

0.1MHz and 1MHz.

The current distribution along horizontal

grounding conductor within two-layer soil is

strongly affected by the parameters of both layers

especially for frequencies when the wavelength

is close to the length of the conductor. For longer

conductors, these effects are observed in the

lower frequency range from few kHz up to

1MHz. At very high frequencies over 1MHz, the

effects of the two-layer soil model is approaching

that of a homogeneous soil model.

The two-layer soil parameters have strong

influence on the current distribution along

passive parallel conductor in the lower frequency

range, especially when the neighbor layer is

much more resistive.

REFERENCES

[1] F. Dawalibi, D. Mukhedekar, Parametric analysis of grounding

grids, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-

98, No. 5, Sept./Oct. pp. 1659-1668.

[2] T. Takashima, T. Nakae, R. Ishibashi, High frequency

characteristics of impedances to ground and field distributions of

ground electrodes, IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus Systems, vol.

EI-15, Feb. 1980, pp. 1-7.

[3] L.Grcev, F.Dawalibi, An Electromagnetic Model for Transients

in Grounding Systems, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol.

PWRD-5, No. 4, Oct. 1990, pp. 1773-1781.

[4] R. Olsen, M. C. Willis, A comparison of exact and quasi-static

methods for evaluating grounding systems at high frequencies,

95 SM 395-4 PWRD, 1995.

[5] J. R. Mosig, F. E. Gardiol, A dynamic model for microstrip

structures, in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, P.

W. Hawkes, Ed. New York: Academic, vol. 59, 1982, pp. 139-

237.

[6] D. G. Fang, J. J. Yang, G. Y. Delisle, Discret Image Theory for

Horizontal Electric Dipoles in Multilayered Medium, IEE

Proceedings, Vol. 135, No.5, Oct. 1988, pp.297-303.

[7] V. Arnautovski-Toseva, L. Grcev, Electromagnetic Analysis of

Horizontal Wire in Two-layered Soil, Journal of Computational

and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 168, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 21-29.

[8] V. Arnautovski-Toseva, L. Grcev, A Comparison of Exact and

Image Model for HF Analysis of Horizontal Grounding

Conductors in Two-layer Soil, Proc. of the 6th International

Conference on Applied Electromagnetics (03), Nis, Serbia

and Montenegro, 2003, pp. 5-8.

[9] V. Arnautovski-Toseva, L. Grcev, K. El Khamlichi Drissi,

Calculation of the harmonic impedance of a single horizontal

grounding wire in two-layer soil by the electromagnetic model,

IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic

Compatibility (EMCEurope04), 23-25 Sept. 2004, Eindhoven,

The Netherlands, pp. 887-892.

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