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SCENARIO FOR RESEARCH ON EFFECT OF LEACHING ON OC AND NC CLAYS

I. Introduction for over-consolidation value and Hwajeon OCR values.
σ 'pc
- OCR =
σvo'
The meaning of OCR have:

Figure 1. Typical curve: Void ratio- log scale of effective stress

An over-consolidated soil will follow paths such as (dfg) as in figure 1.
It means that for stress :
+ σ < σ ’pc : an over-consolidated soil would approximately behave like an elastic
material and settlement would be small.
+ σ > σ ’pc : an over-consolidated soil would approximately behave like an elastoplastic
material, similar to normally consolidated soil.

Figure 2. OCR measured in the laboratory for clay at Hwajeon (Rao, 2004)

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Cause: An artesian pressure applies the uplift pressure to a soil layer and results in a
decrease of effective overburden pressure. Then the maximum past pressure determined by the
oedometer tests or in-situ tests is underestimated, compared with the effective overburden
pressure without artesian condition. The values of OCR depend on the empirical formula used but
it is noted that all the values of OCR are gradually decreasing with increasing depth from 7m
below the ground level.
This may be due to the artesian pressure applied to the lower portion of the soil layer.
Artersian --------- > natural leaching procedure -----> lower pre-consolidation pressure
(that the effect of leaching)

II. Normally consolidated clays and Over-consolidated clays

Purpose: compare with three sample:
Natural clay( control sample), NC leached and OC leached sample

NCn
OCn

Hwajeon Natural clay Leaching procedure

NCL OCL

Method:
1. Natural samples:
3 specimens D = 63.5mm, H =25.4 mm was taken from the same tube were
labeled as natural sample, unleached normally consolidated sample (NCn) and unleached
over-consolidated sample (OCL).

2. Making the normally consolidated clay, and over-consolidated clays

Since the sample was taken from the lower portion clays of the Hwajeon site,
almost sample have the OCR value less than 1. The reason was explained by the exist artesian
pressure applying. For getting the NC and OC clay we use the loading way by using the
LowTract II and FlowTract II, in the CRS equipment.

2.1. Normally consolidated clay
- Use the NCn specimen label, preparing all the step for CRS sample
- On CRS software, set up the seating load value : OVER BURDEN PRESSURE
- Maximum duration = 1 day

Over burden

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Seating load was chosen instead of phase of consolidation because it doesn’t make the
change in the excess pore pressure. During the initialization phase, the bridge valve was opened

Then the specimen will be leached by fresh water using the leaching diagram.

2.2. Over consolidated clay consolidated clay
- Use the NCn specimen label, preparing all the step for CRS sample
- On CRS software, set up the seating load value : 1.5 OVER BURDEN PRESSURE
- Maximum duration = 1 day

1.5Over burden

Seating load was chosen instead of phase of consolidation because it doesn’t make the
change in the excess pore pressure. During the initialization phase, the bridge valve was opened

Then uload the specimen by the phase:
- The strain rate was chosen with the normal strain rate = 10-3%/sec, that means not large
and too small to take long time.
+ Final pressure: corresponding with OCR = 1.5, we will set up the final pressure
+ Maintain time = 1 day

Over burden

During the loading we will measure the changes of the void ratio by collecting the strain
data of sample.

Finally, getting the OC leached clay by leaching procedure.

III. Estimation the results :
1. Leaching time for the same target value : 3g/L

+ NC leached clays : 25 days
+ OC leached clays : 20 days

The reason was explain that the hydraulic conductivity of OC state have the higher value
of hydraulic conductivity than the NC state

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Parameter Compare NC leached clay Estimation OC Leached clay
with Natural comparing
clay:
Control
sample
Unit weight, γ Decrease Reduction γ > Reduction γ
Void ratio (e) Decrease Reduction e > Reduction e
Water content (%) Unaltered
Decrease Reduction LL > Reduction LL
Liquid limit (LL) when

Compresibility Increase The raise Cc < The raise Cc
Increase The raise Cs < The raise Cs
Preconsolidation Decrease Reduction pc > Reduction pc
pressure
Settlement The raise s The raise s

2. Stress-strain curves:

OC leached clay

NC leached clay

Leaching effect

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