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When we use the present perfect this way, we are focusing on a present state or situation without giving
much thought to the past. In fact, we can often rephrase such sentences in present tense without changing
, inmvil, ) picture rather than
the meaning much. In our minds we often see a still (
an action.

1. The bus has arrived. You may board now. (Similar to: The bus is here.)
(In our minds, we see the bus parked in its space, not moving. We dont see the bus pulling in.)
2. She has finished her dinner. You can take her plate away. (Similar: She is finished with her dinner.)
(We see an empty plate on the table in front of her. We dont see her eating the last few bits of food.)
3. She has done the dishes. All she has left to do is sweep the floor. (Similar to: The
dishes are done.) (We picture the dishes drying in the dish rack next to the sink.
We dont see her busy doing the dishes.)
4. Mom, Ive cleaned my room. Can I go play basketball now? (Similar to: My room
is clean.) (In our minds, we see a room in which everything is neat and in its
proper place. We dont see someone busy picking things up and putting them away.)
5. The lawn has grown a lot. Wed better mow it. (Similar to: The grass is long.)
(In our minds, we see long grass. We dont see grass growing.)
6. a. So, how are they getting along?
b. Actually, theyve stopped talking to each other. (Similar to: Theyre arent talking to each other.)

We can also use the present perfect to talk about what has changed or how much we have done or
accomplished (
, logros, , ).

7. a. Are there any changes to my calendar for tomorrow?

b. As a matter of fact, yes. Ive moved Jane Brown from 1:30 to 3:30. She called and said that she
was worried that her flight might not arrive on time and she would miss the meeting.
a. Crumb!* I was hoping to leave the office early tomorrow afternoon. Oh, well.
*indicates mild disapproval, disappointment, or irritation, similar to D a r n !

8. a. Hows the project coming along? (

, avanzar, )
b. Well, Im happy to report that things are moving along according to schedule. Weve finished the
preliminary designs and (weve) sent them to the Planning Department for approval. Also, Ive
arranged a meeting with the Engineering Department to review the building specifications*.
*the exact details of a plan in writing

Book4ClassSetAW07-2 5/25/2014 11:17 AM Roland Trego - 155 -

Practice using the present perfect. Describe the situation in the following pictures. Use the
following verbs. (You will use several of them more than once.)


run out of

a. The bus has arrived .


lift (or: burn off)

pick up

6. The garbage collector

the garbage.

1. She _______________
_____________ weight.

2. He _________________
_______ all of his money.

7. The students __________

____________ the

8. He _________________
bald. (Use go.)


, quedarse calvo

9. The plane ____________

3. The fog ______________



4. He __________________

10. He __________________
his briefcase.

_______________ gas.

5. The tree ______________

its leaves.

11. The student on the left

his test.

Book4ClassSetAW07-2 5/25/2014 11:17 AM Roland Trego - 156 -