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Foreword - What are Engineering Standards?

Standards and Codes
Standards, codes, specifications are extremely important - often essential - technical
documents in engineering and related technical fields.
Standards: a technical standard is an established norm or requirement. It is usually a
formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods,
processes and practices. The documents prepared by a professional group or committee
which are believed to be good and proper engineering practices and which contain
mandatory requirement.
Codes: a code is a set of rules and specifications or systematic procedures for design,
fabrication, installation and inspection methods prepared in such a manner that it can
be adopted by legal jurisdiction. Codes can be approved by local, state or federal
governments and can carry the force of law. The main purpose of codes is to protect
the public by setting up the minimum acceptable level of safety for buildings, products
and processes.
Pipe Fabrication Institute

The Pipe Fabrication Institute (PFI) publishes advisory Engineering Standards (ES) and
Technical Bulletins (TB) intended to serve the needs of the pipe-fabricating industry at
the design level and in actual shop operations. The PFI standards contain minimum
requirements; however, the designer or fabricator may consider specifying additional
requirements beyond the scope of PFI publications. The use of PFI standards or
bulletins is voluntary. A listing of PFI publications follows:
Engineering and Fabrication
 ES2 - Method of Dimensioning Piping Assemblies
 ES7 - Minimum Length and Spacing for Welded Nozzles
 ES16 - Access Holes, Bosses, and Plugs for Radiographic Inspection of Pipe Welds
 ES26 - Welded Load Bearing Attachments to Pressure Retaining Piping Materials
 ES36 - Branch Reinforcement Work Sheets
 ES40 - Method of Dimensioning Grooved Piping Assemblies
 ES44 - Drafting Practices Standard
Welding and Fabrication
 ES1 - Internal Machining and Solid Machined Backing Rings For Circumferential Butt
 ES21 - Internal Machining and Fit-up of GTAW Root Pass Circumferential Butt Welds
 ES24 - Pipe Bending Methods, Tolerances, Process and Material Requirements
 ES35 - Nonsymmetrical Bevels and Joint Configurations for Butt Welds
 ES45 - Recommended Practice for Local Post-Weld Heat Treatment
 ES47 - Welding of Internally Clad Piping
 ES49 - Guidelines for Installation of Integrally Reinforced Branch Connection Outlet
Cleaning, Painting, and Shipping
 ES5 - Cleaning of Fabricated Piping
 ES29 - Internal Abrasive Blast Cleaning of Ferritic Piping Materials
 ES31 - Standard for Protection of Ends of Fabricated Piping Assemblies
 ES34 - Temporary Painting/Coating of Fabricated Piping
 ES37 - Standard for Loading and Shipping of Piping Assemblies
Quality Control
 ES3 - Fabricating Tolerances
 ES11 - Permanent Marking on Piping Materials
 ES22 - Recommended Practice for Color Coding of Piping Materials
 ES32 - Tool Calibration
 ES39 - Fabricating Tolerances for Grooved Piping Systems
 ES41 - Standard for Material Control and Traceability of Piping Components
 ES43 - Standard for Protection of Austenitic Stainless Steel and Nickel Alloy
Examination and Testing
 ES4 - Hydrostatic Testing of Fabricated Piping
 ES20 - Wall Thickness Measurement by Ultrasonic Examination
 ES27 - "Visual Examination" The Purpose, Meaning and Limitation of the Term
 ES42 - Standard for Positive Material Identification of Piping Components using
Portable X-Ray Emission Type Equipment
 ES48 - Random Examination
Example of Engineering Standard
On the right of this page you will find a link (ES) that opens a small menu. Through this
menu you can open several pages that give you an example, how an Engineering
Standard might look like. Remember, the shown ES on this website only is an example!