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BASIC MICROBIOLOGY AND PARASITOLOGY MODULE

INTRODUCTION

The Parasitology component in the Basic Microbiology and Parasitology module will span itself through three
th
weeks during the 5 term (week 7-10) of the undergraduate MBBS course. This module will complement the
teaching made during the Foundation module, and lay the foundation for the teaching/learning sessions of the
th
more comprehensive Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Module which the students have to follow through in the 6
th
and 7 term.

The format and the objectives specified below are being subjected to regular review and amendments may be
introduced as appropriate.

FORMAT

1. A minimum of 13 lecture hours per student

2. A minimum of 6 practical/demonstration hours per student

3. One hour allocated time for viewing CD Rom developed by the Department of

Parasitology

OBJECTIVES

2.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVES

Taking medically important parasitic diseases into consideration the student should be able to:

1) Know the aetiology, pathology and pathogenesis of common parasitic infections and critically evaluate
diagnostic methods used in common parasitic diseases in Sri Lanka.
2) Describe the epidemiology of parasitic infections in Sri Lanka and globally
3) Understand the principles of disease transmission, including source, mode of transmission, portal of entry
and virulence of pathogens
4) Understand the principles underlying the laboratory diagnosis
5) Explain the principles of prevention and control
2.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

Blood and Tissue protozoa

1) Malaria

The student should be able to:

a) Describe the life cycle of human malaria parasites and understand the principles of malaria
transmission

b) Describe the morphological features of malaria parasite stages that occur in the human host,
particularly those that are relevant for a diagnosis of human malaria.

c) Describe the clinical outcomes of malaria infections

d) Broadly understand the factors that determine the clinical outcome of a malaria infection,
including immunity to malaria

e) Understand the methods used in the diagnosis of malaria, including their

advantages and disadvantages

f) Methods used in the control of the disease

2) Toxoplasmosis

The student should be able to:

a) Describe the morphology of Toxoplasma gondii
b) Outline the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii]
c) List the modes of transmission of infection
d) Describe the spectrum of clinical manifestations
e) Describe the principles of diagnosis
f) Discuss the principles of management
g) List the preventive measures that can be taken to prevent infection

3) Leishmaniasis

The student should be able to:

a) Describe the life cycle of Leishmania spp parasites
b) Describe the different clinical presentations
c) Describe the morphological features of Leishmania parasite stages that occur in the human host,
particularly the details relevant for the laboratory diagnosis
d) Understand the factors that determine the clinical outcome of this infection
e) Outline the principles of the diagnostic methods used.
f) Describe the factors that affect disease transmission and principles of its prevention and control.

Blood and tissue helminths

4) Bancroftian filariasis

The student should be able to:

a) Outline the geographical distribution of bancroftian filariasis, globally and in Sri Lanka
b) Describe the epidemiological aspects of lymphatic filariasis with special reference to Sri Lanka
c) Describe the mode/s of transmission
d) Outline the life cycle of the causative parasite
e) Describe the clinical spectrum of lymphatic filariasis
f) Describe the underlying pathogenesis of these clinical manifestations
g) Describe the methods available for diagnosis including their advantages and disadvantages
h) Discuss the control of filariasis including the new strategies being currently practiced
i) Discuss the strategies available for treatment of lymphatic filariasis
j) Discuss the social implications of the disease
k) Name the other filarial infections that may occur.

5) Intestinal and Urogenital protozoal parasites

The student should be able to briefly describe

a) The different morphological forms
b) Epidemiological aspects
c) Life cycles
d) Modes of transmission
e) Sites of infection in the human body
f) Pathogenesis, clinical features and complications
g) Laboratory diagnosis
h) Principles of treatment
i) Preventive measures

of

Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Balantidium coli, Cryptosporidium parvum and Trichomonas vaginalis

6) Intestinal Helminthiasis

The student should be able to :

Intestinal nematodes
a) List the medically important nematodes that inhabit the human intestines
b) Briefly describe the following aspects with regard to these nematodes
- The morphology of the different stages
- Life cycle
- Methods of transmission to humans
- Clinical manifestations and complications
- Methods of diagnosis
- Prevention

Cestodes

a) List the medically important cestodes that inhabit the human intestines
b) Outline their
- Life cycle
- Methods of transmission to humans
- Clinical manifestations and complications
- Methods of diagnosis
- Methods of prevention
7) Snakes

The student should be able to:

a) List the important snakes which belongs to the families- Elapidae, Viperidae and Colubridae
b) Name the important venomous and non-venomous snakes
c) Differentiate between Elapids, Vipers and Colubrides based on their morphological characteristics
d) Identify the important snakes based on their body markings
e) List the measures taken to prevent snake bite
f) Describe the first aid measures given to snake bite victims

8) Zoonotic diseases

Students should know

a) The definitions of zoonoses and classifications
b) Examples of zoontoic infections specially the ones which have been reported in Sri Lanka
c) With regard to infections that have been frequently reported locally:
- Causative agent
- Mode/s of transmission
- Diagnosis
- Prevention and control
d) The factors influencing the incidence and prevalence of zoonotic infections
e) The principles of surveillance, prevention, control and elimination of zoonotic infections.

9) Emerging and re-emerging infections

The student should be able to:
a) Define emerging and re-emerging infections
b) List the diseases which may be important to Sri Lanka and those diseases emerging and re-emerging in Sri
Lanka and globally
c) Briefly describe the factors which predispose to the emergence and re-emergence of infections
d) Recognize the current handicaps when dealing with the risks of these infections
e) Outline the emergence of drug resistance in pathogens
f) Briefly describe the preventive aspects of these infections

10) Medically important Arthropods

The student should be able to:

a) List the different groups of arthropods that have an impact on human health
b) Describe the various mechanisms by which they impart ill effects

Mosquitoes

c) List the important species of vector mosquitoes in Sri Lanka and the diseases they transmit
d) Describe their habits and breeding grounds
e) List the methods available for control and the basis of each method

Flies

f) Explain the importance of housefly as a mechanical vector of disease
g) List the other groups of flies that are medically important
h) Briefly describe myiasis

Ticks/fleas/bugs

i) Differentiate them from each other
j) Describe their medical importance and available control methods

Mites

k) Identify Sarcoptes scabiei mite
l) Describe the mode/s of transmission, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, complications and treatment
of scabies
Lice

m) Differentiate between the head, body and pubic louse
n) Describe the treatment and control methods.
PRACTICAL SKILLS TO BE ACQUIRED

At the end of the Basic Microbiology and Parasitology module the student should,

1) Be able to properly use the compound light microscope

2) Know the principles regarding collection, storage and delivery/transport of faecal and blood specimens to a
laboratory for diagnosis of parasitic infections

3) Be able to examine stained thin blood films and identify malaria parasites(Plasmodium falciparum and
Plasmodium vivax)

4) Be able to examine stained thick blood films and identify microfilaria ( Wuchereria bancrofti)

5) Be able to prepare and examine wet smear of stools in saline and iodine to identify intestinal protozoal and
helminth parasites

6) Identify

- the snakes of medical importance

- the mosquitoes and flies of medical importance by their body markings
LECTURES, FILMS AND CDROMS

Lectures (hrs) FIMLS/ CD

Malaria 3 1

Toxoplasmosis 1

Leishmaniasis 1

Filariasis 2

Intestinal and 1
urogenital
protozoa

Small intestinal 2
nematodes

Large intestinal 1
nematodes

Medically 1 1
important
arthropods

Emerging and Re- 1 1
emerging
infections and
Zoonotic parasitic
diseases

Snakes 1

13 4