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5402 The Adult Learner in a

Digital Age
Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star
Reflecting on Reflective Practice
Laurie Corrigan and Joyce Thomas
1. Schons Contributions (30 minutes)
2. Learning Experience Exercise (20 minutes)
3. Argyris and Schon - Single & Double Loop Reflection
Exercise (20 minutes)
4. Break (15 minutes)
5. Group Thought Synergy Activity (25 minutes)
6. Critical Incident Questionnaire (10 minutes)
Donald Alan Schon
The Reflective Practitioner

Donald Alan Schon was born in 1930 in Boston and studied philosophy at
Yale University and music at the Sorbonne

He later earned his masters and doctoral degrees, based on the work of
John Dewey, from Harvard in 1955

A forward thinker, he lectured at MIT and worked for the Kennedy
administration (Smith, 2001)

Three Contributions
1. Learning Systems
2. Reflection in Action (Schon)
3. Single and Double Loop Learning
(Argyris) (Smith, 2001)
Learning Systems
Our institutions are dynamic and must be

We must influence these transformations

We must become adept at learning

The institution is a system, non-centralized,
and integrated transformationally (Smith,

His writings led to his major work:
The Reflective
Practitioner, 1983
Schon's Presentation
"Educating the Reflective Practitioner"

1. "What are the competences that teachers
should be trying to help students, kids acquire?"
2. "What kinds of knowledge and what sort of
know-how should teachers have in order to do
their jobs well?"
3. What kinds of education are most likely to help
teachers prepare for effective teaching? (1987)
The Teacher Project
School Knowledge
Epistemology of Practice
Teacher Artistry
School Knowledge Epistemology
What we know is a product
The more general or theoretical it is, the
higher the knowledge
It is molecular - built on top of other
Contrasting School Knowledge
Knowing in action (knowing more than we
can say, thank God)
Reflection in action (capacity to respond to
surprise through improvisation on the spot)

Like jazz, RIA is not an intellectual activity

(Jazzvideoguy, 2009)

IS an intellectual business that DOES
require verbalization and symbolization
Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star
Video 1:30
Wlw (Super Simple Songs, 2011)

It also allowed you to learn your ABC's and Bah
Bah Black Sheep

Can you quickly find "Q" and sing the melody
without restarting?

Can you quickly find "one for my master" and
sing the melody without restarting?
The Purpose of Reflective Practice
YouTube Video 5:13 Toby Adams

Chris Argyris

Chris Argyris was born in Newark, New Jersey on July 16, 1923 and grew up in Irvington, New
Jersey. He served in the U.S. Army as a Second Lieutenant, before graduating from Clark
University, with a B. A. in Psychology in 1947. He went on to gain an M.A. in Psychology and
Economics from Kansas University (1949), and a Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior from Cornell
University in 1951

In a distinguished career Chris Argyris has been a faculty member at Yale University (1951-
1971) where he served a Professor of Administrative Science; and is the Professor Emeritus of
Education and Organizational Behavior at Harvard University (1971- ). Argyris is currently a
director of the Monitor Company in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Wikipedia. February 27, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013 from

Synopsis of the Article
Action Science (Theories of Action), one of Argyris major areas of research and theorizing was in significant
part undertaken with Donald Schn it was in individual and organizational learning and the extent to which
human reasoning, not just behavior, can become the basis for diagnosis and action in difficult situations.

Espoused theories of action are those that people report as a basis for actions.

Theories-in-use are the theories of action inferred from how people actually behave (taken from video or
audio tapes, or other instruments that focus on collecting relatively directly observable behaviour) (Argyris,

The Difference between
Espoused Theory vs Theory In-Use (YouTube Video 1:40 m)

Models I and II
Human actions are designed to achieve intended consequences and governed by a set
of environment variables. How those governing variables are treated in designing
actions are the key differences between single loop learning and double loop learning.

When actions are designed to achieve the intended consequences and to suppress
conflict about the governing variables, a single loop learning cycle usually ensues.

On the other hand, when actions are taken, not only to achieve the intended
consequences, but also to openly inquire about conflict and to possibly transform the
governing variables, both single loop and double loop learning cycles usually ensue
(Smith, 2001).

An Interview with Chris Argyris
How to help organizations and people look at
the maps in their heads.
How do you know you know something, when
you can produce what you claim you know!
SpTXn7hDMQ (Humeau, 2011)
Figure 1. Single and Double Loop Model.
Falle, R. n.d. Doing Things Right vs. Doing
the Right Things. Retrieved July 10, 2013

Single and Double Loop Reflection
1. When learning with a new technological device, what
conflicts did you encounter?
2. List those conflicts, were they internal or external, explicit or
3. Typically, we rely on our assumptions concerning the use of
a new device that are based on prior knowledge and
experience with similar technological devices. When finding
solutions and building competency regarding the use of a
new technology, what questions did you NOT ask or reflect
Organizational Learning and Reflection
using Technology (YouTube Video)
All individuals need to share their knowledge and their mental models, so
that their shared knowledge becomes part of the organization and the
organizations memory.

The acquiring of knowledge or skill, the know how and the know why!

Connections between thinking and doing.
n 14:58 (Garza, 2012)

Synergy Effect of Group Thought
1. Think of a question related to a recent experience learning a new technology,
that IF you knew the answer, would have moved your work forward
significantly. Was this a shared experience among your colleagues? Did you
work in isolation or collaboratively? (Relationships - shared experiences)
2. Reflect upon what where the most critical experiences, in terms of successfully
completing the task, that you encountered when learning a new technological
device? Think about the events, opportunities and insights provided.
3. What was the most critical moment when you were learning the new
technological device?
4. Give the critical moment a name and state whether it was positive, negative or
neutral. Place your name beside your event, and identify the time phase
(introduction, application, adaptation). (for example: When did this critical
moment occur, before using the device = 0, during the active period of learning
= 1,2,3 or during the creative phase = 4.)
Reflective Feedback
Please take a few minutes to complete the
Critical Incident Questionnaire (Brookfield,

Argyris, C. (1976). Single-Loop and Double-Loop Models in Research on Decision Making. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21(3),
pp. 363-375 Retrieved July 10, 2013 from

Alezwaal 84. (December 1, 2012). Espoused Theory vs Theory in-use. Retrieved July 18, 2013 from
Brookfield, S. D. (1995). Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Falle, R. n.d. Doing Things Right vs. Doing the Right Things . Retrieved July 10, 2013 from

Garza, D. (March 3, 2012). Organizational Learning.mp4 [YouTube]. Retrieved July 14, 2013 from

Humeau, N. (October 11, 2011). Interview de Chris ARGYRIS, pionnier de la recherche action et de l'intervention [YouTube].
Retrieved July 12, from

References Continued
JazzVideoGuy (September 8, 2009). How Jazz Musicians Improvise Billy Taylor [YouTube]. Retrieved July 12,
2013 from

Shon, D. (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner, American Educational Research Association meeting,
Washington DC. Retrieved July 14, 2013 from

Smith, M. K. (2001). Chris Argyris: theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational learning, the encyclopedia of
informal education, Last update: May 29, 2012. Retrieved July 13, from

Smith, M. K. (2001, 2011). Donald Schn: learning, reflection and change, the encyclopedia of informal education.
[ Retrieved: July 12].

Super Simple Songs (July 12, 2011). Twinkle Twinkle Interactive iPhone/iPad App [YouTube]. Retrieved July 14, 2013 from

Toby, A. (May 26, 2009). The Purpose of Reflective Practice [YouTube]. Retrieved July 12, 2013 from

Wikipedia. (February 27, 2013). Retrieved July 13, 2013 from