CHCAD401D

CHCAD401D
Advocate for Clients
Advocate for Clients
CHCAD401D. Advocate for clients
Author: John Bailey
Copyright
Text copyright © 2009 by John N Bailey.
Illustration, layout and design copyright © 2009 by John N Bailey.
nder !ustralia"s Copyright !ct #9$% &the !ct', except (or any (air
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(ro) John N Bailey. !ll in-uiries should be directed in the (irst instance
to the publisher at the address belo+.
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C4C!520#5. !d*ocate (or clients
Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 5
Learning Program................................................................................................................. 5
Additional Learning Support................................................................................................. 5
Facilitation............................................................................................................................ 6
Flexible Learning.................................................................................................................. 6
Space................................................................................................................................... 7
Study Resources.................................................................................................................. 7
Time..................................................................................................................................... 7
Study Strategies................................................................................................................... 7
sing t!is learning guide"..................................................................................................... #
THE SUPPLEMENTARY ICONS............................................................................................... 1
Additional researc!$ reading and note ta%ing.....................................................................&&
EMPLOYA!ILITY S"ILLS # ..................................................................................................... 1$
CERTI%ICATE III IN A&E' CARE............................................................................................. 1$
PER%ORMANCE CRITERIA...................................................................................................... 1(
S"ILLS AN' "NO)LE'&E..................................................................................................... 1*
Re'uired S%ills................................................................................................................... &7
Re'uired (no)ledge.......................................................................................................... &7
RAN&E STATEMENT................................................................................................................ 1+
E,I'ENCE &UI'E..................................................................................................................... 1-
1. ASSIST CLIENTS TO I'ENTI%Y THEIR RI&HTS AN' REPRESENT THEIR O)N NEE'S.
................................................................................................................................................... $
1.1 ASSIST CLIENT TO IDENTIFY THEIR OWN NEEDS AND RIGHTS AND TO DETERMINE IF THEIR
RIGHTS ARE BEING INFRINGED OR ARE NOT BEING MET...............................................................20
Identi*ying needs o* a client................................................................................................ +,
Figure &"............................................................................................................................. +&
Ac!ie-e t!eir !ig!est potential............................................................................................ ++
T!e rig!t to redress............................................................................................................ ++
Acti-ity &............................................................................................................................. +.
Rig!ts................................................................................................................................. +.
/uman Rig!ts..................................................................................................................... +0
1oral Rig!ts....................................................................................................................... +0
Legal Rig!ts....................................................................................................................... +0
2ommunity attitudes........................................................................................................... +6
(no)ledge o* rig!ts and redress........................................................................................ +6
3n*orcing your rig!ts.......................................................................................................... +6
Acti-ity +............................................................................................................................. +#
1.2 UNDERTAKE AN ASSESSMENT WITH THE CLIENT, AND IF NECESSARY WITH SIGNIFICANT OTHERS
AND COLLEAGUES TO IDENTIFY CLIENT’S ABILITY TO ADVOCATE FOR SELF....................................29
Acti-ity . Researc!............................................................................................................. .,
2arry out as assessment.................................................................................................... .&
Figure +"............................................................................................................................. ..
Acti-ity 0............................................................................................................................. .0
Re*erences......................................................................................................................... .5
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1.3 PROVIDE CLIENT WITH INFORMATION ABOUT AVAILABLE OPTIONS FOR MEETING THEIR NEEDS
AND ASSIST THEM TO IDENTIFY THEIR PREFERRED OPTION, AND TO MAKE CONTACT AND NEGOTIATE
WITH RELEVANT PEOPLE AND AGENCIES WHERE APPROPRIATE....................................................3
2ontacting rele-ant people................................................................................................. .7
Acti-ity 5............................................................................................................................. .#
1.! ENSURE INFORMATION PROVIDED TO CLIENTS ABOUT CLIENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES IS
RESEARCHED, RELEVANT AND TIMELY........................................................................................ 39
Acti-ity 6............................................................................................................................. 0,
$. A',OCATE ON !EHAL% O% CLIENTS ON RE.UEST......................................................./1
2.1 INITIATE, NEGOTIATE AND IMPLEMENT RELEVANT STRATEGIES FOR ADDRESSING CLIENT NEEDS.
............................................................................................................................................... !1
Acti-ity 7............................................................................................................................. 0+
4egotiation......................................................................................................................... 0+
Implementing t!e strategy.................................................................................................. 0.
Acti-ity #............................................................................................................................. 0.
2.2 ON RE"UEST FROM THE CLIENT AND IN ON#GOING CONSULTATION WITH THE CLIENT, IDENTIFY
AND CONTACT THE MOST APPROPRIATE INDIVIDUALS OR ORGANISATIONS AND REPRESENT THE
CLIENT’S POINT OF VIEW CLEARLY TO OPTIMISE OUTCOMES FOR THE CLIENT................................!!
Acti-ity 5............................................................................................................................. 05
2.3 ENSURE INFORMATION IS KEPT IN CONFIDENCE UNLESS AUTHORISATION IS GIVEN TO RELEASE
IT............................................................................................................................................. !
S!aring in*ormation )it! ot!ers.......................................................................................... 06
Legal *rame)or%................................................................................................................. 06
Pri-acy Act......................................................................................................................... 07
2on*identiality..................................................................................................................... 07
Acti-ity &,........................................................................................................................... 0#
2.! DISCUSS PROGRESS AND OUTCOMES WITH THE CLIENT AND TAKE FURTHER ACTION AS
NECESSARY.............................................................................................................................. !9
Acti-ity &&........................................................................................................................... 5,
0. A',OCATE %OR CLIENTS................................................................................................... 11
3.1 WHERE ASSESSMENT INDICATES THE CLIENT RE"UIRES ADVOCACY SUPPORT$.......................1
Ad-ocating *or clients......................................................................................................... 5&
Interpersonal s%ills.............................................................................................................. 5+
6erbal 2ommunication....................................................................................................... 5+
4on7-erbal 2ommunication................................................................................................ 5+
Forms o* ad-ocacy............................................................................................................. 5.
Strategies and processes to o-ercoming barriers..............................................................50
Identi*ying an appropriate organisation )!en ad-ocating *or indi-iduals............................55
Po)er o* Attorney and 3nduring Po)er o* Attorney...........................................................5#
T!e 8uardians!ip 9oard.................................................................................................... 5#
Potential con*lict o* interest is identi*ied and redressed......................................................5#
Summary............................................................................................................................ 55
Acti-ity &+........................................................................................................................... 55
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C4C!520#5. !d*ocate (or clients
!ntroduction
!s a +or,er, a trainee or a (uture +or,er you +ant to en6oy your +or,
and beco)e ,no+n as a *aluable tea) )e)ber. This unit o(
co)petency +ill help you ac-uire the ,no+ledge and s,ills to +or,
e((ecti*ely as an indi*idual and in groups. It +ill gi*e you the basis to
contribute to the goals o( the organi0ation +hich e)ploys you.
It is essential that you begin your training by beco)ing (a)iliar +ith the
industry standards to +hich organi0ations )ust con(or).
This unit o( co)petency introduces you to so)e o( the ,ey issues and
responsibilities or +or,ers and organi0ations in this area. The unit also
pro*ides you +ith opportunities to de*elop the co)petencies necessary
(or e)ployees to operate as tea) )e)bers.
This 7earning 8uide co*ers9
• !ssist clients to identi(y their rights and represent their o+n needs.
• !d*ocate on behal( o( clients on re-uest.
• !d*ocate (or clients.
"earning Program
!s you progress through this unit you +ill de*elop s,ills in locating and
understanding an organi0ations policies and procedures. :ou +ill build
up a sound ,no+ledge o( the industry standards +ithin +hich
organi0ations )ust operate. :ou should also beco)e )ore a+are o(
the e((ect that your o+n s,ills in dealing +ith people has on your
success, or other+ise, in the +or,place.
;no+ledge o( your s,ills and capabilities +ill help you )a,e in(or)ed
choices about your (urther study and career options.
Additional "earning #upport
To obtain additional support you )ay9
• <earch (or other resources in the 7earning =esource Centres o( your
learning institution. :ou )ay (ind boo,s, 6ournals, *ideos and other
)aterials +hich pro*ide extra in(or)ation (or topics in this unit.
• <earch in your local library. >ost libraries ,eep in(or)ation about
go*ern)ent depart)ents and other organi0ations, ser*ices and
progra)s.
• Contact in(or)ation ser*ices such as In(olin,, ?-ual @pportunity
Co))ission, Co))issioner o( Aor,place !gree)ents. nion
organi0ations, a# 2u&lic relatios a# i*ormatio ser3ices 2ro3i#e#
&, 3arious 0o3ermet #e2artmets. Ma, o* these ser3ices are
liste# i the tele2hoe #irector,.
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• Contact your local shire or council o((ice. >any councils ha*e a
co))unity de*elop)ent or +el(are o((icer as +ell as an in(or)ation
and re(erral ser*ice.
• Contact the rele*ant (acilitator by telephone, )ail or (acsi)ile.
$acilitation
:our training organi0ation +ill pro*ide you +ith a (lexible learning
(acilitator. :our (acilitator +ill play an acti*e role in supporting your
learning, +ill )a,e regular contact +ith you and i( you ha*e (ace to (ace
access, should arrange to see you at least once. !(ter you ha*e
enrolled your (acilitator +ill contact you be telephone or letter as soon as
possible to let you ,no+9
• 4o+ and +hen to )a,e contact
• Ahat you need to do to co)plete this unit o( study
• Ahat su22ort 4ill &e 2ro3i#e#.
4ere are so)e o( the things your (acilitator can do to )a,e your study
easier.
• 8i*e you a clear *isual ti)etable o( e*ents (or the se)ester or ter)
in +hich you are enrolled, including any deadlines (or assess)ents.
• Chec, that you ,no+ ho+ to access library (acilities and ser*ices.
• Conduct s)all Binterest groups" (or so)e o( the topics.
• se Baction sheets" and +ebsite updates to re)ind you about tas,s
you need to co)plete.
• <et up a Bchat lineC. I( you ha*e access to telephone con(erencing or
*ideo con(erencing, your (acilitator can use these (or speci(ic topics
or discussion sessions.
• Circulate a ne+sletter to ,eep you in(or)ed o( e*ents, topics and
resources o( interest to you.
• ;eep in touch +ith you by telephone or e)ail during your studies.
$le%ile "earning
<tudying to beco)e a co)petent +or,er and learning about currents
issues in this area, is an interesting and exciting thing to do. :ou +ill
establish relationships +ith other candidates, (ello+ +or,ers and clients.
:ou +ill also learn about your o+n ideas, attitudes and *alues. :ou +ill
also ha*e (un D )ost o( the ti)e.
!t other ti)es, study can see) o*er+hel)ing and i)possibly
de)anding, particularly +hen you ha*e an assign)ent to do and you
aren"t sure ho+ to tac,le itE..and your (a)ily and (riends +ant you to
spend ti)e +ith the)EEand a )o*ie you +ant to +atch is on
tele*isionE.andE. <o)eti)es being a candidate can be hard.
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4ere are so)e ideas to help you through the hard ti)es. To study
e((ecti*ely, you need space, resources and ti)e.
#pace
Try to set up a place at ho)e or at +or, +here9
• :ou can ,eep your study )aterials
• :ou can be reasonably -uiet and (ree (ro) interruptions, and
• :ou can be reasonably co)(ortable, +ith good lighting, seating and
a (lat sur(ace (or +riting.
I( it is i)possible (or you to set up a study space, perhaps you could use
your local library. :ou +ill not be able to store your study )aterials
there, but you +ill ha*e -uiet, a des, and chair, and easy access to the
other (acilities.
#tudy &esources
The )ost basic resources you +ill need are9
• a chair
• a des, or table
• a reading la)p or good light
• a (older or (ile to ,eep your notes and study )aterials together
• )aterials to record in(or)ation &pen and paper or noteboo,s, or a
co)puter and printer'
• re(erence )aterials, including a dictionary
5o not (orget that other people can be *aluable study resources. :our
(ello+ +or,ers, +or, super*isor, other candidates, your (lexible learning
(acilitator, your local librarian, and +or,ers in this area can also help
you.
'ime
It is i)portant to plan your study ti)e. Aor, out a ti)e that suits you and
plan around it. >ost people (ind that studying in short, concentrated
bloc,s o( ti)e &an hour or t+o' at regular inter*als &daily, e*ery second
day, once a +ee,' is )ore e((ecti*e than trying to cra) a lot o( learning
into a +hole day. :ou need ti)e to FdigestC the in(or)ation in one
section be(ore you )o*e on to the next, and e*eryone needs regular
brea,s (ro) study to a*oid o*erload. Be realistic in allocating ti)e (or
study. 7oo, at +hat is re-uired (or the unit and loo, at your other
co))it)ents.
>a,e up a study ti)etable and stic, to it. Build in FdeadlinesC and set
yoursel( goals (or co)pleting study tas,s. !llo+ ti)e (or reading and
co)pleting acti*ities. =e)e)ber that it is the -uality o( the ti)e you
spend studying rather than the -uantity that is i)portant.
#tudy #trategies
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5i((erent people ha*e di((erent learning Bstyles". <o)e people learn best
by listening or repeating things out loud. <o)e learn best by doing,
so)e by reading and )a,ing notes. !ssess your o+n learning style,
and try to identi(y any barriers to learning +hich )ight a((ect you. !re
you easily distractedG !re you a(raid you +ill (ailG !re you ta,ing study
too seriouslyG Not seriously enoughG 5o you ha*e supporti*e (riends
and (a)ilyG 4ere are so)e ideas (or e((ecti*e study strategies.
>a,e notes. This o(ten helps you to re)e)ber ne+ or un(a)iliar
in(or)ation. 5o not +orry about spelling or neatness, as long as you
can read your o+n notes. ;eep your notes +ith the rest o( your study
)aterials and add to the) as you go. se pictures and diagra)s i( this
helps.
nderline ,ey +ords +hen you are reading the )aterials in this learning
guide. &5o not underline things in other people"s boo,s'. This also
helps you to re)e)ber i)portant points.
Tal, to other people &(ello+ +or,ers, (ello+ candidates, (riends, (a)ily,
your (acilitator' about +hat you are learning. !s +ell as helping you to
clari(y and understand ne+ ideas, tal,ing also gi*es you a chance to (ind
out extra in(or)ation and to get (resh ideas and di((erent points o( *ie+.
(sing this learning guide:
! learning guide is 6ust that, a guide to help you learn. ! learning guide
is not a text boo,. :our learning guide +ill
• describe the s,ills you need to de)onstrate to achie*e co)petency
(or this unit,
• pro*ide in(or)ation and ,no+ledge to help you de*elop your s,ills
• pro*ide you +ith structured learning acti*ities to help you absorb the
,no+ledge and in(or)ation and practice your s,ills
• direct you to other sources o( additional ,no+ledge and in(or)ation
about topics (or this unit.
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The Icon ;ey
)ey Points
?xplains the actions ta,en by a co)petent person.
E%ample
Illustrates the concept or co)petency by pro*iding exa)ples.
Activity
/ro*ides acti*ities to rein(orce understanding o( the action.
Chart
/ro*ides i)ages that represent data sy)bolically. They are
used to present co)plex in(or)ation and nu)erical data in a
si)ple, co)pact (or)at.
!ntended *utcomes or *+ectives
<tate)ents o( intended outco)es or ob6ecti*es are descriptions
o( the +or, that +ill be done.
Assessment
<trategies +ith +hich in(or)ation +ill be collected in order to
*alidate each intended outco)e or ob6ecti*e.
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The <upple)entary Icons
Po,erPoint
!ny /o+er/oint associated +ith a unit +ill ha*e this icon next to
the)
$orms and Care Plans
I( there is a (or) or care plan associated +ith a unit there +ill be
an icon li,e this +ith the rele*ant nu)ber o( the (or) or care
plan in the (or)at $$AC$-01.
Employaility #/ills
Ahere the e)ployability s,ills are sho+n to be e)bedded in the
unit and relates to the table in the (ront o( each unit eg9 '10 #10
E1.
&eadings
/ro*ides bac,up and reasoning to the underpinning ,no+ledge
and s,ills
Primary #/ills Assessments
Ahere the /ri)ary <,ills !ssess)ents are applicable there +ill
be an icon in the (or)at P#A - 11
2orld 2ide 2e
Ahere the +orld +ide +eb is used (or an acti*ity in the unit you
+ill (ind this icon.
&esource Document
Ahere the =esource docu)ents are applicable there +ill be an
icon in the (or)at &D3 - 11
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Ho, to get the 4ost out of your learning guide
1. &ead through the information in the learning guide carefully.
4a/e sure you understand the material.
<o)e sections are -uite long and co*er co)plex ideas and
in(or)ation. I( you co)e across anything you do not understand9
• tal, to your (acilitator
• research the area using the boo,s and )aterials listed under
=esources
• discuss the issue +ith other people &your +or,place
super*isor, (ello+ +or,ers, (ello+ candidates'
• try to relate the in(or)ation presented in this learning guide to
your o+n experience and to +hat you already ,no+.
!s, yoursel( -uestions as you go9 Hor exa)ple F4a*e I seen this
happening any+hereGC FCould this apply to )eGC FAhat i(E.GC
This +ill help you to )a,e sense o( ne+ )aterial, and to build on
your existing ,no+ledge.
5. 'al/ to people aout your study.
Tal,ing is a great +ay to rein(orce +hat you are learning.
6. 4a/e notes.
4. 2or/ through the activities.
?*en i( you are te)pted to s,ip so)e acti*ities, do the) any+ay.
They are there (or a reason, and e*en i( you already ha*e the
,no+ledge or s,ills relating to a particular acti*ity, doing the) +ill
help to rein(orce +hat you already ,no+. I( you do not understand
an acti*ity, thin, care(ully about the +ay the -uestions or
instructions are phrased. =ead the section again to see i( you can
)a,e sense o( it. I( you are still con(used, contact your (acilitator
or discuss the acti*ity +ith other candidates, (ello+ +or,ers or +ith
your +or,place super*isor.
Additional research0 reading and note ta/ing.
I( you are using the additional re(erences and resources suggested in
the learning guide to ta,e your ,no+ledge a step (urther, there are a (e+
si)ple things to ,eep in )ind to )a,e this ,ind o( research easier.
!l+ays )a,e a note o( the author"s na)e, the title o( the boo, or article,
the edition, +hen it +as published, +here it +as published, and the
na)e o( the publisher. I( you are ta,ing notes about speci(ic ideas or
in(or)ation, you +ill need to put the page nu)ber as +ell. This is called
the re(erence in(or)ation. :ou +ill need this (or so)e assess)ent
tas,s, and it +ill help you to (ind the boo, again i( you need to.
;eep your notes short and to the point. =elate your notes to the
)aterial in your learning guide. /ut things into your o+n +ords. This
+ill gi*e you a better understanding o( the )aterial.
<tart o(( +ith a -uestion you +ant ans+ered +hen you are exploring
additional resource )aterials. This +ill structure your reading and sa*e
you ti)e.
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?)ployability <,ills D
Certi(icate III in !ged Care
E4P"*7A8!"!'7
#)!""#
$ACE'# ADD&E##ED: !ndustry9enterprise
re:uirements for this :ualification include the
follo,ing facets:
Code
Communication
#. 7istening to and understanding work instructions,
directions and feedback
2. <pea,ing clearlyIdirectly to relay information
1. =eading and interpreting +or,place related
docu)entation, such as prescribed programs
2. Ariting to address audience needs, such as forms,
case notes and reports
3. Interpreting the needs o( internalI external clients
from clear information and feedback
$. !pplying basic nu)eracy s,ills to +or,place
re-uire)ents involving measuring and counting
%. <haring in(or)ation (eg. with other staff, working
as part of an allied health team)
9. Negotiating responsi*ely &eg. re own work role
and/or conditions, possibly with clients'
##. Being appropriately asserti*e &eg. in relation to safe
or ethical work practices and own work role'
C11
#2. ?)pathising &eg. in relation to others'
C15
'eam,or/
#. Aor,ing as an indi*idual and a tea) )e)ber
2. Aor,ing +ith di*erse indi*iduals and groups
1. !pplying ,no+ledge o( o+n role as part o( a tea)
2. !pplying tea)+or, s,ills to a limited range o(
situations
3. Identi(ying and utilising the strengths o( other tea)
)e)bers
$. 8i*ing (eedbac,
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E4P"*7A8!"!'7
#)!""#
$ACE'# ADD&E##ED: !ndustry9enterprise
re:uirements for this :ualification include the
follo,ing facets:
Code
Prolem solving
#. 5e*eloping practical solutions to +or,place proble)s
(i.e. within scope of own role)
2. <ho+ing independence and initiati*e in identi(ying
proble)s (i.e. within scope of own role)
1. <ol*ing proble)s indi*idually or in tea)s (i.e. within
scope of own role)
3. sing nu)eracy s,ills to sol*e proble)s (eg. time
management, simple calculations, shift handover)
$. Testing assu)ptions and ta,ing context into account
(i.e. with an awareness of assumptions made and
work context)
J. 7istening to and resol*ing concerns in relation to
+or,place issues
%. =esol*ing client concerns relati*e to +or,place
responsibilities (i.e. if role has direct client contact)
!nitiative and
enterprise
#. !dapting to ne+ situations (i.e. within scope of own
role)
2. Being creati*e in response to +or,place challenges
(i.e. within relevant guidelines and protocols)
1. Identi(ying opportunities that )ight not be ob*ious to
others (i.e. within a team or supervised work
context)
3. Translating ideas into action (i.e. within own work
role)
$. 5e*eloping inno*ati*e solutions (i.e. within a team or
supervised work context and within established
guidelines)
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E4P"*7A8!"!'7
#)!""#
$ACE'# ADD&E##ED: !ndustry9enterprise
re:uirements for this :ualification include the
follo,ing facets:
Code
Planning and
organising
#. Collecting, analysing and organising in(or)ation (i.e.
within scope of own role)
*1
2. sing basic syste)s (or planning and organising (i.e.
if applicable to own role)
*5
1. Being appropriately resource(ul *6
2. Ta,ing limited initiati*e and )a,ing decisions +ithin
+or,place role (i.e. within authorised limits)
*4
3. /articipating in continuous i)pro*e)ent and planning
processes (i.e. within scope of own role)
*.
$. Aor,ing +ithin clear +or, goals and deli*erables *;
J. 5eter)ining or applying re-uired resources (i.e.
within scope of own role)
*<
%. !llocating people and other resources to tas,s and
+or,place re-uire)ents (only for team leader or
leading hand roles)
*=
9. >anaging ti)e and priorities (i.e. in relation to tasks
reuired for own role)
*>
#0. !dapting resource allocations to cope +ith
contingencies (i.e. if relevant to own role)
*10
#elf management #. Being sel(K)oti*ated (i.e. in relation to reuirements
of own work role)
#1
2. !rticulating o+n ideas (i.e. within a team or
supervised work context)
#5
1. Balancing o+n ideas and *alues +ith +or,place
*alues and re-uire)ents
#6
2. >onitoring and e*aluating o+n per(or)ance (i.e.
within a team or supervised work context)
#4
3. Ta,ing responsibility at the appropriate le*el #.
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$ACE'# ADD&E##ED: !ndustry9enterprise
re:uirements for this :ualification include the
follo,ing facets:
Code
"earning #. Being open to learning ne+ ideas and techni-ues) "1
2. 7earning in a range o( settings including in(or)al
learning
"5
1. /articipating in ongoing learning "6
2. 7earning in order to acco))odate change "4
3. 7earning ne+ s,ills and techni-ues ".
$. Ta,ing responsibility (or o+n learning (i.e. within
scope of own work role)
";
J. Contributing to the learning o( others (eg. by sharing
information)
"<
%. !pplying a range o( learning approaches (i.e. as
provided)
"=
#0. !articipating in de*eloping o+n learning plans (eg.
as part of performance management)
"10
'echnology #. sing technology and related +or,place e-uip)ent
(i.e. if within scope of own role)
E1
2. sing basic technology s,ills to organise data E5
1. !dapting to ne+ technology s,ill re-uire)ents (i.e.
within scope of own role)
E6
2. !pplying @4< ,no+ledge +hen using technology E4
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CHCAD401D. Advocate $or Clients
Element
Performance Criteria
1.
Assist clients to identify their rights and represent their o,n needs.
1.1
!ssist client to identi(y their o+n needs and rights and to
deter)ine i( their rights are being in(ringed or are not being )et.
1.5
nderta,e an assess)ent +ith the client, and i( necessary +ith
signi(icant others and colleagues to identi(y client"s ability to
ad*ocate (or sel(.
1.6
/ro*ide client +ith in(or)ation about a*ailable options (or )eeting
their needs and assist the) to identi(y their pre(erred option, and
to )a,e contact and negotiate +ith rele*ant people and agencies
+here appropriate.
1.4
?nsure in(or)ation pro*ided to clients about client rights and
responsibilities is researched, rele*ant and ti)ely.
5.
Advocate on ehalf of clients on re:uest.
5.1
Initiate, negotiate and i)ple)ent rele*ant strategies (or addressing
client needs.
5.5
@n re-uest (ro) the client and in onKgoing consultation +ith the
client, identi(y and contact the )ost appropriate indi*iduals or
organisations and represent the client"s point o( *ie+ clearly to
opti)ise outco)es (or the client.
5.6
?nsure in(or)ation is ,ept in con(idence unless authorisation is
gi*en to release it.
5.4
5iscuss progress and outco)es +ith the client and ta,e (urther
action as necessary.
6.
Advocate for clients.
6.1
Ahere assess)ent indicates the client re-uires ad*ocacy support9
• raise issues +ith the )ost appropriate personI people in a +ay
that upholds the rights and supports reasonable expectations
o( the client
• initiate and i)ple)ent strategies (or addressing client needs in
consultation +ith appropriate personnel
• identi(y and redress potential con(lict o( interest
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<,ills and ;no+ledge
&e:uired #/ills
It is critical that the candidate de)onstrate the ability to9
• Negotiate
• !d*ocate on behal( o( clients
• se a clientKcentred approach
• 5e)onstrate a nonK6udg)ental approach to clients
• >aintain docu)entation as re-uired
In addition, the candidate )ust be able to de)onstrate rele*ant
tas, s,illsL tas, )anage)ent s,illsL contingency )anage)ent
s,ills and 6obIrole en*iron)ent s,ills
These include the ability to9
• !pply s,ills in9
• )ediation
• representation
• dealing +ith cross cultural issues
&e:uired )no,ledge
It is critical that the candidate de)onstrate ,no+ledge o(9
• @rganisations and ser*ices rele*ant to the nature o( client
ser*ice
• =e(erral options and resources a*ailable to co))unity
• @rganisation policies and procedures
• =ele*ant legal and other rightsIli)itations
The candidate )ust also be able to de)onstrate rele*ant
,no+ledge re-uired to e((ecti*ely per(or) tas, s,illsL tas,
)anage)ent s,illsL contingency )anage)ent s,ills and 6obIrole
en*iron)ent s,ills as outlined in ele)ents and per(or)ance
criteria, such as ,no+ledge o(9
• <ocial 6ustice principles
• 5i((erences bet+een negotiation, ad*ocacy, )ediation and
conciliation
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=ange <tate)ent
The =ange <tate)ent relates to the unit o( co)petency as a +hole. It allo+s (or di((erent
+or, en*iron)ents and situations that )ay a((ect per(or)ance. !dd any essential
operating conditions that )ay be present +ith training and assess)ent depending on the
+or, situation, needs o( the candidate, accessibility o( the ite), and local industry and
regional contexts.
6i0hts a# ee#s iclu#e! • Hreedo) o( choice
• !ccess to ser*ices
• /ersonal sa(ety and security
• !ccess to rights protection and legal re)edies
• !ccess to right protections and legal re)edies
A#3ocate o &ehal* o*
cliets ma, &e to!
• @ther +or,ers
• >anage)ent
• @ther agenciesIorganisations
• Ha)ilyI(riendsIco))unity
• ?)ployers
• @ther health ser*icesIpro(essionals
• /olice
• 7egal organisationsIpersons
• 8o*ern)ent depart)ents
• <chools
• Credit pro*iders, (inancial institutions, utility co)panies
A#3ocac, ma, iclu#e! • >eeting client needs in the context o( organisation
re-uire)ents
• !+areness o( potential con(lict bet+een client needs
and organisation re-uire)ents
6e3ie4 o* strate0ies ma,
&e i*ormal or *ormal a#
ma, iclu#e!
• 5iscussions +ith ,ey people in the co))unity
• 5iscussions +ith (riendsI(a)ily o( the client
• 5iscussions +ith colleagues andIor clients
%ormal strate0ies ma,
iclu#e!
• /ublic )eetings
• Inter*ie+s
• Muestionnaires
• Court appearances
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?*idence 8uide
The e*idence guide pro*ides ad*ice on assess)ent and )ust be read in con6unction +ith
the /er(or)ance Criteria, =e-uired <,ills and ;no+ledge, the =ange <tate)ent and the
!ssess)ent 8uidelines (or this Training /ac,age.
Critical aspects (or
assess)ent and e*idence
re-uired to de)onstrate
this unit o( co)petency9
• The indi*idual being assessed )ust pro*ide e*idence
o( speci(ied essential ,no+ledge as +ell as s,ills
• !ssess)ent )ay be conducted on one or )ore
occasions, but should include the nor)al range o(
+or,place acti*ities
!ccess and e-uity
considerations9
• !ll +or,ers in co))unity ser*ices should be a+are o(
access, e-uity and hu)an rights issues in relation to
their o+n area o( +or,
• !ll +or,ers should de*elop their ability to +or, in a
culturally di*erse en*iron)ent
• In recognition o( particular issues (acing !boriginal and
Torres <trait Islander co))unities, +or,ers should be
a+are o( cultural, historical and current issues
i)pacting on !boriginal and Torres <trait Islander
people
• !ssessors and trainers )ust ta,e into account rele*ant
access and e-uity issues, in particular relating to
(actors i)pacting on !boriginal andIor Torres <trait
Islander clients and co))unities
Context o( and speci(ic
resources (or assess)ent9
• This unit can be assessed independently, ho+e*er
holistic assess)ent practice +ith other co))unity
ser*ices units o( co)petency is encouraged
• =esources re-uired (or assess)ent include access to9
- an appropriate +or,place +here assess)ent can
ta,e place, or
- si)ulation o( realistic +or,place setting (or
assess)ent
>ethod o( assess)ent9 • !ssess)ent )ay include obser*ation, -uestioning and
e*idence gathered (ro) the +or,place en*iron)ent
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#. !ssist clients to identi(y their rights
and represent their o+n needs.
1.1
!ssist client to identi(y their o+n needs and rights and to
deter)ine i( their rights are being in(ringed or are not being )et.
1.5
nderta,e an assess)ent +ith the client, and i( necessary +ith
signi(icant others and colleagues to identi(y client"s ability to
ad*ocate (or sel(.
1.6
/ro*ide client +ith in(or)ation about a*ailable options (or
)eeting their needs and assist the) to identi(y their pre(erred
option, and to )a,e contact and negotiate +ith rele*ant people
and agencies +here appropriate.
1.4
?nsure in(or)ation pro*ided to clients about client rights and
responsibilities is researched, rele*ant and ti)ely.
1.1 Assist client to identify their o,n needs and rights and to determine
if their rights are eing infringed or are not eing met.
!dentifying needs of a client
!ll people, no )atter +hat age, le*el o( +ellKbeing or place o( li*ing,
ha*e basic needs +hich )ust be a*ailable to support li(e such as (ood,
+ater, clean air and shelter.
These are the things that e*ery person )ust ha*e and can be re(erred
to as uni*ersal or co))on needs. <o)eti)es +e ta,e these things (or
granted, but they are essential to the +ellKbeing o( each o( us. The
degree, to +hich our indi*idual co))on needs are )et, is in(luenced by
)any di((erent (actors, including +here +e li*e, our cultural belie(s, our
econo)ic circu)stances, our state o( +ellKbeing and our age.
There is a tendency to generalise about peopleNs needs and their le*el
o( attain)ent, but there are also )any ris,s in doing this.
!s a care +or,er there are certain strategies you )ay need to use in
order to identi(y the clientNs needs. The )ost co))on needs o( a client
you +or, (or +ould be exactly the sa)e co))on needs e*ery person
re-uires li*ing a satis(ying, pleasurable, (ul(illing and co)(ortable
li(e.These needs are9
• sanitation
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• (ood
• clothing
• shelter
• education
• health care
• *alued -uality o( li(e experiences
There is also a need (or sa(ety to ensure the person you are +or,ing (or
is protected against a condition or situation, +hich has the potential to
cause or contribute har) to health andIor li(e.
The (ollo+ing table gi*es exa)ples o( needs that clients )ay ha*e9K
$igure 1:
3eed E%amples
!hysical
?ating, dressing, sho+ering, personal hygiene,
)obility, shopping, coo,ing, cleaning, turning
on taps, )o+ing la+ns
"edical/health
<pecialist health e-uip)ent, )edications,
physiotherapy, speech therapy, dental care
#motional <ecurity, a((ection, inti)acy, sex, trust
$ocial
<ocialising, co))unicating, co))unity
outings, group acti*ities, (riendly *isitors
$piritual !ttending church ser*ices, recei*ing
co))union, accessing a -uiet place (or
)editation, attending spiritual e*ents, ha*ing
access to )inisters o( religion, ha*ing their
choice o( religion respected
%inancial !ccess to Centrelin, pay)ents, access to and
control o( o+n (inances, po+er o( attorney
&ultural !ppropriate language, cultural (ood choices,
(ollo+ing traditions and celebrating cultural
e*ents
'evelopmenta
l
Needs change as +e age. Baby to toddler to
teenager to adulthood and )ilestones in
bet+een.
#ducation !c-uire ,no+ledge and s,ills to )a,e in(or)ed
con(ident choices eg ser*ices, education, being
a+are o( their rights and responsibilities and
ho+ to act on the)
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Achieve their highest potential
!n understanding and acceptance o( the personNs s,ills and abilities is
re-uired and you need to ensure they are inclusi*e in all areas o( the
co))unity. This )ay be (or educational reasons, recreational or
socialisation. Being a)ongst the co))unity allo+s the) to be
recognised (or +ho they really are as indi*iduals, +ho are capable o(
contributing positi*ely to the co))unity. This recognition enhances the
personNs sel(Kestee), gi*es the) e)po+er)ent and there(ore they are
)ore li,ely to achie*e their highest potential.
'he need to e informed
To be gi*en the (acts needed to )a,e an in(or)ed choice and to be
protected (ro) dishonesty or )isleading in(or)ation.
'he need to choose
To be able to select (ro) a range o( ser*ices and to )a,e choices that
are satis(actory to the personNs needs.
'he need to e heard
To ha*e the personNs interests represented in the )a,ing and at the
ti)e o( execution o( anything that relates to the person.
A healthy environment
To li*e and +or, in an en*iron)ent +hich is nonKthreatening to the +ellK
being o( the present and (uture generations.
'he right to redress
To recei*e a (air settle)ent, including co)pensation (or
)isrepresentation, )isleading in(or)ation or unsatis(actory ser*ices i(
an un(ortunate circu)stance arises.
!s a care +or,er you need to constantly obser*e the client needs. !s
)entioned pre*iously needs *ary (ro) person to person, yet ,eeping in
)ind a personNs needs change as they gro+ older or i( (or so)e reason
their li(estyle changes. Hor instance, a person +ith a disability has needs
that need to be catered (or 6ust the sa)e as a person +ithout a
disability.
$or e%ample:
<o)e people )ay need the assistance o((ered by +earing glasses, others
)ay need the support o( a +al,ing stic,. Hor these people, these aids
are needs in order (or the) to li*e a nor)al li(e.
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Activity 1
/ut your needs, +hich are currently un)et into your order o( i)portance
&# (or )ost i)portant, #2 (or least i)portant', ie +hich do you need or
+ant )ost urgently, and +hich is least i)portant or not urgent.
5ependent on paticipantNs perception,
*rder or priority0 for needs unmet &an/ing ?1 - 14@
<anitation
Hood
Clothing
<helter
?ducation
>edicalI4ealth care
Oalued -uality o( li(e experiences
<a(ety needs
/hysical
?)otional
<ocial
<piritual
Hinancial
Cultural
&ights
=ights are i)portant in order (or e*eryone to li*e a (ul(illing and
satis(ying li(e based on a nu)ber o( (unda)ental principles. <o)e o(
these principles include e-uality, social 6ustice and e)po+er)ent o( the
indi*idual. ?*ery person has basic rights si)ply because they are part o(
society. =ights are not bought or earned in this sense. They are inherent
in li*ing as a )e)ber o( the hu)an co))unity.
It is a clai) put (or+ard to i)pro*e andIor change conditions (or people
in a changing +orld. =ights can be seen as clai)s to +hich an indi*idual
or group (eels entitled to as a hu)an being or because o( a la+,
con*ention or tradition.
There are three )ain types o( rights that a((ect e*ery )e)ber o( our
society9 hu)an rights, )oral rights and legal rights.
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The nited Nations 5eclaration o( 4u)an =ights &#92%' is a set o( (our
docu)ents o(ten ,no+n as the NInternational Bill o( =ightsN and
incorporates the (ollo+ing9
Human &ights
Ae all ha*e basic hu)an rights. <o)e o( these are the right to9
• physical integrity K the right to li(e, liberty and (reedo)
• )ental integrity K the right to (reedo) o( thoughts, opinion and
expression
• ci*il rights K the right to be part o( a nation go*erned by a (air and 6ust
legal syste)
• socioKecono)ic rights K the right to o+n property, to leisure, education
and health
• (reedo) o( speech
• choose +here +e li*e
• be protected (ro) abuse or neglect
• oneNs o+n culture, religion and language
• petition and peace(ul asse)ble
• e-ual protection be(ore the la+ and a public trial
4oral &ights
>oral rights are rights that ha*e been deter)ined by the )a6ority o( the
population, based on their cultural belie( o( +hat is right and +hat is
+rong. >oral rights are o(ten not set do+n as la+ and are there(ore
sub6ect to great debate and continuous change.
>oral rights do not depend on race, culture, +ealth, status, appearance
or abilities, and generally address issues o( (airness and e-uality.
"egal &ights
7egal rights are rights that are +ritten into the legal syste) in the (or) o(
docu)ents. They )ay deal +ith hu)an rights or )oral rights and
generally re(lect the belie(s o( the society as part o( the legal syste).
?xa)ples o( such legislation include acts such as the <ocial <er*ices
!ct, /ri*acy !ct, 5isability <er*ices !ct, !ged Care !ct and the
<upported !cco))odation !ssistance /rogra) !ct.
'he legal system
The legal syste) is co)plex and o((Kputting (or the )a6ority o( people,
especially in regard to the structure o( the court syste), the process
in*ol*ed, the expenses and ti)e in*ol*ed.
Ae li*e in a society +here each person has rights, regardless o( their
situation. The existence o( these rights is closely related to the need (or
ad*ocacy. !d*ocacy is to stand up (or or represent the interests andIor
rights o( another person.
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!long +ith a personNs rights co)es the obligations o( responsibilities.
@ne o( our )ain responsibilities is to respect and be a+are o( other
peopleNs rights. Ahen people ,no+ +hat their rights and responsibilities
are and those o( the people they are +or,ing +ith, e*eryone concerned
should ha*e a clear picture o( +hat is expected o( the) in that
relationship.
<o)e suggested responsibilities are to9
• be a+are o(, and to respect, the rights o( others
• obey societyNs la+s
• protect children, and other *ulnerable )e)bers o( society, (ro) abuse
and neglect
• contribute to the social, en*iron)ental and econo)ic +ellKbeing o(
society, in a )anner suited to oneNs abilities
• care (or and protect the en*iron)ent
• participate in the process o( societal changes in a )anner suited to
oneNs abilities
Clients ha*e the right to (reedo) o( speech and to spea, out (or
the)sel*es about their needs, rights and +ants. They ha*e the right to
)a,e the choice o( +here they +ant to li*e and +ith +ho) they choose
to li*e.
It is the +or,erNs role to in(or) people both about their rights and their
responsibilities. The t+o )ust co)e together.
Just i)agine +hat it +ould be li,e to ha*e to li*e in a place you +ere not
co)(ortable in, and acco)panied by people you 6ust could not get along
+ithG 7i(e +ould so)eho+ see) so un(air because each day you +ould
be in a surrounding en*iron)ent that consisted o( an unpleasant
at)osphere that in return +ould cause you great unhappiness. This is
+hy it is *ery i)portant that each and e*ery person has the right to
(reedo) o( choice, to (eel happiness and abo*e all to (eel con(ident +ith
e*ery day li*ing.
?*ery person also has the right to practice their o+n culture, practice
and belie*e in their o+n religious belie(s and to be able to spea, their
o+n language. Ahen so)ething occurs in a personNs li(e, they also ha*e
the right to petition so they are heard and ta,en notice o(. I( there is
so)ething in their li(e causing the) grie(, unhappiness or they cannot
li*e happily +ith, they ha*e the right to e-ual protection be(ore the la+
and a public trial by )eans o( an ad*ocate such as a la+yer.
Ae all ha*e e-ual rights and +e all ha*e the right to be heard. <o)e o(
us go about our rights being heard andIor )et on our o+n, others )ay
re-uire the assistance o( others.
There are )any barriers +hich pre*ent or inhibit people ,no+ing, (inding
out and (orcing their rights as consu)ers o( any ser*ice in the
co))unity and these )ight include9
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Community attitudes
/eopleNs *ie+s o( the)sel*es as +orth+hile hu)an beings depends
largely on the )essages they recei*e &positi*eInegati*e' (ro) others
about their +orth and *alue. 4o+e*er, people see) to order their
perceptions o( each other in ter)s o( +hat is nor)al and acceptable,
that is +hat is co))on to the )a6ority. Those +ho do not con(or) to
rigid nor)s o( nor)ality there(ore are not recognised or accepted as
ha*ing the sa)e basic rights. This includes those people +ho are
socially, econo)ically, intellectually or physically disad*antaged.
)no,ledge of rights and redress
>any people, especially disad*antaged consu)ers, do not ,no+ their
basic rights or the protections a*ailable to the). They +ere not taught
the) at school, they do not li*e in an en*iron)ent +here that
in(or)ation +ould be accessible and the ,no+ledge is not readily
accessible (ro) the syste).
Enforcing your rights
>any disad*antaged people o(ten (eel resigned to (eeling ripped o((,
po+erless to exercise their rights against experts, go*ern)ent
depart)ents or businesses or are unable to put co)plaints in +riting, do
not +ant to be seen to be co)plaining and +ill -uietly accept their lot
and not )a,e +a*es. >any people ha*e negati*e experiences o(
bureaucracies and disli,e the i)personality o( the), +hich puts the) o((
see,ing redress or legal protection.
Ahen assisting clients to deter)ine +hether their rights are being
upheld, you )ust (irst understand their personal, ci*il, legal and
consu)er rights. The (ollo+ing resources )ay help you9
• :our organisationNs policy and procedure docu)ents
• :our organisationNs Charter o( =esidentsN =ights and =esponsibilitiesL
5isability <er*ices !ct
• 7egislation, regulations, standards and guidelines that go*ern speci(ic
issues
• The 4u)an =ights and ?-ual @pportunity Co))ission
• The @((ice o( the /ublic !d*ocate or /ublic 8uardian
• The National !ged Care !d*ocacy /rogra) &N!C!/'
• 5isability 5iscri)ination Co))issioner &Co))on+ealth'
• 7egal ad*ice ser*ices
• Consu)er rights ser*ices
• Centrelin,
• =espite ser*ices
I( you are unsure about your clientsN rights relating to a speci(ic area, tal,
to your super*isor or consult a specialist in that area.
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@nce you understand your clientsN rights, the next step is to help clients
deter)ine +hether their rights are being upheld. Ahen assisting your
clients you should apply the (ollo+ing strategies9
• 5e*elop trust and rapport +ith clients
• >aintain e((ecti*e co))unication +ith clients P use co))unication
aids or interpreters i( re-uired
• =egularly )onitor and re*ie+ clientsN care plans
• @bser*e client interactions +ith ser*ice pro*iders and (a)ily
)e)bers
• >aintain the clients" pri*acy, dignity and con(identiality
• 8ather (eedbac, (ro) (a)ily )e)bers and other support people
• 4a*e a (eedbac, process +here clients can (reely *oice their
co))ents, co)plaints or concernsL this can include9
 residentsN )eetings in residential (acilities
 relati*esN )eetings in residential care (acilities
 client )eetings at co))unityKbased ser*ices
 (eedbac,Ico)plaints boo,s +here clients and (a)ily )e)bers
record co))ents
 (eedbac,Ico)plaints boxes +here co))ents are posted
 (or)al co)plaints and grie*ance policy and procedures.
sing e((ecti*e co))unication, (eedbac, and obser*ation allo+s you to
help clients their concerns about their care or daily li*es.
:our role as a care +or,er )ay be re-uired o( you to spea, out (or the
person, +hich )eans to be an ad*ocate and pro*ide all rele*ant,
researched in(or)ation to the client so they are (a)iliar +ith their rights
and responsibilities.
In order (or you to be able to ad*ocate (or clients and support clients to
*oice their opinions or needs and to ensure their rights are upheld, you
+ill re-uire ,no+ledge o( the (ollo+ing9
• organisations and ser*ices rele*ant to the nature o( client ser*ice
• re(erral options and resources a*ailable to co))unity
• organisational policies and procedures
• rele*ant legal and other rightsI li)itations, eg the !ged Care !ct, or
the 5isability <er*ices !ct
• social 6ustice principles
• di((erences bet+een negotiation, ad*ocacy, )ediation and
conciliation
The essential s,ills you +ill need to do this include9
• )ediation
• negotiation
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• representation
• a clientKcentred approach
• dealing +ith crossKcultural issues
• ad*ocacy
Activity 5
4o+ do you (ind out i( a persons" rights ha*e been in(ringed or not being
)etG
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7ist +ays your o+n needs and rights.
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Identi(y ho+ a +or,er can assist clients" to identi(y their o+n needs and
rightsG
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1.5 (nderta/e an assessment ,ith the client0 and if necessary ,ith
significant others and colleagues to identify clientAs aility to
advocate for self.
!t ti)es, (a)ily )e)bers, (riends or (ello+ +or,ers )ay (eel co)pelled
to spea, on behal( o( an older person or a person +ith a disability. They
)ay do so out o( habit, ha*e good intentions or the )ista,en belie( that
the person canNt spea, up (or the)sel*es.
!s a +or,er, you should assist and encourage clients to co))unicate
their thoughts and opinions about the care they recei*e and any
decisions that are )ade a((ecting their li*es. Clients should also be
pro*ided +ith the opportunity to outline +hether or not their rights are
being upheld.
!d*ocacy sounds li,e a co)plex process. In reality it is *ery si)ple.
!d*ocacy is essentially the *ery ordinary process o( standing up (or the
rights o( others +ho are being un(airly treated &/arsons, #992'. ?ach
one o( us has acted as an ad*ocate in so)e sense. <i)ply de(ined,
ad*ocacy is an act o( Fpleading (or, supporting, or reco))endingC the
cause o( another person &The >ac-uarie 5ictionary'. In general ter)s,
an ad*ocate is so)eone +ho Npleads a caseN, +ho ta,es the side o(
another person or group o( people and represents their interests.
7a+yers, unions and hu)an ser*ice +or,ers all act as ad*ocates in the
course o( their +or,.
!lthough +e +ould li,e to belie*e that +e li*e in a society in +hich all
people are treated e-ually, there are )any +ho experience
disad*antage, exploitation and abuse due to social, cultural and
physiological (actors, including po*erty, age, cultural and linguistic
bac,ground, gender and location. The potential (or disad*antage due to
the abo*e (actors can contribute to people"s need to be supported by
both indi*idual and syste)ic ad*ocacy.
?xa)ples o( di((erent (or)s o( ad*ocacy include9
• #elf Advocacy K ad*ocacy on oneNs o+n behal(.
• !ndividual Advocacy K any ad*ocacy on behal( o( an indi*idual.
• Broup Advocacy K ad*ocacy on behal( o( a group o( people.
• Pulic !nterest Advocacy K ad*ocacy pro*ided by a +or,er +ho is
paid to ad*ocate on behal( o( others. This category includes la+yers,
union organisers and +or,ers in ad*ocacy agencies.
• CitiCen Advocacy K ad*ocacy by a citi0en +ho is not paid to pro*ide
it, +ho is independent o( hu)an ser*ices, and +ho creates a long
ter) relationship +ith the person they are ad*ocating (or and
represents their interests as i( they +ere the ad*ocateNs o+n.
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• #ystemic Advocacy K ad*ocacy designed to change the syste), or
la+s, policies, procedures or practices +hich cause or perpetuate
in6ustice or ine-uality.
R &(ro) Aesthorp S <ebastian, #99J'
Clients should al+ays be encouraged and, +here re-uired, assisted to
sel(Kad*ocate. <uper*isorsI+or,ers )ay be re-uired to pro*ide training
so clients understand +hat it )eans to sel(Kad*ocate and ho+ to do it.
!n ad*ocacy ser*ice )ay help you in this area.
Activity 6 &esearch
Hind contact nu)bers and +ebsites o( ad*ocacy ser*ices in your local
area andIor state.
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<o)e clients )ay ha*e li)ited opportunities to sel(Kad*ocate due to
co))unication barriers. In these situations, use co))unication aids,
interpreters or other appropriate co))unication strategies to ensure
people are able to express the)sel*es. Co))unication barriers )ust
be addressed to allo+ clients to ad*ocate on their o+n behal(.
@ther barriers )ay also exist that reduce a clientNs ability to sel(K
ad*ocateL (or exa)ple9
• +or,er and organisational belie(s and attitudes
• (a)ily )e)bers or signi(icant others +ho al+ays spea, on the
clientNs behal(
• social, cultural or religious conditioning that restricts a clientNs right to
sel(Kad*ocate
• intellectual, psychiatric or cogniti*e disabilities that restrict a clientNs
ability to reason and )a,e decisions.
It is i)portant to address all barriers so a clientNs right to be part o( any
decision )a,ing regarding their care is upheld.
The (ollo+ing exa)ple illustrates a barrier that hinders a client
ad*ocating on their o+n behal(.
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E%ample
>aude is a disability coordinator at a local co))unity centre. @ne o( her
clients is Cathy, +ho is 2J and has an intellectual disability.
Cathy recei*es a disability support pension each (ortnight but only her
parents can access the )oney. They donNt thin, Cathy can )anage her
o+n )oney due to her disability, so they decide ho+ the )oney is spent.
This includes allocating a s)all a)ount o( poc,et )oney to Cathy each
+ee,. They (eel they ha*e to )a,e all the decisions (or Cathy, as they
did +hen she +as a child. They also belie*e they ha*e a responsibility to
loo, a(ter Cathy to )a,e sure she doesnNt get into trouble.
Cathy has other ideas about ho+ she +ants to spend her )oney and
she gets *ery angry +ith her parents +hen they donNt gi*e her )oney (or
things she +ants. 4er parents ha*e tal,ed to >aude about this issue as
they are +orried about CathyNs anger. >aude suggests they ha*e a
discussion to hear +hat Cathy has to say. >aude tal,s to Cathy be(ore
the )eeting about the need to express her thoughts and ideas cal)ly.
In this exa)ple, >aude assists Cathy to spea, on her o+n behal(.
>aude realises that CathyNs parents, +ho ha*e belie(s and attitudes
about people +ith disabilities, are restricting their daughterNs right to
spea, up and )a,e decisions on her o+n behal(.
Carry out as assessment
In this exa)ple, >argaret assists Christina to spea, on her o+n behal(.
>argaret realises that ChristinaNs parents, +ho ha*e belie(s and
attitudes about people +ith disabilities, are restricting their daughterNs
right to spea, up and )a,e decisions on her o+n behal(.
• ta,ing reasonable care to protect and uphold their rights, interests
and needs
• )a,ing sure your clients understand their rights
• acting reasonably at all ti)es in relation to your clients.
Ahen you assess a clientNs ability to sel(Kad*ocate you should assess
t+o things9
• The clientNs le*el o( co)petence
• The clientNs le*el o( con(idence
'he clientAs level of competence
To assess a clientNs le*el o( co)petence to sel(Kad*ocate, consider the
(ollo+ing -uestions9
• 5oes the client understand the situationG
• Ahat is the clientNs le*el o( s,ill and ,no+ledge about the situationG
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• 5oes the client ha*e the capacity to )a,e decisionsIchoices about
the situationG Hor exa)ple, be(ore )a,ing a decision, does the client
ha*e the ability to9
 understand the in(or)ation or situation
 retain in(or)ation or ,no+ledge about decisions )ade
 e*aluate the options presented
 )a,e a decision
 +eigh up the conse-uences or ad*antagesIdisad*antages o(
di((erent options.
• 5oes the client ha*e an understanding o( the conse-uences o( their
actionsG
• 5o they ha*e the s,ills and ,no+ledge to represent the)sel*es
regarding the situationG
The issue o( co)petence )ay *ary greatly depending on the issue or
situation. Hor exa)ple, a client is usually able to tell you +hat they li,e
to eat, +hat shirt they +ould li,e to +ear, +hat they li,e to +atch on
tele*ision or +hat (ootball tea) they support. These are all si)ple
decisions +ith a lo+ le*el o( co)plexity. ?*en i( a client is not dee)ed
co)petent to )a,e these types o( decisions, adhering to the decisions
&such as pre(erring to +atch the ne+s on tele*ision' +onNt put the client
at ris,. This )ay not be the case +ith )ore co)plex decisions, +hich
)ay i)pact on the clientNs health and sa(ety. =e)e)ber, you )ust
al+ays in*ol*e clients in si)ple dayKtoKday decisions and choices to
ensure they ha*e a say in deter)ining their o+n needs.
Ahen )ore co)plex issues or decisions are being discussed it is *ital to
assess a clientNs ability to sel(Kad*ocate. These issues )ay include
)a,ing decisions about (inances, the sale o( property or other
possessions, acco))odation, )edical treat)ent, relationships,
continuing to dri*e or engaging in support ser*ices. Coordinators ha*e a
duty o( care to their clients to protect the) (ro) any (oreseeable ris,
+hich )ay result (ro) sel(Kad*ocacyL (or exa)ple, a client )ay decide
to stop ta,ing )edication, +hich +ould ha*e a detri)ental e((ect on their
health. Clients ha*e the right to stop ta,ing their )edicationL ho+e*er,
you )ust ensure they are co)petent to )a,e this decision. :ou need to
)a,e sure they understand the conse-uences o( their decision.
<uper*isors and +or,ers +or, +ith other sta,eholders, +ho are in*ol*ed
+ith your clientNs care and +ellbeing, to deter)ine the clientNs
co)petence to )a,e decisions on their o+n behal(. Aith your clientNs
per)ission, you should consult people such as9
• your colleagues and super*isor
• (a)ily )e)bers or (riends
• health care pro(essionalsL (or exa)ple, a 8/ or assess)ent +or,er
• other aged care or disability support +or,ers
• other co))unity ser*ices +or,ers
• solicitors
• (inancial ad)inistrators or accountants.
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These people ha*e di((erent perspecti*es and )ay assist in identi(ying
your clientNs co)petence to sel(Kad*ocate.
Together +ith your super*isor or other sta,eholders, you should assess
+hether your client understands the issues being discussed, the choices
that )ust be )ade and the conse-uences o( any actions or decisions.
!ssess)ent strategies )ay include as,ing -uestions, )a,ing
obser*ations, spea,ing to others or assessing de)onstrated
co)petence.
The assess)ent strategies used and -uestions as,ed )ay di((er (or
each client, situation and +or,place. There is not one NbestN )ethod o(
assess)entL rather, a *ariety o( strategies should be used and
-uestions as,ed to assess the s,ills, ,no+ledge and understanding o(
the issue being discussed.
?ach assess)ent strategy includes the response re-uired to assess i(
the client is co)petent to ad*ocate on their o+n behal(. Hor instance9
$igure 5:
Assessment
#trategy
E%amples
&esponses to assessed
as eing competent
Muestioning
4o+ do you pay your
billsG
Ahen you ha*e a
sho+er +hat is your
routineG
nderstands bills need to
be paid.
8ather to+el, clothes,
ta,e o(( clothes, turn on
+ater, chec,
te)perature, get in,
soap, dry o(( +ith to+el,
put clean clothes on
@bser*ation
<a)ples o( paid bills
<ho+er
4a*e no o*erdue bills,
has receipts (or paid bills
Hollo+s routine, does not
sho+er +ith clothes on
Consultation
+ith others
Consult +ith
Ha)ily )e)bers
Hriend
Carers
4ealth pro(essionals
@ther ser*ice
pro*iders
Client should ha*e no
concerns +ith9
npaid bills
7oss o( ser*ices due to
unpaid bills
hygiene
'he ClientAs "evel of Confidence
! coordinator )ust also )a,e an assess)ent about a clientNs
con(idence to sel(Kad*ocate. Con(idence in this case re(ers to a clientNs9
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• belie( in the)sel*es
• belie( in their abilities
• ability to spea, up on their o+n behal(
• ability to state their thoughts, opinions and care choices to a
coordinator.
<o)e clients )ay ha*e a high le*el o( con(idence to sel(Kad*ocate but
not possess the capacity or co)petence to )a,e the necessary
decisions.
Con*ersely, a client )ay ha*e the capacity or co)petence to )a,e
decisions, but not the con(idence to ad*ocate on their o+n behal(.
To assess a clientNs le*el o( con(idence to sel(Kad*ocate, consider the
(ollo+ing -uestions9
• 4o+ con(ident is the client to spea, on their o+n behal(G
• !re they able to spea, up and ha*e their opinions and thoughts
heardG
• 5o they hold bac, because they thin, nobody +ill listen to the)G
• !re they hesitant to spea, up because they (ear reprisalG
• 5o they ,eep -uiet because that is +hat is expected o( the)G
• 5o they ha*e co))unication di((iculties that li)it their ability to sel(K
ad*ocateG
I( a client doesnNt ha*e the capacity to )a,e decisions (or the)sel*es
then alternati*e arrange)ents )ust be )ade. ! (a)ily )e)ber, (riend
or unpaid carer )ay ha*e an enduring po+er o( attorney, +hich )eans
that person has (inancial, )edical or guardianship authority (or the client
and is responsible (or )a,ing decisions in their best interests.
!lternati*ely, a guardian )ay ha*e been appointed. 8uardian is +hen
so)eone is not able to )a,e their o+n decisions or choices, a guardian
)aybe appointed by the 8uardianship Board to )a,e decisions (or that
person. /o+er o( attorney is a legal order +hich gi*es a person the
po+er to act on behal( o( another person.
Activity 4
5escribe the process to underta,e an assess)ent o( a client"s ability to
ad*ocate (or sel(.
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&eferences
/arsons, I. &#992'. @li*er T+ist 4as !s,ed (or >ore K The politics and
practice o( getting 6ustice (or people +ith disabilities. 8eelong9
Oilla)anta.
Aesthorp, 8. S <ebastian !. &#99J'. !d*ocacy Training /rogra)9
Introduction to !d*ocacy K ! learning pac,age. >ile ?nd9 5isability
!ction.
1.6 Provide client ,ith information aout availale options for meeting
their needs and assist them to identify their preferred option0 and to
ma/e contact and negotiate ,ith relevant people and agencies
,here appropriate.
Ae all ha*e e-ual rights and +e all ha*e the right to be heard. <o)e o(
us go about our rights being heard andIor )et on our o+n, others )ay
re-uire the assistance o( others.
:our role as a care +or,er )ay be re-uired o( you to spea, out (or the
person, +hich )eans to be an ad*ocate (or another, but at the sa)e
ti)e pro*ide all rele*ant, researched in(or)ation to the client so they are
(a)iliar +ith their rights and responsibilities.
Beco)ing (a)iliar +ith clientNs needs and their rights you +ill be able to
di((erentiate bet+een needs that are being )et and needs that are not. I(
a ti)e arises +here you need to ad*ocate (or a client, )a,e sure you
are al+ays protecting the right to pri*acy o( the person.
'he main steps to advocacy are:
"isten to the person
!dentify the (acts and ,ey issues
Determine +hat the person +ants to do
Clarify +hat concerns the person +ants to achie*e
Discuss possible options to achie*e the outco)e
Provide in(or)ation and support the person to see, resolution
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&efer the person to appropriate support ser*ices
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Contacting relevant people
I( you +or, (or an organisation there +ill be a policy and procedure in
place (or re(erring clients to other support ser*ices. Ahen your client
re-uires support and assistance beyond +hat you are able to o((er, you
should re(er the client on to so)eone else. The re(erral )ay be +ithin
your o+n organisation or ser*ice &internal' or outside your o+n
organisation &external'.
In supporting clients to identi(y their rights and access ser*ices to )eet
their needs, you )ay consult +ith and re(er clients to a *ariety o(
pro(essionals, organisations and ser*ices. Aho you consult +ith or re(er
clients to depends on the clientNs speci(ic situation and needs.
<o)e clients )ay re-uire a re(erral to a co))unity aged care or
disability case )anager +ho organises and coordinates the deli*ery o(
the necessary support and ser*ices that clients are entitled to. This is
o(ten the case +hen a client has )ultiple needs and re-uires the
support o( a nu)ber o( di((erent pro(essionals and ser*ices. I( your role
doesnNt include a case )anage)ent co)ponent, you )ust re(er clients
re-uiring this le*el o( ser*ice coordination to an appropriate ser*ice.
@ther clients )ay need the ser*ice o( an independent ad*ocate or
ad*ocacy ser*ice. These ser*ices support clients to understand their
rights about a gi*en situation and to represent their o+n *ie+s. The
pro(essionals, organisations and ser*ices that you )ay contact in
relation to your clients, their health and +ellbeing needs and their rights,
include9
• 4ealth pro(essionalsK!C!TL4!CC
• <pecialistsK/alliati*e care ser*ice, legal ser*ices
• <er*ice agenciesK4!CC, day acti*ity progra)s, support ser*ices
• !ssociationsKCarer"s associations, !l0hei)er"s association, 5o+n"s
syndro)e association
• !d*ocacy ser*ices
!s part o( the pro*iding ser*ice options there +ill need to be negotiation
bet+een the pro*ider and clients so it )eets the indi*idual clients"
needs. =e)e)ber negotiation is the )utual discussion and
arrange)ent o( the ter)s o( an agree)ent or ser*ice.
The re(erral process )ay be in(or)al and re-uire as little as a phone call
or *isit to the ser*ice pro*ider, or )ore (or)al and re-uire assess)ent
o( the persons" physical, social, e)otional and (inancial circu)stances.
>any ho)e and co))unity ser*ices )aybe assessed through9
• <el(Kre(erral
• =e(erral (ro) a (a)ily )e)ber, (riend or carer
• ! doctor"s re(erral
• =e(erral (ro) a co))unity or health care +or,er
• !n assess)ent (ro) the ser*ice pro*ider and re(erral.
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Activity .
5eter)ine ho+ you +ould pro*ide clients +ith in(or)ation about options
a*ailable (or )eeting their needs.
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Ahat steps are re-uired to assist clients identi(y their pre(erred optionG
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Ahat processes do +or,ers need to co)ply +ith to contact appropriate
ser*ice pro*idersG Ahat happens a(ter you contact a ser*ice pro*ider so
that colleagues ,no+ +hat is going onG
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Ahat is negotiationG 4o+ does a +or,er do this +hen (ollo+ing the
steps to ad*ocacyG
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1.4 Ensure information provided to clients aout client rights and
responsiilities is researched0 relevant and timely.
It is i)portant (or all +or,ersIsuper*isors and people +ithin an
organisation to ha*e a inti)ate understanding o( their rights and
responsibilitiesL an a+areness o( the ser*ices and assistance clients are
entitled toL pro*ide accurate and rele*ant in(or)ation and pro*ide the
in(or)ation +hen it"s re-uired.
By ,no+ing your rights and responsibilities you are )ore able to ,eep
up to date and accurate +ith the clients" rights and responsibilities. This
)eans ,no+ledge o( pri*acy, dignity, trust, con(identialityL other ser*ice
pro*idersL legislations, regulations, standards and guidelinesL and an
understanding and access ad*ocacy and legal ser*ices contacts.
Beco)ing (a)iliar +ith clientNs needs and their rights you +ill be able to
di((erentiate bet+een needs that are being )et and needs that are not. I(
a ti)e arises +here you need to ad*ocate (or a client, )a,e sure you
are al+ays protecting the right to pri*acy o( the person.
! (inal point, +hen supporting clients ensure it is ti)ely. /eople should
not be ,ept +aiting (or days or +ee,s or )onths in order to ha*e the
needs and rights supported.
Thin, o( a ti)e +hen your rights as a consu)er o( a co))unity ser*ice
+ere denied. &Hor exa)ple +hen they +ere denied, redress or choice,
(elt patronised by a pro(essional gi*ing +rong in(or)ation etc.'
1. Ho, did you feel aout this situationD
5ependent on participantNs experience.
5. 2hat did you doD
5ependent on participant"s response.
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6. 2ere you a,are that you had rights in this instanceD
5ependent on participants experience.
4. !f you ,ere not a,are ,hy notD
5ependent on pparticipant"s experience.
.. Did you find out ,hat your rights ,ere and enforce themD
5ependent on pparticipant"s experience.
;. E%plain step-y-step ho, you ,ill research and present information to a client in
regards to their rights in a relevant and timely manner.
?xa)ple9
• identi(y the needs o( the client
• spea, to a super*isor, client"s (a)ily or any ad*ocacy organisationsI
co))unity ser*ices
• plan strategies
• narro+ do+n in(or)ation
• a(ter consultation +ith super*isor, in(or) the client
Activity ;
4o+ is in(or)ation pro*ided to clients about client rights and
responsibilities researched, rele*ant and ti)elyG
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2. !d*ocate on behal( o( clients on
re-uest.
5.1
Initiate, negotiate and i)ple)ent rele*ant strategies (or
addressing client needs.
5.5
@n re-uest (ro) the client and in onKgoing consultation +ith the
client, identi(y and contact the )ost appropriate indi*iduals or
organisations and represent the client"s point o( *ie+ clearly to
opti)ise outco)es (or the client.
5.6
?nsure in(or)ation is ,ept in con(idence unless authorisation is
gi*en to release it.
5.4
5iscuss progress and outco)es +ith the client and ta,e (urther
action as necessary.
5.1 !nitiate0 negotiate and implement relevant strategies for addressing
client needs.
!s a +or,er you )ust ,no+ a client"s pre(erred options be(ore you can
initiate, negotiate and i)ple)ent strategies to address their rights and
needs. The client )ay ha*e a care plan or indi*idualised care plan that
identi(ies needs o( the person and ho+ to )eet the) e((ecti*ely. By
co)plying +ith the care plan it ensures all strategies are i)ple)ented
correctly. The care plan is dyna)ic 6ust li,e people, changes can be
needed as needed or +ith the biannual re*ie+s.
! basic right o( clients is that they recei*e a -uality ser*ice that )eets
their needs and circu)stances. =e)e)ber, to uphold this right, it )ay
be necessary to de*elop strategies to )eet client needs +ith other
)e)bers o( the tea), a super*isor or other ser*ice pro*iders.
!t all ti)es, the client needs to be +ell in(or)ed and part o( the decision
)a,ing process. This gi*es the client a sense o( e)po+er)ent by gi*ing
choices that leads to a client (eeling in control and increases their sel(K
+orth and )a,es the client happy.
!n organisation can use certain strategies to ensure that a client is
)ade a+are o( their rights. <uch strategies are in(or)ation brochures
co*ering the consu)er rights +ithin the organisation and in(or)ation
co*ering the redress o( the clientNs right not being )et.
Ahat strategies are in place (or addressing the needs o( the clients you
are +or,ing +ithG @n a daily basis you are a participant o( a +or, tea)
charged +ith )eeting the needs o( designated groups o( clients. :ou set
out to )eet those needs on a daily basis. :ou should ha*e no proble)s
in supporting and addressing the personNs needs. They +ill probably be
built into your routine, you +ill be in(or)ed by the group o( +or,ers +ho
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preceded you in an earlier shi(t, or it +ill be +ritten in the co))unication
diary.
Ahat happens +hen a person you are supporting has an un)et need
thatNs not built into the routineG Ahat syste) o( reporting and
responding is thereG Hind out (ro) your current +or,place +hat
happens to address an un)et clientNs need. Ahat process and strategy
is in place, and +hat do you do as a +or,er to i)ple)ent the strategyG
Ahat is your role and +hat do you do about itG
Activity (
In an organisation, +hat happens to address the un)et clientNs needG
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3egotiation
Negotiation is a )utual discussion and arrange)ent o( the ter)s o( a
transaction or agree)ent. Negotiation usually in*ol*es t+o parties +ho
both +ant so)ething, but not necessarily the sa)e thing. Negotiating
+ith a client )ay in*ol*e )a,ing decisions about
• identi(y strategies to best )eets the clients" needs
• ho+ )uch the client can do (or the)sel*es and +hat the +or,er
)ay do on their behal(
• practicality o( certain options
• +hich ser*ice pro*ider or pro(essional )ay be better at )eeting the
clients" needs
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7here are *i3e &asic 2rici2les o* e0otiatio that assist &oth 2arties
reachi0 a# a0reei0 o a 4i+4i solutio.
1. Be hard on the proble) and so(t on the person
5. Hocus on needs, not positions
6. ?)phasise co))on ground
4. Be in*enti*e about options
.. >a,e clear agree)ents
&<ource9 Con(lict =esolution Net+or,, +++.crnh-.org.'
!mplementing the strategy
@nce strategies ha*e been discussed and prioritised +ith the client, they
)ust be i)ple)ented to put the strategy into action.
The strategy i)ple)ented )ust9
• address the clientNs rights and needs
• consider the clientNs pre(erences including cultural and religious
pre(erences
• address any actual or potential discri)ination or un(air treat)ent.
Activity )
!s an ad*ocate ho+ do you initiate, negotiate and i)ple)ent strategies
to address the clients" needsG
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5.5 *n re:uest from the client and in on-going consultation ,ith the
client0 identify and contact the most appropriate individuals or
organisations and represent the clientAs point of vie, clearly to
optimise outcomes for the client.
The goal o( ser*ice deli*ery is to ensure that clientNs outco)es are
opti)ised. In a role as ser*ice deli*ery personnel, +e need to ensure the
goals to )eet clientNs needs are adhered to, and supported so the client
)ay get as )uch as possible (ro) the ser*ice they ha*e chosen.
It is *ery easy to consciously or unconsciously o*erloo, the +ishes o( a
person +ho is not able to co))unicate as +ell as so)eone +ho is in a
position o( po+er. =e)e)ber that these people you are supporting by
*irtue o( the ser*ice they are in, are less e)po+ered than the ableK
bodied population +ho )ay not re-uire these support ser*ices, so it is
absolutely critical that +e listen, hear, understand and act on the re-uest
(ro) the client.
It is critical to )aintain an ongoing consultation +ith the client to ensure
their changing needs and re-uire)ents are co)ple)ented. 4o+ )any
ti)es ha*e you changed your )ind about the clothes you +ish to +ear,
(ood you +ish to eat or the co)pany you +ish to ,eepG But sadly, +e do
not o(ten a((ord this to the people +ithin these sorts o( ser*ices.
Clients +ho use the type o( co))unity ser*ice you are +or,ing in
should be a((orded the right resources to ha*e their needs and +ishes
)et. It is -uite clear that it is your 6ob to ensure the )ost appropriate
indi*iduals or organisations are identi(ied to )eet their needs and
+ishes.
Because o( the clientNs (unctional capacities they )ay re-uire the
additional support to )eet the clientNs need, the ser*ice re-uired and
ensure that they are )obilised.
It )ay also be your role to ensure that you present the clientNs point o(
*ie+ clearly to the ser*ice re-uired by the client and ensure that ser*ice
deli*ery is )onitored. It )ay be a si)ple re-uest li,e a change o( diet or
a change o( (ood to so)ething )uch )ore co)plex. Hor exa)ple, a
client re-uires )edical treat)ent and +hen ta,en to the hospital or clinic
the duty )edical o((icer )a,es a *alue 6udg)ent to not treat that person.
The )edical o((icer has based that 6udg)ent on the (act that this person
)ay not be able to (unction to the capacity o( an ableKbodied person.
:ou need to be alert to these sorts o( situations and ha*e the s,ills to
negotiate and assert that personNs basic right.
Clients )ust be in(or)ed about their rights. It is *ery i)portant that
clients personally attend )eetings that concern the)sel*es or the
organisation that +ill a((ect the). !t these particular )eetings clients are
gi*en the opportunity to express their o+n needs and concerns.
I( a care +or,er is present at the )eeting and acting as ad*ocate (or a
client then they )ust accurately record in(or)ation, and )ost
i)portantly tell the client +hat they are recording. They )ust also gi*e
the client the opportunity to contribute and *eri(y its accuracy. ! care
+or,er )ust use appropriate (or)s as deter)ined by the organisation
(or recording client details.
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=e)e)ber all in(or)ation )ust be handled sensiti*ely and protect the
rights o( the client ensuring con(identiality. ! care +or,er )ust not tal,
about the in(or)ation in (ront o( others or lea*e records lying around
+here they can easily be read by so)eone else.
Activity >
7ist the )ost appropriate to represent the clientNs point o( *ie+ in the
ser*ice you are +or,ing (or.
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4o+ could you represent the client"s point o( *ie+ clearly to opti)ise
client outco)eG
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5.6 Ensure information is /ept in confidence unless authorisation is
given to release it.
Aith so )uch in(or)ation docu)ented about the client on a )onthly,
+ee,ly, daily or hourly basis +e )ust re)e)ber to ensure +e ,eep the
client in the co))unication loop at all ti)es. /rogress notes are about
the client and their +el(are and +e are obligated to discuss the
progra)s and progress +ith the client. Ae are obliged to let the client
,no+ +hat +e ,no+ in a +ay that is neither 6argon nor patronising. Ae
need to ,eep the client in(or)ed about the progress and outco)es.
Ae need to ,eep the client in(or)ed at each stage so they are a+are o(
+hat (urther action is being planned (or their +el(are. This should be part
o( an inclusi*e consultation process.
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!s a care +or,er you +ill need to be a+are o( your duty to )aintain
con(identiality and security o( in(or)ation at all ti)es.
! need to ,no+ basis re(ers to in(or)ation regarding a client re-uired by
appropriately authorised sta(( so that they are able to participate in
planning and i)ple)enting support ser*ices (or the client.
@rganisations no+adays are co))itted to pro)oting the integration o(
people into the co))unity. In supporting people they need to be a+are
that the so*ereignty and +ellKbeing o( clients )ust be sa(eguarded.
=espect (or pri*acy and con(identiality is (unda)ental to protecting the
rights o( clients, because o( the nature o( the support pro*ided by these
co))unity ser*ice agencies, personal in(or)ation about clients and
their (a)ilies is ,ept on (ile. This in(or)ation )ust be respected and
accessed only by those +or,ing directly +ith the indi*idual clients.
It is also a belie( o( )any agencies that, in the +ider use o( in(or)ation,
the pri*acy and anony)ity o( clients )ust be preser*ed +here*er
possible. It is also recognised that the sharing o( in(or)ation is essential
(or clients to recei*e the assistance they need. Aith the de*elop)ent o(
technology, in(or)ation can be relayed and duplicated +ith ease. Ahile
this can (acilitate co))unication, it also increases the possibility o(
abuse o( con(identiality.
To ensure con(identiality is addressed consistently throughout the
ser*ice, it is i)portant to consider that the type and extent o( the
in(or)ation con*eyed by sta(( in the course o( their duties +ill *ary
according to the situation.
4o+e*er, certain basic principles are applicable in all instances such as9
• in(or)ation should only be shared on the basis that to do so is in the
best interests o( the client, or proper in accordance +ith the la+
• the clientNs signed consent should be obtained be(ore the in(or)ation
is con*eyed to another person
• i( the client is unable to consent, +here possible the consent o( the
guardian, i( any, should be obtained
#haring information ,ith others
This )ay include other clients, relati*es and carers, sta(( (ro) other
agencies and +ith the public (or planning, research or e*en publicity
purposes. The obligation to respect con(identiality rests both +ith the
indi*idual sharing in(or)ation and the one recei*ing in(or)ation. Both
indi*iduals )ust protect con(identiality and adhere to the (ollo+ing
procedures. There +ill be instances +here in(or)ation needs to shared
+ith other health pro(essionals and court (or legal cases.
"egal frame,or/
The la+ protects clients against i)proper disclosure o( in(or)ation
&/ri*acy !ct, Con(identiality !ct, Hreedo) o( In(or)ation !ct' but
recognises that there are instances +here in(or)ation needs to be
discussed. The Hreedo) o( In(or)ation !ct #9%2 guarantees clients
the right to access in(or)ation held by all go*ern)ent &and
go*ern)entK(unded' organisations, unless the in(or)ation is protected
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by a special exe)ption. There +ill be organisational policies and
procedures and docu)entation that needs to be co)pleted that need to
be co)plied +ith. I( unsure, need to consult senior colleagues,
super*isor or )anager. 5o not 6ust release the in(or)ation.
The Hreedo) o( In(or)ation !ct #9%2 also re-uires go*ern)ent
agencies and authorities to publish in(or)ation about their operations
and po+ers that a((ect the public. It re-uires agencies to pro*ide
access to docu)ents in their possession, although there are exceptions
that )ean docu)ents )ay not ha*e to be )ade a*ailable.
Privacy Act
This is both a (ederal and state go*ern)ent legislation that protects the
rights o( clients, allo+s clients to access their health and personal
in(or)ation and deter)ines ho+ in(or)ation should be collected, used
and stored. This includes in(or)ation ,ept in client"s care records ,
clinicalIprogress notes personal details shared +ith you by clients or
others, co))unication (ro) sta,eholders and )edical in(or)ation (ro)
a doctor.
Confidentiality
To )aintain con(identiality and ensure clients" in(or)ation is ,ept
pri*ate, you )ust co)ply +ith the organisational policy and procedures.
This )ay include9
• client (iles ,ept in a loc,ed (iling cabinet
• only authorised people can access to client (iles
• electronic client (iles are protected by pass+ords
• each authorised person should ha*e o+n pass+ord so users can be
trac,ed
• client (iles )ust not be le(t open on a des, or co)puter screen
• client (iles should be returned to the loc,ed (iling cabinet +hen not in
use
• client details should not be discussed unless you ha*e client consent
! person +ho has recei*ed in(or)ation in con(idence shall not disclose
it except in certain circu)stances.
Ahen the need arises (or a care +or,er to report con(idential client
in(or)ation, it is *ery i)portant certain steps are ta,en to ensure the
pri*acy, dignity and rights o( their client are protected at all ti)es.
Ahen reporting any client in(or)ation you )ust re)e)ber to9
• thin, care(ully about +ho needs to ,no+
• only share in(or)ation +ith the people +ho do need to ,no+
• only share as )uch in(or)ation as they do need to ,no+
• +here*er possible get per)ission (ro) the client (or this and explain
+hy you need to share the in(or)ation
Clients )ust be in(or)ed about the rele*ant ser*ices a*ailable and
+hich agencies are suitable to suit their indi*idual, speci(ic needs. They
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)ust ha*e access to all rele*ant in(or)ation about their rights and
responsibilities and this in(or)ation )ust be care(ully researched,
rele*ant and ti)ely. The person )ust be e)po+ered at all ti)es, ha*e
easy access to a*ailable choices and to be able to choose things such
as, planning an outing, recreational pre(erences, )edication and general
health care.
!d*ocacy is the +ay people beco)e e)po+ered. ?)po+er)ent is the
goal. In*ol*e)ent in an ad*ocacy process de*eloping capacity to stand
up (or their rights, is the )eans by +hich e)po+er)ent is achie*ed.
Activity 10
Ahy is it i)portant to ,eep in(or)ation in con(idenceG
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7ist the process (or releasing in(or)ation.
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*.+ Discuss progress and outcomes ,ith the client and ta/e further
action as necessary.
!n ad*ocate is so)eone +ho spea,s on behal( o( another (or their
rights. !n ad*ocate can be anyone, (or exa)ple, a (a)ily )e)ber,
carer, support agency, ser*ice pro*ider or a la+yer. Ahy do these
people ad*ocateG
They ad*ocate to support the rights o( another. There )ay be a person
+ho is unable to spea, up (or the)sel*es or so)eone +ho )ay not
,no+ ho+ to spea, up (or the)sel*es. There could be a person +ith
nonK?nglish spea,ing bac,ground +ho has cultural issues that in(ringe
on their ser*ice pro*ision, (or exa)pleL a ne+ i))igrant +ho is used to
di((erent la+s.
Basically a person ad*ocates (or another so they can get a (air deal. 7et
us set a scenario.
E%ample
There is a 20 year old +o)an, <ally, +ho has an intellectual disability
and has de*eloped )ental health related proble)s +hich re-uires acute
psychiatric care. 4er (ather died se*eral years ago and she continued to
li*e +ith her ageing )other. 4er )other beca)e ill, +as hospitalised
and then placed in an aged care ho)e because she +as unable to loo,
a(ter hersel(. !s a conse-uence, <ally loses her acco))odation in the
co))unity and is placed in institutional care despite li*ing in the
co))unity +ith her (a)ily all her li(e. <ally +as placed in institutional
care because it +as belie*ed it +as (or her o+n bene(it.
4er )other co)plains about ho+ <ally is placed in unsuitable li*ing
arrange)ents and because o( her (railty she cannot ad*ocate on <allyNs
behal(. <allyNs )other approaches an ad*ocacy agency that specialises
in group ad*ocacy. They appoint a person to ad*ocate (or <ally. !s a
result o( signi(icant negotiations (ro) the agency, <ally recei*es (unding
to support her li*ing in the co))unity and recei*es the appropriate care
and support re-uired (or her needs.
:ou can see that it is critical that at any stage o( ad*ocating (or a
person, you need to discuss the progress and outco)es +ith the client.
By doing so and )onitoring the situation care(ully you +ill be in a
position to ta,e (urther action as necessary. I( you do not )onitor the
situation care(ully then +hat gains you )ay thin, ha*e been achie*ed,
)ay either be undone or )isunderstood. This then gi*es you the illusion
that things are progressing +ell +hen they are not.
@ne o( the best )ethodologies is to agree on a tangible outco)e that
+ill bene(it the client and then deter)ine an action plan to achie*e it +ith
ti)elines. Then it can be re*ie+ed +ith the client, other ser*ice
pro*iders and )easured against the original planned outco)e.
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Activity 11
I( a resident or client in the organisation clearly had a nu)ber o( their
rights breached o*er a sustained period o( ti)e, +ho +ould you
approach to raise these issues +ithG
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Ahat strategies +ould you use in addressing the client needsG
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Aho +ould you consult +ith to ensure you +ere approaching this
pro(essionallyG
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1. !d*ocate (or clients.
6.1 Ahere assess)ent indicates the client re-uires ad*ocacy
support9
• raise issues +ith the )ost appropriate personI people in a +ay
that upholds the rights and supports reasonable expectations
o( the client
• initiate and i)ple)ent strategies (or addressing client needs in
consultation +ith appropriate personnel
• identi(y and redress potential con(lict o( interest
6.1 2here assessment indicates the client re:uires advocacy support:
• raise issues +ith the )ost appropriate personI people in a +ay that
upholds the rights and supports reasonable expectations o( the client
• initiate and i)ple)ent strategies (or addressing client needs in
consultation +ith appropriate personnel
• identi(y and redress potential con(lict o( interest
Advocating for clients
@rganisations are re-uired to underta,e a personal assess)ent +ith
each indi*idual. This assess)ent +ill assist the) to understand and
cater (or e*ery indi*idualNs rights and needs and indicate i( the client
re-uires ad*ocacy support. Ahere an assess)ent indicates that the
client re-uires ad*ocacy support, issues are raised +ith the )ost
appropriate personI people in a +ay that upholds the rights and supports
the reasonable expectations o( the client. <trategies (or addressing
client needs are initiated and i)ple)ented in consultation +ith
appropriate personnel and potential con(lict o( interest is identi(ied and
redressed.
Hor exa)ple, I( you belie*e a +or, colleague is brea,ing the la+ or
breaching policies and procedures, you ha*e a responsibility to in(or)
your super*isor or e)ployer. 4o+e*er, it can be particularly hard to
report a breach o( client rights i( the o((ender is a colleague or your boss.
Ahen a colleague is doing so)ething that does not uphold an older
personNs rights, you )ay (eel you are letting do+n your +or, colleague i(
you report the). @ccasionally you )ay (eel personally threatened by a
situation and (eel unsa(e about reporting so)eone because there )ay
be repercussions against you.
!t other ti)es you )ay be reluctant to brea, a clientNs con(identiality.
4o+e*er, you )ust docu)ent and report your obser*ations to your
super*isor. In (act, any o( these situations )ust be reported because
both the !ustralian legal syste) and your agency policies re-uire you to
do so.
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!l+ays report any situation that +orries you to your i))ediate
super*isor, and (ollo+ your organisationNs policies and procedures. I(
your super*isor is not a*ailable, you could date and docu)ent your conK
cerns and (ollo+ up as soon as possible. This is not a breach o(
con(identiality. I( the co)plaint in*ol*es your i))ediate super*isor,
spea, to a )ore senior super*isor or get ad*ice (ro) an external agency
such as an o)buds)an.
I( the situation is urgent and you thin, there are i))ediate ris,s o( har),
you should try to contact your super*isor i))ediately. I( the super*isor
is not a*ailable, try to contact his or her )anager. ?nsure that you
(ollo+ the co)plaints procedure in the policy and procedures
)anual at +or,.
!nterpersonal s/ills
Interpersonal co))unication consists o( *erbal andIor nonK*erbal
interactions bet+een indi*iduals or s)all groups o( people. These
interactions in*ol*e sending and recei*ing )essages +ith )eaning. In
the health sector it usually in*ol*es spea,ing +ith clients, carers and
colleagues.
Eeral Communication
Co))unicating *erbally is i)portant +hen the goal is to obtain
in(or)ation, (or exa)ple a clientNs address. The *erbal part o( a
)essage is called the content. It consists o( the thoughts and ideas you
share +ith so)eone. Aords, ho+e*er, only con*ey part o( the )essage.
NonK*erbal co))unication is also a crucial co)ponent in any
co))unication. It )ay include the tone o( *oice P ho+ it sounds, (or
exa)ple gentle or aggressi*e, (ast or slo+ pace, loud or so(t *olu)e,
sha,y or steady
3on-veral Communication
There are a nu)ber o( co)ponents o( nonK*erbal co))unication.
These include9
• body language P gestures, (acial expressions, eye contact, posture
• proxe)ics P ho+ you use space in personal and public areas. I( you
are too close to a person, you )ay in*ade their personal space and
you )ay cause disco)(ort or inappropriate inti)acy
• signing P a rich and co)plex language used by )e)bers o( the
5ea( co))unity.
NonK*erbal and *erbal )essages should )atchL that is, happy +ords
should acco)pany s)iles, not gri)aces. I( you are recei*ing a )essage
+here the *erbal and nonK*erbal )essages do not )atch, clari(y +hat
this )eans to ensure you recei*e the right )essage.
?((ecti*e co))unication s,ills enable you to co))unicate and build
personal, social and +or, relationships +ith others.
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?((ecti*e interpersonal co))unication s,ills in*ol*e9
• acti*e listening
• attending beha*iours
• e)pathy
• re(lecti*e listening
• paraphrasing
• su))arising
• -uestioning.
<e*eral *ery i)portant interpersonal s,ills to use +hen you )ay be
re-uired to ad*ocate (or people are9
• an understanding o( your rights as a consu)er and ho+ to get the)
• an a+areness o( grie*ance and appeal procedures
• ho+ to de*elop appropriate grie*ance and appeal procedures +ithin
organisations
• an understanding o( consu)er participation, its practices and
principles
• applying these in organisations to )a,e the) )ore consu)er
(riendly
• ho+ to +or, in a )ore e)po+ering +ay +ith consu)ers
• ,no+ing a step by step process o( ad*ocacy you can apply to any
issue or proble)
• ,no+ing +here to go or +hat to do to i)pro*e your personal or
+ritten s,ills to be e((ecti*e as an ad*ocate
$orms of advocacy
#elf-advocacy services
<er*ices to assist clients to de*elop or )aintain their personal s,ills and
sel(Kcon(idence necessary to enable the) to represent their o+n
interests in the co))unity.
CitiCen advocacy services
<er*ices that +ill )atch an intellectually disabled person +ith a person
in the co))unity +ho acts as their ad*ocate ensuring their rights and
+ishes are )et &usually by doing so on behal( o( the person'.
Broup advocacy
! co))unity organisation representing a speci(ic group +or,ing
to+ards getting rights and entitle)ents.
#ystem advocacy
/eople, groups or organisations +ho +or, to+ards changing the syste)
to ensure peopleNs rights and entitle)ents are heard. It includes +or,ing
on changing policies and practices o( organisations, agencies,
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go*ern)ent depart)ents and political parties o(ten through lobbying,
petitions, ca)paigns, )edia etc.
#elf-advocate
! person +ho spea,s up (or the)sel*es or collecti*ely as a group.
Advocate
/eople +ho ha*e been gi*en the po+er by clients to spea, on their
behal( +ho represent the concerns and interests o( the client as directed
by the client.
These di((erent (or)s o( ser*ices represent ad*ocacy and ai) (or the
particular goal, +hich is to pro)ote the rights o( people (ro) ?nglish and
nonK?nglish spea,ing bac,grounds +ith a disability experience,
disad*antages due to disability or a conse-uence o( language and
cultural di((erence. !d*ocacy is (unda)ental in challenging the
conditions, causing this group to be disad*antaged.
#trategies and processes to overcoming arriers
!lthough so)eti)es there are barriers to e((ecti*e ad*ocacy, there are
also e((ecti*e strategies and processes an !d*ocate can use to assist in
o*erco)ing barriers to ad*ocacy such as9
• (ear and inti)idation because o( po+erlessness
• attitude o( ser*ice pro*iders
• ser*ice pro*idersN resistance
• pro(essional do)ination
• lac, o( accountability to consu)ers
• co))unity )isin(or)ation and ignorance
• lac, o( access to in(or)ation
• lac, o( support &(inancial, sta(('
:ou )ay be re-uired to ad*ocate (or a client at so)e ti)e. :ou +ould
be +ell a+are o( ho+ to e((ecti*ely apply the principles relating to
ad*ocacy. It is *ery i)portant that the desirable outco)e +ill also help to
e)po+er the client during the ad*ocacy process.
!d*ocacy )ay be re-uired (or the (ollo+ing9
• +hen assisting clients to access pro(essional ser*ices
• +hen assisting clients to ha*e their concerns and grie*ances heard i(
they are unable to co))unicate their needs and concerns unaided
• +hen assisting clients to ascertain +hich re-uired ser*ices are
nor)ally una*ailable
• +hen lobbying )e)bers o( /arlia)ent or local council (or such
a)enities as +heelchair access ra)ps, special (unding to assist
people +ith disabilities, or buses +ith +heelchair ra)ps
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The 1 ,ey areas (or you to consider +hen ad*ocating (or clients are9
1. =aise the issue +ith an appropriate person.
5. Initiate strategies in consultation +ith others.
6. Identi(y and address con(lict o( interest.
!dentifying an appropriate organisation ,hen advocating for individuals
It is *ery i)portant that you (a)iliarise yoursel( +ith the base ad*ocacy
organisations or ser*ices a*ailable to be able to identi(y the appropriate
organisations to contact +hen ad*ocating (or indi*iduals.
! (e+ organisations you should (a)iliarise yoursel( +ith are9
• Citi0en !d*ocacyK I( a person +ith a disability (eels their rights are
not being upheld they can see, assistance (ro) citi0en ad*ocacy
organisations
• /arent !d*ocacyK I( the parents o( a person +ith a disability (eel that
their sonI daughter"s rights are not being upheld, they can see,
assistance though parent ad*ocacy organisations.
• Consu)er !d*ocacyK Consu)er ad*ocacy ser*ices can be used i(
the consu)ers o( )ental health ser*ices (eel their rights are not
being upheld
• Industrial !d*ocacyK I( people +or,ing in an industry (eel that their
rights ha*e been breached, they can see, assistance through
industrial ad*ocacy organisations.
• The @)buds)anK The @)buds)an is an ad*ocacy ser*ice (or
people +ho belie*e they ha*e been treated un(airly or unreasonably
by an !ustralian 8o*ern)ent depart)ent or agency, including the
!ustralian Taxation @((ice, the !ustralian Hederal /olice and the
!ustralian 5e(ence Horce. The Co))on+ealth @)buds)an is also
the !CT @)buds)an.
• 7egal <er*ices &pri*ate and public'K !d*ocate (or all citi0ens in legal
)atters
• !ged Care !d*ocacyK I( a consu)er o( aged care ser*ices (eels their
rights ha*e not been upheld, they can see, assistance through an
aged care ad*ocacy agency.
! *ariety o( types o( training on participation and consu)er rights is
a*ailable to all consu)ers in in(or)al, (or)al, one to one and s)all
group (oru)s.
It is also *ery i)portant that the appropriate )eans (or )a,ing the initial
contact are identi(ied and to ha*e a clear explanation +hy these
particular )ethods are the )ost appropriate.
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/ersonal contact so)eti)es is appropriate, +hile phone contact is
another option, but li,e personal contact there is no record o( contact. It
is there(ore best to )a,e +ritten contact so that there is a record and
the co)plaint can be passed onto the appropriate person or co))ittee
(or (urther dealings. This is usually the )ost e((ecti*e (or) o(
co))unication as )ost organisations ha*e a process to handle any
co)plaints or issues.
There +ill also be so)e ,ey people +ithin your organisation to consult
+ith be(ore going outside. Consult +ith your super*isor and discuss +ho
+ould be the )ost appropriate person +ithin your organisation to raise
issues +ith, and i( and +hen you +ould need to go outside your agency.
!s +ith all things you are obliged to +or, in consultation +ith the
appropriate people.
:ou ha*e a duty to co)ply +ith your organisationNs policies and
procedures. 5iscuss +ith your super*isor +ho you +ould include in the
consultati*e process to ensure that strategies to )eet a clientNs needs
+ere appropriately i)ple)ented.
To ensure that the necessary action plans and reco))endations are
(ollo+ed through in con6unction +ith the appropriate personnel, you )ust
thin, through the actions that )ay be re-uired and ensure all interested
parties are consulted and in*ol*ed.
<o)eti)es there is a need (or (or)ality. Aritten docu)ents )ay be
use(ul and a copy o( the agreed action plan, then set a realistic
(ra)e+or, (or chec,ing, gi*en to all those consulted.
Thin, about +hat you +ould do i( a client or resident told you they
+ished to *isit a particular health care pro(essional. Ahat +ould your
strategy be and ho+ +ould you ensure you +ere part o( the consultati*e
processG
?((ecti*e strategies and processes that an ad*ocate can use to
o*erco)e these barriers are9
• resources9
o hu)an
o )aterial
• in(or)ation
• relationships and contacts
To adopt these strategies in your role as a care +or,er it depends on
clientNs experience. 4o+e*er, an exa)ple +ould be to gather
in(or)ation (ro)9
• care plans
• ad*ocacy organisations
• pa)phletsI ne+sletters
• rele*ant sta((
• case +or,er
• (a)ily )e)bers
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Po,er of Attorney and Enduring Po,er of Attorney
/o+er o( attorney allo+s an appointed person to act (or another on his
or her behal(. The appointee )ay be able to act in all (inancial aspects,
or )ay be li)ited to particular tas,s. It is possible to appoint )ore than
one person as an attorney, +hich )ay help ensure that the personNs
+ishes are respected. The docu)ent is straight (or+ard, and only has to
be signed and +itnessed.
! po+er o( attorney cannot be used i( a person is )entally incapable o(
understanding its i)plications. !n enduring po+er o( attorney, ho+e*er,
continues e*en i( the principal beco)es incapacitated.
<outh !ustralian and Oictorian la+ allo+s (or clients to accept or re(use
treat)ent (or a ter)inal illness and pro*ides (or a )edical po+er o(
attorney to )a,e decisions a(ter the client is unable to do so. The
person appointed is called the )edical agent. The )edical agent
chooses the treat)ent )ost appropriate to the clientNs +ishes i( the
client can no longer )a,e decisions. They can direct li(e support
e-uip)ent to be turned o(( or other )easures stopped.
'he Buardianship 8oard
I( your client is unable to )a,e their o+n (inancial or personal decision,
an application can be put to the 8uardianship Board to appoint a
guardian or ad)inistrator (or the client in these )atters. ! guardian
only has the legal right to )a,e decisions as speci(ied in the order. The
guardian )ay be a relati*e or )ay be a (riend or possibly an
ad)inistrator to )anage (inancial a((airs. ?ach state and territory has a
8uardianship Board.
Potential conflict of interest is identified and redressed
To ensure that there is no con(lict o( interest +hilst you underta,e your
role to ad*ocate (or a client, you )ust ta,e into consideration any other
allegiance or alliance you )ay ha*e to any organisation, parties or
indi*iduals, +hich +ould under)ine your role. Identi(y all con(lict o(
interest and all potential con(lict o( interest situations in the +or,(orce.
>ost organisations ha*e policies and procedures that identi(y and
pro*ide guidelines (or dealing +ith con(lict o( interest. They usually state
that it is the responsibility o( indi*idual sta(( )e)bers to identi(y any
potential con(lict o( interest.
Ahat are the ,inds o( situations that )ight represent a con(lict o(
interestG Typically, +or,ers in (acilities )ight identi(y the (ollo+ing ,inds
o( con(licting interests9
• (inancial ad*antages
• personal belie(s
• personal relationships bet+een sta(( )e)bers
• personal relationships bet+een sta(( and clients
• acceptance o( gi(ts
• use o( con(idential in(or)ation
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• use o( (acility resources (or personal ad*antage.
#ummary
There are )any issues that need to be considered in the course o(
i)ple)enting ad*ocacy. The concepts o( ad*ocacy, rights, -uality
assurance, -uality o( li(e and -uality o( care ha*e beco)e *ery
con(used. Ae )ust ta,e care that +e do not turn a+ay (ro) breaches o(
hu)an right and be able to approach issues in a syste)atic and
ob6ecti*e +ay. :ou need to re)e)ber ho+ to do this as +ell as the
changing dyna)ics o( situation to situation.
:ou ha*e an opportunity to i)pact on li*es, not only o( those people you
ser*e, but also those you +or, +ith. Be a positi*e and constructi*e
in(luence on peopleL lead by exa)pleL change poor +or, practices by
leading, not criticising, sho+ leadership and do not 6ust blindly (ollo+
exa)ples o( substandard +or,. :ou can be either part o( the solution or
part o( the proble). Ahich one +ill you chooseG
Case study
Jordan Johns a *olunteer, *isits >rs 8io*ani at a residential (acility to
ta,e her to his church. >rs 8io*ani is *ery grate(ul (or +hat Jordan is
doing and has built up -uite a trust (or hi) as +ell as (riendship and
co)pany. >rs 8io*ani is -uite old and (rail and (ro) ti)e to ti)e )ay
ha*e the occasional incontinence accident, nothing too serious, but still
a little irritating to her.
<he approaches you +ith her concerns about these accidents and says
that Jordan has co)e up +ith the idea o( using so)e continence aids.
In a discussion +ith you she tells you that she thin,s theyNre a good idea
and e*en goes as (ar as telling you the brand she reco))ends. Ahat
do you doG
John 5ru))ond is also a representati*e (ro) a health care co)pany
that )ar,ets these *ery sa)e incontinence support aids.
Activity 15
Is there a con(lict o( interestG AhyI+hy notG
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8i*e an exa)ple o( con(lict o( interest that you )ay ha*e experienced.
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