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Chapter 1
Background of the Study
Child Abuse is a universal problem that needs more attention from the
government and from the people. In Philippines, Child Maltreatment has been practiced
a long time ago. Before there are no laws protecting the children from various forms of
abuses. In the times when the Philippines was not yet colonized by the Spanish, this
kind of abuses in the children are practiced by the different tribes, in which later on
became their own culture. Such practice like sacrificing their children only to please their
Deities and give them a good year. However this kind of practice was not only practiced
in the Philippines. This practice is actually started during ancient time especially in the
Rome and Greek time. It was just passed by the people that migrate and discover the
island of the Philippines.
During the Ancient time, they treat their children as their property. The father who
is the head of the family has the authority and rights to do whatever he wants to do in
his children. He can sell, kill, maim and sacrifice his own children. This children that
usually sacrificed by their parents are usually born deformed, weak, disabled or any
reason that can be considered as unfit to live.
There was a Roman writer who first recorded a rape case of a seven years old
girl witnessed by a line of clapping women he was Petronius (http://www.child-abuse- Pagans in Roman Empire went so far as to kill their children
as religious sacrifices to their gods. According to Plutarch, the Catharginians, offered
their own children and those who had no children would buy little ones from poor people
and cut their throats as if they were lambs of young birds; meanwhile the mothers stood
by without a tear or moan. However not all religious group during middle ages are
fascinated in practicing infanticide; the Roman Catholic oppose this kind of act and
discourage their followers to practice infanticide
And through colonization child abuse has been brought in the Philippines. During this
time physical abuse and child neglect were officially recognized. However, there are no
actions that took to prevent this kind of act. Until Etta Wheeler, the first American
woman who fought the right of a child who suffer in the hands of her family, Animals
are protected, but children were not. She is the first person who opens the eyes of their
government about child abuse case (
we-are/history/etta-wheeleraccount-html). And from that point the government has
moved to create laws that protect the rights of the children.
The society also promoted that parents do not have complete authority in their
children (Finkelhor, 1986). And then in the 19th century there was a first legal
implementation regarding the protection of children. It was implemented by the
American and put it in their legal system. And through this initiative made by the
government of America, the other countries also adopted and implement this act for the
protection of the children. Philippines also adopt this Act and were implement a law in
1974 setting an age requirement of employment. Presidential Decrees no. 603 or The
Child and Youth Welfare. And year later for the pursuant of 1987 constitutions they
implemented Republic Act 7610 or also known as Special Protection of Children against
Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act in 1992. And then they amend the R.A7610
to R.A 7658 for the age requirement. These laws were created for the protection of the
children and for their welfare. It just basically ensures the future of the children. It gives
authority to the local official to promote and support activities for the protection and total
development of children, particularly those below seven years old. And adopt measures
to prevent and eradicate drug abuse, child abuse and juvenile delinquency. Child abuse
has been categorized in different forms and they are physical abuse and child neglect in
which it was officially recognized in the 1960s and it took another decade to recognize
the sexual abuse and emotional child abuse.
According to International Labour Organization in every developing country that
has 250 million children who are between 5 and 14 years old that works, 120 million of
these children were full-time workers. And World Health Organization claimed that
approximately 40 million children are subjected to child abuse each year. It was also
proven by Casa Alianza, an organization that cares for the youth. They supported what
he World Health Organizations claimed. In their studies approximately one million of
children around the world are introduced into commercial sexual exploitation every year.
In a developing country like Philippines Child abuse has been spreading and increasing
despite the fact that there is a law protecting children. Since the municipalities were
economically stable, this country is also in a state of war against the rebel, in which in
these war children and women are usually the victims. However, because of the
developing minds of the people children are also used as a weapon in war, it usually
happens because of poverty, in which through their fresh minds and principles they are
easy to influence. They are also engaged in a dangerous works that risk their health
and lives. Regarding in the numbers of the children that involve in hazardous work it is
said to be that region IV-A has more rescued child labours. In adding to that effect, the
child abuse rates have been increasingly in this year. A lot of child abuse cases that
were seen in the televisions are usually come from the municipalities of Cavite (Child
Labor, LABOR).
Child Abuse do not choose its gender, it do not choose a specific individual, nor
specific time, place and situation it can be happen to everyone there can be no
exception. And it doesnt mean knowing one rights but applying one right. Everybody
are born equal, they were created out of love. Children are reflected of the past, living in
the present and nurturing the future. A home are were the relationship begin and end.
Protecting children are the duty of the parents. Even though they are blood related it
doesnt give rights or authority for them to treat their children as a property. Theres a
limitations in caring their children, their job is to protect and lead them in a good path.
Like what Rizal said Ang Kabataan ang Pag-asa ng bayan. It is therefore that
protecting their future is what the government and people should taking care of. They
need to help each other to protect the childrens future.
Republic Act (RA) No. 7610, also known as Special Protection of Children
Against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act, was approved into law as
early as June 17, 1992.
Under this law, the State creates sanctions to deter violations against children
such as trafficking, child prostitution and other forms of sexual abuse, and discrimination
against children from indigenous communities. RA 7610 allows children to enjoy their
rights protected from any abuse or prejudice which may threaten their development.
According to an article written by Jezza Nepomoceno published in Panay News
on November, 2011. In Region 6 for the first six months of the year, 1,389 children aged
12 years old and below suffered from various forms of violence. This was almost half of
the recorded cases from January to December of 2010 2,695. Most of the offenses
against children this year involved physical injury or maltreatment (647 cases), child
abuse or violation of Republic Act (RA) 7610 (197 cases), rape (196 cases) and acts of
lasciviousness (110 cases).
Statistics further showed that most of the violence against children occurred in
Bacolod City (407 cases), followed by Iloilo (356 cases), Negros Occidental (310
cases), Iloilo City (98 cases), Antique (83 cases), Aklan (64 cases), Guimaras (46
cases) and Capiz (25 cases).
Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to determine the most common reported cases on the violation
of RA 7610 in Iloilo City as reported in the women and childrens desk at police precinct
More specifically, this study aimed to:

1. Determine the most reported violation of RA7610 in the Womens and Childrens
Desk at Police Prisinct 1 from 2010 up to present (2014), which showed the
highest and the lowest record of child abuse cases filed in Iloilo City
2. Determine which kind of sexual abuse and physical abuse showed the highest
record of cases filed in Iloilo City?

Theoretical Framework
In an effort to improve the effectiveness of their services with children and
adolescents, many social workers consult research guided by attachment theory.
A substantial body of research now supports what child welfare workers have
known for decades: The detrimental effects of child abuse and neglect are significant,
long-lasting, and can impact every aspect of a childs life (Augoustinos, 1987; Cahill,
Kaminer, & Johnson, 1999; Fagan, 2001; Glaser, 2000; Pollak, Cicchetti, Hornung, &
Reed, 2000; Smetana & Kelly, 1989; Starr & Wolfe, 1991). Furthermore, many children
experience additional trauma and problematic outcomes after they enter protective
services (Dumaret, Coppel-Batsch, & Couraud, 1997; Fish & Chapman, 2004). Faced
with the task of protecting some of the countrys most vulnerable clients, those in the
field of child welfare must continually seek out ways to improve the effectiveness of their
services. For many, social work research guided by attachment theory has provided
some answers.
The basic premise of attachment theory is that a childs relationship with a
primary caregiver during infancy is critically important to later development and serves
as a prototype for the childs relationships throughout the lifespan (Howe, 1995).
The theory originated in the work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth who sought to
explain and measure infants responses to separation from their mothers. Bowlby (1969,
1973, 1980) viewed the infant as an active participant in shaping the relationship
between mother and child, responding to innate drives to increase the proximity of the
mother for reasons of safety and security Ainsworths most significant contribution to
attachment theory was the now-famous strange situation test, which has become the
standard method of assessing attachment (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978).
During the strange situation test, an infant (12 to 18 months old) is observed
experiencing the separation and return of a primary caregiver. Proponents of
attachment theory stress its usefulness in understanding the psychological ramifications
of child abuse and neglect. They argue that the challenges that Karla Washington
MSW. is a doctoral student at the School of Social Work, University of Missouri-
Columbia. children who have been mistreated introduce into the foster care system are
more clearly understood and addressed by workers who are familiar with basic
attachment concepts(Golding, 2003; Mennen & O'Keefe, 2005).
Attachment theory attributes the problems that children continue to experience
even after being removed from an abusive situation to the trauma that they endure
when experiencing repeated separations from caregivers. Importantly, research has
shown that difficulties are not restricted to interpersonal relationships. The quality of a
childs attachments has been shown to predict performance socially, cognitively,
behaviorally, and academically (Golding, 2003).
In his discussion of theory, Howe (1987) explains that social workers always
employ some frame of reference when making practice decisions, even if they are not
consciously aware that they are doing so. If theory serves as an anchor for decision
making in child welfare, it is important that the theories be appropriate to and useful in
child welfare practice, as well as in accordance with professional ethics. With regard to
the utility of attachment theory, the jury is still out. However, even if attachment theory is
accepted as a sound framework for research, use of a more diverse range of
perspectives will almost certainly enhance studies in the field. Crisis intervention
theories, anti-discrimination perspectives, social construction theories, and critical social
work all contribute unique viewpoints and can be useful in forming research questions in
child welfare.
According to crisis intervention theories, individuals are typically able to cope with
change (Roberts, 2000). When an event occurs that overwhelms a persons existing
coping strategies, he or she may learn new and more effective coping skills and emerge
from the situation better able to handle taxing situations. Conversely, if one is unable to
acquire adequate coping abilities, he or she will fail to handle the stressor, resulting in a
compromised level of functioning and an increased susceptibility to behavioral and
mental health problems. Children who enter protective services may experience events
that challenge their ability to cope, including abuse and/or neglect and removal from
their family of origin.
Crisis intervention theories provide a useful framework for research into how, if at
all, children are able to cope with maltreatment. Furthermore, studies may explore how
children regain a sense of normalcy following removal from their home of origin, entry
into the foster care system, and introduction of new caregivers. , Folman (1998) found
that virtually every child in her study who was removed from their home by a law
enforcement officer was subsequently taken to a McDonalds restaurant. Clearly,
professionals are looking for answers on how to best support children when they are at
risk of entering a crisis state. It is also clear that more answers are needed.
Anti-discrimination theories focus on the oppressive forces that are present in our
societys institutions and policies. According to anti-discrimination theories, these
conditions exist to advance the power of privileged groups and are harmful to both
individuals and society (Thompson, 2003). It is common knowledge that individuals
experience discrimination of the basis of race, class, gender, sexual orientation,
ethnicity, and religion, despite countless laws and policies designed to protect
marginalized groups. Child welfare is not immune to these discriminatory practices.
Anti-oppressive research may seek to explain minority over representation in the child
welfare system. Are culturally sanctioned practices (e.g. fictive kinship, group care)
misinterpreted by child welfare workers or viewed as somehow inferior? Research may
also attempt to answer the question asked by many social work practitioners: If social
work is dominated by women, why are so many supervisors men? Perhaps the most
discussed discrimination in child welfare over the past decade is that pertaining to
members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered community. Politics and
religion aside, objective research can provide answers to whether or not homosexual
couples or individuals are as capable as their heterosexual counterparts of providing
stable, nurturing environments for children awaiting foster homes or adoption. Further
study may also determine whether or not homosexual adolescents are adequately
supported in foster homes or alternative care settings.
Social construction theories take objection with the notion that there is a
singular, fixed reality upon which everyone naturally agrees. According to Berger and
Luckmann (1971), human understanding of reality is the product of participation in
social processes.Kituse and Spector (1973) expanded on the work of earlier social
constructionists, explaining that there is nothing inherently problematic about the social
phenomena that are labeled social problems. Social problems only become defined as
such when a group with considerable power or influence suggests that political or social
action is required to change a given condition. Research informed by social construction
theories may seek to determine if there is something inherently dysfunctional about
single parent families, all other things being equal. Furthermore, would studies
investigating the problem of children being raised by grandparents obtain different
results if society viewed this family arrangement as legitimate, or at least adaptive?
In recent years, the strengths perspective has gained popularity in child welfare
settings, challenging workers to reconstruct the ways they think, write, and talk about
clients and their families, viewing what would previously have been labeled as
problems as opportunities or needs (Saleebey, 2001). As professionals work to
integrate strengths into practice models, it seems fair to ask how effective the use of the
strengths perspective is in changing attitudes of child welfare workers and clients.
Furthermore, if thoughts and attitudes are changing, are these changes resulting in
better outcomes for clients? Research can contribute findings to answer these
Critical theorists believe that society as it is presently constructed is corrupted by
political and economic inequalities that should be rectified. Rather than focus on the well
being of individuals, critical theories suggest that members of society should strive to
create macro-levels changes that minimize exploitation and distribute power more
equitably (Pozzuto et al., 2005). Research in this area may seek to illustrate ways that
social work supports and participates in an unjust society. Studies may focus on the
hidden agendas of social work decision makers by asking whether child welfare
decisions are actually based on what is believed to be in the childs best interest or if
they are based on economic or public relations considerations. This will be a decidedly
important focus as increasing numbers of private agencies provide child welfare
services. With regard to individual rights of children and families, critical theorists may
study the legal processes involved in the child welfare system, asking whether children
(or their families, for that matter) adequately understand and are able to successfully
navigate the complex world of guardians, child welfare workers, juvenile officers,
therapists, and judges. Research can then be used as a catalyst for systems-level

Significance of the Study

This research aimed to determine the most common reported cases on the
violation of RA 7610 in Iloilo City as reported in the women and childrens desk at police
precinct 1. This will serve as basis of the LGU of Iloilo city to assess the needs of the
children and in this study people shall be benefited from the result of this analysis in
which they will become enlightened that children must be protected and be free from
any kind of abuses. This research will prove to be beneficial to future researchers as it
can be used as a background study for other researches related to the topic.

Scope and Delimitations

This research is to identify the most common reported cases on the violation of
RA 7610 in Iloilo City as reported in the women and childrens desk at police precinct 1.
This research only covered the sexual abuse and physical abuses, and the
implementation of the said act from 2010 up to present.
This study will employ frequency distribution as a descriptive statistical tool.
Definition of Terms
The following terms used in this study are given their respective conceptual and
operational meanings
Child Abuse -It is the physical or psychological/emotional mistreatment of Children

Child Welfare -It is used to describe a set of government services designed to protect
children and encourage family stability.

Physical abuse -It is abuse involving contact intended to cause feelings of intimidation,
pain, injury, or other physical suffering or bodily harm.

R.A. 7610- It is the Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and
Discrimination Act.

Sexual abuse - It also referred to as molestation, is the forcing of undesired sexual
behaviour by one person upon another, when that force falls short of being a sexual

Women and Childrens Desk- structure for addressing all abuses of women and
children. The staff should have the appropriate knowledge, skills and attitude in order to
cater to victims of abuse. In addition, they should have the necessary facilities in order
to facilitate a safe environment for communicating with victims.

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