Honors Advanced Calculus and Linear Algebra

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Honors Advanced Calculus and Linear Algebra

© All Rights Reserved

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At the end of Chapter 6 Rudin denes the integrals of functions from [a, b] to R

k

one coordinate at a time. This approach is problematic in innite-dimensional

vector spaces. . . Fortunately it is not too hard to adapt our denitions and

results concerning Riemann-Stieltjes integration to functions from [a, b] to an

arbitrary normed vector space, as long as that space is complete a condition

we must impose so that the limiting process implicit in

will converge under

reasonable hypothesis. We shall need to pay more attention to Riemann sums,

which Rudin is able to relegate to a fraction of Thm. 6.7 when treating integrals

of real-valued functions.

Let V , then, be a complete normed vector space. Fix an interval [a, b] R,

an increasing function : [a, b] R, and a bounded function f : [a, b] V .

For each partition P : a = x

0

< x

1

< < x

n

= b of [a, b], and any choice of

t

i

[x

i1

, x

i

], we call

R(P,

t) :=

n

i=1

(x

i

) (x

i1

)

f(t

i

)

a Riemann sum for

b

a

f(x) d(x). (We suppress f, from the notation R(P,

t)

because f, are xed for this discussion.) When V = R we can estimate all

the Riemann sums above and below by U(P) and L(P), and try to make the

dierence between these upper and lower bounds arbitrarily small by choosing

a suciently ne partition P. For an arbitrary V there is no above and

below, and thus no U(P) and L(P); but we can still formulate a generalization

of U(P) L(P) that bounds how much ambiguity the choice of

t entails. For

any c, d with a c < d b, let

E(c, d) := sup

t,t

[c,d]

|f(t) f(t

)|;

note that the sup exists because f is bounded. Then, for any partition P dene

(P) :=

n

i=1

(x

i

) (x

i1

)

E(x

i1

, x

i

).

Then

R(P,

) R(P,

t)

(P)

for any choices of t

i

, t

i

[x

i1

, x

i

].

When V = R this (P) coincides with U(P) L(P) (why?). For this to work

in the general setting, we must verify that if P

renes P then (P

) (P).

By induction we need only check that if a x < y < z b then

(y) (x)

E(x, y) +

(z) (y)

E(y, z)

(z) (x)

E(x, z).

1

But this is clear from E(x, y) E(x, z) and E(y, z) E(x, z). Furthermore,

we need the following: if P

and P dier

by at most (P). Again it is enough to prove this for a one-point renement of

[x, z] to [x, y] [y, z], when we claim

(y) (x)

f(t

1

) +

(z) (y)

f(t

2

)

(z) (x)

f(t)

(z) (x)

E(x, z).

To prove this, we write the LHS as

(y) (x)

f(t

1

) f(t)

+

(z) (y)

f(t

2

) f(t)

i

) f(t)| E(x, z).

We can now recast Thm. 6.6 as a denition for Riemann-Stiltjes integrability

of f: we say that f is integrable with respect to d if for each there is a

partition P such that (P) < . [By Thm. 6.6, this is equivalent to Rudins

denition in the case V = R.] Theorems 6.8 through 6.10 then generalize

immediately to sucient conditions for integrability of vector-valued functions.

But youll notice that we have managed to dene integrability without dening

the integral! The denition as follows: if f is integrable with respect to d, its

integral

b

a

f(x) d(x) is the unique I V such that |I R(P,

Riemann sums R(P,

Uniqueness is easy: if two distinct I, I

choosing P such that (P) <

1

2

|I

construct I. Let

m

0 and choose P

m

such that (P

m

) <

m

. Without loss

of generality we may assume P

m

renes P

m

for each m

< m, by replacing P

m

by a common renement of P

1

, . . . , P

m

(this cannot increase (P

m

)). Choose

for each m an arbitrary Riemann sum R

m

:= R(P

m

,

a Cauchy sequence in V : if m

< m then |R

m

R

m

| (P

m

) <

m

. We

now at last use the completeness of V to conclude that {R

m

} converges. Let

I be its limit. This of course is essentially the way we obtain the integral of a

real-valued function. We claim that I satises our requirements for an integral

even in our vector-valued setting. Consider any Riemann sum R = R(P,

t). For

each m, let R

m

be a Riemann sum for a common renement of P

m

and P. Then

|R

m

R| (P) and |R

m

R

m

| (P

m

) <

m

. Thus |R

m

R| < (P) +

m

.

Letting m 0 we obtain |I R| (P) as desired, Q.E.D.

2

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