You are on page 1of 23




1 Introduction 1
2 Design Approach and Methodology 1
3 Analysis 3
4 Analysis Outputs 9
5 Design of Members 21


This report comprises the summary of the design of the building of
Ministry of Education and Sports within the premises of Singh
durbar, Kathmandu. The report consists of the design procedures
adopted, the assumption made, the inputs made in the design and
the design output. During the design, it is assumed that the client
will completely follow the architectural as well as the structural
design. It is also assumed that the construction will be supervised by
professional engineer.
The designer will not be responsible if any alterations to the
structural system is made by client or the contractor without the
prior written permission from the designer, or the alterations to the
non structural system is made such that the weight of each
individual floor or the weight of the whole building is altered by
more than 10% of the design weight of each floor and the total
The design calculations and the derivations are limited to only a
minimum to let the concerned people know the methodology
adopted. However, the calculations may be provided to the client or
the concerned authorities when needed upon request.

Er. Saroj Kayastha

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background
This report summarizes the structural analysis and design of The
Building of Ministry of Education and Sports within the Singh durbar
premises at Kathmandu. The analysis and design has been based on
prevailing codes that are in practice in Nepal, the National Building code
of Nepal and the IS code at places. This report consists of the design
procedures adopted, the assumption made, the inputs made in the
design and the design outputs.
1.2 Salient Feature
Project Information
Clients : Government of Nepal
Ministry of Physical Planning and works
Singh durbar Secretariat Reconstruction
Building Type : Office Building
Location : Singh durbar, Kathmandu
Plinth Area (Block A) : 545.36 sq.m.
Plinth Area (Block B) : 405.56 sq.m.
Total Area : 4754.60 sq.m.
1.2.2 Building Features
Type of Structure : RCC Framed Structure
Storey : Five storey +Basement + Staircase cover
Provision for one storey vertical extension
Storey Height : 3.6 m for Basement and 3.3 m for all stories
Total Height : 22.66 m (From top of the raft to staircase cover
top level of Sixth floor)
1.2.3 Site Condition
Soil Type : 3 (for seismic consideration as per NBC 105)
Seismic Zone Factor : 0.8
Net safe bearing capacity: 225 KN/m2 for mat foundation at block B and
230 KN/m2 for foundation at block A for eastern grids and 135 KN/m2
for western grids
Refer soil investigation report.
1.3 Geometry of the Building
The building is composed of a five- storey framed structure with
staircase cover at top. The architecture planning of the building is of L-
shaped. The building is analyzed in two separate blocks. Expansion joint
is provided between the two blocks. Total length of Block A is 38 m
(excluding the width of fire space staircase) and total width of the
building is 13.45m.
2.0 Design Approach and Methodology
2.1 General
The structure is analyzed with Finite Element Method (FEM). Beams and
columns are modeled as frame (line) elements with sufficient and
appropriate meshing. Modulus of elasticity and poissons ratio for the
materials used are taken accordingly. The section properties used are
based on preliminary section sizing with consideration for deflection,
minimum sizing specified and serviceability. Computation for stiffness as
a whole is carried out using FEM based latest software.
Modal Analysis is carried out up to twelve modes confirming more than
95% seismic mass participation and it is applied for lateral seismic force
distribution generated with NBC 105:1994 and if not covered in that, IS
1853-2002 is referred with consideration of envelopes of internal forces
Foundation design is carried out to satisfy strength and stability
2.2 Software used: (Introduction to Analysis software)
The analysis for the structural system was carried out using ETABS
Version 8.3. ETABS is a product of computers and structures Inc,
Berkeley. It is a FEM based software having facility of RC Design on IS
2.3 Deformation under Vertical Loads.
Maximum vertical deflection in all beam and slab elements that resulted
under vertical load of combined effect of self, imposed dead and live
load are checked for critical elements and maintained to be within
permissible limit. Short term elastic deflection and long term deflection
due to shrinkage and creep due to sustained loads are also maintained
within permissible limits for all the elements.

2.5 Deformation under Lateral Loads
Effect of lateral load due to seismic force is analyzed using response
spectrum input compatible with codal provision. Using compatible
Quadratic Combination (CQC) method of modal combinations combines
the deformations and related forced reported.
3.0 Analysis
3.1 Loading Details/ types of loads
a. Dead Load: The dead load comprises the loads due to materials
used in the construction and parts or components in a building. It
consists of the loads due to structural elements like beam,
column, slab, staircase, etc; finishes applied in the building and
some permanent structures like water tanks etc.
b. Imposed load: The imposed load comprises the loads due to the
physical contribution of people and the loads due to the nature of
occupancy. The imposed on the structural system are based on
the codal provisions as specified in IS 875(part2)-1994.
c. Earthquake load: The Earthquake load is the horizontal/ lateral
load induced by the ground motion due to earthquakes. The
design lateral load/force is considered in two orthogonal
horizontal directions of the structures. The earthquake induced
lateral loads on the structural system are based on the codal
provisional as specified in NBC 104:1994.
3.2 Material Specification
Considering Architectural, Economic and strength demands, reinforced
concrete (RCC) is used as the major structural material also confirms the
availability and ease in construction. The concrete grade used is M20 in
general but M25 for structural system up to ground floor. TMT 500 is
provided as longitudinal and shear reinforcement is structural elements
wherever RCC is used.
Considerations of material for loading and strength parameter are as
detailed below:
1: Grade: M20
Characteristic Compressive strength: 20 N/mm2
Unit weight: 25.0 KN/m3
Youngs modulus of elasticity (E) =22361000 KN/m2
2. Grade: M25
Characteristic Compressive strength: 25N/mm2
Unit weight: 25.0 KN/m3
Youngs modulus of elasticity (E) =25000000 KN/m2
Steel Reinforcement (for both longitudinal and shear reinforcement)
Grade: TMT 500
Yield stress: 500N/mm2
Unit weight: 18.85 KN/m3
Note: During this design, brick is not considered as structural component
and hence its strength is not considered.
Unit Weight: 20.4 KN/m3
Floor Finish:
Specification: 50mm thick screed + punning on floor
Intensity: 1.02Kn/m2
Note: Additional Load is considered for partition as well
Light partition = 1.0 KN/m2
3.3 Loading on structural Model
The following considerations are made the loading on the structural
The loads distributed over the are imposed in area element and
that distributed over length are imposed on line element
whenever possible.
Where such loading is not applicable, equivalent conversion to
different loading distribution is carried to load the model near the
real case as far as possible.
For lateral load, necessary calculations are performed to comply
with the requirements of NBC 105: 1994.
The earthquake induced lateral loads are determined and used
from the spectral load cases based on NBC 105:1994: Spectrum for
soil type 3. Lateral load thus developed is the product of structural
seismic mass, modal response and respective spectral ordinates.
3.4 Load Cases
The following load cases were used for loading during the analysis:
Dead: Self weight of the building structural components
Finish: Weight of the finishing of slabs and staircases (including steps)
Wall: Wall loads (including Plaster)
Live: Live Load in the building area elements
Rlive: Live load in the roof both accessible and inaccessible
Ex: Spectral seismic load in X-direction
Ey: Spectral seismic load in Y- direction
3.5 Load Combination
The load combinations are based on NBC 105:1994. The following load
combinations are specified by NBC:1994:
Static load combination:
1.5 Dead Loads +1.5 Live Loads
Seismic Load Combination
0.9 Dead Loads +- 1.25 Earthquake Loads
1.0 Dead Loads + 1.3 Live loads +- Earthquake Loads
For seismic Loading, mass equivalent to the load that is composed of
100% of Dead Load and 25% of live load is taken into consideration.
The following load combinations are used during analysis:
DL = 1.5 Dead +1.5 Finish+1.5 Wall +1.5 live +1.5 Rlive
DEx = 0.9Dead+0.9 Wall+0.9 Finish+1.25Ex
DEy = 0.9Dead+0.9Wall+0.9 Finish+1.25Ey
DLEx= 1.0Dead + 1.0 Wall +1.0 Finish +1.3 Live +1.25 Ex
DL Ey= 1.0 Dead + 1.0 Wall+1.0 Finish +1.2 Live + 1.25 Ey
3.6 Assumptions
The following assumptions are taken into consideration in the seismic
resistant analysis and design of structures:

Adequate supervision and quality systems are provided during
execution of the works.
Construction is carried out by personnel having the appropriate
skill and experience.
Construction materials and products confirm to the pertinent
codes and specifications.
The structure is adequately maintained.
The structure is used in accordance with the design brief.
An earthquake is not likely to occur simultaneously with
maximum flood, wind, waves or tides.
Resonance as visualize under steady state sinusoidal excitation
will not occur, as the small duration of earthquake is not enough
to build up resonance amplitudes.
Subsoil does not considerably settle or slide due to earthquake
at the site of structure.

3.7 Load Calculations
3.7.1 Dead Load
Wall Load Calculation
Thickness of wall = 9 + two side plaster =0.25
Thickness of wall = 4.5 + two side plaster = 0.13m
Unit weight = 19 KN/m2
Load due to internal partition wall are apply in slab
1. Wall load at periphery of building on 3.8 m span beam
a. For the floor having opening W1
Total wall weight = (0.25(2.46+0.99+0.23)+ (0.13*0.76))(3.3-
0.4)*19=56.14 KN
Opening Deduction=2*2.225*19*0.25 = 21.138 KN
Total Weight = 35.00 KN
UDL to be applied = Total Weight/ Span = 9.2101 KN/m
b. Floor the floor having opening W2
Total wall weight = (0.25(2.46+0.99+0.23)+(0.13*0.76))(3.3 -
0.4)*19=56.14 KN
Opening Deduction = 2*1.4*19*0.25 = -13.3 KN
Total weight= 42.84 KN
UDL to be applied= Total weight/span=11.273Kn/m
Adopt 11.5 KN/m
2. Wall load at periphery of building on 4.5 m span beam
a. For the floor having opening W1
Total wall weight = (0.25(1+1+2+0.46)+(0.13*1.6))(3.3-
0.5)*19=70.384 KN
Opening Deduction = 2*2.225*19*0.25= 21.138 KN
Total weight = 49.25KN
UDL to be applied = Total weight/Span= 10.944KN/m
Adopt 11 KN/m

b. For the floor having opening W2
Total wall weight = (0.25(1+1+2+0.46)+(0.13*1.6))(3.3-0.5)*19 =
70.384 KN
Opening Deduction = 2*1.4*19*0.25 = -13.3 KN
Total weight = 57.08 KN
UDL to be applied = total weight/ Span = 12.685KN/m
Adopt 13 KN/m
3. Wall load at periphery of building on 6.0 m span beam
a. For floor having opening W3
Total wall weight =
.3-0.5)*19=97.877 KN
Opening deduction = (1*2.225*19*0.25)*2 = 21.138 KN
Total weight = 76.74 KN
UDL to be applied = Total weight/ span =12.79 KN/m
Adopt 13 KN/m

b. For floor having opening W6
Total wall weight = (0.25(0.795 + 0.23 +0.23+1+0.23*4+1.04
+0.23*2+0.795) + (0.13*(1.71))(3.3 -).5)*19 =97.877 Kn
Opening deduction = (2*1.4*19*0.25)*2 = -13.3 KN
Total weight = 84.58 KN
UDL to be applied = Total weight/ span =14.096 KN/m
Adopt 14 KN/m
4. Wall load on all 9thk internal wall building on 3.8m span beam
c. For floor having opening D1
Total wall weight = (0.25(3.3)(3.3-0.4)*19=45.871 KN
UDL without opening = 12.071
Weight of opening = (1*2.1*1.05*19*0.25) = 10.474 KN
Total weigh after deduction of opening = 35.397 KN
UDL with opening = Total weight/span
UDL to be applied = avg.(12.07 + 9.32)/2 =10.693 KN/m
Adopt 11 KN/m

5. Wall load on all 4thk internal wall building on 6.0m span beam
For floor having opening D1
Total wall weight = (0.13(5.0)(3.3-0.5)*19=34.58 KN
UDL without opening = 5.7633
Weight of opening = (1*2.1*1.05*19*0.25) = 5.44 KN
Total weigh after deduction of opening = 29.134 KN
UDL with opening = Total weight/span =4.86
UDL to be applied = avg.(5.76 + 4.85)/2 =5.31 KN/m
Adopt 5.5 KN/m

Live Load UDL (KN/m2) Concentrated Load

Office room 2.5 2.7
Pantry 3.0 4.5
Lobby/Corridor 4.0 4.5
Balconies 4.0 1.5 per run meter
Store 5.0 4.5
Roof 1.5

3.7.2 Seismic Load
The seismic lateral load is calculated through the response spectrum
for soil type 3, NBC 105:1994. The base shear is applied with the
coefficient as calculated hereunder:
Site sub soil category Type 3
Time period (H=26.66m) 0.70 sec (<1.0sec)
Basic seismic Coefficient (C) 0.08
Seismic Zoning Factor 1.0
Importance Factor 1.5*
Structural Performance Factor 1.0
Coefficient of Base Shear (Cd) 0.12
*This consideration is made for the important public building of
central level government office with likely larger occupancy number.

3.8 Results from structural model and analysis
3D Model of the Building


Column Base Identification

Strss Diagrams (Sample only)

Axial Force Diagrams

Sample of axial Force Diagram

Shear Force Diagram

Sample of Shear Force Diagram
Bending Moment Diagram

Sample Bending Moment Diagram

Base shear Check
Total Seismic weight = 47783.57
Seismic Force in X direction = 5702.15
Seismic Force in y direction= 5756.33
Vbx= 0.119 O.K.
Vby= 0.120 O.K.

Note: Total seismic weight includes all dead loads of beam, column. Slab, wall
load, finishing load and half the height of shear wall and twenty five
percent of live load. But the seismic weight does not include all the
dead weight of raft and raft beam.

5.0 Design of Members
Design of Foundation
The design of raft is done for the vertical loads as well as for the
moments due to dynamic loads. As the raft is modeled in the SAP,
the stresses encountered in the raft slab and raft beam is due to the
forces and moments in the column bases.
The reactions in the column bases for the foundation combination
are given below:

Slab deign
Loading criteria for slab design
The building is a public building therefore all rooms are used for
different purposes in different times. Hence we have to design the
slab for different category, here we have classified all slab according
to its length breadth and edge support condition (as S1,S2,S3,..etc)
then sub categorized according to its purposes (as case1,case2)
Analysis is done for both cases for different slab but detailing of slab
is done for the worst condition among them.
Slab is sub categorized in two types as mention below.
Case 1 Slab loaded with partition wall but not used as meeting room
(PL=3, LL =2.5)
Case 2 Room used for meeting, assembly etc but partition with
interior wall (PL=1, LL=4)
Types of
Room used for
General Toilet

Live load
4 2.5 1.5


3.125 3.125 3.75
1.15 1.15 4.6
Plaster 0.244 0.244 0.244
Partition 0 2 3

Sample design of staircase

Design of Beams and Columns

The design of beams and columns are done from software itself.
However, it is to be notified that the limitation of the design by the
software has been evaluated and the adjustments have been made
accordingly. The samples (summary) of the design through the
software based on IS 456:2000 has been presented hereunder.

Summary of Designs
Sample Design of Columns

Sample design of Beams