You are on page 1of 68

SYBASE

SQL Server
Quick Reference
Guide

SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0
Document ID: 30200-01-1000-01
Change Level: 3
Last Revised: June 17, 1994
Document ID: 30200-01-1000
This publication pertains to Release 10.0 of the SYBASE database management
software and to any subsequent release until otherwise indicated in new editions
or technical notes. Information in this document is subject to change without
notice. The software described herein is furnished under a license agreement, and
it may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of the agreement.

Document-Back Guarantee
Sybase welcomes corrections and comments on its documents. If you mark
typographical errors, formatting errors, errors of fact, or areas that need
clarification in any Sybase user’s manual and send copies of marked-up pages to
us, we will send you a clean copy of the manual, absolutely free.
Send pages to the Publications Operations Department at the address below.
Please include your Site ID number.
Sybase, Inc.
6475 Christie Avenue
Emeryville, CA 94608
USA
(510) 922-3500
Fax (510) 922-5340

Document Orders
Customers may purchase additional copies of any document or the right to make
photocopies of documentation for their in-house use.
To order additional documents or photocopy rights, U.S. and Canadian customers
should call Customer Fulfillment at (800) 685-8225, fax (617) 229-9845.
Customers in other countries with a U.S. license agreement may contact Customer
Fulfillment via the fax number. All other international customers should contact
their Sybase subsidiary or local distributor.
Upgrades are provided only at regularly scheduled software release dates.
© Copyright Sybase, Inc., 1989, 1994. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, or translated in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, manual, optical or otherwise,
without prior written permission of Sybase, Inc.
Sybase Trademarks
SYBASE, the SYBASE logo, APT-FORMS, Data Workbench, DBA Companion,
Deft, GainExposure, GainInsight, GainMomentum, SA Companion, SQL Debug,
SQL Solutions, SQR, Transact-SQL, and VQL are registered trademarks of
Sybase, Inc. Adaptable Windowing Environment, ADA Workbench, Application
Manager, Applications from Models, APT-Build, APT-Edit, APT-Execute,
APT-Library, APT-Translator, APT Workbench, Build Momentum, Camelot,
Client/Server Architecture for the Online Enterprise, Client/Server for the
Real World, Configurator, Database Analyzer, DBA Companion Application
Manager, DBA Companion Resource Manager, DB-Library, Deft Analyst,
Deft Designer, Deft Educational, Deft Professional, Deft Trial,
Developers Workbench, Easy SQR, Embedded SQL, Enterprise Builder,
Enterprise Client/Server, Enterprise Meta Server, Enterprise Modeler,
Enterprise Momentum, Gain, Insight, MAP, Maintenance Express, MethodSet,
Movedb, Navigation Server, Net-Gateway, Net-Library, Object Momentum,
OmniSQL Access Module, OmniSQL Gateway, OmniSQL Server, Open Client,
Open Client/Server Interfaces, Open Gateway, Open Server, Open Solutions,
Partnerships That Work, PC APT-Execute, PC DB-Net, PC Net Library, PostDoc,
Replication Server, Replication Server Manager, Report-Execute,
Report Workbench, Resource Manager, RW-Display Lib, RW-Library,
Secure SQL Server, Secure SQL Toolset, SQL Code Checker, SQL Edit,
SQL Edit/TPU, SQL Monitor, SQL Server, SQL Server/CFT, SQL Server/DBM,
SQL Station, SQL Toolset, SQR Developers Kit, SQR Execute, SQR Toolset,
SQR Workbench, SYBASE Client/Server Interfaces, SYBASE Gateways,
Sybase Momentum, SYBASE SQL Lifecycle, Sybase Synergy Program,
SYBASE Virtual Server Architecture, SYBASE User Workbench, System 10,
Tabular Data Stream, The Enterprise Client/Server Company, and
The Online Information Center are trademarks of Sybase, Inc.
All other company and product names used herein may be the trademarks or
registered trademarks of their respective companies.

Restricted Rights Legend
Use, duplication or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions set forth
in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of DFARS 52.227-7013 for the DOD and as set forth in
FAR 52.227-19(a)-(d) for civilian agencies.
Sybase, Inc., 6475 Christie Avenue, Emeryville, CA 94608
Table of Contents
Conventions disk unmirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
drop database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Formatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 drop default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Expressions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 drop index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
drop procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
drop rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Transact-SQL Commands drop table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
alter database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 drop trigger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
alter table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 drop view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
begin...end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 dump database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
begin transaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 dump transaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
break . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 execute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
checkpoint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 fetch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
close . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 goto Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
commit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
compute Clause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 group by and having Clauses . . . . . . . . . 15
continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 if...else . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
create database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 insert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
create default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 kill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
create index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 load database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
create procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 load transaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
create rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
create schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 order by Clause. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
create table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 prepare transaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
create trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
create view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 raiserror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
dbcc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 readtext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
deallocate cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 reconfigure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
declare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 return . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
declare cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 revoke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
delete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 rollback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
disk init. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 rollback trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
disk mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 save transaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
disk refit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
disk reinit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
disk remirror. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 setuser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide v
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 System Procedures
truncate table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
sp_addalias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
union Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
sp_addauditrecord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
sp_addgroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
update statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
sp_addlanguage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
sp_addlogin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
waitfor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
sp_addmessage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
where Clause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
sp_addremotelogin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
while . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
sp_addsegment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
writetext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
sp_addserver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
sp_addthreshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Transact-SQL Functions sp_addtype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Aggregate Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 sp_addumpdevice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Datatype Conversion Functions. . . . . . . . 24 sp_adduser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Date Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 sp_auditdatabase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Mathematical Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 sp_auditlogin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Row Aggregate Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 sp_auditobject. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
String Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 sp_auditoption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 sp_auditsproc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
text and image Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 sp_bindefault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
sp_bindmsg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
sp_bindrule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Transact-SQL Topics sp_changedbowner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 sp_changegroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Cursors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 sp_checknames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 sp_checkreswords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Disk Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 sp_clearstats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 sp_commonkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 sp_configure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
IDENTITY Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 sp_cursorinfo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Joins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 sp_dboption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Null Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 sp_dbremap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 sp_depends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Subqueries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 sp_diskdefault. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
text and image Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 sp_displaylogin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Variables (Local and Global) . . . . . . . . . . . 41 sp_dropalias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Wildcard Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 sp_dropdevice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
sp_dropgroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
sp_dropkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

vi
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

sp_droplanguage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 sp_placeobject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
sp_droplogin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 sp_primarykey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
sp_dropmessage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 sp_procxmode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
sp_dropremotelogin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 sp_recompile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
sp_dropsegment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 sp_remap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
sp_dropserver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 sp_remoteoption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
sp_dropthreshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 sp_rename . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
sp_droptype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 sp_renamedb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
sp_dropuser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 sp_reportstats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
sp_estspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 sp_role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
sp_extendsegment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 sp_serveroption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
sp_foreignkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 sp_setlangalias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
sp_getmessage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 sp_spaceused. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
sp_help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 sp_syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
sp_helpconstraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 sp_thresholdaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
sp_helpdb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 sp_unbindefault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
sp_helpdevice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 sp_unbindmsg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
sp_helpgroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 sp_unbindrule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
sp_helpindex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 sp_volchanged . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
sp_helpjoins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 sp_who . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
sp_helpkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
sp_helplanguage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Catalog Stored Procedures
sp_helplog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
sp_helpremotelogin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 sp_column_privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
sp_helprotect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 sp_columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
sp_helpsegment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 sp_databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
sp_helpserver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 sp_datatype_info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
sp_helpsort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 sp_fkeys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
sp_helptext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 sp_pkeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
sp_helpthreshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 sp_server_info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
sp_helpuser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 sp_special_columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
sp_indsuspect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 sp_sproc_columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
sp_lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 sp_statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
sp_locklogin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 sp_stored_procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
sp_logdevice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 sp_table_privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
sp_modifylogin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 sp_tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
sp_modifythreshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
sp_monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
sp_password. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide vii
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

Error Messages and Message Numbers
Severity Levels 10 Through 18 . . . . . . . 57
Severity Levels 19 Through 24 . . . . . . . 59

viii
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Conventions

Conventions
The font and syntax conventions in this reference are as follows:

Element Example
Command names, command option select
names, utility names, utility flags, and
other keywords are bold.
Database names, datatypes, file names, master database
and path names are in italics.
Variables, or words that stand for values select column_name
that you fill in, are in italics. from table_name
where search_conditions

Parentheses are typed as part of the compute row_aggregate (column_name)
command.
Curly braces indicate that you must {cash, check, credit}
choose at least one of the enclosed
options. Do not type the braces.
Brackets mean choosing one or more of [anchovies]
the enclosed options is optional. Do not
type the brackets.
The vertical bar means you can select {die_on_your_feet | live_on_your_knees |
only one of the options shown. live_on_your_feet}

The comma means you can choose as [extra_cheese, avocados, sour_cream]
many of the options shown as you like,
separating your choices with commas to
be typed as part of the command.
An ellipsis (...) means that you can repeat buy thing = price [cash | check | credit]
the last unit as many times as you like. [, thing = price [cash | check | credit]]...

You must buy at least one thing and give its price. You may
choose a method of payment: one of the items enclosed in
square brackets. You may also choose to buy additional
things: as many of them as you like. For each thing you buy,
give its name, its price, and (optionally) a method of
payment.

Table 1: Font and Syntax Conventions

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 1
Conventions SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

Formatting

SQL is a free-form language: there are no rules about the number of
words you can put on a line, or where you must break a line.

Case
select column_name
from table_name
where search_conditions
In syntax statements, keywords (commands) are in normal font and
identifiers and user-supplied words are in italics. You can disregard
case when you type keywords:
“SELECT” is the same as “Select” is the same as “select”.

Expressions

Several different types of expressions are used in SQL Server™
syntax statements.

Usage Definition
expression Can include constants, literals, functions,
column identifiers, variables or parameters
logical expression An expression that returns TRUE, FALSE or
UNKNOWN
constant expression An expression that always returns the same
value, such as “5+3” or “ABCDE”
float_expr Any floating-point expression or expression
that implicitly converts to a floating value
integer_expr Any integer expression, or an expression that
implicitly converts to an integer value
numeric_expr Any numeric expression that returns a single
value
char_expr Any expression that returns a single character-
type value
binary_expression An expression that returns a single binary or
varbinary value

Table 2: Types of Expressions Used in Syntax Statements

2
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Commands

Transact-SQL Commands
alter database
Increases the amount of space allocated to a database.
alter database database_name
[on {default | database_device } [= size]
[, database_device [= size]]...]
[log on { default | database_device } [ = size ]
[ , database_device [= size]]...]
[with override]
[for load]

alter table
Adds new columns and constraints, changes constraints, or drops
constraints on an existing table.
alter table [database.[owner].]table_name
{add column_name datatype
[default {constant_expression | user | null}]
{[{identity | null}]
| [[constraint constraint_name]
{{unique | primary key}
[clustered | nonclustered]
[with fillfactor = x] [on segment_name]
| references [[database.]owner.]ref_table
[(ref_column)]
| check (search_condition)}]}...
{[, next_column]}...

| add {[constraint constraint_name]
{unique | primary key}
[clustered | nonclustered]
(column_name [{, column_name}...])
[with fillfactor = x] [on segment_name]
| foreign key (column_name [{, column_name}...])
references [[database.]owner.]ref_table
[(ref_column [{, ref_column}...])]
| check (search_condition)}

| drop constraint constraint_name

| replace column_name
default {constant_expression | user | null}}

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 3
Transact-SQL Commands SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

begin...end
Encloses a series of SQL statements so that control-of-flow language,
such as if ... else, can affect the performance of the whole group.
begin
statement block
end

begin transaction
Marks the starting point of a user-defined transaction.
begin {transaction | tran } [transaction_name]

break
Causes an exit from a while loop. break is often activated by an if test.
while logical_expression
statement
break
statement
continue

checkpoint
Writes all “dirty” pages (pages that have been updated since they
were last written) to the database device.
checkpoint

close
Deactivates a cursor.
close cursor_name

commit
commit [transaction | tran | work] [transaction_name]

compute Clause
Generates summary values that appear as additional rows in the
query results. This allows you to see the detail and summary rows in
one set of results. You can calculate summary values for subgroups,
and you can calculate more than one aggregate for the same group.
Start of select statement
compute row_aggregate (column_name)
[, row_aggregate(column_name)]...
[by column_name [, column_name]...]

4
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Commands

continue
Causes the while loop to restart. continue is often activated by an if test.
while boolean_expression
statement
break
statement
continue

create database
Creates a new database. Use create database from the master database.
create database database_name
[on {default | database_device} [= size]
[, database_device [= size]]...]
[log on database_device [= size]
[, database_device [= size]]...]
[with override]
[for load]

create default
Specifies a value to insert in a column (or in all columns of a user-
defined datatype) if no value is explicitly supplied at insert time.
create default [owner.]default_name
as constant_expression

create index
Creates an index on one or more columns in a table.
create [unique] [clustered | nonclustered]
index index_name
on [[database.]owner.]table_name (column_name
[, column_name]...)
[with {fillfactor = x, ignore_dup_key, sorted_data,
[ignore_dup_row | allow_dup_row]}]
[on segment_name]

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 5
Transact-SQL Commands SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

create procedure
Creates a stored procedure that can take one or more user-supplied
parameters.
create procedure [owner.]procedure_name[;number]
[[(]@parameter_name
datatype [(length) | (precision [, scale])
[= default][output]
[, @parameter_name
datatype [(length) | (precision [, scale])
[= default][output]]...[)]]
[with recompile]
as SQL_statements

create rule
Specifies the domain of acceptable values for a particular column or
for any column of a user-defined datatype.
create rule [owner.]rule_name
as condition_expression

create schema
Creates a new collection of tables, views and permissions for a
database user.
create schema authorization authorization_name
create_oject_statement
[ create_object_statement ... ]
[ permission_statement ... ]

create table
Creates new tables and optional integrity constraints.
create table [database.[owner].]table_name
(column_name datatype
[default {constant_expression | user | null}]
{[{identity | null | not null}]
| [[constraint constraint_name]
{{unique | primary key}
[clustered | nonclustered]
[with fillfactor = x] [on segment_name]
| references [[database.]owner.]ref_table
[(ref_column)]
| check (search_condition)}]}...

| [constraint constraint_name]
{{unique | primary key}

6
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Commands

[clustered | nonclustered]
(column_name [{, column_name}...])
[with fillfactor = x] [on segment_name]
| foreign key (column_name [{, column_name}...])
references [[database.]owner.]ref_table
[(ref_column [{, ref_column}...])]
| check (search_condition)}

[{, {next_column | next_constraint}}...])

[on segment_name]

create trigger
Creates a trigger, a type of stored procedure often used for enforcing
integrity constraints. A trigger executes automatically when a user
attempts a specified data modification statement on a specified table.
create trigger [owner.]trigger_name
on [owner.]table_name
{for {insert , update , delete}
as SQL_statements
Or, using the if update clause:
create trigger [owner.]trigger_name
on [owner.]table_name
for {insert , update}
as
[if update (column_name)
[{and | or} update (column_name)]...]
SQL_statements
[if update (column_name)
[{and | or} update (column_name)]...
SQL_statements]...

create view
Creates a view, which is an alternative way of looking at the data in
one or more tables.
create view [owner.]view_name
[(column_name [, column_name]...)]
as select [distinct] select_statement
[with check option]

dbcc
Database Consistency Checker (dbcc) checks the logical and physical
consistency of a database. dbcc should be used regularly as a periodic
check, or if damage is suspected.

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 7
Transact-SQL Commands SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

dbcc
{checktable({table_name|table_id}[, skip_ncindex]) |
checkdb [(database_name [, skip_ncindex] )] |

checkalloc [(database_name [, fix | nofix])] |
tablealloc ({table_name | table_id}
[, {full | optimized | fast | null}
[, fix | nofix ] ]] )|
indexalloc ({table_name | table_id}, index_id
[, {full | optimized | fast | null}
[, fix | nofix ]] ) |

checkcatalog [(database_name)] |

dbrepair (database_name, dropdb) |

reindex ({table_name | table_id}) |
fix_text ({table_name | table_id}) }

deallocate cursor
Makes a cursor inaccessible and releases all memory resources
committed to that cursor.
deallocate cursor cursor_name

declare
Declares the name and type of local variables for a batch or
procedure. Local variables are assigned values with a select
statement.
Variable declaration:
declare @variable_name datatype
[, @variable_name datatype]...
Variable assignment:
select @variable = {expression | select_statement}
[, @variable = {expression | select_statement} ...]
[from table_list]
[where search_conditions]
[group by group_by_list]
[having search_conditions]
[order by order_by_list]
[compute function_list [by by_list]]

8
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Commands

declare cursor
Defines a cursor.
declare cursor_name cursor
for select_statement
[for {read only | update [of column_name_list]}]

delete
Removes rows from a table.
delete [from] [[database.]owner.]{table_name|view_name}
[where search_conditions]
delete [[database.]owner.]{table_name | view_name}
[from [[database.]owner.]{table_name | view_name}
[, [[database.]owner.]{table_name | view_name}]...]
[where search_conditions]
delete [from] [[database.]owner.]{table_name|view_name}
where current of cursor_name

disk init
Makes a physical device or file usable by SQL Server. (The master
device is initialized by the sybinit installation program; it is not
necessary to initialize this device with disk init.)
disk init
name = "device_name" ,
physname = "physicalname" ,
vdevno = virtual_device_number ,
size = number_of_blocks
[, vstart = virtual_address ,
cntrltype = controller_number ]
[, contiguous] (OpenVMS only)

disk mirror
Creates a software mirror that immediately takes over when the
primary device fails. You can mirror the master device, devices that
store data, and devices that store transaction logs; you cannot mirror
dump devices.
disk mirror
name = "device_name" ,
mirror = "physicalname"
[ ,writes = { serial | noserial }]
[ ,contiguous ] (OpenVMS only)

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 9
Transact-SQL Commands SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

disk refit
Rebuilds the master database’s sysusages and sysdatabases system
tables from information contained in sysdevices. Use disk refit after disk
reinit as part of the procedure to restore the master database.
disk refit

disk reinit
Rebuilds the master database’s sysdevices system table. Use disk reinit
as part of the procedure to restore the master database.
disk reinit
name = "device_name",
physname = "physicalname" ,
vdevno = virtual_device_number ,
size = number_of_blocks
[, vstart = virtual_address ,
cntrltype = controller_number]

disk remirror
Restarts disk mirroring after it is stopped by failure of a mirrored
device or temporarily disabled by the disk unmirror command.
disk remirror
name = "device_name"

disk unmirror
De-activates disk mirroring to allow hardware maintenance or the
changing of a hardware device. disk unmirror disables either the
original database device or the mirror, so that it is no longer available
to SQL Server for reads or writes. It does not remove the associated
file from the operating system.
disk unmirror
name = "device_name"
[ ,side = { “primary” | secondary }]
[ ,mode = { retain | remove }]

drop database
Removes one or more databases from SQL Server.
drop database database_name [, database_name]...

10
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Commands

drop default
Removes a user-defined default.
drop default [owner.]default_name
[, [owner.]default_name]...

drop index
Removes an index from a table in the current database.
drop index table_name.index_name
[, table_name.index_name]...

drop procedure
Removes user-defined stored procedures.
drop procedure [owner.]procedure_name
[, [owner.]procedure_name] ...

drop rule
Removes a user-defined rule.
drop rule [owner.]rule_name [, [owner.]rule_name]...

drop table
Removes a table definition and all of its data, indexes, triggers, and
permission specifications from the database.
drop table [[database.]owner.]table_name
[, [[database.]owner.]table_name ]...

drop trigger
Removes a trigger.
drop trigger [owner.]trigger_name
[, [owner.]trigger_name]...

drop view
Removes one or more views from the current database.
drop view [owner.]view_name [, [owner.]view_name]...

dump database
Makes a backup copy of the entire database, including the
transaction log, in a form that can be read in with load database. Dumps
and loads are performed through a Backup Server™.

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 11
Transact-SQL Commands SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

dump database database_name
to stripe_device [ at backup_server_name ]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
capacity = number_kilobytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name]
[stripe on stripe_device [ at backup_server_name ]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
capacity = number_kilobytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name]]
[[stripe on stripe_device [ at backup_server_name ]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
capacity = number_kilobytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name]]...]
[with {
density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
capacity = number_kilobytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name,
[dismount | nodismount],
[nounload | unload],
retaindays = number_days,
[noinit | init],
notify = {client | operator_console}
}]]

dump transaction
Makes a copy of a transaction log and removes the inactive portion.
To make a routine log dump:
dump tran[saction] database_name
to stripe_device [ at backup_server_name ]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
capacity = number_kilobytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name]
[stripe on stripe_device [ at backup_server_name ]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
capacity = number_kilobytes,

12
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Commands

dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name]]
[[stripe on stripe_device [ at backup_server_name ]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
capacity = number_kilobytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name] ]...]
[with {
density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
capacity = number_kilobytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name,
[dismount | nodismount],
[nounload | unload],
retaindays = number_days,
[noinit | init],
notify = {client | operator_console}}]
To truncate the log without making a backup copy:
dump tran[saction] database_name
with truncate_only
To truncate a log that is filled to capacity. Use only as a last resort:
dump tran[saction] database_name
with no_log
To back up the log after a database device fails:
dump tran[saction] database_name
to stripe_device [ at backup_server_name ]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
capacity = number_kilobytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name]
[stripe on stripe_device [ at backup_server_name ]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
capacity = number_kilobytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name]]
[[stripe on stripe_device [ at backup_server_name ]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
capacity = number_kilobytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name] ]...]

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 13
Transact-SQL Commands SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

[with {
density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
capacity = number_kilobytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name,
[dismount | nodismount],
[nounload | unload],
retaindays = number_days,
[noinit | init],
no_truncate,
notify = {client | operator_console}}]

execute
Runs a system procedure or a user-defined stored procedure.
[execute] [@return_status = ]
[[[server.]database.]owner.]procedure_name[;number]
[[@parameter_name =] value |
[@parameter_name =] @variable [output]
[,[@parameter_name =] value |
[@parameter_name =] @variable [output]...]]
[with recompile]

fetch
Returns a row or a set of rows from a cursor result set.
fetch cursor_name [ into fetch_target_list ]

goto Label
Branches to a user-defined label.
label:
goto label

grant
Assigns permissions to users.
To grant permission to access database objects:
grant {all [privileges]| permission_list}
on { table_name [(column_list)]
| view_name[(column_list)]
| stored_procedure_name}
to {public | name_list | role_name}
[with grant option]

14
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Commands

To grant permission to create database objects:
grant {all [privileges] | command_list}
to {public | name_list | role_name}

group by and having Clauses
Used in select statements to divide a table into groups.
Start of select statement
group by [all] aggregate_free_expression
[, aggregate_free_expression]...
[having search_conditions]
End of select statement

if...else
Imposes conditions on the execution of a SQL statement. The
statement following an if keyword and its condition is executed if the
condition is satisfied (when the logical expression returns “true”).
The optional else keyword introduces an alternate SQL statement
that executes when the if condition is not satisfied (when the logical
expression returns “false”).
if logical_expression
statements
[else
[if logical_expression]
statement]

insert
Adds new rows to a table or view.
insert [into] [database.[owner.]]{table_name|view_name}
[(column_list)]
{values (expression [, expression]...)
|select_statement }

kill
Kills a process.
kill spid

load database
Loads a backup copy of a user database, including its transaction log,
that was created with dump database. The listonly and headeronly options

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 15
Transact-SQL Commands SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

display information about the dump files without loading them.
Dumps and loads are performed through a Backup Server.
load database database_name
from stripe_device [at backup_server_name ]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name]
[stripe on stripe_device [at backup_server_name ]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name]
[stripe on stripe_device [at backup_server_name ]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name]...]
[with {
density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name,
[dismount | nodismount],
[nounload | unload],
listonly [= full],
headeronly,
notify = {client | operator_console}
}]

load transaction
Loads a backup copy of the transaction log that was created with the
dump transaction command. The listonly and headeronly options display
information about the dump files without loading them. Dumps and
loads are performed through a Backup Server.
load tran[saction] database_name
from stripe_device [at backup_server_name]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name]
[stripe on stripe_device [at backup_server_name]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name]

16
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Commands

[stripe on stripe_device [at backup_server_name]
[density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name]...]
[with {
density = density_value,
blocksize = number_bytes,
dumpvolume = volume_name,
file = file_name,
[dismount | nodismount],
[nounload | unload],
listonly [= full],
headeronly,
notify = {client | operator_console}
}]

open
Opens a cursor for processing.
open cursor_name

order by Clause
Returns query results in the specified column(s) in sorted order.
[order by {[table_name.| view_name.]column_name
| select_list_number | expression} [asc | desc]
[,{[table_name.| view_name.] column_name
select_list_number|expression} [asc |desc]]...]

prepare transaction
Used by DB-Library™ in a two-phase commit application to see if a
server is prepared to commit a transaction.
prepare transaction

print
Prints a user-defined message on the user’s screen.
print
{format_string | @local_variable |
@@global_variable}
[, arg_list]

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 17
Transact-SQL Commands SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

raiserror
Prints a user-defined error message on the user’s screen and sets a
system flag to record that an error condition has occurred.
raiserror error_number
[{format_string | @local_variable}] [, arg_list]
[extended_value = extended_value [{,
extended_value = extended_value}...]]

readtext
Reads text and image values, starting from a specified offset and
reading a specified number of bytes or characters.
readtext [[database.]owner.]table_name.column_name
text_pointer offset size [holdlock]
[using {bytes | chars | characters}]

reconfigure
Sets configuration variables that control various aspects of SQL
Server’s memory allocation, performance, and options. Used with
the system procedure sp_configure.
reconfigure [with override]

return
Exits from a batch or procedure unconditionally, optionally
providing a return status. Statements following return are not
executed.
return [integer_expression]

revoke
Revokes permissions from users.
revoke [grant option for]
{all [privileges] | permission_list}
on { table_name [(column_list)]
| view_name [(column_list)]
| stored_procedure_name}
from {public | name_list | role_name}
[cascade]
revoke {all [privileges] | command_list}
from {public | name_list | role_name}

18
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Commands

rollback
Rolls a user-defined transaction back to the last savepoint inside the
transaction or to the beginning of the transaction.
rollback {transaction | tran | work}
[transaction_name | savepoint_name]

rollback trigger
Rolls back the work done in a trigger, including the data
modification that caused the trigger to fire, and issues an optional
raiserror statement.
rollback trigger
[with raiserror_statement]

save transaction
Sets a savepoint within a transaction.
save transaction savepoint_name

select
Retrieves rows from database objects.
select [all | distinct] select_list
[into [[database.]owner.]table_name]
[from [[database.]owner.]{table_name |view_name}
[holdlock | noholdlock] [shared]
[,[[database.]owner.]{table_name |view_name}
[holdlock | noholdlock] [shared]]... ]

[where search_conditions]

[group by [all] aggregate_free_expression
[, aggregate_free_expression]... ]
[having search_conditions]

[order by
{[[[database.]owner.]{table_name.|view_name.}]
column_name | select_list_number | expression}
[asc | desc]
[,{[[[database.]owner.]{table_name|view_name.}]

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 19
Transact-SQL Commands SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

column_name | select_list_number | expression}
[asc | desc]]...]

[compute row_aggregate(column_name)
[, row_aggregate(column_name)]...
[by column_name [, column_name]...]]

[for {read only | update [of column_name_list]}]

[for browse]

set
Sets SQL Server query-processing options for the duration of the
user’s work session. Can be used to set some options inside a trigger
or stored procedure.
set ansinull {on | off}
set ansi_permissions {on | off}
set arithabort [arith_overflow | numeric_truncation]
{on | off}
set arithignore [arith_overflow] {on | off}
set {chained, close on endtran, nocount, noexec,
parseonly, procid, self_recursion, showplan}
{on | off}
set char_convert {off | on [with {error | no_error}] |
charset [with {error | no_error}]}
set cursor rows number for cursor_name
set {datefirst number, dateformat format,
language language}
set dup_in_subquery {on | off}
set fipsflagger {on | off}
set flushmessage {on | off}
set identity_insert [database.[owner.]]table_name
{on | off}
set offsets {select, from, order, compute, table,
procedure, statement, param, execute} {on | off}
set quoted_identifier {on | off}
set role {"sa_role" | "sso_role" | "oper_role"}
{on | off}
set {rowcount number, textsize number}

20
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Commands

set statistics {io, time} {on | off}
set string_rtruncation {on | off}
set textsize {number}
set transaction isolation level {1 | 3}

setuser
Allows a Database Owner to impersonate another user.
setuser ["user_name"]

shutdown
Shuts down the SQL Server from which the command is issued, its
local Backup Server, or a remote Backup Server. This command can
only be issued by a System Administrator.
shutdown [srvname] [with {wait | nowait}]

truncate table
Removes all rows from a table.
truncate table [[database.]owner.]table_name

union Operator
Returns a single result set that combines the results of two or more
queries. Duplicate rows are eliminated from the result set unless the
all keyword is specified.
select select_list [into clause]
[from clause] [where clause]
[group by clause] [having clause]
[union [all]
select select_list
[from clause] [where clause]
[group by clause] [having clause] ]...
[order by clause]
[compute clause]

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 21
Transact-SQL Commands SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

update
Changes data in existing rows, either by adding data or by
modifying existing data.
update [[database.]owner.]{table_name | view_name}
set [[[database.]owner.]{table_name.|view_name.}]
column_name1 =
{expression1|NULL|(select_statement)}
[, column_name2 =
{expression2|NULL|(select_statement)}]...
[from [[database.]owner.]{table_name | view_name}
[,[[database.]owner.]{table_name|view_name}]...]
[where search_conditions]
update [[database.]owner.]{table_name | view_name}
set [[[database.]owner.]{table_name.|view_name.}]
column_name1 =
{expression1|NULL|(select_statement)}
[, column_name2 =
{expression2|NULL|(select_statement)}]...
where current of cursor_name

update statistics
Updates information about the distribution of key values in specified
indexes.
update statistics table_name [index_name]

use
Specifies the database with which you want to work.
use database_name

waitfor
Specifies a specific time, a time interval, or an event for the execution
of a statement block, stored procedure, or transaction.
waitfor { delay time | time time | errorexit
| processexit | mirrorexit }

where Clause
Sets the search conditions in a select, insert, update, or delete statement.
(Joins and subqueries are specified in the search conditions: see the
“Joins” and “Subqueries” sections for full details.)
where [not] expression comparison_operator expression

22
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Functions

where [not] expression [not] like "match_string"
[escape "escape_character"]
where [not] expression is [not] null
where [not]
expression [not] between expression and expression
where [not]
expression [not] in ({value_list | subquery})
where [not] exists (subquery)
where [not]
expression comparison_operator {any|all} (subquery)
where [not] column_name join_operator column_name
where [not] boolean_expression
where [not] expression {and | or} [not] expression

while
Sets a condition for the repeated execution of a statement or
statement block. The statement(s) are executed repeatedly as long as
the specified condition is true.
while logical_expression
statement

writetext
Permits non-logged, interactive updating of an existing text or image
column.
writetext [[database.]owner.]table_name.column_name
text_pointer [with log] data

Transact-SQL Functions
Aggregate Functions
The aggregate functions generate summary values that appear as
new columns in the query results. They can be used in the select list

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 23
Transact-SQL Functions SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

or the having clause of a select statement or subquery, and often appear
in a statement that includes a group by clause.

Aggregate Function Result
sum([all | distinct] expression) Total of (distinct) values in the numeric
column
avg([all | distinct] expression) Average of (distinct) values in the
numeric column
count([all | distinct] expression) Number of (distinct) non-null values in
the column
count(*) Number of selected rows

max(expression) Highest value in the expression
min(expression) Lowest value in the expression

Datatype Conversion Functions
Datatype conversion functions change expressions from one
datatype to another and specify new display formats for date/time
information. SQL Server provides three datatype conversion
functions, convert(), inttohex(), and hextoint(), which can be used in the
select list, in the where clause, and anywhere else an expression is
allowed.

Function Argument Result
convert (datatype Converts between a wide variety
[(length) | (precision[, scale])], of datatypes and reformats
expression[, style]) date/time and money data for
display purposes.
hextoint (hexadecimal_string) Returns the platform-
independent integer equivalent
of a hexadecimal string.
inttohex (integer_expression) Returns the platform-
independent hexadecimal
equivalent of an integer.

24
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Functions

Date Functions
Manipulate datetime values.

Function Argument Result

getdate () Returns the current system
date and time.
datename (datepart, date) Returns the name of the
specified part (such as the
month “June”) of a datetime
value, as a character string. If
the result is numeric, such as
“23” for the day, it is still
returned as a character string.
datepart (datepart, date) Returns an integer value for
the specified part of a datetime
value.
datediff (datepart, date1, date2) Returns date2 - date1,
measured in the specified
date part.
dateadd (datepart, Returns the date produced by
numeric_expression, adding the specified number
date) of the specified date parts to
the date. numeric_expression
can be any numeric type; the
value is truncated to an
integer.

Mathematical Functions
Mathematical functions return values commonly needed for
operations on mathematical data. Mathematical function names are
not keywords.

Function Argument Result

abs (numeric) Returns the absolute value of a given
expression. Results are of the same type and
have the same precision and scale as the
numeric expression.
acos (approx_numeric) Returns the angle (in radians) whose cosine
is the specified value.
asin (approx_numeric) Returns the angle (in radians) whose sine is
the specified value.

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 25
Transact-SQL Functions SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

Function Argument Result

atan (approx_numeric) Returns the angle (in radians) whose tangent
is the specified value.
atn2 (approx_numeric1, Returns the angle (in radians) whose tangent
approx_numeric2) is (approx_numeric1/approx_numeric2).
ceiling (numeric) Returns the smallest integer greater than or
equal to the specified value. Results are of
the same type as the numeric expression. For
numeric and decimal expressions, the results
have a precision equal to that of the
expression and a scale of 0.
cos (approx_numeric) Returns the cosine of the specified angle (in
radians).
cot (approx_numeric) Returns the cotangent of the specified angle
(in radians).
degrees (numeric) Converts radians to degrees. Results are of
the same type as the numeric expression. For
numeric and decimal expressions, the results
have an internal precision of 77 and a scale
equal to that of the expression. When money
datatypes are used, internal conversion to
float may cause loss of precision.
exp (approx_numeric) Returns the exponential value of the
specified value.
floor (numeric) Returns the largest integer less than or equal
to the specified value. Results are of the same
type as the numeric expression. For numeric
and decimal expressions, the results have a
precision equal to that of the expression and
a scale of 0.
log (approx_numeric) Returns the natural logarithm of the
specified value.
log10 (approx_numeric) Returns the base 10 logarithm of the
specified value.
pi () Returns the constant value of
3.1415926535897936.
power (numeric, power) Returns the value of numeric raised to the
power power. Results are of the same type as
numeric. For expressions of type numeric or
decimal, the results have an internal precision
of 77 and a scale equal to that of the
expression.

26
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Functions

Function Argument Result

radians (numeric) Converts degrees to radians. Results are of
the same type as numeric. For expressions of
type numeric or decimal, the results have an
internal precision of 77 and a scale equal to
that of the numeric expression. When money
datatypes are used, internal conversion to
float may cause loss of precision.
rand ([integer]) Returns a random float value between 0 and
1, using the optional integer as a seed value.
round (numeric, integer) Rounds the numeric so that it has integer
significant digits. A positive integer
determines the number of significant digits
to the right of the decimal point; a negative
integer, the number of significant digits to the
left of the decimal point. Results are of the
same type as the numeric expression and, for
numeric and decimal expressions, have an
internal precision of 77 and scale equal to
that of the numeric expression.
sign (numeric) Returns the positive (+1), zero (0), or
negative (-1). Results are of the same type,
and have the same precision and scale, as the
numeric expression.
sin (approx_numeric) Returns the sine of the specified angle
(measured in radians).
sqrt (approx_numeric) Returns the square root of the specified
value.
tan (approx_numeric) Returns the tangent of the specified angle
(measured in radians).

Row Aggregate Functions
Generate summary values that appear as additional rows in the
query results.
Start of select statement
compute row_aggregate(column_name)
[, row_aggregate(column_name)]...
[by column_name [, column_name]...]

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 27
Transact-SQL Functions SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

Name Meaning
sum Total of values in the (numeric) column
avg Average of values in the (numeric) column
min Lowest value in the column
max Highest value in the column
count Number of non-null values in the column

String Functions
Operate on binary data, character strings, and expressions. String
functions can be nested, and they can be used anywhere an
expression is allowed. When you use constants with a string
function, enclose them in single or double quotes. String function
names are not keywords.

Function Argument Result

ascii (char_expr) Returns the ASCII code for the first
character in the expression.
char (integer_expr) Converts a single-byte integer value to a
character value. (char is usually used as the
inverse of ascii.) integer_expr must be
between 0 and 255. Returns a char
datatype. If the resulting value is the first
byte of a multibyte character, the
character may be undefined.
charindex (expression1, Searches expression2 for the first
expression2) occurrence of expression1 and returns an
integer representing its starting position.
If expression1 is not found, returns 0. If
expression1 contains wildcard characters,
charindex treats them as literals.
char_length (char_expr) Returns an integer representing the
number of characters in a character
expression or text value. For variable-
length data, char_length strips the
expression of trailing blanks before
counting the number of characters. For
multi-byte character sets, the number of
characters in the expression is usually less
than the number of bytes; use datalength
(See “System Functions”) to determine the
number of bytes.

28
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Functions

Function Argument Result

difference (char_expr1, Returns an integer representing the
char_expr2) difference between two soundex values.
See soundex, below.
lower (char_expr) Converts uppercase letters to lowercase,
returning a character value.
ltrim (char_expr) Removes leading blanks from the
character expression. Only values
equivalent to the space character in the
current character set are removed.
patindex (“%pattern%”, Returns an integer representing the
char_expr [, using starting position of the first occurrence of
{bytes | chars | pattern in the specified character
characters} ] ) expression, or a zero if pattern is not
found. By default, patindex returns the
offset in characters; to return the offset in
bytes (multibyte character strings),
specify using bytes. The % wildcard
character must precede and follow pattern
(except when searching for first or last
characters). See “Wildcard Characters” for
a description of the wildcard characters
that can be used in pattern. Can be used on
text data.
replicate (char_expr, Returns a string with the same datatype
integer_expr) as char_expr, containing the same
expression repeated the specified number
of times or as many times as will fit into a
255 byte space, whichever is less.
reverse (char_expr) Returns the reverse of char_expr; if
char_expr is “abcd”, it returns “dcba”.
right (char_expr, Returns the part of the character
integer_expr) expression starting the specified number
of characters from the right. Return value
has the same datatype as the character
expression.
rtrim (char_expr) Removes trailing blanks. Only values
equivalent to the space character in the
current character set are removed.
soundex (char_expr) Returns a four-character soundex code for
character strings that are composed of a
contiguous sequence of valid single- or
double-byte roman letters.
space (integer_expr) Returns a string with the indicated
number of single-byte spaces.

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 29
Transact-SQL Functions SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

Function Argument Result

str (approx_numeric Returns a character representation of the
[, length [, decimal] ]) floating point number. length sets the
number of characters to be returned
(including the decimal point, all digits to
the right and left of the decimal point, and
blanks); decimal sets the number of
decimal digits to be returned.
length and decimal are optional. If given,
they must be non-negative. Default length
is 10; default decimal is 0. str() rounds the
decimal portion of the number so that the
results fit within the specified length.
stuff (char_expr1, start, Deletes length characters from char_expr1
length, char_expr2) at start, then inserts char_expr2 into
char_expr1 at start. To delete characters
without inserting other characters,
char_expr2 should be NULL (not “”, which
indicates a single space).
substring (expression, start, Returns part of a character or binary
length) string. start specifies the character
position at which the substring begins.
length specifies the number of characters
in the substring.
upper (char_expr) Converts lower to upper case, returning a
character value.

System Functions
Return special information from the database.

Function Argument Result

col_name (object_id, column_id Returns the column name.
[, database_id])
col_length (object_name, Returns the defined length of
column_name) column. Use datalength to see the
actual data size.

30
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Functions

Function Argument Result
curunreservedpgs (database_id, Returns the number of free
page_number, pages in the disk piece that
free_pages) contains page_number. Use
free_pages to specify a default
value to be returned by the
function. If the database is open,
curunreservedpgs replaces this
value with the actual number of
free pages stored in memory for
that disk piece.
data_pgs (object_id, {doampg | Returns the number of pages
ioampg}) used by table (doampg) or index
(ioampg). The result does not
include pages used for internal
structures.
datalength (expression) Returns the length of expression
in bytes. expression is usually a
column name. If expression is a
character constant, it must be
enclosed in quotes.
db_id ([database_name]) Returns the database ID number.
database_name must be a
character expression; if it is a
constant expression, it must be
enclosed in quotes. If no
database_name is supplied, db_id
returns the ID number of the
current database.
db_name ([database_id]) Returns the database name.
database_id must be a numeric
expression. If no database_id is
supplied, db_name returns the
name of the current database.
host_id () Returns the host process ID of
the client process (not the Server
process).
host_name () Returns the current host
computer name of the client
process (not the Server process).
index_col (object_name, index_id, Returns the name of the indexed
key_# [, user_id]) column; returns NULL if
object_name is not a table or view
name.

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 31
Transact-SQL Functions SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

Function Argument Result

isnull (expression1, Substitutes the value specified
expression2) in expression2 when expression1
evaluates to NULL.The
datatypes of the expressions
must convert implicitly, or you
must use the convert function.
lct_admin ({{ "lastchance" | Manages the log segment’s last-
"logfull" | "unsuspend"} , chance threshold.
database_id} | lastchance creates a last-chance
"reserve", log_pages}) threshold in the specified
database.
logfull returns 1 if the last-chance
threshold has been crossed in
the specified database and 0 if it
has not. unsuspend awakens
suspended tasks in the database
and disables the last-chance
threshold if that threshold has
been crossed.
reserve returns the number of
free log pages required to
successfully dump a
transaction log of the specified
size.
object_id (object_name) Returns the object ID.

object_name (object_id[, database_id]) Returns the object name.

proc_role ("sa_role" | "sso_role" Checks to see if the invoking
| "oper_role") user possesses the correct role to
execute the procedure. Returns
1 if the invoker has the required
role. Otherwise, returns 0.
reserved_pgs (object_id, Returns the number of pages
{doampg|ioampg}) allocated to table or index. This
function does report pages used
for internal structures.
rowcnt (doampg) Returns the number of rows in a
table (estimate).
show_role () Returns the user’s current active
roles, if any (sa_role, sso_role, or
oper_role). If the user has no
roles, returns NULL.

32
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Functions

Function Argument Result

suser_id ([server_user_name]) Returns the server user’s ID
number from syslogins. If no
server_user_name is supplied, it
returns the server ID of the
current user.
suser_name ([server_user_id]) Returns the server user’s name.
Server user’s ID’s are stored in
syslogins. If no server_user_id is
supplied, it returns the name of
the current user.
used_pgs (object_id, doampg, Returns the total number of
ioampg) pages used by a table and its
clustered index.
tsequal (timestamp, timestamp2) Compares timestamp values to
prevent update on a row that
has been modified since it was
selected for browsing.
timestamp is the timestamp of
the browsed row; timestamp2 is
the timestamp of the stored row.
Allows you to use browse mode
without calling DB-Library.
(See “Browse Mode.”)
user Returns the user’s name.
user_id ([user_name]) Returns the user’s ID number.
Reports the number from
sysusers in the current database.
If no user_name is supplied, it
returns the ID of the current
user.
user_name ([user_id]) Returns the user’s name, based
on the user’s ID in the current
database. If no user_id is
supplied, it returns the name of
the current user.
valid_name (character_expression) Returns 0 if string is not a valid
identifier (illegal characters or
string is more than 30 bytes
long), a nonzero number if
string is a valid identifier.

text and image Functions
Operate on text and image data. Text and image built-in function
names are not keywords. Use the set textsize option to limit the

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 33
Transact-SQL Topics SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

amount of text or image data that a select statement retrieves.

Function Argument Result
patindex (“%pattern%”, char_expr Returns an integer value representing the
[, using {bytes | chars | starting position of the first occurrence of pattern
characters} ] ) in the specified character expression, or zero if
pattern is not found. By default, patindex returns
the offset in characters; to return the offset in
bytes for multibyte character strings, specify
using bytes. The % wildcard character must
precede and follow pattern, except when
searching for first or last characters. See
“Wildcard Characters” for a description of the
wildcard characters that can be used in pattern.
textptr (text_columname) Returns the text pointer value, a 16-byte binary
value. The text pointer is checked to ensure that
it points to the first text page.
textvalid (“table_name.col_name”, Checks that a given text pointer is valid. Note
textpointer) that the identifier for a text or image column
must include the table name. Returns 1 if the
pointer is valid, or 0 if the pointer is invalid.

Transact-SQL Topics
Comments
Attach explanatory text to SQL statements, statement blocks, and
system procedures. Comments are not executed.
A comment can be inserted on a line by itself or at the end of a
command line. Two comment styles are available: the “slash-
asterisk” style:
/* text of comment (slash-asterisk style) */
and the “double-hyphen” style:
-- text of comment (double-hyphen style)

Cursors
A cursor provides access to the set of rows returned by a SQL query.
A cursor is a symbolic name that is associated with a select statement.
Cursors enable you to access individual rows of data returned by
SQL Server. Cursors consist of two parts: the cursor result set and the
cursor position.

34
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Topics

To create a cursor, use the declare cursor statement:
declare cursor_name cursor
for select_statement
[for {read only | update [of column_name_list]}]
To open the cursor:
open cursor_name
After opening the cursor, you can fetch a row:
fetch cursor_name [into fetch_target_list]
When you are finished with the result set of a cursor, you can close it:
close cursor_name
If you want to discard the cursor, you must deallocate it:
deallocate cursor cursor_name

Datatypes
Specify the type of information, size, and storage format of columns,
stored procedure parameters, and local variables.

Datatypes by
Synonyms Range Bytes of Storage
Category

Exact numeric: integers
tinyint 0 to 255 1
smallint 215 -1 (32,767) to -215 (-32,768) 2
int integer 231 (2,147,483,647) to 4
-231 (-2,147,483,648)
Exact numeric: decimals
numeric (p, s) 1038 -1 to -1038 2 to 17
decimal (p, s) dec 1038 -1 to -1038 2 to 17
Approximate numeric
float (precision) machine dependent 4 or 8
double precision machine dependent 8
real machine dependent 4
Money
smallmoney 214,748.3647 to -214,748.3648 4
money 922,337,203,685,477.5807 to 8
-922,337,203,685,477.5808

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 35
Transact-SQL Topics SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

Datatypes by
Synonyms Range Bytes of Storage
Category
Date/time
smalldatetime January 1, 1900 to June 6, 2079 4
datetime January 1, 1753 to December 31, 8
9999
Character
char(n) character 255 characters or less n
varchar(n) character varying, 255 characters or less actual entry length
char varying
nchar(n) national character, 255 characters or less n * @@ncharsize
national char
nvarchar(n) nchar varying, 255 characters or less n
national char
varying, national
character varying
text 231 -1 (2,147,483,647) bytes or less 0 or multiple of 2K
(4K on Stratus)
Binary
binary(n) 255 bytes or less n
varbinary(n) 255 bytes or less actual entry length
image 231 -1 (2,147,483,647) bytes or less 0 or multiple of 2K
(4K on Stratus)
Bit
bit 0 or 1 1 (one byte holds up
to 8 bit columns)

Disk Mirroring
Creates a software mirror of a user database device, the master
database device, or a database device used for user database
transaction logs. If a database device fails, its mirror immediately
takes over.

Expressions
An expression is a combination of one or more constants, literals,
functions, column identifiers and/or variables, separated by
operators, that returns a single value. Expressions can be of several
types, including arithmetic, relational, logical (or Boolean), and

36
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Topics

character string. In some Transact-SQL® clauses, a subquery can be
used in an expression.
expression comparison_operator [any | all] expression
expression [not] in expression
[not]exists expression
expression [not] between expression and expression
expression [not] like "match_string"
[escape "escape_character"]
not expression like “match_string”
[escape "escape_character"]
expression is [not] null
not logical_expression
logical_expression {and | or} logical_expression
SQL Server uses the following arithmetic operators:

Symbol Meaning
+ addition
– subtraction
* multiplication
/ division
% modulo (Transact-SQL extension)

SQL Server uses the following bitwise operators:

Symbol Meaning
& bitwise and (two operands)
| bitwise or (two operands)
^ bitwise exclusive or (two operands)
~ bitwise not, unary not (one operand)

SQL Server uses the following comparison operators:

Symbol Meaning
= equal to
> greater than
< less than
>= greater than or equal to
<= less than or equal to
<> not equal to
!= not equal to (Transact-SQL extension)
!> not greater than (Transact-SQL extension)
!< not less than (Transact-SQL extension)

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 37
Transact-SQL Topics SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

Identifiers
SQL Server identifiers can be a maximum of 30 bytes in length,
whether single-byte or multibyte characters are used. The first
character of an identifier must be either an alphabetic character as
defined in the current character set or the underscore (_) symbol.
Subsequent characters can include letters, numbers, the symbols #,
@, _, or currency symbols such as $ (dollars), ¥ (yen), and £ (pound
sterling). Identifiers cannot include special characters such as !%^&*.
or embedded spaces.

IDENTITY Columns
IDENTITY columns contain system-generated values that uniquely
identify each row within a table. They are used to store sequential
numbers, such as invoice numbers or employee numbers, that are
generated automatically by SQL Server. The value of the IDENTITY
column uniquely identifies each row in a table.
Each table in a database can have a single IDENTITY column, of type
numeric and scale zero. You can define an IDENTITY column when
you create a table with a create table or select into statement, or add it
later with an alter table statement.
By definition, IDENTITY columns cannot be updated and do not allow
nulls. Each time you insert a row into a table, SQL Server
automatically supplies a unique, sequential value for its IDENTITY
column, beginning with the value “1”. Manual insertions, deletions,
transaction rollbacks, and server failures can create gaps in IDENTITY
column values.

Joins
Joins compare two or more tables (or views) by specifying a column
from each, comparing the values in those columns row by row, and
concatenating rows that have matching values. Joins can also be
stated as subqueries. (See “Subqueries” for more information.)

38
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Transact-SQL Topics

A join can be embedded in a select, update, insert, delete, or subquery.
Other search conditions and clauses may follow the join condition(s).
Joins use the following syntax:
Start of select, update, insert, delete, or subquery
from {table_list | view_list}
where [not]
[table_name.| view_name.]column_name
join_operator
[table_name. | view_name.]column_name
[{and | or} [not]
[table_name.|view_name.]column_name
join_operator
[table_name.|view_name.]column_name]...
End of select, update, insert, delete, or subquery

Null Values
Marks columns having an unknown value (as opposed to those that
have 0 or blank as a value). NULL allows you to distinguish between
a deliberate entry of zero (for numerical columns) or blank (for
character columns) and a non-entry (NULL for both numerical and
character columns).
In create table statements, declare each columns as null, not null, or identity
or accept the default null type for the database:
column_name datatype [null | not null | identity]
When adding a column to an existing table, you can specify it as null or
identity:
column_name datatype [null | identity]
You can explicitly insert NULL into a column:
values({expression | null}
[, {expression | null}]...)
Use the update statement to set a column value to NULL. Its syntax is:
set column_name = {expression | null}
[, column_name = {expression | null}]...
In the create procedure statement, you can declare NULL as the default
value for individual parameters:
create procedure procedure_name
@param datatype [ = null ]
[, @param datatype [ = null ]]...

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 39
Transact-SQL Topics SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

Use the isnull built-in function to substitute a particular value for nulls.
The substitution is made only for display purposes; actual column
values are not affected. The syntax is:
isnull(expression, value)

Parameters
Parameters are arguments to a stored procedure. You define
parameters when you create the procedure and supply their values
when you execute the procedure. Not all procedures require
parameters.
create procedure [owner.]procedure_name[;number]
[ [(] @parameter_name datatype [= default] [output]
[,@parameter_name datatype [= default] [output]]
... [)] ]
[with recompile]
as SQL_statements
[execute] [@return_status = ]
[[server.]database.]owner.]procedure_name[;number]
[[@parameter_name =] value |
[@parameter_name =] @variable [output]
[,[@parameter_name =] value |
[@parameter_name =] @variable [output]... ]]
[with recompile]

Subqueries
Used to “nest” a select statement inside a select, insert, update, or delete
statement, another subquery, or anywhere an expression is allowed
(if it returns a single value). A subquery is always enclosed in
parentheses.
(select [all | distinct] subquery_select_list
[from [[database.]owner.]{table_name | view_name}
[holdlock]
[, [[database.]owner.]{table_name | view_name}
[holdlock]]...]
[where search_conditions]
[group by aggregate_free_expression
[, aggregate_free_expression]...]
[having search_conditions])

text and image Datatypes
text columns are variable-length columns that can hold up to
2,147,483,647 ( 231 - 1) bytes of printable characters.

40
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 System Procedures

image columns are variable-length columns that can hold up to
2,147,483,647 ( 231 - 1) bytes of hexadecimal-like data.
You define a text or image column as you would any other column,
with a create table or alter table statement. text and image datatype
definitions do not include lengths. They do permit null values. The
column definition takes the form:
column_name {text | image} [null]

Variables (Local and Global)
Variables are defined entities that are assigned values. SQL Server
has two kinds of variables:
declare @variable_name datatype
[, @variable_name datatype]...
select @variable_name = expression
[ , @variable_name = expression ]...
[from clause] [where clause] [group by clause]
[having clause] [order by clause] [compute clause]

Wildcard Characters
Represent one or more characters, or a range of characters, in a match
string.
Use wildcards in where and having clauses to find character or
date/time information that is like—or not like—the match string:
{where | having} [not]
expression [not] like match_string
[escape "escape_character"]

System Procedures
sp_addalias
Allows a SQL Server user to be known in a database as another user.
sp_addalias login_name, name_in_db

sp_addauditrecord
Allows users to enter user-defined audit records (comments) into the
audit trail.
sp_addauditrecord [@text="message text"]
[, @db_name="db_name"] [, @obj_name="object_name"]
[, @owner_name="object_owner"]
[, @dbid=database_ID] [, @objid=object_ID]

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 41
System Procedures SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

sp_addgroup
Adds a group to a database. Groups are used as collective names in
granting and revoking privileges.
sp_addgroup grpname

sp_addlanguage
Defines the names of the months and days for an alternate language
and its date format.
sp_addlanguage language, alias, months, shortmons,
days, datefmt, datefirst

sp_addlogin
Adds a new user account to SQL Server.
sp_addlogin login_name, password [, defdb
[, deflanguage [, fullname]]]

sp_addmessage
Adds user-defined messages to sysusermessages for use by stored
procedure print and raiserror calls and by sp_bindmsg.
sp_addmessage message_num, message_text [, language]

sp_addremotelogin
Authorizes a new remote server user by adding an entry to
master.dbo.sysremotelogins.
sp_addremotelogin remoteserver [, login_name
[, remote_name] ]

sp_addsegment
Defines a segment on a database device in the current database.
sp_addsegment segname, dbname, devname

sp_addserver
Defines a remote server, or defines the name of the local server.
sp_addserver srvname [, {local | null}
[, network_name]]

42
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 System Procedures

sp_addthreshold
Creates a threshold to monitor space on a database segment. When
free space on the segment falls below the specified level, SQL Server
executes the associated stored procedure.
sp_addthreshold database, segment, free_pages,
procedure

sp_addtype
Creates a user-defined datatype.
sp_addtype typename,
phystype [(length) | (precision [, scale])]
[, "identity" | nulltype]

sp_addumpdevice
Adds a dump device to SQL Server.
sp_addumpdevice {"tape" | "disk"}, device_name,
physicalname [, size]

sp_adduser
Adds a new user to the current database.
sp_adduser login_name [, name_in_db [, grpname]]

sp_auditdatabase
Establishes auditing of different types of events within a database, or
of references to objects within that database from another database.
sp_auditdatabase [dbname [, "ok | fail | both | off"
[, {"d u g r t o"}]]]

sp_auditlogin
Audits a SQL Server user’s attempts to access tables and views;
audits the text of a user’s command batches; lists users on which
auditing is enabled; gives the auditing status of a user; or displays
the status of table, view, or command text auditing.
sp_auditlogin [login_name [, "table" | "view"
[, "ok" | "fail" | "both" | "off"]]]
sp_auditlogin [login_name [, "cmdtext"
[, "on" | "off"]]]

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 43
System Procedures SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

sp_auditobject
Audits accesses to tables and views.
sp_auditobject objname, dbname
[, {"ok" | "fail" | "both" | "off"}
[, "{d i s u}"]]
sp_auditobject {"default table"|"default view"},
dbname [, {"ok" | "fail" | "both" | "off"}
[, "{d i s u}"]]

sp_auditoption
Enables or disables system-wide auditing and global audit options,
or reports on the status of audit options.
sp_auditoption {"all" | "enable auditing" | "logouts"
| "server boots" | "adhoc records"}
[, {"on" | "off"}]
sp_auditoption {"logins" | "rpc connections" |
"roles"} [, {"ok" | "fail" | "both" | "off"}]
sp_auditoption "errors" [, {"nonfatal" | "fatal"
| "both"}]
sp_auditoption "{sa | sso | oper | navigator |
replication} commands"
[, {"ok" | "fail" | "both" | "off"}]

sp_auditsproc
Audits the execution of stored procedures and triggers.
sp_auditsproc [sproc_name | "all", dbname
[, {"ok" | "fail" | "both" | "off"}]]
sp_auditsproc "default", dbname
[, {"ok" | "fail" | "both" | "off"}]

sp_bindefault
Binds a default to a column or user-defined datatype.
sp_bindefault defaultname, objectname [, futureonly]

sp_bindmsg
Binds a user message to a referential integrity constraint or check
constraint.
sp_bindmsg constraint_name, message_num

44
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 System Procedures

sp_bindrule
Binds a rule to a column or user-defined datatype.
sp_bindrule rulename, objectname [, futureonly]

sp_changedbowner
Changes the owner of a database. Do not change the owner of the
sybsystemprocs database.
sp_changedbowner login_name [, true ]

sp_changegroup
Changes a user’s group.
sp_changegroup grpname, name_in_db

sp_checknames
Checks the current database for names that contain characters not in
the 7-bit ASCII set.
sp_checknames

sp_checkreswords
Detects and displays identifiers that are Transact-SQL reserved
words. Checks server names, device names, database names,
segment names, user-defined datatypes, object names, column
names, user names, login names, and remote login names.
sp_checkreswords [username]

sp_clearstats
Initiates a new accounting period for all server users or for a
specified user. Prints statistics for the previous period by executing
sp_reportstats.
sp_clearstats [user_name]

sp_commonkey
Defines a common key—columns that are frequently joined—
between two tables or views.
sp_commonkey tabaname, tabbname, col1a, col1b
[, col2a, col2b, ..., col8a, col8b]

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 45
System Procedures SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

sp_configure
Displays or changes configuration variables.
sp_configure [config_name [, config_value]]

sp_cursorinfo
Reports information about a specific cursor or all cursors that are
active.
sp_cursorinfo [{cursor_level | null}] [, cursor_name]

sp_dboption
Displays or changes database options.
sp_dboption [dbname, optname, {true | false}]

sp_dbremap
Forces SQL Server to recognize changes made by alter database. Run
this procedure only if instructed to do so by SQL Server messages.
sp_dbremap database_name

sp_depends
Displays information about database object dependencies—the
view(s), trigger(s), and procedure(s) that depend on a specified table
or view, and the table(s) and view(s) that the specified view, trigger,
or procedure depends on.
sp_depends objname

sp_diskdefault
Sets a database device’s status to defaulton or defaultoff. This indicates
whether or not a database device can be used for database storage if
the user does not specify a database device or specifies default with the
create database or alter database commands.
sp_diskdefault logical_name {defaulton | defaultoff}

sp_displaylogin
Displays information about a login account.
sp_displaylogin [login_name]

sp_dropalias
Removes the alias user name identity established with sp_addalias.
sp_dropalias login_name

46
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 System Procedures

sp_dropdevice
Drops a SQL Server database device or dump device.
sp_dropdevice device_name

sp_dropgroup
Drops a group from a database.
sp_dropgroup grpname

sp_dropkey
Removes from the syskeys table a key that had been defined using
sp_primarykey, sp_foreignkey, or sp_commonkey.
sp_dropkey keytype, tabaname [, tabbname]

sp_droplanguage
Drops an alternate language from the server and removes its row
from master.dbo.syslanguages.
sp_droplanguage language [, dropmessages]

sp_droplogin
Drops a SQL Server user login by deleting the user’s entry in
master.dbo.syslogins.
sp_droplogin login_name

sp_dropmessage
Drops user-defined messages from sysusermessages.
sp_dropmessage message_number [, language]

sp_dropremotelogin
Drops a remote user login.
sp_dropremotelogin remoteserver [, login_name
[, remotename] ]

sp_dropsegment
Drops a segment from a database or unmaps a segment from a
particular database device.
sp_dropsegment segname, dbname [, devname]

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 47
System Procedures SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

sp_dropserver
Drops a server from the list of known servers.
sp_dropserver server [, droplogins]

sp_dropthreshold
Removes a free-space threshold from a segment.
sp_dropthreshold database, segment, free_pages

sp_droptype
Drops a user-defined datatype.
sp_droptype typename

sp_dropuser
Drops a user from the current database.
sp_dropuser name_in_db

sp_estspace
Estimates the amount of space required for a table and its indexes,
and the time needed to create the index.
sp_estspace table_name, no_of_rows [, fill_factor
[, cols_to_max [, textbin_len [, iosec]]]]

sp_extendsegment
Extends the range of a segment to another database device, or
extends an existing segment on the current database device.
sp_extendsegment segname, dbname, devname

sp_foreignkey
Defines a foreign key on a table or view in the current database.
sp_foreignkey tabname, pktabname, col1 [, col2] ...
[, col8]

sp_getmessage
Retrieves stored message strings from sysmessages and
sysusermessages for print and raiserror statements.
sp_getmessage message_num, @msg_var output [, language]

48
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 System Procedures

sp_help
Reports information about a database object (any object listed in
sysobjects), and about SQL Server-supplied or user-defined
datatypes.
sp_help [objname]

sp_helpconstraint
Reports information about any integrity constraints specified for a
table. This information includes the constraint name and the
definition of the default, unique/primary key constraint, referential
constraint, or check constraint.
sp_helpconstraint tabname [, detail]

sp_helpdb
Reports information about a particular database or about all
databases.
sp_helpdb [dbname]

sp_helpdevice
Reports information about a particular device or about all SQL
Server database devices and dump devices.
sp_helpdevice [device_name]

sp_helpgroup
Reports information about a particular group or about all groups in
the current database.
sp_helpgroup [grpname]

sp_helpindex
Reports information about the indexes created on a table.
sp_helpindex tabname

sp_helpjoins
Lists the columns in two tables or views that are likely join
candidates.
sp_helpjoins lefttab, righttab

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 49
System Procedures SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

sp_helpkey
Reports information about a primary, foreign, or common key of a
particular table or view, or about all keys in the current database.
sp_helpkey [objname]

sp_helplanguage
Reports information about a particular alternate language or about
all languages.
sp_helplanguage [language]

sp_helplog
Reports the name of the device that contains the first page of the log.
sp_helplog

sp_helpremotelogin
Reports information about a particular remote server’s logins or
about all remote servers’ logins.
sp_helpremotelogin [remoteserver [,remotename]]

sp_helprotect
Reports on permissions for database objects, users, or groups.
sp_helprotect [name [, name_in_db [, "grant"]]]

sp_helpsegment
Reports information on a particular segment or on all of the
segments in the current database.
sp_helpsegment [segname]

sp_helpserver
Reports information about a particular remote server or about all
remote servers.
sp_helpserver [server]

sp_helpsort
Displays SQL Server’s default sort order and character set.
sp_helpsort

50
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 System Procedures

sp_helptext
Prints the text of a system procedure, trigger, view, default, rule, or
integrity check constraint.
sp_helptext objname

sp_helpthreshold
Reports the segment, free-space value, status, and stored procedure
associated with all thresholds in the current database or all
thresholds for a particular segment.
sp_helpthreshold [segment_name]

sp_helpuser
Reports information about a particular user or about all users in the
current database.
sp_helpuser [name_in_db]

sp_indsuspect
Checks user tables for indexes that have been marked as suspect
during recovery following a sort order change.
sp_indsuspect [table_name]

sp_lock
Reports information about processes that currently hold locks.
sp_lock [spid1 [, spid2]]

sp_locklogin
Locks a SQL Server account so that the user cannot log in, or displays
a list of all locked accounts.
sp_locklogin [login_name, "{lock | unlock}"]

sp_logdevice
Puts the system table syslogs, which contains the transaction log, on a
separate database device.
sp_logdevice dbname, device_name

sp_modifylogin
Modifies the default database, default language, or full name for a
SQL Server login account.
sp_modifylogin login_name, option, value

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 51
System Procedures SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

sp_modifythreshold
Modifies a threshold by associating it with a different threshold
procedure, level of free space, or segment. You cannot use
sp_modifythreshold to change the amount of free space or the segment
name for the last-chance threshold.
sp_modifythreshold database, segment, free_pages
[, new_procedure] [, new_free_pages]
[, new_segment]

sp_monitor
Displays statistics about SQL Server.
sp_monitor

sp_password
Adds or changes a password for a SQL Server login account.
sp_password caller_passwd, new_passwd [, login_name]

sp_placeobject
Puts future space allocations for a table or index on a particular
segment.
sp_placeobject segname, objname

sp_primarykey
Defines a primary key on a table or view.
sp_primarykey tabname, col1 [, col2, col3, ..., col8]

sp_procxmode
Displays or changes the transaction modes associated with stored
procedures.
sp_procxmode [procedure_name [, transaction_mode]]

sp_recompile
Causes each stored procedure and trigger that uses the named table
to be recompiled the next time it runs.
sp_recompile tabname

52
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 System Procedures

sp_remap
Remaps a Release 4.8 or later stored procedure, trigger, rule, default,
or view to be compatible with Release 10.0. Use sp_remap on objects
that the Release 10.0 upgrade procedure failed to remap.
sp_remap object_name

sp_remoteoption
Displays or changes remote login options.
sp_remoteoption [remote_server, login_name,
remote_name, opt_name, {true | false}]

sp_rename
Changes the name of a user-created object in the current database.
sp_rename objname, newname

sp_renamedb
Changes the name of a database. You cannot rename system
databases or databases with external referential integrity constraints.
sp_renamedb dbname, newname

sp_reportstats
Reports statistics on system usage.
sp_reportstats [user_name]

sp_role
Grants or revokes roles to a SQL Server login account.
sp_role {"grant" | "revoke"},
{sa_role | sso_role | oper_role}, login_name

sp_serveroption
Displays or changes remote server options.
sp_serveroption [server, optname, {true | false}]

sp_setlangalias
Assigns or changes the alias for an alternate language.
sp_setlangalias language, alias

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 53
System Procedures SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

sp_spaceused
Displays the number of rows, the number of data pages, and the
space used by one table or by all tables in the current database.
sp_spaceused [tablename]

sp_syntax
Displays the syntax of Transact-SQL statements, system procedures,
utilities, and other routines (depending on which products and
corresponding sp_syntax scripts exist on your server).
sp_syntax {command | fragment} [, module_name]
[, language]

sp_thresholdaction
Executes automatically when the number of free pages on the log
segment falls below the last-chance threshold (unless the threshold
has been associated with a different procedure). Sybase does not
provide this procedure.
sp_thresholdaction @dbname,
@segment_name,
@space_left,
@status

sp_unbindefault
Unbinds a created default value from a column or from a user-
defined datatype.
sp_unbindefault objname [, futureonly]

sp_unbindmsg
Unbinds a user-defined message from a constraint.
sp_unbindmsg constraint_name

sp_unbindrule
Unbinds a rule from a column or from a user-defined datatype.
sp_unbindrule objname [, futureonly]

sp_volchanged
Notifies the Backup Server that the operator performed the
requested volume handling during a dump or load.
sp_volchanged session_id, device_name, action
[, filename [, volume_name]]

54
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Catalog Stored Procedures

sp_who
Reports information about all current SQL Server users and
processes, or about a particular user or process.
sp_who [login_name | "spid"]

Catalog Stored Procedures
sp_column_privileges
Returns permissions information for one or more columns in a table
or view.
sp_column_privileges table_name [, table_owner
[, table_qualifier [, column_name]]]

sp_columns
Returns information about the type of data that can be stored in one
or more columns.
sp_columns table_name [, table_owner ]
[, table_qualifier] [, column_name]

sp_databases
Returns a list of databases on a SQL Server.
sp_databases

sp_datatype_info
Returns information about a particular datatype or about all
supported datatypes.
sp_datatype_info [data_type]

sp_fkeys
Returns logical foreign key information for the current database.
Foreign keys must have been declared through the ANSI integrity
constraint mechanism.
sp_fkeys pktable_name [, pktable_owner]
[, pktable_qualifier] [, fktable_name]
[, fktable_owner] [, fktable_qualifier]

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 55
Catalog Stored Procedures SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

sp_pkeys
Returns primary key information for a single table. Primary keys
must have been declared through the ANSI integrity constraint
mechanism.
sp_pkeys table_name [, table_owner]
[, table_qualifier]

sp_server_info
Returns a list of attribute names and matching values for SQL Server.
sp_server_info [attribute_id]

sp_special_columns
Returns the optimal set of columns that uniquely identify a row in a
table or view; can also return a list of the columns that are
automatically updated when any value in the row is updated by a
transaction.
sp_special_columns table_name [, table_owner]
[, table_qualifier] [, col_type]

sp_sproc_columns
Returns information about a stored procedure’s input and return
parameters.
sp_sproc_columns sp_name [, sp_owner]
[, sp_qualifier] [, column_name]

sp_statistics
Returns a list of indexes on a single table.
sp_statistics table_name [, table_owner]
[, table_qualifier] [, index_name] [, is_unique]

sp_stored_procedures
Returns information about one or more stored procedures.
sp_stored_procedures [sp_name] [, sp_owner]
[, sp_qualifier]

sp_table_privileges
Returns privilege information for all columns in a table or view.
sp_table_privileges table_name [, table_owner
[, table_qualifier]]

56
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Error Messages and Message Numbers

sp_tables
Returns a list of objects that can appear in a from clause.
sp_tables [table_name] [, table_owner]
[, table_qualifier][, table_type]

Error Messages and Message Numbers

Severity Levels 10 Through 18

Error messages with severity levels 10 through 16 are generated by
problems caused by user errors, and can always be corrected by the
user. Severity levels 17 and 18 do not terminate the user’s session.
Error messages with severity levels 17 or higher should be reported
to the System Administrator or Database Owner.

Severity Level Explanation/Cause Action
10: Status Information Not an error. The SQL Server none
provides additional information
after certain commands have been
executed.
11: Specified Database SQL Server can’t find an object Check spelling of object names, use
Object Not Found referenced in the command because owner names if the object is not
the user has made a mistake in owned by you or “dbo”, and make
typing the name of a database object, sure you’re in the correct database.
because the user did not specify the
object owner’s name, or because of
confusion about which database is
current.
12: Wrong Datatype A problem with datatypes. For To correct comparison problems, use
Encountered example, the user may have tried to the convert function with select.
enter a value of the wrong datatype
into a column, or to compare
columns of different (and
incompatible) datatypes.

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 57
Error Messages and Message Numbers SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

Severity Level Explanation/Cause Action
13: User Transaction Something is wrong with the Severity level 13 can also indicate a
Syntax Error current user-defined transaction. deadlock, in which case the deadlock
For example, issuing a commit victim’s process is rolled back. The
command without having issued a user must restart his or her
begin transaction, or trying to roll a command.
transaction back to a savepoint that
has not been defined (sometimes
there may be a typing or spelling
mistake in the name of the
savepoint).
14: Insufficient You don’t have the permission Ask the owner of the database
Permission to Execute necessary to execute the command object, the owner of the database, or
Command or access the database object. the System Administrator to grant
you permission to use the command
or object in question.
15: Syntax Error in SQL The user has made a mistake in the Retype the command.
Statements syntax of the command. The text of
these error messages includes the
line numbers on which the mistake
occurs, and the specific word near
which it occurs.
16: Miscellaneous User The user has made some kind of Check command syntax and
Error non-fatal mistake that doesn’t fall working database context.
into any of the other categories.
17: Insufficient The command caused SQL Server to The Database Owner can correct
Resources run out of resources (usually space level 17 error messages indicating
for the database on the disk) or to that you have run out of space.
exceed some limit set by the System Other level 17 error messages should
Administrator. be corrected by the System
Administrator.
These system limits include the
number of databases that can be
open at the same time and the
number of connections allowed to
SQL Server. They are stored in
system tables, and can be checked
with the sp_configure command
18: Non-Fatal Internal Error messages with severity level
Error Detected 18 indicate some kind of internal
software bug. However, the
command runs to completion, and
the connection to SQL Server is
maintained.

58
SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0 Error Messages and Message Numbers

Severity Levels 19 Through 24

Fatal problems generate error messages with severity levels 19 and
higher. They break the user’s connection to SQL Server. To continue
working, the user must restart the client program.

Severity Level Explanation/Cause Action
19: SQL Server Fatal Some non-configurable internal Reconnect to SQL Server. See your
Error in Resource limit has been exceeded, and SQL System Administrator.
Server cannot recover gracefully.
20: SQL Server Fatal SQL Server has encountered a bug Run dbcc diagnostics. Reconnect to
Error in Current Process in some command. The problem has SQL Server. See your System
affected only the current process; it Administrator.
is unlikely that the database itself
has been damaged.
21: SQL Server Fatal SQL Server has encountered a bug Restart SQL Server and run the dbcc
Error in Database that affects all the processes in the diagnostics. Reconnect to SQL
Processes current database. However, it is Server. See your System
unlikely that the database itself has Administrator.
been damaged.
22: SQL Server Fatal The table or index specified in the First, restart SQL Server and run
Error: Table Integrity message has been damaged at some dbcc to determine if other objects in
Suspect previous time by a software or the database are also damaged. If
hardware problem. the problem is in the cache only, and
not on the disk itself, restarting SQL
Server will fix the problem.
If restarting doesn’t help, the
problem is on the disk as well.
Sometimes the problem can be
solved by dropping the object
specified in the error message.
23: SQL Server Fatal The integrity of the entire database Restart SQL Server and run the dbcc
Error: Database is suspect due to damage caused at diagnostics.
Integrity Suspect some previous time by a software or
Even when the whole database is
hardware problem.
suspect, the damage may be
confined to the cache, and the disk
itself may be fine. If so, restarting
SQL Server with startserver will fix
the problem.
24: Hardware Error or Error messages with severity level The System Administrator may
System Table Corruption 24 reflect some kind of media failure have to reload the database. It may
or (in rare cases) the corruption of be necessary to call your hardware
sysusages. vendor.

SQL Server Quick Reference Guide 59
Error Messages and Message Numbers SYBASE SQL Server Release 10.0

60