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DESIGN NOTE
Checked by: Compiled by: Page 1 / 6
Project:
Section:
Saldanha GMQ Ext. FEL3
Quay wall options assessment
Date:
Note No.:
29/10/2012
1113/QW/001 Rev00
-
Task Description:
As part of the FEL3 Study for the Phase 2 Extension of the GMQ and Rock Quays in the Port of Saldanha Bay a number
of quay wall types were considered. This note documents the work undertaken as part of the options assessment and
presents the preferred quay wall section for the extension.
Layout:

Two quay wall sections are required for the Phase 2 Extension:
1. Infill area - No existing structures, construct new wall along cope line and backfill.
2. Rock Quay - Existing sheet pile wall (unsafe), (1.0m between berthing line of old and new cope lines).
In addition the quay wall must provide an interim depth of -6.5mCD with the ability of deepening to -11.5mCD.
Available Information:
The following information has been utilised:
PRDW Design Note 1113/GEO/001 Rev00 (Geotechnical Desk Study)
Quay Wall Requirements:
Berth Function
Berth Depth
(m CD)
Cope Level
(m CD)
Design Loads
Offshore Supply Base
Interim depth : -6.5
Final depth : -11.5
+3.8
40 kN/m Apron Load
Hydrostatic head (tidal lag) 0.5m
Bollard: 60t (30 kN/m)
400t Crane Load (150t point load)





























Design Life:
50 yr design life with minimal maintenance
Design Geotechnical Parameters:
Material
Unit weight
above water
table
(kN/m
3
)
Unit weight
below water
table
(kN/m
3
)
Undrained
shear
strength
(kPa)
Effective
Cohesion
(kPa)
Effective
friction
angle ()
Drained
Young's
Modulus
(MPa)
Poisson's
Ratio
QUARRY RUN - 20.0 - - 38 50 0.25
53mm STONE - 19.0 - - 40 50 0.25
Backfill SAND 17.0 18.0 - - 34 25 0.30
loose fine SAND - 18.0 - - 32 20 0.25
fine to coarse SAND - 19.0 - - 34 20 0.25
coarse SAND - 19.0 - - 35 20 0.25

Quay Wall Options:
The following quay wall options have been considered at Concept level* as part of this assessment:
1. Steel Sheet Pile Wall
2. Mass Concrete Blockwall
3. Reinforced Concrete Counterfort Wall
4. Reinforced Concrete Deck on Steel Tubular Piles

*Main structural elements have been roughly sized and ROM costs have accuracy levels of -40% to +50% (costing is
only for comparison purposes and the R/m rates .

Assessment Criteria:
The quay walls have been assessed against the following criteria:
a) Ability to meet functional requirements
b) Constructability
c) Maintainability
d) Ease of Deepening from -6.5 to -11.5mCD
e) Cost and Value
f) Construction programme
g) Environmental Impact
A summary of the information contained in this note is presented in the form of a Multi Criteria Assessment, see
Figure 7.


1113
Status Draft for internal use WGD
knots
DESIGN NOTE
Checked by: Compiled by: Page 2 / 6
Project:
Section:
Saldanha GMQ Ext. FEL3
Quay wall options assessment
Date:
Note No.:
29/10/2012
1113/QW/001 Rev00
-



























1. Steel Sheet Pile
Assessment Criteria Comments
Ability to meet functional
requirements
Meets all requirements
Constructability
Availability of skills: Limited Local marine sheet piling skills are limited but available
Availability of materials:
Required AZ section and tie rods not fabricated locally will require overseas
procurement. Fabricated steel work and concrete coping and paving will be
locally sourced
Extent of temporary works: Minimal Only pile guide frame required
Contractors site camp:

Minimal Small footprint required mostly sheet pile stock pile, and spoil
stock pile from the tie rod excavation.
Risk associated with unknown
ground conditions:
High very hard layers and very soft layers pose potential design, cost and
duration risks to a sheet piling solution
Interaction with existing wall
Limited - Drive new wall ahead of existing requires NO removal and
excavation of existing sheet piles Simple tie in with existing blockwall GMQ
Maintainability
Access for maintenance: Easy access to face of structure, no access to anchor system
Localisation and repairability of
damage:
Damage to steel AZ sheeting easily repaired with welded steel patch, damage
to tie system would require excavation and careful replacement
Ease of Deepening From -6.5mCD to -11.5mCD
Simple Structure designed for -11.5mCD and when required easily
deepened to -11.5mCD
Cost and Value
Capital Cost:
R 740 000/m (ROM -40 to +50% quay wall only construction cost, items
common to all walls types excluded i.e. quay furniture, paving, berth pocket
dredging etc Not to be used to calculate project costs - for comparison
purposes only)
Maintenance and Operational
Cost:
Medium Anode replacement (3 x during life), patching at tyre fender
locations
Construction programme Duration:
12 Months (Excluding procurement ) Fast - Speed of construction is rapid
with option for acceleration through the mobilisation of additional piling rigs
Environmental Impact Low no dredging required to install wall

SEE FIGURE 2 & 3:
The sheet pile wall has the advantage over the other options as it does not require the complete removal of the existing wall. The AZ46 piles
can be driven ahead of the rock quay providing significant programme and capital cost advantages.
The major concern with this wall type centres around the ground conditions - hard Calcrete layers will prevent driving, while soft silty SAND
layers will limited passive soil response. This represents a potential fatal flaw, which the results of the current geotechnical investigations will
inform.






1113
Status Draft WGD
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DESIGN NOTE
Checked by: Compiled by: Page 3 / 6
Project:
Section:
Saldanha GMQ Ext. FEL3
Quay wall options assessment
Date:
Note No.:
29/10/2012
1113/QW/001 Rev00
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2. Mass Concrete Blockwall
Assessment Criteria Comments
Ability to meet
functional requirements
Meets all requirements
Constructability
Availability of skills:
Satisfactory Local concreting skills and marine placing skills for heavy
precast block are available
Availability of materials: All materials can be locally procured
Extent of temporary works: Significant Reasonable sized casting yard, load out facility
Contractors site camp:

Extensive Large footprint required mostly precast block stock pile, and
spoil stock pile from the foundation trench excavation.
Risk associated with unknown
ground conditions:
Low GMQ is a blockwall structure - excavate material and extend stone
bed if poor sub strata is encountered
Interaction with existing wall
Extensive Requires complete removal of existing sheet pile wall at Rock
Quay wall as well as extensive excavation for the foundation trench or
construction of a significant temp retaining wall Temp support or removal
of blocks required for tie in with existing blockwall
Maintainability
Access for maintenance: Easy access to face of structure
Localisation and repairability of
damage:
Easy to repair with FRP or concrete patch
Ease of Deepening From -6.5mCD to -11.5mCD Structure constructed at -11.5m CD no interim (-6.5mCD) option
Cost and Value
Capital Cost:
R 1 520 000/m (ROM -40 to +50% quay wall only construction cost, items
common to all walls types excluded i.e. quay furniture, paving, berth pocket
dredging etc Not to be used to calculate project costs - for comparison
purposes only)
Maintenance and Operational
Cost:
Very Low Serviceability crack repairs to capping beam as required
Construction
programme
Duration:
20 Months Slow - Speed of construction is slow limited by production
rate of casting yard, foundation trench construction and placing rate of
marine plant numerous interfaces between unit production, trench
excavation, stone bed placing, unit placing, preloading and backfilling
Environmental Impact
Significant The construction of the foundation trench for the wall requires
the removal of 60 000m of material, most of this this material will be stock
piled and reused

SEE FIGURE 4:
The block wall requires significant volumes of concrete, making it the most material intensive option. Combined with the necessity to
completely remove the existing wall and create a large foundation trench this options has the highest cost /m.
This wall type has been successfully used in the Port of Saldanha at the GMQ and there are life cycle advantages to its robust design and
construction method.




1113
Status Draft WGD
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DESIGN NOTE
Checked by: Compiled by: Page 4 / 6
Project:
Section:
Saldanha GMQ Ext. FEL3
Quay wall options assessment
Date:
Note No.:
29/10/2012
1113/QW/001 Rev00
-



























3. Reinforced Concrete Counterfort Wall
Assessment Criteria Comments
Ability to meet
functional requirements
Meets all requirements
Constructability
Availability of skills:
Satisfactory Local concreting skills and marine placing skills for heavy
precast block are available the availability of large heavy lift marine plant is
limited.
Availability of materials: All materials can be locally procured
Extent of temporary works: Extensive Reasonable sized casting yard, launching dock
Contractors site camp:

Extensive Large footprint required mostly precast block stock pile, and
spoil stock pile from the pla trench excavation.
Risk associated with unknown
ground conditions:
Low MPT is a counterfort structure - excavate material and extend stone
bed if poor sub strata is encountered
Interaction with existing wall
Extensive Requires complete removal of existing sheet pile wall at Rock
Quay as well as extensive excavation for the foundation trench - Temp
support or removal of blocks required for tie in with existing blockwall
Maintainability
Access for maintenance: Easy access to face of structure
Localisation and repairability of
damage:
Easy to repair with FRP or concrete patch (joints require diver)
Ease of Deepening From -6.5mCD to -11.5mCD Structure constructed at -11.5m CD no interim option
Cost and Value
Capital Cost:
R 1 160 000/m (ROM -40 to +50% quay wall only construction cost, items
common to all walls types excluded i.e. quay furniture, paving, berth pocket
dredging etc Not to be used to calculate project costs - for comparison
purposes only)
Maintenance and Operational
Cost:
Low joint maintenance and Serviceability crack repairs to capping beam as
required
Construction
programme
Duration:
17 Months Average - Speed of construction is average limited by
production rate of casting yard, foundation trench construction and placing
rate of marine plant numerous interfaces between unit production, trench
excavation, stone bed placing, unit placing, preloading and backfilling The
size of the units does have a positive impact on the placing speed.
Environmental Impact
Significant The construction of the foundation trench for the wall requires
the removal of 60 000m of material, most of this this material will be stock
piled and reused

SEE FIGURE 5:
The counterfort wall presents a more efficient concrete gravity option than the blockwall. However, TNPA have expressed concerns over the
joints in the counterforts at previous quay wall MCA meetings.
This option also requires the full removal of the existing wall and extensive dredging to create the foundation trench. In addition the extensive
temporary works required for the unit construction of this quay type must be considered.
This wall type has been successfully used in the Port of Saldanha at the MPT and has the advantage of Saldanha TNPA being familiar with
operational and maintenance requirements.



1113
Status Draft WGD
knots
DESIGN NOTE
Checked by: Compiled by: Page 5 / 6
Project:
Section:
Saldanha GMQ Ext. FEL3
Quay wall options assessment
Date:
Note No.:
29/10/2012
1113/QW/001 Rev00
-












4. Reinforced Concrete Deck with Steel Tubular Bearing Piles
Assessment Criteria Comments
Ability to meet
functional requirements
Heavy lift loading on a deck structure is a concern
Constructability
Availability of skills: Satisfactory Local marine piling skills are available
Availability of materials: All materials can be locally procured
Extent of temporary works:
Minimal Pile headstocks and deck support, casting yard for precast deck
elements
Contractors site camp:

Minimal Small footprint required mostly pile stock pile, and spoil stock pile
from existing sheet pile removal
Risk associated with unknown
ground conditions:
High very hard layers and very soft layers pose potential design, cost and
duration risks to a piling solution
Interaction with existing wall
Extensive Requires complete removal of existing wall as well as extensive
excavation for the revetment slope Construction of a return wall required
for the tie in at the existing blockwall GMQ
Maintainability
Access for maintenance:
Easy access to face of structure and deck top, limited access to underside of
deck
Localisation and repairability of
damage:
Deck easy to repair, damage to pile is much harder
Ease of Deepening From -6.5mCD to -11.5mCD
Cutting slope and installing revetment after construction of the deck is
difficult therefore will construct to -11.5mCD at
Cost and Value
Capital Cost:
R 1 200 000/m (ROM -40 to +50% quay wall only construction cost, items
common to all walls types excluded i.e. quay furniture, paving, berth pocket
dredging etc Not to be used to calculate project costs - for comparison
purposes only)
Maintenance and Operational
Cost:
Medium Anode replacement, serviceability repairs to cracking deck
concrete, revetment maintenance
Construction
programme
Duration:
22 Months Slow - Speed of construction is slow with option for
acceleration through the mobilisation of additional piling rigs (additional
cost) Number of interfaces with excavation, pile driving, precast beam and
panel placing and insitu concreting of deck
Environmental Impact
Significant Installation of the wall requires the removal and disposal of
40 000m of material -
- Revetment is a positive

SEE FIGURE 6:
The deck on piles option provides an alternative to the material intensive gravity options. The piling risks associated with the sheet pile are still
a concern. However the use of steel tubular piles allows for grabbing out or chiselling through the tube to progress through the harder layers.
This option also requires the full removal of the existing wall and extensive dredging to create the revetment slope.
The heavy lift requirement for the deck structure results in heavy beams, a thick deck and a close pile spacing, which result in higher
construction costs and a longer construction programme.




1113
Status Draft WGD
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DESIGN NOTE
Checked by: Compiled by: Page 6 / 6
Project:
Section:
Saldanha GMQ Ext. FEL3
Quay wall options assessment
Date:
Note No.:
29/10/2012
1113/QW/001 Rev00
-
Figure No.

Title:



SALDANHA GMQ Ext. FEL3 STUDY
Interpreted Geological Section 1
loose fine SAND fine to coarse SAND coarse SAND
clayey SAND CALCRETE
S.B.28 S.B.29 S.B.30
E.O.H. E.O.H.
E.O.H.
(-6.3 to -7.3)
(-9.2 to -9.4)
(-10.7 to -11.0)
-13.3
-20.1
-5.3 -5.4
-3.6
-7.0
-5.3
-13.3 -13.5
-15.6
(-10.0 to -10.2)
(-17.6 to -17.7)
(-8.3 to -8.5)
0.0 (MLWS)
Source: Historical borehole logs from
1973 (Conducted by Salcon) Made
available by TNPA Saldanha, 2012
-19.5
-21.3
-21.1
South
side of
blockwall
North
side of
blockwall
Figure No.

Title:



SALDANHA GMQ Ext. FEL3 STUDY
Steel Sheet Pile Infill Section 2
Existing material
-24.0mCD
+3.8mCD
Quarry Run
Backfill Sand
AZ46 (430 MPa)
Main Wall
AZ18 (350 MPa) Anchor Wall
- Length of 7m - oversized due to
increased liquefaction risk in upper
soil strata
Design dredge depth -11.5mCD
Interim dredge depth -6.5mCD
0.0 mCD
Stone Drain
Filter Layer
M100(500 MPa) 35m long
Reinforced concrete capping beam
Precast cope panel extended to -0.5m CD and
grout filled behind to protect against corrosion
Potential Calcrete layers
(50MPa)
Method:
1. Drive AZ46s
2. Install AZ18 anchor wall
3. Place to interim level - quarry run, filter layer and backfill material
4. Install M76 tie rods
5. Backfill anchor
6. Tension tie rods
7. Complete Back fill
8. Install cope, services, paving and furniture



Figure No.

Title:



SALDANHA GMQ Ext. FEL3 STUDY
Steel Sheet Pile Rock Quay Section

3
Existing material
-24.0mCD
+3.8mCD
Existing sheet pile
Backfill Sand
AZ46 (430 MPa)
Main Wall
AZ18 (350 MPa) Anchor Wall
- Length of 7m - oversized due to increased
liquefaction risk in upper soil strata
Design dredge depth -11.5mCD
0.0 mCD
Stone Drain
Existing anchor
M100 (500 MPa) 35m long
Reinforced concrete capping beam
Precast cope panel extended to -0.5m CD and
grout filled behind to protect against corrosion
Potential Calcrete layers
(50MPa)
Interim dredge depth -6.5mCD
Method:
1. Drive AZ46s ahead of Rock Quay
2. Excavate down to just above tie lvl of Rock Quay
3. Cut existing Rock Quay sheet piles to just above tie lvl
4. Install AZ18 anchor wall
5. Install M100 tie rods
6. Backfill anchor and gap between walls
7. Tension tie rods
8. Install cope, services, paving and furniture



Figure No.

Title:



SALDANHA GMQ Ext. FEL3 STUDY
Blockwall

4
Quarry Run
1.0m thick stone bed
+3.8m CD
Backfill SAND
Design dredge depth -11.5mCD
Interim dredge depth -6.5mCD
Filter layer
Existing material
Stone infill
Unreinforced precast concrete blocks
0.0m CD
1:3
Reinforced concrete capping beam
Figure No.

Title:



SALDANHA GMQ Ext. FEL3 STUDY
Counterfort

5
1.0m thick stone bed
+3.8m CD
Backfill SAND
Design dredge depth -11.5mCD
Interim dredge depth -6.5mCD
1:3
Reinforced concrete counterfort unit
(5m width)
0.0m CD
Reinforced concrete capping beam
Figure No.

Title:



SALDANHA GMQ Ext. FEL3 STUDY
Deck-on-Piles 6
Existing material
-24.0mCD
+3.8 mCD
Backfill Sand
Reinforced concrete abutment
Design dredge depth -11.5mCD
Quarry Run
+0.0 mCD
Interim dredge depth -6.5mCD
Insitu reinforced concrete deck
Precast panels
Precast beams
800mm steel tubular piles
1:3
1:1.5
Figure No.

Title:



SALDANHA GMQ Ext. FEL3 STUDY
MCA Results 7