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You are on page 1of 19

**Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
**

_________________________________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

Mechanical Energy

1.1 Understanding Physics

PHYSICS

Mechanical Energy

Study of the natural phenomena and the

properties of matter. Heat Energy

Light Energy

Solid Matter Energy

Wave Energy

Liquid states forms

Electrical Energy

Gas

Nuclear Energy

Chemical Energy

**Properties of Relationship Relationship Properties of
**

Matter with with Energy

energy matter

in the fields of

Mechanics Heat Wave Electronics

**Properties Light Electricity & Atomic Physics
**

of matter Electromagnetism & Nuclear

1

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

1.2 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES

Base quantity

any quantity that can be measured by a scientific instrument.

1 A physical quantity is ……………………………………………………………………..

Stopwatch, metre rule balance, thermometer, ammeter

2 Examples of scientific instruments:………………………………………………………

etc.

3 A base quantity is a physical quantity which cannot be defined in terms of other physical

quantities.

4 Study the following picture and list the physical quantities that can be measured.

**The list of physical quantities :
**

Height,

1. ……………………………………….

mass,

2. ……………………………………….

size,

3. ……………………………………….

age,

4. ……………………………………….

temperature,

5. ……………………………………….

current

6. ……………………………………….

Power,

7. ……………………………………….

Thermal energy

8. ……………………………………….

Pressure

9. ……………………………………….

battery

**5 List of 5 basic physical quantities and their units.
**

Base quantity Symbol S.I. Unit Symbol for S.I. Unit

Length l meter m

Mass m kilogram kg

Time

t second s

Current

I Ampere A

Temperature

T Kelvin K

**6. Two quantities that have also identified as basic quantity. There are:
**

i) …………………………..unit ………….. ii) ………………………. unit …………

Light intensity candela Amount of substance mol

…..

2

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Standard Form

**1 Standard form = A x 10nsimplify
**

, the

1 <expression

A < 10 andofnvery large and small numbers

= integer

2 Standard form is used to …………………………………………………………………...

3 Some physical quantities have extremely small magnitudes. Write the following

quantities in standard form : 6.37 x 106 m

-31

9.11 x 10 kg

a. Radius of the earth = 6 370 000 m =………………………………………………….

-5

b. Mass of an electron = 0.000 000 0003.0

000x 000

10 000

m 000 000 000 000 911 kg =………...

-8

7.2 x 10 m

c. Size of a particle = 0.000 03 m = ………………………………………………………

-7

5.5 x 10 m

b. Diameter of an atom = 0.000 000 072 m = …………………………………………...

c. Wavelength of light = 0.000 000 55 m = ……………………………………………..

Prefixes represent a large physical quantity or extremely small quantity in S.I

units.

before the unit

1. Prefixes are usually used to as a multiplying factor.

………………………………………………………………...

2. It will be written ……………………………………………………………………………

3. The list of prefixes : Eg :

10 12 Tera (T) 1 × 1012 m

1 Tm = …………………………………….

3.6 × 10-3A

109 Giga (G)

3.6 mA = …………………………………….

106 Mega (M) How to change the unit ;

Eg :

103 kilo (k)

102 1.33 MA = 1.33 × 106 A

Hekto (ha) 1. Mega to nano

101

Deka (da)

100

= 1.33 × 10 6-(-9) nA

10 -1 desi (d)

10-310

-2

mili (m) centi (c) = 1.33 × 10 -15 nA

10-6 micro (µ)

1.23 Tm to unit µm unit

2. Tera to micro

10-9 nano (n)

1.23 Tm = 1.23 x 10 12m

10-12 pico (p)

= 1.23 x 10 12 – (-6)m

= 1.23 x 10 18m

3. piko to Mega

5456 pA to MA unit

5456 pA = 5.456 x 10 3 + (-12) pA

= 5.456 x 10 -9pA

= 5.456 x 10 -9 –(6) MA

= 5.456 x 10 -15 MA

3

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Some physical quantities have extremely large magnitudes. These extremely large and

small values can be written in standard form or using standard prefixes. Write the

quantities in standard prefixes: 9.1 × 10 1MHz

a. Frequency of radio wave = 91 000 000 Hz = ………………………………………….

12.8 Mm = 1.28 × 10 1 Mm

b. Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m = ………………………………………………

383 Mm = 3.83 × 10 2 Mm

c. Distance between the moon and the earth = 383 000 000 m = ………………………

6.0 × 10 15 Tg

d. Mass of the earth = 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg = ………………………

Derived quantities

a physical quantity which combines several basic quantities through

1 A derived quantity is …….…………………………………………………………………

multiplication, division or both

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2 Determine the derived unit for the following derived quantities.

Derived Name of

Formula Derived unit

quantity derived unit

Area area = length x width m x m = m2 –

Volume volume = length x width x height m x m x m = m3 –

mass kg

Density density = = kg m −3 –

volume m3

displacement m

Velocity velocity = = m s −1 –

time s

m s −1

change in velocity = m s -1 s −1

Acceleration acceleration = s –

time

= m s −2

momentum momentum = mass x velocity kg m s-1 –

Force force = mass x acceleration kg m s-2 Newton (N)

force kgms −2 kg m-1 s-2

pressure pressure =

area m2 (Nm-2) @ Pa

Weight weight = mass x gravitational acceleration kg ms -2 Newton (N)

Joule (J)

Work work = force x displacement Nm

work

Power power = J s -1 Watt (W)

time

4

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Derived Name of

Formula Derived unit

quantity derived unit

1

kinetic energy K.E = × mass × velocity 2 kg m2s-2 Joule (J)

2

potential

P.E = mass x gravitational acceleration x height kg m2s-2 Joule (J)

energy

**charge charge = current x time Ampere second Coulomb (C)
**

(As)

work

voltage voltage = J C-1 Volt (V)

charge

voltage

resistance resistance = VA-1 Ohm (Ω)

current

Quantity which has only magnitude or size

Note that the physical quantities such as width, thickness, height, distance, displacement,

perimeter, radiusMass, Length, are

and diameter Speed, volumeto length.

equivalent

Quantity which has magnitude or size and direction.

1.3 SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES

Velocity, Force, Displacement, Acceleration

1 Scalar quantities are ………………………………………………………………………

Examples : …………………………………………………………………………………

2 Vector quantities are………………………………………………………………………...

Examples : …………………………………………………………………………………

3 Study the following description of events carefully and then decide which events require

√

magnitude, direction or both to specify them.

√ √

Description of events Magnitude Direction

1. The temperature in the room is 25 0C

√

2. The location of Ayer Hitam is 60 km to the north-

west of Johor Bahru

3. The power of the electric bulb is 80 W √ √

4. A car is travelling at 80 km h-1 from Johor Bahru

to Kuala Lumpur

1.4 MEASUREMENTS

5

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Using Appropriate Instruments to Measure

measuring instrument with different measuring capabilities.

is used to determine the volume of liquid.

1 There are various types of………………………………………………………………….

measure a particular quantity.

2 We must know how to choose the appropriate instrument to ……………………………..

3 Examples of instrument and its measuring ability.

**Measuring instrument Range of measurement Smallest scale division
**

Measuring tape Up to a few meters 0.1 cm

Meter rule

1m 0.1 cm (0.01 m)

Vernier caliper is used to determine the length

Micrometer screw gauge 10 cm 0.01 cm

4 less than 2 cm (20 mm)

Sample of measuring instruments: 0.001 cm (0.01 mm)

4.1 Ammeter : ……………………………………………………………………………..

incorrect reading 1 2 3 correct

1 2 is3used to measure electric current

0 4 reading

0 4

**mirror pointer mirror
**

pointer

Pointer’s image can be seen Pointer’s image is behind the pointer

**4.2 Measuring cylinder : ……………………………………………………....................
**

wrong position of eye

Right position of eye (eye are in a line perpendicular to the plane of

the scale)

water wrong position of eye

4.3 Ruler : ………………………………………………………………………………………

wrong right wrong

10 11 12 13 14 15 Reading = ……………… cm

4.4 Vernier calliper

**A venier calliper is used to measure:
**

small object depth of a hole

a. ………………………………………………b. ………………………………………….

external diameter of a cylinder or pipe internal diameter of a pipe or tube

0.1 cm

6

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

c. ………………………………………………d. ………………………………………….

A vernier calliper gives readings to an accuracy of …………………………………...…. cm.

inside jaws

cmVernier

0 scale1 2 3 4 Main scale

SKALA

0

outside jaws

Main scale in cm

0.9

Length of vernier scale = ……… cm 0 1

**Vernier scale is divided into 10 divisions
**

0.09 0 5 10 Vernier scale

Length of the divisions = ………. cm The different between the main scale and vernier

0.01 cm

scale is = ……………………………. cm

0 1 cm

0.2 cm 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Main scale = ………………….

0.06 cm Find the division of

Vernier scale = ………………….. vernier scale which is

0.26 cm coincides with any part of

Final reading = ………………….. the main scale

Example:

The diagram below shows a vernier calliper with reading.

0 1

objects that are small in size

diameter of a wire

diameter of small spheres such as ball bearings 0.15

0 5 10 Vernier calliper reading = ……………. cm

0.5 ÷ 50

0.01 mm 4.50 mm

4.5 Micrometer screw

0.01 mmgauge. 0.12 mm

A micrometer screw gauge is used to measure :

4.62 mm

a. ………………………………………………

7

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

b. ………………………………………….

c. ………………………………………………

**One complete turn of the thimble
**

(50 division) moves the spindle by

0.50 mm.

Division of thimble

= …………………..

= ………………….. Sleeve scale : ……………

A accuracy of micrometer

screw gauge = …………….. Thimble scale : ………….

Total reading : …………..

Example :

2.00 mm

Sleeve scale : ……………

0.22 mm

Thimble scale : ………….

2.22 mm

Total reading : …………...

4.6 Some others measuring instruments :

**Analogue stopwatch digital stopwatch thermometer Ammeter
**

……………………… …………………… ……………………… ………..

Measuring tape

………………………. measuring cylinder

…………………….. beaker

………………

Hands-on activity 1.1 on page 1 of the practical book to learn more about choosing

appropriate instruments.

Exercise: Vernier Callipers

**1. Write down the readings shown by the following
**

(a) 7

8

8

0 5 10

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Answer: …7.89 cm…………..

4 5

(b) A B

Answer: …4.27 cm…………..

P Q

0 5 10

(c)

6 7

Answer: ……6.28 cm………..

0 5 1

(d) Answer: …0.02 cm…………..

0 1

0 5 10

2. (a) The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper when the jaws are closed.

0 1

0 5 10

**Zero error = …+ 0.02……… cm
**

(b). The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier calliper when there are

40 pieces of cardboard between the jaws.

5 6

**Reading shown =0 …5.64…….cm
**

5 10

Corrected reading = …5.64 - (+ 0.02)= 5.62……..cm

9

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Diagram 3 (a) shows the reading on a pair of vernier callipers when its jaws are closed

with nothing in between them. Diagram 3(b) shows the reading when it is used to

measure the thickness of a piece of wood.

0 cm 1 2 4 5 6

0 5 10 0 5 10

(a)

(b)

What is the actual thickness of the wood?

-0.05

Zero error = ………………….. cm

4.51

Reading shown = …………………..cm

4.51- (-0.05) =4.56

Actual thickness of the wood = ……………………………….cm

Exercise: Micrometer Screw Gauge

1. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

0 0 5

0

45

0

Zero error = …-0.02…….. mm Zero error = …+0.03…….. mm

(b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

5 0 20

0 5

0

15

Zero error = +0.03………mm Reading shown = 6.67………..mm

Corrected reading = 6.67-(+0.03)=6.64 mm

**2. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges.
**

(a) (b)

40 3

0 5 0 5 10 5

3

10 0

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

35

**Answer: …6.88 mm………… Answer: …..12.32 mm……
**

(c) (d)

0

25 0 5 20

20 15

Answer:………4.71 mm………… Answer: 9.17 mm…………

**Accuracy and consistency in measurements.
**

The ability of an instrument to measure nearest to the actual value

1. Accuracy : …………………………………………………………………………………

The ability of an instrument to measure consistently with little or no relative

2. Consistency :deviation

………………………………………………………………………………

among readings.

The ability of an instrument to detect a small change in the quantity measured.

3. Sensitivity : …………………………………………………………………………………

**inaccurate but consistent consistent and accurate
**

………………………… ……………………………..

of approximation only.

how close the measurement is to the actual value.

error exist in all measurements.

Systematic errors

Accurate but not consistent inaccurate and not consistent

…………………….. ………………………………

Hands-on activity 1.2 on page 2 of the practical book to determine the sensitivity of

a weakness of the instrument

some measuring instruments.

the difference between reaction time of the brain and the action.

Errors in measurements

zero error

1. All measurements is when………………………………………………………………

are values the pointer is not at zero when not in use.

2. In other word, it is a matter of ……………………………………………………………

**Range of the measuring instrument 11– absolute error .
**

Reaction time of the brain.

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

3. This is because ……………………………………………………………………………

4. Two main types of errors:

4.1 ……………………………………………

Occurs due to :

a) ………………………………………………………………………………………

b) ………………………………………………………………………………………

c) ………………………………………………………………………………………

Refer to the smallest reading that can be measured by an instrument.

Examples :

a) ………………………………………………………………………………………

b) ………………………………………………………………………………………

c) ………………………………………………………………………………………

If, the smallest reading = 0.1 cm

Absolute error : ………………………………………………………………………………

Then, Absolute error = 0.1 / 2 = 0.05 cm

……….…………………………………………………………………………………………

It occurs because the position of the eye is not perpendicular to the scale of the

………………….

instrument.

Parallax error : ………………………………………………………………………………

wrong

Example :

position of the eye (no error)

wrong

where the pointer is not at zero when not in use

Zero error : …………………………………………………………………………………...

Correct reading = observed reading – zero error

Zero error

Posit of Vernier calliper

**Positive zero error Negative zero error
**

0 1 cm 0 1 cm

+0.03 cm

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

- 0.04 cm

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Zero error = Zero error =

**Zero error of screw meter gauge
**

Positive zero error Negative zero error

12

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

**Horizontal reference Horizontal reference
**

2 divisions below 3 divisions above

horizontal reference horizontal reference

Zero error = + 0.02 mm Zero error = - 0.03 mm

Random error

4.2 ……………………………………………..

Occurs due to

carelessness in making the measurement.

a) ………………………………………………………………………………………

parallex error , incorrect positioning of the eye when taking the

b) ……………………………………………………………………………………… readings.

sudden change of ambient factors such as temperature or air circulation.

c) ………………………………………………………………………………………

Example :

Readings are close to the actual value but they are not consistent.

a) …………………………………………………………………………………..…

Can be minimized by consistently repeating the measurement at different places in

b) ……………………………………………………………………………………..

an identical manner.

.....................................................................................................................

1.5 SCIENCETIFIC INVESTIGATION

Steps Explanation

**Gather all available information about the object or phenomenon to
**

Making be studied.

1

observation Using the five senses, sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell.

**Drawing A conclusion from an observation or phenomena using information that
**

2

inferences already exist.

**Variables are factors or physical quantities which change in the course
**

of a scientific investigation.

There are three variables :

i. Manipulated variables – physical quantity which change according

to the aim of the experiment.

Identifying ii. Responding variables – physicals quantity which is the result of

3 and controlling the changed by manipulated variable.

variables iii. Fixed variables – physicals quantities which are kept constantduring

the experiment.

**Statement of relationship between the manipulated variable and the
**

responding variable those we would expect.

Hypothesis can either be true or false but in correct direction.

Formulating a

4

hypothesis i. Conduct an experiment includes the compilation and

interpretation of data.

ii. Making a conclusion regarding the validity of the hypothesis.

13

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Conducting

5

experiments

Plan and report an experiment

**Situation : A few children are playing on a different length of swing in a
**

playground. It is found that the time of oscillation for each swing is different.

Steps Example : refer to the situation above

1 Inference The period of the oscillation depends on the length of the

pendulum.

2 Hypothesis

When the length of the pendulum increases, the period of the

oscillation increases.

3 Aim

Investigate the relationship between length and period of a

simple pendulum.

4 Variables

Manipulated variable : the length of the pendulum.

Responding variable : Period

Fixed variable : the mass of the pendulum and the displacement.

5 List of

Retort stand with clamp, 100 cm of thread, bob,

apparatus and

materials

6 Arrangement of

the apparatus

Retort stand

protractor

ll

bob

14

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure above.

7 Procedures

2. Measure the length of the pendulum,l = 60.0 cm by using a meter

rule.

3. Give the pendulum bob a small displacement 300.Time of

10 oscillations is measured by using a stop watch.

4. Repeat the timing for another 10 oscillations. Calculate the average

time.

Period = t10 oscillations

10

5. Repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 using l = 50.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 30.0 cm and

20.0 cm

8 Tabulate the Length,l /

Length,l Time for 10 oscillations / s Period/ s

data cm 1 2 (T = t10/10)

Average

60.0 15.8 15.7 15.8 1.58

50.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 1.50

40.0 13.1 13.1 13.1 1.31

30.0 11.9 11.9 11.9 1.19

20.0 9.9 9.9 9.9 0.99

**9 Analyse the Graf of period, T vs
**

data T/s pendulum’s

length, l

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 l / cm

Discussion Precautions :

1

1. Oscillation time is measured when the pendulum attained a steady

0 state.

2. Time for 10 oscillations is repeated twice to increase accuracy.

3. Discussion (refer to given questions)

Conclusion

11 The period increases when the length of the pendulum increases.

Hypothesis accepted.

15

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Reinforcement Chapter 1

Part A :Objective Question

**1. Which of the following is a base SI 10. The diameter of a particle is 250 µm.
**

quantity? What is its diameter in cm?

A Weight B Energy A 2.5 x 10-2 B 2.5 x 10-4

C Velocity D Mass C 2.5 x 10-6 D 2.5 x 10-8

**2. Which of the following is a derived 11. Which of the following prefixes is
**

quantity? arranged in ascending order?

A Length B Mass A mili, senti, mikro, desi

C Temperature D Voltage B mikro, mili, senti, desi

C mili, mikro, desi, senti

3. Which of the following is not a basic D desi, mikro, mili, senti

unit?

A Newton B kilogram 12. Velocity, density, force and energy are

C ampere D second A basic quantities

B scalar quantities

4. Which of the following quantities C derived quantities

cannot be derived? D vector quantities

A Electric current B Power

C Momentum D Force 13. Which of the following shows the

correct conversion of units?

5. Which of the following quantities is A 24 mm3 =2.4 x 10-6 m3

not derived from the basic physical B 300 mm3=3.0 x 10-7 m3

quantity of length? C 800 mm3=8.0 x 10-2 m3

A Electric charge B Density D 1 000 mm3=1.0 x 10-4 m3

C Velocity D Volume

14. Which of the following measurements

6. Initial velocity u, final velocity v, is the shortest ?

time t and another physical quantity k A 3.45 x 103 m

is related by the equation v - u = kt. B 3.45 x 104 cm

The unit for k is C 3.45 x 107 mm

A m s-1 B m-1 s D 3.45 x 1012 µm

C m s-2 D m2 s-2

15. The Hitz FM channel broadcasts radio

7. Which of the following has the waves at a frequency of 92.8 MHz in

smallest magnitude? the north region. What is the frequency

A megametre B centimetre of the radio wave in Hz?

C kilometre D mikrometre A 9.28 x 104 B 9.28 x 105

C 9.28 x 107 D 9.28 x 1010

8. 4 328 000 000 mm in standard form is

A 4.328 x 10-9 m B 4.328 x 10-6 m 16. An object moves along a straight line

C 4.328 x 106 m D 4.328 x 109 m for time, t. The length of the line, s is

1 2

9. Which of the following measurements given by the equation s = gt . The

2

is the longest? SI unit of g is

A 1.2 x 10-5 cm B 120 x 10-4 dm A m2 s2 B m s-2

C 0.12 mm D 1.2 x 10-11 km C s -1

D s-2 m

16

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Part B : Structure Question

**1. A car moves with an average speed of 75 km h-1 from town P to town Q in 2 hours as
**

shown in Figure 1. By using this information, you may calculate the distance between the

two towns.

P Q

Figure 1

(a) (i) Based on the statements given, state two basic quantities and their respective

SI units.

Distance : m and time : s

………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii) State a derived quantity and its SI unit.

Speed – m s-1

………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) Convert the value 1 . m to standard form.

5 x 10-3

= 0.2 x 103 m

= 2.0 x 102 m

(c) Complete Table 1 by writing the value of each given prefix.

10-9

10-6

106

109

Table 1

(d) Power is defined as the rate of change of work done. Derive the unit for power in

terms of its basic units.

work Force × displacement kgms −2 × m

Power = = Unit = = kg m2 s-3

time time s

**(e) Calculate the volume of a wooden block with dimension of 7 cm, 5 cm breadth and 12
**

cm height in m3 and convert its value in standard form.

Volume = (7 x 10-2) (5 x 10-2) (12 x 10-2)

= 420 x 10-6

= 4.20 x 10-4 m3

17

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Figure 2 shows an ammeter of 0—3 A range.

Figure 2

Mirror

(a) (i) Name component X. ………………………………………………………………...

To avoid parallax error

(ii) What is the function of X? ………………………………………………………….

(b) Table 2 shows three current readings obtained by three students.

Table 2

No

(i) Did all the students use the ammeter in Figure2? ..………………………………….

(ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i).

3rd readings obtained by student 2 and 3 are out of the meter range.

………………………………………………………………………………………

**3. Figure 3 shows the meniscus of water in a measuring cylinder K, L, and M are three eye
**

positions while measuring the volume of the water.

**(a) (i) Which of the eye positions is
**

correct while

L taking the reading of the volume

of water?

…….……………………………

………

Figure 3

**(b) The water in the measuring cylinder is
**

replaced with 30 cm3 of mercury.

(i) In The cohesive force is

Figure

larger4,than

drawthe

theadhesive

meniscus of the

force

mercury in the measuring cylinder. Figure 4

(ii) Explain why the shape of the meniscus of mercury is as drawn in (b)(i).

18

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

………………………………………………………………………………………

19

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