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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS
Mechanical Energy
1.1 Understanding Physics

PHYSICS
Mechanical Energy
Study of the natural phenomena and the
properties of matter. Heat Energy

Light Energy
Solid Matter Energy

Wave Energy
Liquid states forms

Electrical Energy
Gas

Nuclear Energy

Chemical Energy

Properties of Relationship Relationship Properties of
Matter with with Energy
energy matter

in the fields of

Mechanics Heat Wave Electronics

Properties Light Electricity & Atomic Physics
of matter Electromagnetism & Nuclear

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
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1.2 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES
Base quantity
any quantity that can be measured by a scientific instrument.
1 A physical quantity is ……………………………………………………………………..
Stopwatch, metre rule balance, thermometer, ammeter
2 Examples of scientific instruments:………………………………………………………
etc.
3 A base quantity is a physical quantity which cannot be defined in terms of other physical
quantities.
4 Study the following picture and list the physical quantities that can be measured.

The list of physical quantities :
Height,
1. ……………………………………….
mass,
2. ……………………………………….
size,
3. ……………………………………….
age,
4. ……………………………………….
temperature,
5. ……………………………………….
current
6. ……………………………………….
Power,
7. ……………………………………….
Thermal energy
8. ……………………………………….
Pressure
9. ……………………………………….

battery

5 List of 5 basic physical quantities and their units.
Base quantity Symbol S.I. Unit Symbol for S.I. Unit
Length l meter m
Mass m kilogram kg
Time
t second s
Current
I Ampere A
Temperature
T Kelvin K

6. Two quantities that have also identified as basic quantity. There are:
i) …………………………..unit ………….. ii) ………………………. unit …………
Light intensity candela Amount of substance mol
…..

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Standard Form

1 Standard form = A x 10nsimplify
, the
1 <expression
A < 10 andofnvery large and small numbers
= integer
2 Standard form is used to …………………………………………………………………...
3 Some physical quantities have extremely small magnitudes. Write the following
quantities in standard form : 6.37 x 106 m
-31
9.11 x 10 kg
a. Radius of the earth = 6 370 000 m =………………………………………………….
-5
b. Mass of an electron = 0.000 000 0003.0
000x 000
10 000
m 000 000 000 000 911 kg =………...
-8
7.2 x 10 m
c. Size of a particle = 0.000 03 m = ………………………………………………………
-7
5.5 x 10 m
b. Diameter of an atom = 0.000 000 072 m = …………………………………………...
c. Wavelength of light = 0.000 000 55 m = ……………………………………………..
Prefixes represent a large physical quantity or extremely small quantity in S.I
units.
before the unit
1. Prefixes are usually used to as a multiplying factor.
………………………………………………………………...
2. It will be written ……………………………………………………………………………
3. The list of prefixes : Eg :
10 12 Tera (T) 1 × 1012 m
1 Tm = …………………………………….
3.6 × 10-3A
109 Giga (G)
3.6 mA = …………………………………….
106 Mega (M) How to change the unit ;
Eg :
103 kilo (k)
102 1.33 MA = 1.33 × 106 A
Hekto (ha) 1. Mega to nano
101
Deka (da)
100
= 1.33 × 10 6-(-9) nA
10 -1 desi (d)
10-310
-2
mili (m) centi (c) = 1.33 × 10 -15 nA

10-6 micro (µ)
1.23 Tm to unit µm unit
2. Tera to micro
10-9 nano (n)
1.23 Tm = 1.23 x 10 12m
10-12 pico (p)
= 1.23 x 10 12 – (-6)m
= 1.23 x 10 18m

3. piko to Mega
5456 pA to MA unit
5456 pA = 5.456 x 10 3 + (-12) pA
= 5.456 x 10 -9pA
= 5.456 x 10 -9 –(6) MA
= 5.456 x 10 -15 MA

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
_________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Some physical quantities have extremely large magnitudes. These extremely large and
small values can be written in standard form or using standard prefixes. Write the
quantities in standard prefixes: 9.1 × 10 1MHz
a. Frequency of radio wave = 91 000 000 Hz = ………………………………………….
12.8 Mm = 1.28 × 10 1 Mm
b. Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m = ………………………………………………
383 Mm = 3.83 × 10 2 Mm
c. Distance between the moon and the earth = 383 000 000 m = ………………………
6.0 × 10 15 Tg
d. Mass of the earth = 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg = ………………………

Derived quantities
a physical quantity which combines several basic quantities through
1 A derived quantity is …….…………………………………………………………………
multiplication, division or both
………………………………………………………………………………………………
2 Determine the derived unit for the following derived quantities.

Derived Name of
Formula Derived unit
quantity derived unit
Area area = length x width m x m = m2 –
Volume volume = length x width x height m x m x m = m3 –

mass kg
Density density = = kg m −3 –
volume m3
displacement m
Velocity velocity = = m s −1 –
time s

m s −1
change in velocity = m s -1 s −1
Acceleration acceleration = s –
time
= m s −2

momentum momentum = mass x velocity kg m s-1 –

Force force = mass x acceleration kg m s-2 Newton (N)

force kgms −2 kg m-1 s-2
pressure pressure =
area m2 (Nm-2) @ Pa
Weight weight = mass x gravitational acceleration kg ms -2 Newton (N)
Joule (J)
Work work = force x displacement Nm

work
Power power = J s -1 Watt (W)
time

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Derived Name of
Formula Derived unit
quantity derived unit
1
kinetic energy K.E = × mass × velocity 2 kg m2s-2 Joule (J)
2

potential
P.E = mass x gravitational acceleration x height kg m2s-2 Joule (J)
energy

charge charge = current x time Ampere second Coulomb (C)
(As)
work
voltage voltage = J C-1 Volt (V)
charge

voltage
resistance resistance = VA-1 Ohm (Ω)
current
Quantity which has only magnitude or size
Note that the physical quantities such as width, thickness, height, distance, displacement,
perimeter, radiusMass, Length, are
and diameter Speed, volumeto length.
equivalent
Quantity which has magnitude or size and direction.
1.3 SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES
Velocity, Force, Displacement, Acceleration
1 Scalar quantities are ………………………………………………………………………
Examples : …………………………………………………………………………………
2 Vector quantities are………………………………………………………………………...
Examples : …………………………………………………………………………………
3 Study the following description of events carefully and then decide which events require

magnitude, direction or both to specify them.

√ √
Description of events Magnitude Direction
1. The temperature in the room is 25 0C

2. The location of Ayer Hitam is 60 km to the north-
west of Johor Bahru
3. The power of the electric bulb is 80 W √ √
4. A car is travelling at 80 km h-1 from Johor Bahru
to Kuala Lumpur

1.4 MEASUREMENTS

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Using Appropriate Instruments to Measure
measuring instrument with different measuring capabilities.
is used to determine the volume of liquid.
1 There are various types of………………………………………………………………….
measure a particular quantity.
2 We must know how to choose the appropriate instrument to ……………………………..

3 Examples of instrument and its measuring ability.

Measuring instrument Range of measurement Smallest scale division
Measuring tape Up to a few meters 0.1 cm
Meter rule
1m 0.1 cm (0.01 m)
Vernier caliper is used to determine the length
Micrometer screw gauge 10 cm 0.01 cm

4 less than 2 cm (20 mm)
Sample of measuring instruments: 0.001 cm (0.01 mm)
4.1 Ammeter : ……………………………………………………………………………..
incorrect reading 1 2 3 correct
1 2 is3used to measure electric current
0 4 reading
0 4

mirror pointer mirror
pointer
Pointer’s image can be seen Pointer’s image is behind the pointer

4.2 Measuring cylinder : ……………………………………………………....................
wrong position of eye
Right position of eye (eye are in a line perpendicular to the plane of
the scale)
water wrong position of eye

4.3 Ruler : ………………………………………………………………………………………

wrong right wrong

10 11 12 13 14 15 Reading = ……………… cm

4.4 Vernier calliper

A venier calliper is used to measure:
small object depth of a hole
a. ………………………………………………b. ………………………………………….
external diameter of a cylinder or pipe internal diameter of a pipe or tube
0.1 cm
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
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c. ………………………………………………d. ………………………………………….

A vernier calliper gives readings to an accuracy of …………………………………...…. cm.

inside jaws
cmVernier
0 scale1 2 3 4 Main scale
SKALA

0
outside jaws

Main scale in cm
0.9
Length of vernier scale = ……… cm 0 1

Vernier scale is divided into 10 divisions
0.09 0 5 10 Vernier scale
Length of the divisions = ………. cm The different between the main scale and vernier
0.01 cm
scale is = ……………………………. cm

0 1 cm

0.2 cm 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Main scale = ………………….
0.06 cm Find the division of
Vernier scale = ………………….. vernier scale which is
0.26 cm coincides with any part of
Final reading = ………………….. the main scale

Example:
The diagram below shows a vernier calliper with reading.

0 1
objects that are small in size
diameter of a wire
diameter of small spheres such as ball bearings 0.15
0 5 10 Vernier calliper reading = ……………. cm

0.5 ÷ 50
0.01 mm 4.50 mm

4.5 Micrometer screw
0.01 mmgauge. 0.12 mm
A micrometer screw gauge is used to measure :
4.62 mm
a. ………………………………………………

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
_________________________________________________________________________________________
b. ………………………………………….
c. ………………………………………………

One complete turn of the thimble
(50 division) moves the spindle by
0.50 mm.
Division of thimble
= …………………..
= ………………….. Sleeve scale : ……………
A accuracy of micrometer
screw gauge = …………….. Thimble scale : ………….

Total reading : …………..

Example :
2.00 mm
Sleeve scale : ……………
0.22 mm
Thimble scale : ………….
2.22 mm
Total reading : …………...

4.6 Some others measuring instruments :

Analogue stopwatch digital stopwatch thermometer Ammeter
……………………… …………………… ……………………… ………..

Measuring tape
………………………. measuring cylinder
…………………….. beaker
………………
Hands-on activity 1.1 on page 1 of the practical book to learn more about choosing
appropriate instruments.
Exercise: Vernier Callipers

1. Write down the readings shown by the following
(a) 7
8

8
0 5 10
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
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Answer: …7.89 cm…………..

4 5
(b) A B

Answer: …4.27 cm…………..
P Q
0 5 10

(c)
6 7
Answer: ……6.28 cm………..

0 5 1

(d) Answer: …0.02 cm…………..
0 1

0 5 10

2. (a) The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper when the jaws are closed.

0 1

0 5 10

Zero error = …+ 0.02……… cm
(b). The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier calliper when there are
40 pieces of cardboard between the jaws.

5 6

Reading shown =0 …5.64…….cm
5 10

Corrected reading = …5.64 - (+ 0.02)= 5.62……..cm

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
_________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Diagram 3 (a) shows the reading on a pair of vernier callipers when its jaws are closed
with nothing in between them. Diagram 3(b) shows the reading when it is used to
measure the thickness of a piece of wood.

0 cm 1 2 4 5 6

0 5 10 0 5 10
(a)
(b)
What is the actual thickness of the wood?
-0.05
Zero error = ………………….. cm
4.51
Reading shown = …………………..cm
4.51- (-0.05) =4.56
Actual thickness of the wood = ……………………………….cm

Exercise: Micrometer Screw Gauge

1. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

0 0 5
0

45
0

Zero error = …-0.02…….. mm Zero error = …+0.03…….. mm

(b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

5 0 20
0 5

0
15

Zero error = +0.03………mm Reading shown = 6.67………..mm

Corrected reading = 6.67-(+0.03)=6.64 mm

2. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges.
(a) (b)

40 3
0 5 0 5 10 5

3
10 0
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
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Answer: …6.88 mm………… Answer: …..12.32 mm……
(c) (d)
0
25 0 5 20

20 15

Answer:………4.71 mm………… Answer: 9.17 mm…………

Accuracy and consistency in measurements.
The ability of an instrument to measure nearest to the actual value
1. Accuracy : …………………………………………………………………………………
The ability of an instrument to measure consistently with little or no relative
2. Consistency :deviation
………………………………………………………………………………
among readings.
The ability of an instrument to detect a small change in the quantity measured.
3. Sensitivity : …………………………………………………………………………………

inaccurate but consistent consistent and accurate
………………………… ……………………………..

of approximation only.
how close the measurement is to the actual value.
error exist in all measurements.

Systematic errors
Accurate but not consistent inaccurate and not consistent
…………………….. ………………………………
Hands-on activity 1.2 on page 2 of the practical book to determine the sensitivity of
a weakness of the instrument
some measuring instruments.
the difference between reaction time of the brain and the action.
Errors in measurements
zero error
1. All measurements is when………………………………………………………………
are values the pointer is not at zero when not in use.
2. In other word, it is a matter of ……………………………………………………………

Range of the measuring instrument 11– absolute error .
Reaction time of the brain.
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
_________________________________________________________________________________________
3. This is because ……………………………………………………………………………
4. Two main types of errors:
4.1 ……………………………………………
Occurs due to :
a) ………………………………………………………………………………………
b) ………………………………………………………………………………………
c) ………………………………………………………………………………………
Refer to the smallest reading that can be measured by an instrument.
Examples :
a) ………………………………………………………………………………………
b) ………………………………………………………………………………………
c) ………………………………………………………………………………………
If, the smallest reading = 0.1 cm
Absolute error : ………………………………………………………………………………
Then, Absolute error = 0.1 / 2 = 0.05 cm
……….…………………………………………………………………………………………
It occurs because the position of the eye is not perpendicular to the scale of the
………………….
instrument.
Parallax error : ………………………………………………………………………………
wrong
Example :
position of the eye (no error)

wrong

where the pointer is not at zero when not in use

Zero error : …………………………………………………………………………………...

Correct reading = observed reading – zero error

Zero error
Posit of Vernier calliper

Positive zero error Negative zero error
0 1 cm 0 1 cm

+0.03 cm
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
- 0.04 cm
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Zero error = Zero error =

Zero error of screw meter gauge
Positive zero error Negative zero error

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
_________________________________________________________________________________________

Horizontal reference Horizontal reference
2 divisions below 3 divisions above
horizontal reference horizontal reference

Zero error = + 0.02 mm Zero error = - 0.03 mm

Random error
4.2 ……………………………………………..
Occurs due to
carelessness in making the measurement.
a) ………………………………………………………………………………………
parallex error , incorrect positioning of the eye when taking the
b) ……………………………………………………………………………………… readings.
sudden change of ambient factors such as temperature or air circulation.
c) ………………………………………………………………………………………
Example :
Readings are close to the actual value but they are not consistent.
a) …………………………………………………………………………………..…
Can be minimized by consistently repeating the measurement at different places in
b) ……………………………………………………………………………………..
an identical manner.
.....................................................................................................................

1.5 SCIENCETIFIC INVESTIGATION

Steps Explanation

Gather all available information about the object or phenomenon to
Making be studied.
1
observation Using the five senses, sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell.

Drawing A conclusion from an observation or phenomena using information that
2
inferences already exist.

Variables are factors or physical quantities which change in the course
of a scientific investigation.
There are three variables :
i. Manipulated variables – physical quantity which change according
to the aim of the experiment.
Identifying ii. Responding variables – physicals quantity which is the result of
3 and controlling the changed by manipulated variable.
variables iii. Fixed variables – physicals quantities which are kept constantduring
the experiment.

Statement of relationship between the manipulated variable and the
responding variable those we would expect.
Hypothesis can either be true or false but in correct direction.
Formulating a
4
hypothesis i. Conduct an experiment includes the compilation and
interpretation of data.
ii. Making a conclusion regarding the validity of the hypothesis.
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
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Conducting
5
experiments

Plan and report an experiment

Situation : A few children are playing on a different length of swing in a
playground. It is found that the time of oscillation for each swing is different.
Steps Example : refer to the situation above
1 Inference The period of the oscillation depends on the length of the
pendulum.
2 Hypothesis
When the length of the pendulum increases, the period of the
oscillation increases.
3 Aim
Investigate the relationship between length and period of a
simple pendulum.
4 Variables
Manipulated variable : the length of the pendulum.
Responding variable : Period
Fixed variable : the mass of the pendulum and the displacement.
5 List of
Retort stand with clamp, 100 cm of thread, bob,
apparatus and
materials
6 Arrangement of
the apparatus

Retort stand
protractor

ll

bob

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
_________________________________________________________________________________________
1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure above.
7 Procedures
2. Measure the length of the pendulum,l = 60.0 cm by using a meter
rule.
3. Give the pendulum bob a small displacement 300.Time of
10 oscillations is measured by using a stop watch.
4. Repeat the timing for another 10 oscillations. Calculate the average
time.
Period = t10 oscillations
10
5. Repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 using l = 50.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 30.0 cm and
20.0 cm
8 Tabulate the Length,l /
Length,l Time for 10 oscillations / s Period/ s
data cm 1 2 (T = t10/10)
Average
60.0 15.8 15.7 15.8 1.58
50.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 1.50
40.0 13.1 13.1 13.1 1.31
30.0 11.9 11.9 11.9 1.19
20.0 9.9 9.9 9.9 0.99

9 Analyse the Graf of period, T vs
data T/s pendulum’s
length, l
1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 l / cm

Discussion Precautions :
1
1. Oscillation time is measured when the pendulum attained a steady
0 state.
2. Time for 10 oscillations is repeated twice to increase accuracy.
3. Discussion (refer to given questions)
Conclusion
11 The period increases when the length of the pendulum increases.
Hypothesis accepted.

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Reinforcement Chapter 1

Part A :Objective Question

1. Which of the following is a base SI 10. The diameter of a particle is 250 µm.
quantity? What is its diameter in cm?
A Weight B Energy A 2.5 x 10-2 B 2.5 x 10-4
C Velocity D Mass C 2.5 x 10-6 D 2.5 x 10-8

2. Which of the following is a derived 11. Which of the following prefixes is
quantity? arranged in ascending order?
A Length B Mass A mili, senti, mikro, desi
C Temperature D Voltage B mikro, mili, senti, desi
C mili, mikro, desi, senti
3. Which of the following is not a basic D desi, mikro, mili, senti
unit?
A Newton B kilogram 12. Velocity, density, force and energy are
C ampere D second A basic quantities
B scalar quantities
4. Which of the following quantities C derived quantities
cannot be derived? D vector quantities
A Electric current B Power
C Momentum D Force 13. Which of the following shows the
correct conversion of units?
5. Which of the following quantities is A 24 mm3 =2.4 x 10-6 m3
not derived from the basic physical B 300 mm3=3.0 x 10-7 m3
quantity of length? C 800 mm3=8.0 x 10-2 m3
A Electric charge B Density D 1 000 mm3=1.0 x 10-4 m3
C Velocity D Volume
14. Which of the following measurements
6. Initial velocity u, final velocity v, is the shortest ?
time t and another physical quantity k A 3.45 x 103 m
is related by the equation v - u = kt. B 3.45 x 104 cm
The unit for k is C 3.45 x 107 mm
A m s-1 B m-1 s D 3.45 x 1012 µm
C m s-2 D m2 s-2
15. The Hitz FM channel broadcasts radio
7. Which of the following has the waves at a frequency of 92.8 MHz in
smallest magnitude? the north region. What is the frequency
A megametre B centimetre of the radio wave in Hz?
C kilometre D mikrometre A 9.28 x 104 B 9.28 x 105
C 9.28 x 107 D 9.28 x 1010
8. 4 328 000 000 mm in standard form is
A 4.328 x 10-9 m B 4.328 x 10-6 m 16. An object moves along a straight line
C 4.328 x 106 m D 4.328 x 109 m for time, t. The length of the line, s is
1 2
9. Which of the following measurements given by the equation s = gt . The
2
is the longest? SI unit of g is
A 1.2 x 10-5 cm B 120 x 10-4 dm A m2 s2 B m s-2
C 0.12 mm D 1.2 x 10-11 km C s -1
D s-2 m

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Part B : Structure Question

1. A car moves with an average speed of 75 km h-1 from town P to town Q in 2 hours as
shown in Figure 1. By using this information, you may calculate the distance between the
two towns.
P Q

Figure 1
(a) (i) Based on the statements given, state two basic quantities and their respective
SI units.
Distance : m and time : s
………………………………………………………………………………………
(ii) State a derived quantity and its SI unit.
Speed – m s-1
………………………………………………………………………………………
(b) Convert the value 1 . m to standard form.
5 x 10-3
= 0.2 x 103 m
= 2.0 x 102 m

(c) Complete Table 1 by writing the value of each given prefix.

10-9

10-6
106
109

Table 1
(d) Power is defined as the rate of change of work done. Derive the unit for power in
terms of its basic units.
work Force × displacement kgms −2 × m
Power = = Unit = = kg m2 s-3
time time s

(e) Calculate the volume of a wooden block with dimension of 7 cm, 5 cm breadth and 12
cm height in m3 and convert its value in standard form.
Volume = (7 x 10-2) (5 x 10-2) (12 x 10-2)
= 420 x 10-6
= 4.20 x 10-4 m3

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
_________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Figure 2 shows an ammeter of 0—3 A range.

Figure 2
Mirror
(a) (i) Name component X. ………………………………………………………………...
To avoid parallax error
(ii) What is the function of X? ………………………………………………………….
(b) Table 2 shows three current readings obtained by three students.

Table 2
No
(i) Did all the students use the ammeter in Figure2? ..………………………………….
(ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i).
3rd readings obtained by student 2 and 3 are out of the meter range.
………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Figure 3 shows the meniscus of water in a measuring cylinder K, L, and M are three eye
positions while measuring the volume of the water.

(a) (i) Which of the eye positions is
correct while
L taking the reading of the volume
of water?

…….……………………………
………

Figure 3

(b) The water in the measuring cylinder is
replaced with 30 cm3 of mercury.
(i) In The cohesive force is
Figure
larger4,than
drawthe
theadhesive
meniscus of the
force
mercury in the measuring cylinder. Figure 4
(ii) Explain why the shape of the meniscus of mercury is as drawn in (b)(i).

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics
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………………………………………………………………………………………

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