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75

PROPERTY DIAGRAMS INVOLVING ENTROPY


Property diagrams serve as great visual aids in the thermodynamic analysis
of processes. We have used P-v and T-v diagrams extensively in previous
chapters in conjunction with the first law of thermodynamics. In the second-
law analysis, it is very helpful to plot the processes on diagrams for which
one of the coordinates is entropy. The two diagrams commonly used in the
second-law analysis are the temperature-entropy and the enthalpy-entropy
diagrams.
Consider the defining equation of entropy (Eq. 74). It can be
rearranged as
(714)
As shown in Fig. 716, dQ
rev int
corresponds to a differential area on a T-S
diagram. The total heat transfer during an internally reversible process is
determined by integration to be
(715)
which corresponds to the area under the process curve on a T-S diagram.
Therefore, we conclude that the area under the process curve on a T-S dia-
gram represents heat transfer during an internally reversible process. This
is somewhat analogous to reversible boundary work being represented by
Q
int rev

2
1
T dS 1kJ2
dQ
int rev
T dS 1kJ2
344 | Thermodynamics
The power output of the turbine is determined from the rate form of the
energy balance,
Rate of net energy transfer Rate of change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc., energies
The inlet state is completely specified since two properties are given. But
only one property (pressure) is given at the final state, and we need one
more property to fix it. The second property comes from the observation that
the process is reversible and adiabatic, and thus isentropic. Therefore, s
2

s
1
, and
State 1:
State 2:
Then the work output of the turbine per unit mass of the steam becomes
w
out
h
1
h
2
3317.2 2967.4 349.8 kJ
/
kg
P
2
1.4 MPa
s
2
s
1
f h
2
2967.4 kJ>kg
P
1
5 MPa
T
1
450C
f
h
1
3317.2 kJ>kg
s
1
6.8210 kJ>kg
#
K
W
#
out
m
#
1h
1
h
2
2
m
#
h
1
W
#
out
m
#
h
2
1since Q
#
0, ke pe 02
E
#
in
E
#
out
E
#
in
E
#
out
dE
system
/dt 0

Internally
reversible
process
T
S
dA = T dS
= Q
Area = T dS = Q
1
2
FIGURE 716
On a T-S diagram, the area under the
process curve represents the heat
transfer for internally reversible
processes.
0 (steady)


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SEE TUTORIAL CH. 7, SEC. 5 ON THE DVD.
INTERACTIVE
TUTORIAL
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