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I n t r o d u c t i o n
1.1 Propulsion
The Random House College Dictionary defines propulsion as "the act of
propelling, the state of being propelled, a propelling force or impulse" and defines
the verb propel as "to drive, or cause to move, forward or onward. ''1 From these
definitions, we can conclude that the study of propulsion includes the study of the
propelling force, the motion caused, and the bodies involved. Propulsion involves
an object to be propelled plus one or more additional bodies, called propellant.
The study of propulsion is concerned with vehicles such as automobiles,
trains, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft. The focus of this textbook is on the propul-
sion of aircraft and spacecraft. Methods devised to produce a thrust force for the
propulsion of a vehicle in flight are based on the principle of j et propulsion (the
momentum change of a fluid by the propulsion system). The fluid may be the gas
used by the engine itself (e.g., turbojet), it may be a fluid available in the sur-
rounding environment (e.g., air used by a propeller), or it may be stored in the
vehicle and carried by it during the flight (e.g., rocket).
Jet propulsion systems can be subdivided into two broad categories:
airbreathing and non-airbreathing. Airbreathing propulsion systems include the
reciprocating, turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, turboprop, and turboshaft engines.
Non-airbreathing engines include rocket motors, nuclear propulsion systems,
and electric propulsion systems. We focus on gas turbine propulsion systems
(turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft engines) in this textbook.
The material in this textbook is divided into three parts:
1) Basic concepts and one-dimensional gas dynamics,
2) Analysis and performance of airbreathing propulsion systems, and
3) Analysis of gas turbine engine components.
This chapter introduces the types of airbreathing and rocket propulsion
systems and the basic propulsion performance parameters. Also included is an
introduction to aircraft and rocket performance. The material on aircraft perform-
ance shows the influence of the gas turbine engine on the performance of the air-
craft system. This material also permits incorporation of a gas turbine engine
design problem such as new engines for an existing aircraft.
Numerous examples are included throughout this book to help students see the
application of a concept after it is introduced. For some students, the material on
basic concepts and gas dynamics will be a review of material covered in other
2 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
courses t hey have al ready taken. For ot her students, this may be their first
exposur e t o this mat eri al , and it ma y requi re mor e effort t o underst and.
1. 2 Uni t s and Di mensi ons
Si nce the engi neeri ng wor l d uses bot h the met ri c SI and Engl i sh unit system,
bot h will be used in this t ext book. One si ngul ar di st i nct i on exists bet ween the
Engl i sh syst em and SI - - t h e uni t o f f or ce is defined in the f or mer but deri ved
in t he latter. Ne wt on' s second l aw of mot i on relates f or ce to mass, length, and
time. It states t hat t he sum of the f or ces is proport i onal t o the rate of change of
t he mome nt um ( M = mV). The const ant of proport i onal i t y is 1/gc:
~ - ~ F - - 1 d ( mV ) _ 1 dM
(1.1)
gc dt gc dt
The units f or each t er m in the pr ecedi ng equat i on are listed in Tabl e 1.1 for bot h
SI and Engl i sh units. I n any uni t syst em, onl y four of t he five i t ems in the table
can be specified, and the latter is deri ved f r om Eq. (1.1).
As a result of sel ect i ng gc = 1 and defi ni ng the units of mass, length, and t i me
in SI units, the uni t of force is deri ved f r om Eq. (1.1) as ki l ogr am- met er s per
square second ( kg. m/ s2) , whi ch is cal l ed the newton (N). In Engl i sh units, the
val ue of g~ is deri ved f r om Eq. (1.1) as
gc = 32. 174 f t . l bm/ ( l bf - s 2)
Rat her t han adopt t he convent i on used in many recent t ext books of devel opi ng
mat eri al or use wi t h only SI met ri c units (gc = 1), we will mai nt ai n g~ in all
our equations. Thus g¢ will also show up in the equat i ons for potential energy
(PE) and kinetic energy (KE):
PE - - mgz
gc
mV 2
KE =
2go
The total ener gy per unit mass e is t he sum of the specific internal ener gy u,
specific ki net i c ener gy ke, and speci fi c pot ent i al ener gy pe:
V 2 gz
e =-- u + k e + pe = u + x - - - + - -
zgc gc
Ther e are a mul t i t ude of engi neer i ng units f or the quantities of interest in
propul si on. For exampl e, ener gy can be expressed in the SI uni t of j oul e
Table 1.1 Uni ts and di mensi ons
Unit system Force gc Mass Length Time
SI Derived 1 Kilogram, kg Meter, m Second, s
English Pound-force, lbf Derived Pound-mass, Ibm Foot, ft Second, s
INTRODUCTION 3
(1 J = 1 N. m) , i n B r i t i s h t h e r ma l u n i t s ( Bt u ) , o r i n f o o t - p o u n d f o r c e ( f t - l b f ) .
On e mu s t b e a b l e t o u s e t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a i n t h e u n i t s p r o v i d e d a n d c o n v e r t
t h e u n i t s wh e n r e q u i r e d . T a b l e 1. 2 i s a u n i t c o n v e r s i o n t a b l e p r o v i d e d t o h e l p
y o u i n y o u r e n d e a v o r s .
Tabl e 1. 2 Uni t convers i on t abl e
Un i t Co n v e r s i o n
L e n g t h 1 m = 3. 2808 f t = 39. 37 i n.
1 k m = 0. 621 mi l e
1 mi l e = 5 2 8 0 f t = 1. 609 kr n
1 nm -= 6 0 8 0 f t ----- 1. 853 k m
Ar e a 1 m 2 = 10. 764 f t 2
1 c m 2 = 0. 155 i n. 2
Vo l u me 1 ga l = 0 . 1 3 3 6 8 f t 3 = 3. 785 l i t er
1 l i t er = 10 - 3 m 3 = 61. 02 i n. 3
T i me 1 h = 3 6 0 0 s = 60 mi n
Ma s s 1 k g = 1000 g = 2 . 2 0 4 6 I b m = 6. 8521 x 10 - 2 s l u g
1 s l u g = 1 l b f . s 2 / f t = 32. 174 I b m
De n s i t y 1 s l u g / f t 3 = 5 1 2 . 3 8 k g / m 3
For c e 1 N = 1 k g . m/ s 2
1 l b f = 4 . 4 4 8 N
En e r g y 1 J = 1 N. m = l k g . m2 / s 2
1 Bt u = 7 7 8 . 1 6 f t . l b f = 2 5 2 cal = 1055 J
1 cal = 4 . 1 8 6 J
1 kJ = 0 . 9 4 7 8 1 3 Bt u = 0 . 2 3 8 8 4 kc a l
P o we r 1 W = 1 J / s - - I k g . | n 2 / S 3
1 h p = 5 5 0 f t - l b f / s = 2545 B t u / h = 7 4 5 . 7 W
1 k W = 3 4 1 2 B t u / h = 1. 341 h p
Pr e s s u r e ( s t r e s s ) 1 a t m = 14. 696 l b / i n . 2 or ps i = 760 t or r = 101, 325 Pa
1 a t m = 30. 0 i n Hg = 4 0 7 . 2 i n H2 0
1 ks i = 1000 ps i
1 mmHg = 0 . 0 1 9 3 4 ps i = 1 ton"
1 Pa = 1 N/ m 2
1 i n Hg ----- 3376. 8 Pa
En e r g y pe r u n i t ma s s 1 k J / k g = 0 . 4 2 9 9 B t u / l b m
Spe c i f i c h e a t 1 k J / ( k g . °C) = 0 . 2 3 8 8 4 B t u / ( l b m. °F)
Te mp e r a t u r e 1 K = 1. 8° R
K = 273. 15 + ° C
° R = 4 5 9 . 6 9 + ° F
Te mp e r a t u r e c h a n g e 1 ° C = 1. 8° F
Spe c i f i c t hr us t 1 l b f / ( l b m/ s ) = 9. 8067 N/ ( k g / s )
Speci f i c p o we r 1 h p / ( l b m/ s ) = 1. 644 k W/ ( k g / s )
Th r u s t s pe c i f i c f ue l 1 l b m/ ( l b f - h) = 28. 325 mg / ( N, s)
c o n s u mp t i o n ( TSFC)
P o we r s pe c i f i c f ue l 1 l b m/ ( h p - h ) ---- 168. 97 mg / ( k W, s)
c o n s u mp t i o n
S t r e n g t h / we i g h t r at i o (o/p) 1 k s i / ( s l u g / f t 3) = 144 f t 2 / s 2 = 13. 38 m2 / s 2
4 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
1.3 Operational Envel opes and Standard At mosphere
Each engine type will operate only within a certain range of altitudes and
Mach numbers (velocities). Similar limitations in vel oci t y and altitude exist for
airframes. It is necessary, therefore, to mat ch airframe and propulsion syst em
capabilities. Figure 1.1 shows the approxi mat e vel oci t y and altitude limits, or
corridor o f flight, within which airlift vehicles can operate. The corridor is
bounded by a lift limit, a temperature limit, and an aerodynamic f orce limit.
The lift limit is determined by the maxi mum level-flight altitude at a given
velocity. The t emperat ure limit is set by the structural thermal limits of the
material used in construction of the aircraft. At any gi ven altitude, the maxi mum
velocity attained is t emperat ure-l i mi t ed by aerodynami c heating effects. At lower
altitudes, velocity is limited by aerodynami c force loads rather than by
temperature.
The operating regions of all aircraft lie within the flight corridor. The operat-
ing region of a particular aircraft within the corridor is determined by aircraft
design, but it is a very small portion of the overall corridor. Superimposed on
the flight corridor in Fig. 1.1 are the operational envel opes of various powered
aircraft. The operational limits of each propulsion syst em are determined by
limitations of the component s of the propulsion syst em and are shown in Fig. 1.2.
The analyses presented in this text use the properties of the atmosphere to deter-
mi ne bot h engine and airframe performance. Since these properties vary with
location, season, t i me of day, etc., we will use the U.S. standard atmosphere 2 to
give a known foundation for our analyses. Appendi x A gives the properties of
the U.S. standard atmosphere, 1976, in both English and SI units. Values of the
pressure P, t emperat ure T, density p, and speed of sound a are given in dimen-
sionless ratios of the property at altitude to its value at sea level (SL), the
reference value. The dimensionless ratios of pressure, temperature, and density
f
Helicopter
Lift (stall) limit / " \ ~a~,m~L / ~5
\ ' r°c e 7
"~Upperlimit ~1 / .~
/ < , t u r b o f a n / /
/ \~ \, / Temperature
I
Uppe r - l i mi ~ # limit
turboprop I I
• . I I J Limited by
Upper-llml.t "~"1 I . , , ~ aerodynamic
piston engine I [ / force loads •
Mach number
Fi g. 1.1 Fl i ght limits.
INTRODUCTION 5
- • Piston engine and propeller
Turboprop
Turbofan t
Turbojet t
Ramjet
I I I I I
1 2 3 4 0
Flight Mach number
F i g . 1.2
I Piston engine and propeller
f Turboprop
Turbofan t
Turbojet /
Ramjet
I I I I I
20 40 60 80 100
Altitude (1000 ft)
E n g i n e o p e r a t i o n a l l i m i t s .
are gi ven t he symbol s 8, 0, and ~r, respect i vel y. These ratios are defined as
fol l ows:
P
a -~ (1. 2)
Pt~f
T
0 = (1.3)
Tref
P
~r =-- - - (1. 4)
Pref
The reference val ues of pressure, t emperat ure, and densi t y are gi ven f or each uni t
syst em at t he end o f its pr oper t y table.
For nonst andar d condi t i ons such as a hot day, the nor mal pr ocedur e is t o use
t he st andard pressure and cor r ect t he densi t y, usi ng the perfect gas rel at i onshi p
~r = 8/0. As an exampl e, we consi der a 100°F day at 4- kf t altitude. Fr om Appen-
di x A, we have 8 = 0. 8637 f or the 4- kf t altitude. We cal cul at e 0, usi ng t he 100°F
t emperat ure; 0 = T / T r e f = ( 1 0 0 + 4 5 9 . 7 ) / 5 1 8 . 7 = 1.079. Not e t hat absol ut e
t emperat ures must be used in cal cul at i ng 0. Then t he densi t y ratio is cal cul at ed
usi ng ~r-- 8/ 0 = 0. 8637/ 1. 079 = 0. 8005.
1.4 Airbreathing Engines
The t urboj et , t urbofan, t urboprop, t urboshaft , and r amj et engi ne syst ems
are di scussed in this part o f Chapt er 1. The di scussi on of t hese engi nes is in
t he cont ext o f pr ovi di ng thrust f or aircraft. The listed engi nes are not all t he
engi ne t ypes (reci procat i ng, rocket s, combi nat i on t ypes, etc.) t hat are used i n
pr ovi di ng pr opul si ve thrust t o aircraft, nor are t hey used excl usi vel y on aircraft.
The thrust o f t he t urboj et and ramj et results f r om the act i on of a fluid j et l eavi ng
t he engi ne; hence, the name j et engine is of t en appl i ed t o t hese engi nes. The
6 E L E M E N T S OF P R O P U L S I O N
turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft engines are adaptations of the turbojet to
supply thrust or power through the use of fans, propellers, and shafts.
1.4.1 Gas Generator
The "heart" of a gas turbine type of engine is the gas generator. A schematic
diagram of a gas generator is shown in Fig. 1.3. The compressor, combustor, and
turbine are the maj or components of the gas generator which is common to the
turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft engines. The purpose of a gas gen-
erator is to supply high-temperature and high-pressure gas.
1.4.2 Turboj et
By addi ng an i nl et and a nozzl e t o the gas generator, a t ur boj et engi ne can be
constructed. A schematic diagram of a simple turbojet is shown in Fig. 1.4a, and a
turbojet with afterburner is shown in Fig. 1.4b. In the analysis of a turbojet
engine, the maj or component s are treated as sections. Also shown in Figs. 1.4a
and 1.4b are the station numbers for each section.
The turbojet was first used as a means of aircraft propulsion by von Ohain (first
flight August 27, 1939) and Whittle (first flight May 15, 1941). As devel opment
proceeded, the turbojet engine became more efficient and replaced some of the
piston engines. A phot ograph of the J79 turbojet with afterburner used in the
F-4 Phant om II and B-58 Hustler is shown in Fig. 1.5.
The adaptations of the turbojet in the form of turbofan, turboprop, and tur-
boshaft engines came with the need for more thrust at relatively low speeds.
Some characteristics of different turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft
engines are included in Appendix B.
I ~ Gas generator
I - r
)
U
r
b
Compressor Combustor i
n
e
2 4 5
Fig. 1.3 Schematic diagram of gas generator.
INTRODUCTION 7
q
Gas generator
Inlet
Fi g. 1.4a
Low-pressure Combustor H L Nozzle
compressor pressure P
compressor T
2 2.5 3 4 4.5 8
HPT = High-pressure turbine
LPT = Low-pressure turbine
Sc he ma t i c di agr am o f a t urboj et (dual axi al c o mpr e s s o r and t urbi ne) .
The thrust of a turbojet is developed by compressing air in the inlet and com-
pressor, mi xi ng the air with fuel and burni ng in the combustor, and expanding the
gas stream through the turbine and nozzle. The expansion of gas through the
turbine supplies the power to turn the compressor. The net thrust delivered by
the engine is the result of converting internal energy to kinetic energy.
The pressure, temperature, and velocity variations through a J79 engi ne are
shown in Fig. 1.6. In the compressor section, the pressure and temperature
increase as a result of work being done on the air. The temperature of the gas
9
Gas generator
Spray bar
4.5
P
HPT = High-pressure turbine
LPT = Low-pressure turbine
Fi g. 1. 4b Sc he mat i c di agr am o f a t urboj et wi t h af t erburner.
8 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
Fig. 1.5 General Electric J79 turbojet with afterburner. (Courtesy of General
Electric Aircraft Engines.)
is further increased by burning fuel in the combustor. In the turbine section, energy
is being removed from the gas stream and converted to shaft power to turn the
compressor. The energy is removed by an expansion process that results in a
decrease of temperature and pressure. In the nozzle, the gas stream is further
expanded to produce a high exit kinetic energy. All the sections of the engine
must operate in such a way as to efficiently produce the greatest amount of
thrust for a minimum of weight.
200 - 2400 r 2000
175 - 2100P 1600
150 - 18001,- 1200
125 - 1500[- 1000
100 - 12001- 800
75- 9001- 600
50- 6001- 400
25- 3001- 200
O- 0 L- 0
©
a. E
#
/
Vel oci t y z / •
x
k4-
/I ~ "
\
/
__ Afterbuming f
operat i on ~/
, - - Military ~e~v/, ,
\ operat i on ~/ /,
(no AB) / / "
/:
I' Compressor , I 0 Combustor ] Turbine I~ Exhaust , ]
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ % ~ ~ ' Exhaus t gas es
i f
Fig. 1.6 Property variation through the General Electric J79 afterburning turbojet
engine. (Courtesy of General Electric Aircraft Engines.)
INTRODUCTION 9
1.4.3 Turbofan
The turbofan engi ne consists of an inlet, fan, gas generator, and nozzle.
A schematic diagram of a turbofan is shown in Fig. 1.7. In the turbofan, a
portion of the turbine work is used to supply power to the fan. Generally the
turbofan engi ne is more economical and efficient than the turbojet engi ne in
13 17
18
I
Nozzl e
Inlel
0 2
Fig. 1.7
2.5 3 4 4.5 5 7 8
HPT = High-pressure turbine
LPT = Low-pressure turbine
Schematic diagram of a high-bypass-ratio turbofan.
Fig. 1.8a Pratt & Whitney JT9D turbofan. (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney.)
10 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
LOW PRESSURE
Fig. 1.8b
iNLET
CASE
Pratt & Whitney PW4000 turbofan. (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney.)
\
Fig. 1.8c General Electric CF6 Turbofan. (Courtesy of General Electric Aircraft
Engines.)
Fig. 1.8d Rolls-Royce RB-211-524G/H turbofan. (Courtesy of Rolls-Royce.)
INTRODUCTION 11
subsonic flight. The thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC, or fuel mass flow
rate per unit thrust) is lower for turbofans and indicates a more economi cal oper-
ation. The turbofan also accelerates a larger mass of air to a lower velocity than a
turbojet for a higher propulsive efficiency. The frontal area of a turbofan is quite
large compared to that of a turbojet, and for this reason more drag and more
weight result. The fan diameter is also limited aerodynamically when compres-
sibility effects occur. Several of the current high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines
used in subsonic aircraft are shown in Figs. 1. 8a-1. 8f.
Fig. 1.8e General Electric GE90 turbofan. (Courtesy of General Electric Aircraft
Engines.)
Fig. 1.8f SNECMA CFM56 turbofan. (Courtesy of SNECMA.)
12 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
o
Fig. 1.9a Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 afterburning turbofan. (Courtesy of Pratt
& Whitney.)
Figures 1.9a and 1.9b show the Pratt & Whitney FIO0 turbofan and the
General Electric Fl l 0 turbofan, respectively. These afterburning turbofan
engines are used in the F15 Eagle and F16 Falcon supersonic fighter aircraft.
In this turbofan, the bypass stream is mixed with the core stream before
passing through a common afterburner and exhaust nozzle.
1.4.4 Turboprop and Turboshaft
A gas generator that drives a propeller is a turboprop engine. The expansion
of gas through the turbine supplies the energy required to turn the propeller.
A schematic diagram of the turboprop is shown in Fig. 1.10a. The turboshaft
engine is similar to the turboprop except that power is supplied to a shaft
rather than a propeller. The turboshaft engine is used quite extensively for sup-
plying power for helicopters. The turboprop engine may find application in ver-
tical takeoff and landing (VTOL) transporters. The limitations and advantages
of the turboprop are those of the propeller. For low-speed flight and short-field
takeoff, the propeller has a performance advantage. At speeds approaching the
speed of sound, compressibility effects set in and the propeller loses its aero-
dynamic efficiency. Because of the rotation of the propeller, the propeller tip
will approach the speed of sound before the vehicle approaches the speed of
sound. This compressibility effect when one approaches the speed of sound
limits the design of helicopter rotors and propellers. At high subsonic speeds,
Fig. 1.9b General Electric Fl10-GE-129 afterburning turbofan. (Courtesy of
General Electric Aircraft Engines.)
INTRODUCTION
Propeller - , Gas generator
>
Fig. 1.10a Schemat i c di agr am of a t ur bopr op.
13
A ~r ; nl ~f
Three-stage
axial flnw
Prop,
drive:
"~ - -" Combustion . . . . . v . . . . . . . . ~enuuugai
chamber turbine compressor
Fig. 1.10b Canadi an Pr at t & Whi t ney PT6 t urboshaft . (Court esy of Pr at t &
Whi t ney of Canada. )
Fig. 1.10c Allison T56 t urboshaft . (Court esy of Allison Gas Tur bi ne Division.)
14 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
the turbofan engine will have a bet t er aerodynami c performance than the turbo-
prop since the turbofan is essentially a ducted turboprop. Putting a duct or
shroud around a propeller increases its aerodynami c performance. Exampl es
of a turboshaft engine are the Canadian Pratt & Whi t ney PT6 (Fig. 1.10b),
used in many small commut er aircraft, and the Allison T56 (Fig. 1.10c), used
to power the C-130 Hercules and the P-3 Orion.
1.4.5 Ramjet
The ramj et engine consists of an inlet, a combust i on zone, and a nozzle.
A schematic di agram of a ramj et is shown in Fig. 1.11. The ramj et does not
have the compressor and turbine as the turbojet does. Air enters the inlet
where it is compressed and then enters the combust i on zone where it is
mi xed with the fuel and burned. The hot gases are then expelled through the
nozzle, devel opi ng thrust. The operation of the ramj et depends on the inlet to
decelerate the i ncomi ng air to raise the pressure in the combustion zone. The
pressure rise makes it possible for the ramj et to operate. The higher the velocity
of the incoming air, the greater the pressure rise. It is for this reason that the
ramj et operates best at high supersonic velocities. At subsonic velocities, the
ramj et is inefficient, and to start the ramjet, air at a relatively higher velocity
must enter the inlet.
The combustion process in an ordinary ramj et takes place at low subsonic vel-
ocities. At high supersonic flight velocities, a very large pressure rise is devel-
oped that is more than sufficient to support operation of the ramjet. Also, i f the
inlet has to decelerate a supersonic high-velocity airstream to a subsonic velocity,
large pressure losses can result. The deceleration process also produces a temp-
erature rise, and at some limiting flight speed, the temperature will approach the
limit set by the wall materials and cooling methods. Thus when the temperature
increase due to deceleration reaches the limit, it may not be possible to burn fuel
in the airstream.
In the past few years, research and devel opment have been done on a ramjet
that has the combust i on process taking place at supersonic velocities. By using a
supersonic combust i on process, the t emperat ure rise and pressure loss due to
deceleration in the inlet can be reduced. This ramjet with supersonic combustion
is known as the scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet). Figure 1.12a shows
the schematic of a scramjet engine similar to that proposed for the National
Fuel spray r i ng Flame holder
• ~nlet =[= Combustion zone =[-- Nozzle---~
Fig. 1.11 Schemat i c di agram of a ramjet.
INTRODUCTION 15
:,~ Fuselage torebody Inlet comp.ression Fuse)age
Fig. 1.12a Schematic diagram of a scramjet.
AeroSpace Plane (NASP) research vehicle, the X-30 shown in Fig. 1.12b. Further
development of the scramjet for other applications (e.g., the Orient Express) will
continue if research and development produces a scramjet engine with sufficient
performance gains. Remember that since it takes a relative velocity to start the
ramjet or scramjet, another engine system is required to accelerate aircraft like
the X-30 to ramjet velocities.
1.4.6 Turbojet/Ramjet Combined-Cycle Engine
Two of the Pratt & Whitney J58 turbojet engines (see Fig. 1.13a) are used to
power the Lockheed SR71 Blackbird (see Fig. 1.13b). This was the fastest aircraft
Fig. 1.12b Conceptual drawing of the X-30. (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney.)
16
ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
Fig. 1.13a
Pratt & Whitney J58 turbojet. (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney.)
(Mach 3+) when it was retired in 1989. The J58 operates as an afterburning
turbojet engine until it reaches high Mach level, at which point the six large
tubes (Fig. 1.13a) bypass flow to the afterburner. When these tubes are in use,
the compressor, burner, and turbine of the turbojet are essentially bypassed,
and the engine operates as a ramjet with the afterburner acting as the ramjet' s
burner.
1.4.7 Aircraft Engine Performance Parameters
This section presents several of the airbreathing engine performance par-
ameters that are useful in aircraft propulsion. The first performance parameter
is the thrust of the engine that is available for sustained flight (thrust = drag),
accelerated flight (thrust > drag), or deceleration (thrust < drag).
Fig. 1.13b Lockheed SR71 Blackbird. (Courtesy of Lockheed.)
INTRODUCTION 17
As derived in Chapter 4, the uninstalled thrust F of a j et engine (single inlet
and single exhaust) is given by
(,:no + ; nD Ve - - , hoVo
F = + ( P e - - P o ) A e ( 1 . 5 )
gc
where
rho, rhf = mass flow rates of air and fuel, respectively
Vo, V~ = velocities at inlet and exit, respectively
Po, Pe = pressures at inlet and exit, respect i vel y
It is most desirable to expand the exhaust gas to the ambi ent pressure, which
gives Pe = Po. In this case, the uninstalled thrust equation becomes
( I n 0 -1- 1;nf ) W e - - i r l o g 0
F = for Pe = Po (1.6)
gc
The installed thrust T is equal to the uninstalled thrust F minus the inlet drag
D i n l e t and minus the nozzle drag Dnoz, or
T = F - O i n l e t - D n o z (1.7)
Dividing the inlet drag D i n l e t and nozzle drag Dno z by the uninstalled thrust F
yields the dimensionless inlet loss coefficient ~binlet and nozzle loss coefficient
~ n o z , o r
O i n l e t
~ i n l e t - -
F
Dnoz (1.8)
4~noz- F
Thus the relationship bet ween the installed thrust T and uninstalled thrust F is
si mpl y
r = F(1 - ~ i n l e t - ~noz) (1.9)
The second performance paramet er is the thrust specific fuel consumpt i on (S
and TSFC). This is the rate of fuel use by the propulsion syst em per unit of thrust
produced. The uninstalled fuel consumpt i on S and installed fuel consumpt i on
TSFC are written in equation form as
s = ~ (1.1o)
F
TSFC = m~ (1.11)
T
where
F
S
= uninstalled thrust
= uninstalled thrust specific fuel consumpt i on
18 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
T = installed engine thrust
TSFC = installed thrust specific fuel consumption
rhf = mass flow rate of fuel
The relation between S and TSFC in equation form is given by
S = TSFC(1 - t ~ i n l e t - (~noz) (1.12)
Values of thrust F and fuel consumption S for various jet engines at sea-level
static conditions are listed in Appendix B. The predicted variations of uninstalled
engine thrust F and uninstalled thrust specific fuel consumption S with Mach
number and altitude for an advanced fighter engine 3 are plotted in Figs.
1.14a- 1.14d. Note that the thrust F decreases with altitude and the fuel consump-
tion S also decreases with altitude until 36 kft (the start of the isothermal layer of
the atmosphere). Also note that the fuel consumption increases with Mach
number and that the thrust varies considerably with the Mach number. The pre-
dicted partial-throttle performance of the advanced fighter engine is shown at
three flight conditions in Fig. 1.14e.
The takeoff thrust of the JT9D high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine is given in
Fig. 1.15a vs Mach number and ambient air temperature for two versions.
Note the rapid falloff of thrust with rising Mach number that is characteristic
of this engine cycle and the constant thrust at a Mach number for temperatures
of 86°F and below (this is often referred to as a f l a t rating). T h e partial-throttle
performance of both engine versions is given in Fig. 1.15b for two combinations
of altitude and Mach number.
50,000
40,000
30,000
E
20,000
.~.
10,000
SL
J J 2 ° k f t 30kft
6 kft
40 kft
50 kft
I I I I
0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6
Mach number
Fi g. 1. 14a Un i n s t a l l e d t h r u s t F o f a n a d v a n c e d a f t e r b u r n i n g f i g ht e r e n g i n e at
m a x i m u m p o w e r s e t t i ng , a f t e r b u r n e r on. ( Ex t r a c t e d f r o m Re f . 3. )
INTRODUCTION 19
2.20
2.15
~ 2.10
~ 2.05
E
~ 2.00
~ 1.95
-N
.~ 1.90
e~
1. 85
1. 80
A l t ( k f t ) / S L
/
1 0
, 2o
30
- 5 / " 50
" 36
40
I I I I
0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6
Mach number
Fig. 1.14b Uni ns t al l ed fuel cons umpt i on S of a n advanced a f t e r bur ni ng fi ght er
engi ne at ma x i mu m power set t i ng, a f t e r b u r n e r on. ( Ext r act ed f r om Ref. 3.)
25,000
20,000
15,000
e
.~ 10,000
5,000
SL
A ~ 10
~ ~ 20_t- 30
4O
5O
0 I I I I I
0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2
Mach number
Fi g. 1.14c Uni ns t al l ed t hr us t F of a n advanced a f t e r bur ni ng fi ght er engi ne at
mi l i t ar y power set t i ng, a f t e r bur ne r off. ( Ext r act ed f r om Ref. 3.)
20 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSI ON
1. 15
~ 1. 10
"~ 1. 05
• = 1 . 0 0
~ 0.95
• ~ 0.90
!
.,~ 0 . 8 5
0 . 8 0
0 . 7 5
0
Al t (kft )
^ 20 30
u / 50 / a ~
/ / / / . ~ / - ~ v
I I I I
0 . 4 0. 8 1. 2 1. 6 2
Ma c h n u mb e r
Fig. 1.14d Uni nstai l ed fuel consumpti on S of an advanced afterburning fighter
engine at mi l i tary power setting, afterburner off. (Extracted from Ref. 3.)
e~
e~
r~
e-
8
.3
e~
2 , 0 -
3 6 / 3 6 k f /
1 . 8 - 0. 8
1. 6
1. 4
1. 2
1. 0
0. 8
0 . 6 I I I I I I
5 10 15 20 25 3 0
Un i n s t a l l e d t hr us t F ( 1 0 0 0 l bf )
I
3 5
Fig. 1.14e Partial-throttle performance of an advanced fighter engine. (Extracted
from Ref. 3.)
INTRODUCTION 21
Fig. 1.15a
50,000
45,000
,~ 40,000
2
e-,
35,000 [
30,000 r
\ \
\ , , \
. . . . "
"% - - T90-70
\ " x
\ ~ " x \
86°F and below
IO0°F
120°F
I I I I I I I
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Flight Mach number
JT9D-70/-70A turbofan takeoff thrust. (Courtesy of Prat t & Whitney.)
Although the aircraft gas turbine engine is a very compl ex machine, the basic
tools for model i ng its performance are devel oped in the following chapters.
These tools are based on the work of Gordon Oates. 4 They permit performance
calculations for existing and proposed engines and generate performance curves
similar to Figs. 1. 14a- l . 14e and Figs. 1.15a and 1.15b.
e~
O
" 5
e'~
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
I I
4~0 16,0~
• Maximum climb rating
k • Maximum cruise rating
", ~ ' . . • 0.9 . ~
',, ~ ~ 3O, ooo rto 8 . _ . . . a
I I I I I I I I I I
6000 8000 10,000 12, 000 14,000
Thrust (lbf)
Fig. 1.15b JT9D-70/-70A turbofan cruise-specific fuel consumption. (Courtesy of
Prat t & Whitney.)
22 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
Table 1.3 Typical aircraft engine thrust installation losses
Flight condition:
Aircraft type
M< I M> I
~ /~ inlet ~ ) n o z ( ~ i n l e t ( ~ n o z
Fighter 0.05 0.01 0.05 0.03
Passenger/cargo 0.02 0.01
Bomber 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.02
The val ue of the installation l oss coeffi ci ent depends on the charact eri st i cs of
the part i cul ar engi ne/ ai r f r ame combi nat i on, the Ma c h number, and the engi ne
throttle setting. Typi cal val ues are gi ven in Tabl e 1.3 f or gui dance.
The t hermal effi ci ency ~/r of an engi ne is anot her ver y useful engi ne perform-
ance paramet er. Th e r ma l ef f i ci ency is defined as t he net rate of or gani zed ener gy
(shaft power or ki net i c energy) out of the engi ne di vi ded by the rat e of thermal
ener gy avai l abl e f r om the fuel in the engine. The f uel ' s avai l abl e t hermal
ener gy is equal t o t he mass flow rate of the fuel rnf t i mes the fuel l ower-heat i ng
val ue hpR. Ther mal effi ci ency can be written in equat i on f or m as
' ~ T m
where
~Tr = t hermal effi ci ency of engi ne
l~'out = net power out of engi ne
Wout
in
(1.13)
Qi n = rate of t hermal ener gy rel eased OhfhpR)
Not e that for engines with shaft power output, l~out is equal to this shaft power. For
engines with no shaft power output (e.g., turbojet engine), Wout is equal to the net rate
of change of the kinetic energy of the fluid t hrough the engine. The power out of a
j et engine with a single inlet and single exhaust (e.g., turbojet engine) is given by
1
W o o t = [ ( , h 0 + ' h S ) V e - - ' h 0 V 0 I
The propulsive efficiency r/p of a propulsion syst em is a measure of how effec-
tively the engi ne power Wout is used to power the aircraft. Propul si ve efficiency is
the ratio of the aircraft power (thrust times velocity) to the power out of the engine
Wout. I n equat i on form, this is written as
TVo
-qp _ . (1.14)
W o u t
where
r/p = propul si ve effi ci ency of engi ne
T = thrust of pr opul si on syst em
INTRODUCTION 23
Vo = velocity of aircraft
Wo u t = net power out of engine
For a j et engine with a single inlet and single exhaust and an exit pressure
equal to the ambient pressure, the propulsive efficiency is given by
2(1 - ~binle t - ~ b n o z ) [ ( f h 0 -q- I ? l f ) V e - / ~ / o V o ] V o
n p = ( ' n o + hS)Ve - - hoVo 2
(1.15)
For the case when the mass flow rate of the fuel is much less than that of air and
the installation losses are very small, Eq. (1.15) simplifies to the following
equation for the propulsive efficiency:
~lp - Ve/Vo + 1 (1.16)
Equation (1.16) is plotted vs the velocity ratio V~/Vo in Fig. 1.16 and shows
that high propulsive efficiency requires the exit velocity to be approximately
equal to the inlet velocity. Turbojet engines have high values of the velocity
ratio Ve/Vo with corresponding low propulsive efficiency, whereas turbofan
engines have low values of the velocity ratio Ve/Vo with corresponding high
propulsive efficiency.
The thermal and propulsive efficiencies can be combined to give the overall
efficiency ~1o of a propulsion system. Multiplying propulsive efficiency b y
100
9 0
80
70
o 6 0
50
4 0
30
1. 0
I I I I I I
1.5 2. 0 2. 5 3. 0 3. 5 4. 0
Fig. 1. 16 Propul si ve efficiency vs vel oci ty rati o (Ve/VO).
24 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
thermal efficiency, we get the ratio of the aircraft power to the rate of thermal
energy released in the engine (the overall efficiency of the propulsion system):
Tlo = r/er/r
TV0
-0o m .
Qin
( 1 . 1 7 )
(1.18)
Several of the preceding performance parameters are plotted for general
types of gas turbine engines in Figs. 1.17a, 1.17b, and 1.17c. These plots can
be used to obtain the general trends of these performance parameters with
flight velocity for each propulsion system.
Since Oin : t ; r t f h p R , Eq. (1.18) can be rewritten as
TV0
' 1 7 ° - - l h f h p R
With the help of Eq. (1.11), this equation can be written in terms of the thrust
specific fuel consumption as
Vo (1.19)
~7o -- TSFC • h p R
90
80
70
60
50
o
40
2
~- 30
20
10
Turbojet
- ~ _ _ - / ~ B P R turbofan
Turboprop
Advanced_~~prop ~ ~ .
Conventional prop
I I I I I
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
AircraflMach number
Fi g . 1. 17a Spe c i f i c t h r u s t c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t y p i c a l a i r c r a f t e n g i n e s . ( Co u r t e s y o f
Pr a t t & Wh i t n e y . )
I NTRODUCTI ON 25
1.3
1.1
0.9
0.7
0.5
0.3
0.1
=<
A
- /
/
/
~ High-BPR turbofan
Conventional prop 7 / J r
/ ' vanced prop
z Z /
I I I I I
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Aircraft Mach number
Fig. 1.17b Thrust-specific fuel consumpt i on characteristics of typical ai rcraft
engines. (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney. )
0.7 -
0.6 -
0 . 5 -
II
0 . 4 -
b
~= 0 . 3 -
0 . 2 -
0 . 1 -
00
0
Fig. 1.17c
Whitney. )
Ot r a l l efficiency
0.1
Turt
Subsonic flight
thrust x aircraft velocity
11o = heat added
0 ~ % ~ ~ Year 2000 +
\
I I I I I I I I I I
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
thrust
Propulsive efficiency t/p = - - x aircraft velocity
core power
Efficiency characteristics of typical ai rcraft engines. (Courtesy of Pratt &
26 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSI ON
Us i ng Eqs. (1. 17) and (1. 19), we can wr i t e t he f ol l owi ng for TSFC:
Vo
TSFC = (1. 20)
rle rlTheR
Example 1.1
An a dva nc e d f i ght er engi ne oper at i ng at Mach 0. 8 and 10- km al t i t ude has t he
f ol l owi ng uni ns t al l ed per f or mance dat a and uses a f uel wi t h hpg = 42, 800 kJ / kg:
F = 5 0 k N r h 0 = 4 5 k g / s and r n f = 2 . 6 5 k g / s
Det er mi ne t he speci f i c t hrust , t hr ust speci f i c f uel cons umpt i on, exi t vel oci t y,
t her mal ef f i ci ency, pr opul s i ve ef f i ci ency, and over al l ef f i ci ency ( assume exi t
pr essur e equal t o ambi ent pr essur e) .
Solution:
F 5 0 k N
- - - 1.1111 k N/ ( k g / s ) = 1111.1 m/ s
rho 45 k g / s
S - - rhf _ _ _ 2 " 6 5 k g / s _ 0. 053 ( k g / s ) / k N = 53 mg / N • s
F 5 0 k N
( a 0 )
VO = Moao =- Mo - - aref = 0. 8( 0. 8802) 340. 3 = 239. 6 m/ s
\ a r e f /
Fgc +/noVo 50, 000 x 1 + 45 x 239. 6
Fr om Eq. (1. 6) we have
r e- -
= 1275. 6 m/ s
rh0 + rnf 45 + 2. 65
Wo ~ (~ho + , h~) Ve ~ - - , ~oVo ~
~'/T = Qin 2gcthfheR
Wo u t = ( ~ h 0 + ~ h l ) V e ~ - - ~ h 0 V o ~
2gc
47. 65 x 1275.62 - 4 5 x 239.62
_-- ---- 37. 475 x 10 6 W
2 x l
0in m_ /nfhpR = 2. 65 x 42, 800 = 113. 42 x 106 W
li¢out 37. 475 X 10 6
= 33. 04%
"qT = Qin - - 113.42 X 106
FVo 50, 000 x 239. 6
r/p = Wo u t 37. 475 x 106 = 31. 97%
FVo 50, 000 x 239. 6
r/ ° = Qin = 113. 42 x 106 = 10. 56%
INTRODUCTION 27
1.4.8 S peci fi c Thrus t vs F uel C ons umpti on
For a j et engine with a single inlet and single exhaust and exit pressure equal
to ambient pressure, when the mass flow rate of the fuel is much less than that of
air and the installation losses are very small, the specific thrust F//no can be
written as
F Ve- Vo
&o gc
Then the propulsive efficiency of Eq. (1.16) can be rewritten as
(1.21)
2
rip Fgc/(&oVo) + 2 (1.22)
Substituting Eq. (1.22) into Eq. (1.20) and noting that TSFC = S, we obtain the
following very enlightening expression:
Fgc//no + 2Vo
S -- (1.23)
2~qThpR
Aircraft manufacturers desire engines having low thrust specific fuel
consumption S and high specific thrust F//no. Low engine fuel consumption
can be directly translated into longer range, increased payload, and/ or reduced
aircraft size. High specific thrust reduces the cross-sectional area of the engine
and has a direct influence on engine weight and installation losses. This
desired trend is plotted in Fig. 1.18. Equation (1.23) is also plotted in Fig. 1.18
and shows that fuel consumption and specific thrust are directly proportional.
Thus the aircraft manufacturers have to make a tradeoff. The line of Eq. (1.23)
shifts in the desired direction when there is an increase in the level of technology
(increased thermal efficiency) or an increase in the fuel heating value.
r.~
g
Eq. (1.23)
t e c h n o l o g y
Specific thrust F/rh o
Fig. 1.18 Relationship between specific thrust and fuel consumpti on.
28 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
Another very useful measure of merit for the aircraft gas turbine engine is
the t hrust / wei ght ratio F/W. For a given engine thrust F, increasing the
t hrust / wei ght ratio reduces the weight of the engine. Aircraft manufacturers
can use this reduction in engine weight to increase the capabilites of an aircraft
(increased payload, increased fuel, or both) or decrease the size (weight) and cost
of a new aircraft under development.
Engine compani es expend considerable research and devel opment effort on
increasing the t hrust / wei ght ratio of aircraft gas turbine engines. This ratio is
equal to the specific thrust F/&o divided by the engine weight per unit of mass
flow W//no. For a gi ven engine type, the engine weight per unit mass flow is
related to the efficiency of the engine structure, and the specific thrust is
related to the engine thermodynamics. The weights per unit mass flow of some
existing gas turbine engines are plotted vs specific thrust in Fig. 1.19. Also
plotted are lines of constant engine t hrust / wei ght ratio F/W.
The engine companies, in conjunction with the U.S. Depart ment of Defense
and NASA, are i nvol ved in a large research and devel opment effort to increase
the engine t hrust / wei ght ratio F/ W and decrease the fuel consumption while
maintaining engine durability, maintainability, etc. An earlier program was
called the integrated high-performance turbine engine technology (IHPTET)
initiative (see Refs. 5 and 6).
2 5 t
20
F/W= 2 3 4 5
15
10
0
0 50 100
F/& o
130
Fig. 1.19 Engine thrust/ wei ght ratio F/W.
INTRODUCTION 29
1. 5 Ai r cr af t Per f or mance
This section on aircraft performance is included so that the reader may get a
better understanding of the propulsion requirements of the aircraft. 7 The coverage
is limited to a few significant concepts that directly relate to aircraft engines. It is
not intended as a substitute for the many excellent references on this subject (see
Refs. 8- 11) .
1.5.1 P erformance Equati on
Relationships for the performance of an aircraft can be obtained from
energy considerations (see Ref. 12). By treating the aircraft (Fig. 1.20) as a
movi ng mass and assuming that the installed propulsive thrust T, aerodynami c
drag D, and other resistive forces R act in the same direction as the velocity V,
it follows that
[T - (D + R)]V = W dh Wd ( ~ -~-2)
rate of dt ÷ g ~
mechanical storage storage
rate of rate of
energy
input potential kinetic
energy energy
(1.24)
Not e that the total resistive force D + R is the sum of the drag of the clean
aircraft D and any additional drags R associated with such proturberances as
landing gear, external stores, or drag chutes.
By defining the energy height Ze as the sum of the potential and kinetic energy
terms
Ze - h+- -
Eq. (1.24) can now be written si mpl y as
V2
(1.25)
2g
[T - (D + R)]V = W dze (1.26)
dt
By defining the weight specific excess power Ps as
dze
Ps ~ - (1.27)
dt
Aircraft
velocity
V *C
Fi g . 1. 20 F o r c e s o n a i r c r a f t .
30 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSI ON
Eq. (1.26) can now be written in its dimensionless form as
T - ( D + R ) _ P s _ 1 d ( h + ~ g (1.28)
w v ~\
This is a very powerful equation that gives insight into the dynamics of flight,
including both the rate of climb dh/ dt and acceleration dV/ dt .
1.5.2 L i ft and Drag
We use the classical aircraft lift relationship
L = n W = CLqSw (1.29)
where n is the load fact or or number of g perpendicular to V (n = 1 for straight
and level flight), CL is the coefficient of lift, Sw is the wing pl anform area, and q is
the dynamic pressure. The dynamic pressure can be expressed in terms of the
density p and vel oci t y V or the pressure P and Mach number M as
1 V 2 1 V 2
= - - (1.30a)
q = "2 P- ~ c 2 0"Oref g c
or
T p M 2 _T ~prefMo 2
q = ~ 0 = 2
(1.30b)
where 6 and ~r are the dimensionless pressure and density ratios defined by Eqs.
(1.2) and (1.4), respectively, and y is the ratio of specific heats ( y = 1.4 for air).
The reference density Pref and reference pressure Pref of air are their sea-level
values on a standard day and are listed in Appendix A.
We also use the classical aircraft drag relationship
D ---- CDqSw (1.31)
Figure 1.21 is a plot of lift coefficient CL vs drag coefficient Co, commonl y called
the lift-drag polar, for a typical subsonic passenger aircraft. The drag coefficient
curve can be approxi mat ed by a second-order equation in CL written as
co = K~ C~ + X2CL + Coo
(1.32)
where the coefficients K1, K2, and CDO are typically functions of flight Mach
number and wing configuration (flap position, etc.).
The Coo t erm in Eq. (t . 32) is the zero lift drag coefficient that accounts for
both frictional and pressure drag in subsonic flight and wave drag in supersonic
flight. The K 1 and K2 terms account for the drag due to lift. Normal l y K2 is very
small and approxi mat el y equal to zero for most fighter aircraft.
INTRODUCTION 31
cL
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0 I I
0.01 0.08
I I I I I I
0. 02 0. 03 0. 04 0. 05 0. 06 0. 07
Co
Fi g. 1.21 Typi cal l i ft-drag pol ar.
Example 1.2
For all the exampl es given in this section on aircraft performance, two types of
aircraft will be considered.
a) Fighter aircraft (HF-1). An advanced fighter aircraft is approxi mat el y
model ed after the F-22 Advanced Tactical Fighter shown in Fig. 1.22. For con-
venience, we will designate our hypothetical fighter aircraft as the HF-1, havi ng
the following characteristics:
Maxi mum gross t akeoff weight WTo = 40,000 l bf (177,920 N)
Empt y weight = 24,000 l bf (106,752 N)
Maxi mum fuel plus payl oad weight = 16,000 l bf (71,168 N)
Permanent payl oad = 1600 l bf (7117 N, crew plus return armament )
Expended payl oad = 2000 l bf (8896 N, missiles plus ammunition)
Maxi mum fuel capacity = 12,400 l bf (55,155 N)
Wi ng area Sw = 720 ft 2 (66.9 m 2)
Engine: low-bypass-ratio, mi xed-fl ow turbofan with afterburner
Maxi mum lift coefficient CLmax = 1.8
Drag coefficients given in Tabl e 1.4
b) Passenger aircraft (HP-1). An advanced 253-passenger commerci al
aircraft approximately modeled after the Boeing 787 is shown in Fig. 1.23. For con-
venience, we will designate our hypothetical passenger aircraft as the HP- 1, having
the following characteristics:
Maxi mum gross t akeoff weight WTO = 1,645,760 N (370,000 lbf)
Empt y weight = 822,880 N (185,500 lbf)
32 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
Fig. 1.22 F-22, Advanced Tactical Fighter. (Photo courtesy of Boeing Defense &
Space Group, Military Airplanes Division.)
Maxi mum landing weight = 1,356,640 N (305,000 lbf)
Maxi mum payload = 420,780 N (94,600 lbf, 253 passengers plus 196,000 N
of cargo)
Maxi mum fuel capacity 2 716,706 N (161,130 lbf)
Wi ng area Sw = 282.5 m (3040 ft 2)
Engine: high-bypass-ratio turbofan
Maxi mum lift coefficient CLmax = 2.0
Drag coefficients given in Table 1.5.
Table 1.4 Drag coefficients for hypothetical fighter aircraft (HF-1)
Mo Ki K2 CDO
0.0 0.20 0.0 0.0120
0.8 0.20 0.0 0.0120
1.2 0.20 0.0 0.02267
1.4 0.25 0.0 0.0280
2.0 0.40 0.0 0.0270
INTRODUCTION 33
Fig. 1.23 Boeing 787. (Photo courtesy of Boeing.)
Table 1.5 Drag coefficients for hypothetical passenger aircraft (HP-1)
Mo KI K2 CDO
0.00 0.056 -- 0.004 0.0140
0.40 0.056 -- 0.004 0.0140
0.75 0.056 -- 0.008 0.0140
0.83 0.056 -- 0.008 0.0150
Example 1.3
Det ermi ne the drag pol ar and drag vari at i on for the HF-1 aircraft at 90% of
maxi mum gross t akeoff wei ght and the HP-1 aircraft at 95% of maxi mum
gross t akeoff weight.
a) Fighter aircraft (HF-1). The vari at i on in Coo and KI with Mach
number for the HF-1 are pl ot t ed in Fig. 1.24 from the data of Tabl e 1.4.
Fi gure 1.25 shows the drag pol ar at different Mach numbers for the HF-1 aircraft.
Usi ng these drag dat a and the precedi ng equations gi ves the vari at i on in aircraft
drag with subsonic Mach number and altitude for l evel flight (n = 1), as shown in
Fig. 1.26a. Not e that the mi ni mum drag is constant for Mach numbers 0 to 0.8 and
then increases. This is the same vari at i on as Coo. The vari at i on of drag wi t h l oad
factor n is shown in Fig. 1.26b at two altitudes. The drag i ncreases with i ncreasi ng
Cvo
0.025
0.030 0.40
/£2=0
I I
CD0
0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
34 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSI ON
0.35
0.30
K1
0.25
0.20
0.15
0 . 0 0 0 I I I 9 . 1 0
0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0
Mach number
Fi g. 1 . 2 4 V a l u e s o f K ] a n d Coo f or HF- 1 a i r c r a f t .
~ . ~ 1 . 0
1 . 0 ~3 ~" k/.~/_~ ~
0.8 ~
0.6
G
0.4
0.2
0 . 0 0 . 0 I I
0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.2
CD
Fi g. 1.25 Li f t - d r a g p o l a r f or HF- 1 a i r c r a f t .
INTRODUCTION 35
8OOO
7000
6 0 ~
500(
400(
300(]
0
SL 10 20
30 36 40 50 kft
l i 20 / / ~ 30
/ 36
40
50
Alt=SL 10kft 20kft 30kft 36kft
I L I I i I I I
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Mach number
Fig. 1.26a Dr ag f or level flight (n = 1) f or HF-1 ai rcraft .
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
Sea /
i i I I i
0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0
Mach number
Fi g. 1. 26b Dr ag of HF- 1 ai rcraf t at s ea l evel and 36 kf t f or n = 1 and n = 5.
36 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
0 . 0 1 5 2
0 . 0 1 5 0
0. 0148
0 . 0 1 4 6
Coo
0 . 0 1 4 4
0 . 0 1 4 2
0 . 0 1 4 0
K 1 = 0 . 0 5 6
I i I i
? /
Co o
0. 0090
0. 0080
0. 0070
0. 0060
- 0. 0050
- 0. 0040
- 0. 0030
0. 0138 I I I I 0. 0020
0. 0 0 . 2 0. 4 0 . 6 0. 8 1. 0
Ma c h n u mb e r
Fig. 1.27 Val ues of Kz and Coo for HP-1 aircraft.
load factor, and there is a flight Mach number that gives minimum drag for a
given altitude and load factor.
b) Passenger aircraft (l i P-1). The variation in CDo and K2 with Mach
number for the HP-1 is plotted in Fig. 1.27 from the data of Table 1.5.
Figure 1.28 shows the drag polar at different Mach numbers for the HP-1 aircraft.
Using these drag data and the preceding equations gives the variation in aircraft
drag with subsonic Mach number and altitude for level flight (n = 1), as shown in
Fig. 1.29. Note that the minimum drag is constant for Mach numbers 0 to 0.75
and then increases. This is the same variation as CDo.
Example 1.4
Calculate the drag at Mach 0.8 and 40-kft altitude of the HF-1 aircraft at 90%
of maximum gross takeoff weight with load factors of 1 and 4.
Solution: We begin by calculating the dynamic pressure q:
T 8 P r e f M0 2 = 0.7 X 0.1858 X 2116 X 0.8 2 176.1 l bf/ ft 2
q=~ =
From Fig. 1.24 at M = 0.8, Coo = 0.012, K1 = 0.20, and K2 = 0.
I NTRODUCTI ON 37
cL
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.012
0.8 -
0.7 - 3 ~
0.6
0.5
0.4
\ i i i i i i i
0.016 0. 02 0. 024 0. 028 0. 032 0. 036 0.04
co
F i g . 1 . 2 8 L i f t - d r a g p o l a r f o r H P - 1 a i r c r a f t .
1 0 0 , 0 0 0 -
9 5 , 0 0 0
90,000
z
~ 85,000
80,000
75,000 -
70,000
0.2
SL
/
!
SL
SL 3
3km
6
9
" 11 km
km 9km
I I I I I I
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Mach number
F i g . 1 . 2 9 D r a g f o r l e v e l f l i g h t ( n = 1 ) f o r H P - 1 a i r c r a f t .
38 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
Case 1: n = 1
n W 1 x 0. 9 x 40, 000
CL qSw 176.1 x 720 = 0. 2839
Co = K1C2L -4- K2CL -4- Coo = 0. 2(0. 28392) -I- 0. 012 = 0. 0281
D = CoqSw = 0. 0281 x 176.1 x 720 = 3563 l bf
Case 2: n = 4
n W 4 x 0. 9 x 40, 000
CL . . . . 1. 136
qSw 176.1 x 720
Co = K~C~ + KaCL + Coo = 0. 2(1. 1362) + 0. 012 = 0. 2701
D = CoqSw = 0. 2701 x 176.1 x 720 = 34, 247 l bf
Not e t hat t he dr ag at n = 4 i s about 10 t i mes t hat at n --- 1.
1.5.3 Stall, Takeoff, and Landing Speeds
Stall i s t he f l i ght condi t i on when an a i r c r a f t ' s wi ng l oses l i ft . I t is an unde-
si r abl e condi t i on si nce vehi cl e cont r ol i s l ost f or a t i me. Dur i ng l evel fl i ght
(l i ft = wei ght ) , st al l wi l l occur when one t r i es t o obt ai n a l i f t coef f i ci ent
gr eat er t han t he wi n g ' s ma x i mu m CLmax. The stall speed i s def i ned as t he
l evel fl i ght s peed t hat cor r es ponds t o t he wi n g ' s ma x i mu m l i f t coeffi ci ent , or
= , [ 2gc W (1. 33)
Wstall V pCL m a x Sw
To keep away f r om stall, ai r cr af t are fl own at vel oci t i es gr eat er t han Vstan.
Ta ke of f and l andi ng are t wo f l i ght condi t i ons i n whi ch t he ai r cr af t vel oci t y is
cl os e t o t he st al l vel oci t y. For saf et y, t he t akeof f s peed VTo o f an ai r cr af t is t ypi -
cal l y 20% gr eat er t han t he st al l speed, and t he l andi ng speed at t ouchdown VTD i s
15% gr eat er :
V T O = 1 . 2 0 V s t a l l
(1. 34)
V T D = 1 . 1 5 V s t a l I
Example 1.5
Det er mi ne t he t akeof f s peed of t he HP-1 at sea l evel wi t h ma x i mu m gr oss
t akeof f wei ght and t he l andi ng s peed wi t h ma x i mu m l andi ng wei ght .
INTRODUCTION 39
From Appendi x A we have p = 1.255 k g / m 3 for sea level. From Exampl e
1.2b we have CLmax = 2. 0 , W = 1,645,760 N, Sw ---- 282.5 m 2, and
V /
2 × 1 1,645,760
Wstall ~--" 1.225 x 2.0 282.5 =
69.0 m/ s
Thus
VTO = 1. 20Vst al l = 8 2 . 8 m/s (~185 mph)
For landing, W = 1,356,640 N, and
5 2_x_l 1,356,640
Vstall • V 1.225 X 2.0 282.5
= 62.6 m/ s
Thus
VTD ~--- 1.15Vstall = 72.0 m/ s ( ~161 mph)
1.5.4 F uel Cons umpti on
The rate of change of the aircraft weight d W/ d t is due to the fuel consumed by
the engines. The mass rate of fuel consumed is equal to the product of the
installed thrust T and the installed thrust specific fuel consumpt ion. For const ant
acceleration of gravit y go, we can write
dW . - my g o = _T(TSFC)(g0"~
= - w f = gc
, gcJ
This equat ion can be rewritten in dimensionless f or m as
d W _ T ( T S F C ) ( g o ~ d t (1.35)
W w \ go~
1. 5. 4. 1 Es t i ma t e o f TSFG. Equat ion (1.35) requires est imat es of
installed engine thrust T and installed TSFC to calculate the change in aircraft
weight. For many flight conditions, the installed engine thrust T equals the air-
craft drag D. The value of TSFC depends on the engine cycle, altitude, and
Mach number. For preliminary analysis, the following equations (from Ref. 12)
can be used to est imat e TSFC in units of ( l bm/ h) / l bf , and 0 is the dimensionless
t emperat ure ratio T/Tref:
1) High-bypass-rat io t urbofan
TSFC = (0.4 + 0 . 4 5 M0 ) ~ (1.36a)
40 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
2) Low-bypass-ratio, mixed-flow turbofan
Military and lower power settings:
TSFC = (1.0 -t- 0 . 3 5 M0 ) ~
Maxi mum power setting:
TSFC = (1.8 + 0.30Mo)x/O
3) Turbojet
Military and lower power settings:
TSFC = (1.3 + 0 . 3 5 Mo ) ~
Maximum power setting:
TSFC = (1.7 + 0 . 2 6 Mo ) ~
4) Turboprop
TSFC = (0.2 + 0.9Mo)VrO
(1.36b)
(1.36c)
(1.36d)
(1.36e)
(1.36f)
1.5.4.2 Endurance. For level unaccelerated flight, thrust equals drag
(T = D) and lift equals weight (L = W). Thus Eq. (1.35) is simply
dW
W CL (TSFC) dt (1.37)
We define the endurance fact or (EF) as
CL gc
EF -- (1.38)
CD(TSFC) go
Then Eq. (1.37) becomes
dW dt
m
W EF
(1.39)
Not e that the minimum fuel consumption for a time t occurs at the flight condition
where the endurance factor is maximum.
For the case when the endurance factor is constant or nearly constant, Eq.
(1.39) can be integrated from the initial to final conditions and the following
expression obtained for the aircraft weight fraction:
ws / t \
= e x p / - =-=} (1.40a)
INTRODUCTION 41
o r
Wf = e x p [ _ ~D_(TSFC)tgo]
Wi k CL gc_l
(1.40b)
1. 5. 4. 3 Range. For portions of aircraft flight where distance is important,
the differential t i me dt is related to the differential distance ds by
ds = V dt (1.41)
Substituting into Eq. (1.37) gives
dW _ CD TSFC go ds
W CL V gc
(1.42)
We define the range fact or (RF) as
CL V gc
RF -- (1.43)
Co TSFC go
Then Eq. (1.42) can be si mpl y written as
dW ds
- - ( 1 . 4 4 )
W RF
Not e that the mi ni mum fuel consumpt ion for a distance s occurs at the flight
condition where the range fact or is maxi mum.
For the flight conditions where the RF is const ant or nearly constant, Eq. (t .42)
can be integrated from the initial to final conditions and the following expression
obt ained for the aircraft weight fraction:
s
WI = e x p ( - ~ ) (1.45a)
o r
- - _ ( CD TSFC x s go]
Wf _ exp (1.45b)
Wi CL V gc/
This is called the Breguet range equation. For the range fact or to remai n constant,
Ct . / Co and V/ TSFC need to be constant. Above 36-kft altitude, the ambi ent
t emperat ure is constant, and a constant velocit y V will correspond to constant
Mach and const ant TSFC for a fixed throttle setting. I f CL is constant, CL/ Co
will remai n constant. Since the aircraft weight W decreases during the flight,
the altitude must increase to reduce the densit y of the ambi ent air and produce
the required lift (L = W) while maint aining CL and velocit y constant. This
flight profile is called a cruise climb.
42 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
Example 1.6
Cal cul at e the endurance fact or and r ange fact or at Mach 0.8 and 40-kft altitude
of hypot het i cal fight er aircraft HF-1 at 90% of maxi mum gross t akeoff wei ght
and a l oad fact or of 1.
Solution:
q = ~ 6 P r e f M0 2 = 0.7 x 0. 1858 x 2116 x 0 . 8 2 = 176.1 l b f / f t 2
2
Fr om Fig. 1.24 at M = 0.8, Coo = 0. 012, K1 = 0.20, and K2 = 0:
nW 1 x 0. 9 x 40, 000
CL = qSw 176.1 x 720 0. 2839
CD = K1C 2 + K2CL + Coo = 0. 2(0. 28392) + 0. 012 ---- 0.0281
Usi ng Eq. (1.36b), we have
TSFC = (1.0 + 0.35M0)q' -0 ----- (1.0 + 0. 35 x 0 . 8 ) ~ = 1.110 ( l bm/ h) / l bf
Thus
E F =
RF - -
CL g__f_~= 0. 2839 32.174__ = 9. 102 h
CD(TSFC)g0 0. 0281 x 1. 11032. 174
CL V gc
CDTSFCgo
0. 28390. 8 x 0. 8671 x l l l 6 f l / s 3 6 0 0 s / h 32. 174
0. 0281
1.110 ( l bm/ h) / l bf 6080 f t / nm 32. 174
= 4170 nm
Example 1.7
Det ermi ne the vari at i on in endurance fact or and range fact or for the t wo
hypot het i cal aircraft HF- 1 and HP- 1.
a) F i g h t e r a i r c r a f t ( H F - I ) . The endurance fact or is pl ot t ed vs Mach
number and alt it ude in Fig. 1.30 for our hypot het i cal fight er aircraft HF-1 at
90% of maxi mum gross t akeof f weight . Not e that t he best endurance Mach
number ( mi ni mum fuel consumpt i on) increases wit h altitude, and the best fuel
consumpt i on occurs at altitudes of 30 and 36 kft. The range fact or is plot t ed vs
Mach number and alt it ude in Fig. 1.31 f or t he HF-1 at 90% of maxi mum gross
t akeof f weight . Not e t hat the best cruise Mach number ( mi ni mum fuel consump-
t ion) increases wi t h altitude, and t he best fuel consumpt i on occurs at an altitude
of 36 kft and Mach number of 0.8.
I NTRODUCTI ON 43
10 [-
[ Alt (kft)
1
8
i ,
50
I I
36
0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Mach number
0.8 0.9 1.0
Fi g. 1. 30 E n d u r a n c e f a c t o r f o r HF - 1 a i r c r a f t .
v
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
0
Alt (kft)
2C
10
SL
50
0.3 0.4 0.5
40 50
20
I0
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Mach number
Fi g. 1. 31 Ra n g e f a c t o r f o r HF - 1 a i r c r a f t .
44 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
3 8 -
36
34
32
30
28
0.2
SL
SL
Alt (km)
I ~ 3 / 1 \ / 9 I
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
6
9
I
Mach number
Fi g. 1. 3 2 Endurance factor for HP- 1 ai rcraft.
b) Passenger aircraft ( HP- I ) . The endurance factor is plotted vs Mach
number and altitude in Fig. 1.32 for our hypothetical passenger aircraft HP-1
at 95% of maximum gross takeoff weight. Note that the best endurance Mach
number (minimum fuel consumption) increases with altitude, and the best fuel
consumption occurs at sea level. The range factor is plotted vs Mach number
and altitude in Fig. 1. 33 for the HP-1 at 95% of maximum gross takeoff
weight. Note that the best cruise Mach number (minimum fuel consumption)
increases with altitude, and the best fuel consumption occurs at an altitude of
11 km and Mach number of about 0.83.
Since the weight of an aircraft like the HP-1 can vary considerably over a
flight, the variation in range factor with cruise Mach number was determined
for 95 and 70% of maximum gross takeoff weight (MGTOW) at altitudes of
11 and 12km and is plotted in Fig. 1.34. I f the HP-1 flew at 0.83 Mach and
12-km altitude, the range factors at 95% MGTOW and at 70% MGTOW are
about the same. However, if the HP-1 flew at 0.83 Mach and l l - km altitude,
the range factor would decrease with aircraft weight, and the aircraft' s range
would be less than that of the HP-1 flown at 0.83 Mach and 12-km altitude.
One can see from this discussion that the proper cruise altitude can dramatically
affect an aircraft' s range.
1. 5. 4. 4 Maximum CL/CD. For flight conditions requiring minimum fuel
consumption, the optimum flight condition can be approximated by that
I NTRODUCTI ON 45
28,000
26,000
24,000
22,000
20,000 -
18,000 -
16,000 -
14,000 -
12,000
0.2
Alt (km) 11
6
7/6/9
I / 3 I I I I ~ , L ,
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
Mach number
I
0.9
Fi g. 1. 33 Ra n g e f a c t o r f o r HP - 1 a i r c r a f t f o r v a r i o u s a l t i t u d e s .
26, 400
26, 000
25, 600
25, 200
24, 800
24, 000
0.71
95% @ 11 km
i
~ 5 ~x~'~ ~ ~
I I I I I
0.79 0. 80 0.81 0.82 0.83
Mach number
Fi g. 1. 34 Ra n g e f a c t o r f o r HP - 1 a i r c r a f t a t 7 0 a n d 9 5 % M G T O W.
• a p m , ! l l U 1 J ~ I - 9 £ 1 ~ I - A H
a q l a o j a o l a u j a ~ u u a p u u ' a o l a u j a a u u a n p u a ' a D / 7 D ~ u a p j o u o s ! a u d m o D ~ ; £ ' 1 " ~ ! A
J o q t u n u q a e l N
0 8
~ ' 6
0 ' 0 1
g O I
f i l l
g 9 O
O O g £
0 6 " 0 ~ 8 ' 0 0 8 ' 0 g L ' O O L ' O
O ' L
g ' L
~ ' 8 d N
0 ' 6
d ~
I I I I
0 0 9 £
o o L £ ~
0 0 8 £
0 0 6 £
0 0 0 ~
o o L ~ ~ .
g
0 0 ~
0 0 £ ~
J o j J O l a 6 J a a u e J n p u a o q & ' [ ( q 9 u [ ) " b ~ t a d s ] J a q t u n u q a 6 I A [ q l ! A ~ a s 6 a J a U ! s l !
p u e D d S ~ L q S ! q a t I 1 o l a n p [ - c l H a q l J O j , ( a D / T D ) O l ~ u ! p u o d s a J a o a 1 6 q l u 6 q l
J o q u a n u q a 6 l N J a ~ o I £ I I 6 ! l u m s q n s 6 1 6 t u n u i t x 6 t u 6 s ! J o l a 6 j a a u e J n p u a a q £
• t u m u ! u i t u a J 6 s 8 6 J p a a a t t ~ s J a q u I n u q a 6 l N a t u 6 s a q l ' [ - d H a r t 1 J o j g L ' 0 q a e l N
1 6 p u 6 I - d H a q l J o j 8 ' 0 q a 6 l N 1 6 s a n a a o a D / 7 D t u n t m x 6 t u a q l 1 6 q l m O N " I - d H
o t t l J O j 9 U I ' g ! d u ! p u e 1 j 6 J a J ! e [ - d H a q l J O j g ~ ' [ " 8 ! d u ! p a l l o l d a a e a p n l ! l [ 6
u 6 1 6 J a q m n u q a 6 l N S A a D / v D p u 6 ' . t O l a 6 J a a u 6 1 n p u a ' J O l a 6 j a ~ u 6 a ' G ~ 6 J p a q &
( 8 1 r ' l ) ~ X + l X o a o / ~ ' ~ ( ° O )
£ q U a A I ~ S . ~ 0 0 / ' 7 0 t u n t m x 6 t u p u 6
( L ' e ' I ) ° a o = 7 , O
s ! ( 7 3 / 0 3 t u n u a ! u ! t u ) a D / V 3 t u n t m x e t u s a m g 1 6 q l l u o ! a g j a o a 1 J I I a q £
7 O 7 O
( 9 ~ ' I ) - - + ~ Y + 7 D ~ . 5 1 = - -
o a o o O
: ~ o / ~
t u n t u ! u v u S O A I ~ 1 6 q l 7 D o q l a o j ~ U . I A I O S p u 6 ' o J a z O l I e n b o 1 ! ~ U ! l l a S ' u o ~ s s a M x a
~ u ! A ~ o I I o J a q l j o 0 A ! l e A p a p a q l ~ U p I 6 1 ~ q p u n o J o q u 6 a ( T D / O o t u n t u ! u ! t u )
O D / 7 D t u n t m x 6 m o q l ' ( g U I ) " b 3 t u o J g " c : D / 7 D m n t m x 6 m o l ~ u ! p u o d s a J a o a
N O I S 7 N d O H d 3 0 9 1 N 3 ~ 3 7 = 1 9 #
INTRODUCTION 47
90,000
80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
_v
~- 30,000
20,000
10,000
0.60
CdCD
I I I I
0.65
32
30
28 ~
26
24
22
20 ~
18
16
0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85
Mach number
Fi g. 1 . 3 6 C omp ar i s on of d rag CL/CD, end urance factor, and range f act or f or t h e
HP- 1 at l l - k m al t i t ude.
the HP-1 is a maximum at the same Mach number that CL/ Co is maximum due
to the lower TSFC of the high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine [see Eq. (1.36a)].
The Mach number for an altitude giving a maximum range factor is called the
best cruise Mach (BCM). The best cruise Mach normally occurs at a little higher
Mach than that corresponding to (Cc/CD)*. This is because the velocity term in
the range fact or normally dominates over the increase in TSFC with Mach
number. As a first approximation, many use the Mach number corresponding
to (CL/CD)* for the best cruise Mach.
Example 1.8
Calculate the Mach giving maximum CI J CD at 20-kft altitude for the HF-1
aircraft at 90% of maximum gross takeoff weight and a load factor of 1.
Solution: From Fig. 1.24 at M0 < 0.8, Coo = 0.012, K1 = 0.20, and K2 = 0:
C~ = V K1 V ~ = 0.2449
w 0.9 x 40,000 _ 204.16 l bf/ ft 2
q - CLSw -- 0.2449 X 720
M0 = ~ q - - ~ 0 204.16
(y/2)6Pref .7 × 0.4599 × 2116 = 0.547
48 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
1 . 5 . 4 . 5 A c c e l e r a t e d fl ight. For flight conditions when thrust T is great er
than drag D, an expression for the fuel consumpt ion can be obt ained by first
noting from Eq. (1.28) that
T Ps
m ~
W V[1 - ( D + R ) / T]
We define the ratio of drag D + R to thrust T as
D +R
u -- - - (1.49)
T
The preceding equat ion for thrust to weight becomes
T P~
W - - V(1 - u)
(1.50)
Now Eq. (1.35) can be rewritten as
dW TSFC go
m
W V(1 - u) gc
Ps dt
Since P~ dt = dZe, the preceding equation can be expressed in its most useful
forms as
dW TSFC gOdz e - TSFC go ( V 2]
W V-(i----u)gc V- ~ U) ~ c d h + ~ g
/
(1.51)
The t erm 1 - u represent s the fraction of engine power that goes to increasing the
aircraft energy ze, and u represents that fraction that is lost to aircraft drag D + R.
Not e that this equat ion applies for cases when u is not unity. When u is unity,
either Eq. (1.39) or Eq. (1.44) is used.
To obtain the fuel consumpt ion during an accelerat ion flight condition, Eq.
(1.51) can be easily integrated for known flight paths (values of V and Ze) and
known variation of TSFC/ [V(1 - u)] with ze.
1.5.5 A eros pace Vehicle Des i gn~A Team Effort
Aeronaut ical and mechanical engineers in the aerospace field do many things,
but for the most part their efforts all lead to the design of some t ype of aerospace
vehicle. The design t eam for a new aircraft may be divided into four principal
groups: aerodynami cs, propulsion, structures, and flight mechanics. The design
of a vehicle calls on the ext raordinary talents of engineers in each group. Thus
the design is a t eam effort. A t ypical design t eam is shown in Fig. 1.37. The
chi ef engineer serves as the referee and integrates the efforts of everyone into
the vehicle design. Figure 1.38 shows the kind of aircraft design that might
result i f any one group were able to dominat e the others.
INTRODUCTION
Chief engineer
vehicle integration
49
Armament and [
avionics
I
Aerodynamics
group
Aerospace ground
equipment (AGE)
I
Aerodynamic
heating
IJ J r
Propulsion Structures Flight mechanics
group group group
I I I I I I
Engine Inlet Stress Weights Performance Stability
and control
Fi g. 1 . 3 7 O rgani zati on of a typi cal vehi cl e desi gn team.
Controls group
Aerodynamic group
Power plant group
Stress group
Fi g. 1.3 8 Ai rcraft desi gns.
1.6 Rocket Engines
Non-airbreat hing propulsion syst ems are charact erized by the fact that t hey
carry bot h fuel and the oxidizer within the aerospace vehicle. Such syst ems
thus may be used anywhere in space as well as in the at mosphere. Figure 1.39
50 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
~ S ~ Fuel ~ ~
Fuel pump
I Gas
turbine
Oxidizer ~ Oxidizer Combustion
V----q
pump chamber
Fig. 1.39 Li qui d- propel l ant rocket mot or.
shows the essential features of a liquid-propellant rocket system. Two propellants
(an oxidizer and a fuel) are pumped into the combustion chamber where they
ignite. The nozzle accelerates the products of combustion to high velocities
and exhausts them to the atmosphere or space.
A solid-propellant rocket motor is the simplest of all propulsion systems.
Figure 1.40 shows the essential features of this type of system. In this system,
the fuel and oxidizer are mixed together and cast into a solid mass called the
grain. The grain, usually formed with a hole down the middle called the per-
foration, is firmly cemented to the inside of the combustion chamber. After
ignition, the grain burns radially outward, and the hot combustion gases pass
down the perforation and are exhausted through the nozzle.
The absence of a propellant feed system in the solid-propellant rocket is one of
its major advantages. Liquid rockets, on the other hand, may be stopped and later
restarted, and their thrust may be varied somewhat by changing the speed of the
fuel and oxidizer pumps.
1.6.1 Rocket Engine Thrust
A natural starting point in understanding the performance of a rocket is the
examination of the static thrust. Application of the momentum equation devel-
oped in Chapter 2 will show that the static thrust is a function of the propellant
flow rate mp, the exhaust velocity Ve and pressure Pe, the exhaust a r e a Ae, and
the ambient pressure Pa. Figure 1.41 shows a schematic of a stationary rocket
I ~ /
Sol'id ;ropel'lant
. grain . .
Perforation I Nozzle
Fig. 1.40 Sol i d- propel l ant rocket mot or.
I NTRODUCTI ON 51
Y t
X
••
Propellant tank(s)
~ " ~ - ~ , ~ , Ae,
• Ve
Pe
(Y
f ~ 1 " - l
, !
t I"
Forces on control volume
(Pe - Pa)Ae
f
!
t I
Momentum flux for control volume
~ V e
Fi g. 1.41 Schemati c di agram of stati c rocket engi ne.
t o be consi dered for analysis. We assume t he flow to be one-di mensi onal , wi t h a
st eady exit vel oci t y Ve and propel l ant flow rat e rhp. About this r ocket we pl ace a
cont rol vol ume ~r whose cont rol surface int ersect s t he exhaust j et perpendi cul arl y
t hrough the exit pl ane of t he nozzl e. Thrust act s in t he di rect i on opposi t e to the
di rect i on of Ve. The react i on t o the t hrust F necessar y t o hol d t he r ocket and
cont rol vol ume st at i onary is shown in Fig. 1.41.
The moment um equat i on appl i ed t o this syst em gi ves t he fol l owi ng:
1) Sum of forces act i ng on t he out si de surface of t he cont rol vol ume:
y ~ F x =F - ( Pe - Pa) A e
2) The net rate of change of moment um for t he cont rol vol ume:
A( moment um) = 3;/out -- inpVe
gc
Since the sum of t he forces act i ng on t he out si de of the cont rol vol ume
is equal to t he net rate of change of the moment um for t he cont rol vol ume,
we have
F - (Pe - Pa)Ae -- #;rtpVe (1. 52)
gc
52 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
I f the pressure in the exhaust pl ane Pe is t he same as t he ambi ent pressure
Pa, t he t hrust is gi ven by F = rhpVe/gc. The condi t i on Pe = Pa is called
on-design or optimum expansion because it corresponds t o maxi mum t hrust
for t he gi ven chamber condi t i ons. It is conveni ent to define an effective
exhaust velocity C such t hat
(Pe - Pa) Aegc
C ~ Ve -] (1.53)
Thus t he static t hrust of a r ocket can be writ t en as
F = inpC (1.54)
gc
1.6.2 Specific Impul s e
The specific impulse lsp for a r ocket is defined as the thrust per unit of propel-
lant wei ght flow:
F F gc
- - - - ( 1 . 5 5 )
/sp ~Vp lhp g 0
where go is the accel erat i on due t o gravi t y at sea level. The unit Of/sp is the second.
Fr om Eqs. (1.54) and (1.55), t he specific i mpul se can also be wri t t en as
C
Isp = - - (1.56)
go
Ex a m p l e 1 . 9
Fi nd t he specific i mpul se of t he space shuttle mai n engi ne (SSME) shown in
Fig. 1.42a t hat produces 470, 000 l bf in a vacuum wit h a propel l ant wei ght flow of
1030 l bf / s. By usi ng Eq. (1.55), we find that the SSME has a specific impulse Isp
of 456 s ( = 470, 000/ 1030) in vacuum.
An est imat e of t he variat ion in t hrust wit h alt it ude for the space shuttle mai n
engi ne is shown in Fig. 1.42b. The t ypi cal specific impulses f or some rocket
engi nes are listed in Tabl e 1.6. Ot her per f or mance dat a for r ocket engines are
cont ai ned in Appendi x C.
1.6.3 Rocket Vehicle Acceleration
The mass of a rocket vehi cl e vari es a great deal during flight due to the con-
sumpt i on of t he propellant . The vel oci t y t hat a rocket vehi cl e attains during
power ed flight can be det ermi ned by consi deri ng the vehi cl e in Fig. 1.43.
The figure shows an accel erat i ng rocket vehi cl e in a gravi t y field. At some
t ime, t he mass of t he rocket is m and its vel oci t y is V. In an infinit esimal t ime
dt, t he rocket exhaust s an i ncrement al mass dmp wit h an exhaust vel oci t y Ve
INTRODUCTION 53
Fi g. 1. 42a Space shuttle mai n engi ne ( SSM E) .
r el at i ve to t he r ocket as t he r ocket vel oci t y changes t o V + dV. The net change i n
mome nt um of t he cont r ol vol ume cr i s c ompos e d of t he mome nt um out of t he
r ocket at t he exhaust pl us t he change of t he mome nt um of t he r ocket . The
mome nt um out of t he r ocket i n t he V di r ect i on i s - Ve dmp, and t he change i n
t he mome nt um of t he r ocket i n t he V di r ect i on i s m dV. The f or ces act i ng on t he
cont r ol vol ume o" ar e c ompos e d of t he net pr essur e force, t he dr ag D, and t he
gr avi t at i onal force. The s um of t hese f or ces i n t he V di r ect i on i s
) ~ Fv = ( P e - - e a ) A e - - D - m__gg cos 0
gc
The r esul t ant i mpul s e on t he r ocket ()--~ Fv ) d t mus t equal t he mome nt um
change of t he s ys t em A( moment um) = ( - Ve dmp + m dV) / gc. Thus
(Pe - - Pa)Ae - D - mg O] - V e dmp + m d V
- - cos dt =
gc J gc
470
f
460
450
44O
E-
430
420
410
400
0
54 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSI ON
I I I I
20 40 60 80
Altitude (kft)
100
Fi g. 1 . 4 2b R o c k e t t h rus t v ari at i on w i t h al t i t ude.
Fr o m t he pr ecedi ng r el at i onshi p, t he mome nt um change of t he r ocket (m dV) i s
m dV [ (Pe - Pa)Ae - D mg O] Ve -- ---gc cos dt-~ gc (1. 57)
Si nce drop = rnp dt = -(dm/dt)dt, t hen Eq. (1. 57) can be wr i t t en as
m d_Vgc [ (Pe-Pa)Ae + thpVe-D-mgcosOldtgc gc _1
T ab l e 1 . 6 R anges of s peci f i c i mp ul s e l sp f or
t y p i cal r oc k e t engi nes
Fuel / oxi di zer Isp, s
Solid propellant 250
Liquid O2: kerosene (RP) 310
Liquid 02: H2 410
Nuclear fuel: H2 propellant 840
INTRODUCTION
mg
E
Fi g . 1 . 4 3 R o c k e t v e h i c l e i n f l i gh t .
55
By using Eq. (1.53), this relationship becomes
= - - cos dt
gc \ g c gc
or
d V = - C d m Dgc dt _ g c o s Od t (1.58)
m m
The velocit y of a rocket along its trajectory can be det ermined f r om the
preceding equat ion i f C, D, g, and 0 are known.
In the absence of drag and gravit y, integration of Eq. (1.58) gives the follow-
ing, assuming constant effect ive exhaust velocit y C:
A V : C f mt (1.59)
mf
where AV is the change in velocity, m i is the initial mass of the rocket syst em, and
mf i s the final mass. Equat ion (1.59) can be solved for the mass ratio as
m i A V
- - = exp (1.60)
my C
56 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
Example 1.10
We want to est imat e the mass ratio (final to initial) of an H2-O2 (C = 4000 m/ s )
rocket for an Earth orbit (AV = 8000 m/ s), neglecting drag and gravity. Using
Eq. (1.59), we obtain mf/mt = e - 2 = 0.132, or a single-stage rocket would be
about 13% payload and structure and 87% propellant.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
Pr obl e ms
Calculate the uninstalled thrust for Exampl e 1.1, using Eq. (1.6).
Devel op the following analytical expressions for a turbojet engine:
(a) When the fuel flow rate is very small in compari son with the air mass
flow rate, the exit pressure is equal to ambient pressure, and the
installation loss coefficients are zero, then the installed thrust T is
given by
T = __/n° (Ve -- Vo)
gc
(b) For the preceding conditions, the thrust specific fuel consumpt ion is
given by
Tgc//no + 2V0
TSFC - -
2"OThpR
(C) For Vo = 0 and 500 f t / s, plot the preceding equat ion for TSFC
[in ( l bm/ h) / l bf ] vs specific thrust T/rho [in l bf / ( l bm/ s) ] for values
of specific thrust from 0 to 120. Use ~ r = 0.4 and hpR = 18,400
Bt u/ l bm.
(d) Explain the trends.
Repeat 1.2c, using SI units. For Vo = 0 and 150 m/ s , plot TSFC [in ( mg/
s)/ N] vs specific thrust T/rho [in N/ ( kg/ s ) ] for values of specific thrust
from 0 to 1200. Use ~T = 0.4 and hpR = 42,800 kJ/ kg.
A J57 t urbojet engine is t est ed at sea-level, static, standard-day conditions
(Po = 14.696 psia, To = 518.7°R, and Vo = 0). At one test point, the
thrust is 10,200 l bf while the airflow is 164 l bm/ s and the fuel flow is
8520 l bm/ h. Using these data, est imat e the exit velocit y Ve for the case
of exit pressure equal to ambi ent pressure (Po = Pe).
The thrust for a turbofan engine with separate exhaust st reams is equal to
the sum of the thrust from the engine core Fc and the thrust from the
bypass st ream Fs. The bypass ratio of the engine a is the ratio of the
mass flow through the bypass st ream to the core mass flow, or
a =--/nM/nc. When the exit pressures are equal to the ambient pressure,
1. 6
1.7
1. 8
1.9
INTRODUCTION 57
the thrusts of the core and bypass stream are given by
I
Fc = - - [(rhc + Fnf )Vce - thcVo]
gc
rnB
FB = - - ( V B e -- VO)
gc
where Vce and Vse are the exit velocities from the core and bypass,
respectively, Vo is the inlet velocity, and rnf is the mass flow rate of fuel
burned in the core of the engine.
Show that the specific thrust and thrust specific fuel consumpt ion can be
expressed as
F _ 1 C+i nf / t h c ol )
l~lo gc "-1--~-'-~ Wce "q'- " ] - ' ~ wBe - VO
s =' hs - , ns/ , hc
F (F/rh0)(1 + c0
where rno = rhc + rh~.
The CF6 turbofan engine has a rated thrust of 40,000 l bf at a fuel flow rate
of 13,920 l bm/ h at sea-level static conditions. If the core airflow rate is
225 l bm/ s and the bypass ratio is 6.0, what are the specific thrust [l bf/
(Ibm/s)] and thrust specific fuel consumption [(l bm/ h)/ l bf]?
The JT9D high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine at maxi mum static thrust
(Vo = 0) on a sea-level, standard day (Po = 14.696 psia, To = 518.7°R)
has the following data: the air mass flow rate through the core is
247 Ibm/ s, the air mass flow rate through the fan bypass duct is
1248 Ibm/ s, the exit velocit y from the core is 1190 ft / s, the exit velocit y
from the bypass duct is 885 ft / s, and the fuel flow rate into the combust or
is 15,750 l bm/ h. Estimate the following for the case of exit pressures
equal to ambient pressure (Po = Pe):
(a) The thrust of the engine
(b) The thermal efficiency of the engine (heating value of j et fuel is about
18,400 Bt u/ l bm)
(c) The propulsive efficiency and thrust specific fuel consumption of the
engine
Repeat Problem 1.7, using SI units.
One advanced afterburning fighter engine, whose performance is depicted
in Figs. 1. 14a-1. 14e, is installed in the HF-1 fighter aircraft. Using the air-
craft drag data of Fig. 1.26b, determine and plot the variation of weight
specific excess power (Ps in feet per second) vs flight Mach number for
58 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
1.10
1.11
1 . 1 2
1.13
1 . 1 4
1 . 1 5
1 . 1 6
level flight (n = 1) at 36-kft altitude. Assume the installation losses are
constant wit h values of ~bi nl e t = 0.05 and ~bnoz = 0.02.
Det ermi ne the t akeoff speed of the HF-1 aircraft.
Det ermi ne the t akeoff speed of the HP-1 aircraft at 90% of maxi mum
gross t akeoff weight.
Deri ve Eqs. (1.47) and (1.48) for maxi mum CL/Co. Start by taking the
derivat ive of Eq. (1.46) wit h respect to CL and finding the expression
for the lift coefficient that gives maxi mum CL/Co.
Show that for maxi mum CL/CD, the corresponding drag coefficient CD is
gi ven by
CD = 2CDo + K2 C~
An aircraft with a wing area of 800 f t 2 is in level flight (n = 1) at
maxi mum CL/Co. Gi ven that the drag coefficients for the aircraft are
Coo = 0.02, K2 = 0, and K1 = 0.2, find
(a) The maxi mum CL/CD and the corresponding values of CL and CD
(b) The flight altitude [use Eqs. (1.29) and (1.30b)] and aircraft drag for
an aircraft weight of 45,000 l bf at Mach 0.8
(c) The flight altitude and aircraft drag for an aircraft weight of
35,000 l bf at Mach 0.8
(d) The range for an installed engine thrust specific fuel consumpt ion
rate of 0.8 ( l bm/ h) / l bf , i f the 10, 000-1bf difference in aircraft
weight bet ween parts b and c is due only to fuel consumpt ion
An aircraft weighing 110,000 N with a wing area of 42 m 2 is in level
flight (n = 1) at the maxi mum value of CL/Co. Given that the drag coeffi-
cients for the aircraft are CDo = 0.03, K2 = 0, and g l = 0. 25, find the
following:
(a) The maxi mum CL/CD and the corresponding values of CL and Co
(b) The flight altitude [use Eqs. (1.29) and (1.30b)] and aircraft drag at
Mach 0.5
(c) The flight altitude and aircraft drag at Mach 0.75
The Breguet range equation [Eq. (1.45b)] applies for a cruise climb flight
profile with constant RF. Anot her range equat ion can be developed for a
level cruise flight profile wit h varying RF. Consider the case where we
keep CL, Co, and TSFC const ant and vary the flight velocit y with aircraft
INTRODUCTION 59
1.17
1 . 1 8
weight by the expression
/ --2g c W
v = v --C wcSw
Using the subscripts i and f for the initial and final flight conditions,
respectively, show the following:
(a) Substitution of this expression for flight velocit y into Eq. (1.42) gives
dW "v/Wi
- - ds
gFi
(b) Integration of the preceding bet ween the initial i and final f con-
ditions gives
, s ] 2
Wi 2(/~Fi)
(c) For a given weight fraction Wf/Wi, the maxi mum range s for this
level cruise flight corresponds to starting the flight at the maxi mum
altitude (minimum density) and maxi mum value of vr-C-L/Co.
(d) For the drag coefficient equation of Eq. (1.32), maxi mum ~'CZ/Co
corresponds to CL = (1/6K1)(x/12K1Coo + K~ - K2).
An aircraft begins a cruise at a wing loading W/Sw of 100 l bf / f t 2 and Mach
0.8. The drag coefficients a r e K 1 = 0 . 0 5 6 , K 2 = - 0 . 0 0 8 , and Coo = 0.014,
and the fuel consumption TSFC is constant at 0.8 (l bm/ h)/ l bf . For a
weight fraction Wf/Wi of 0.9, det ermine the range and other parameters
for t wo different types of cruise.
(a) For a cruise climb (maximum CL/CD) flight path, det ermine CL, Co,
initial and final altitudes, and range.
(b) For a level cruise (maximum ~-CZ/Co) flight path, det ermine CL,
Co, altitude, initial and final velocities, and range.
An aircraft weighing 70,000 l bf with a wing area of 1000 ft 2 is in level
flight (n = 1) at 30-kft altitude. Using the drag coefficients of Fig. 1.24
and the TSFC model of Eq. (1.36b), find the following:
(a) The maximum CL/CD and the corresponding values of CL, Co, and
Mach number (Note: Since the drag coefficients are a function of
Mach number and it is an unknown, you must first guess a value
for the Mach number to obtain the drag coefficients. Try a Mach
number of 0.8 for your first guess.)
(b) The CL, CD, CL/CD, range factor, endurance factor, and drag for
flight Mach numbers of 0.74, 0.76, 0.78, 0.80, 0.81, and 0.82
60 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
(c) The best cruise Mach ( maxi mum RF)
(d) The best loiter Mach ( maxi mum EF)
1.19 An aircraft weighing 200,000 N wit h a wing area of 60 m 2 is in level flight
(n = 1) at 9-kin altitude. Using the drag coefficients of Fig. 1.24 and TSFC
model of Eq. (1.36b), find the following:
(a) The maxi mum CL/C D and the corresponding values of CL, CD, and
Mach number (Note: Since the drag coefficients are a function of the
Mach number and it is an unknown, you must first guess a value for
the Mach number to obtain the drag coefficients. Try a Mach number
of 0.8 for your first guess.)
(b) The CL, CD, CL/CD, range factor, endurance factor, and drag for
flight Mach numbers of 0.74, 0.76, 0.78, 0.80, 0.81, and 0.82
(c) The best cruise Mach ( maxi mum RF)
(d) The best loiter Mach ( maxi mum EF)
1.20 What is the specific impulse in seconds of the JT9D t urbofan engine in
Probl em 1.7?
1.21 A rocket mot or is fired in place on a static test stand. The rocket exhausts
100 l bm/ s at an exit velocit y of 2000 f t / s and pressure of 50 psia. The exit
area of the rocket is 0.2 ft 2. For an ambient pressure of 14.7 psia, deter-
mine the effect ive exhaust velocit y, the thrust transmitted to the test
stand, and the specific impulse.
1. 22 A rocket mot or under static testing exhausts 50 kg/ s at an exit velocit y
of 800 m/ s and pressure of 350 kPa. The exit area of the rocket is
0.02 m 2. For an ambi ent pressure of 100 kPa, det ermine the effective
exhaust velocit y, the thrust t ransmit t ed to the test stand, and the specific
impulse.
1.23
1 . 24
The propellant weight of an orbiting space syst em amount s to 90% of the
syst em gross weight. Given that the syst em rocket engine has a specific
impulse of 300 s, determine:
(a) The maxi mum attainable velocit y i f all the propellant is burned and
the syst em' s initial velocit y is 7930 m/ s
(b) The propellant mass flow rate, given that the rocket engine thrust is
1 , 67 0 , 0 0 0 N
A chemi cal rocket mot or with a specific impulse of 400 s is used in the
final stage of a multistage launch vehicle for deep-space exploration.
This final st age has a mass ratio (initial to final) of 6, and its single
rocket mot or is first fired while it orbits the Eart h at a velocit y of
26,000 ft / s. The final stage must reach a vel oci t y of 36,700 f t / s to
escape the Ear t h' s gravitational field. Det ermi ne the percent age of fuel
that must be used to perform this maneuver (neglect gravit y and drag).
1 . D1
INTRODUCTION 61
Gas Turbine Design Problems
Background (HP-1 aircraft). You are to det ermine the thrust and fuel
consumpt i on requirement s of the t wo engines for the hypot het ical pas-
senger aircraft, the HP-1. The t win-engine aircraft will cruise at 0.83
Mach and be capabl e of the following requirements:
1) Takeof f at maxi mum gross t akeoff weight WTo from an airport at
1.6-km pressure altitude on a hot day (38°C) uses a 3650-m
(12-kft) runway. The craft is able to maint ain a 2.4% single-engine
cl i mb gradient in the event of engine failure at liftoff.
2) It transports 253 passengers and luggage (90 kg each) over a still-air
dist ance of 11,120 km (6000 n mile). It has 30 mi n of fuel in reserve
at end (loiter).
3) It attains an initial altitude of 11 km at beginning of cruise
(Ps = 1.5 m/ s) .
4) The single-engine craft cruises at 5-km altitude at 0.45 Mach
(Ps = 1.5 m/ s).
All of the data for the HP-1 cont ained in Exampl e 1.2 apply. Prelimi-
nary mission analysis of the HP-1 using the met hods of Ref. 12 for the
l l , 120- km flight with 253 passengers and luggage (22, 770-kg payl oad)
gives the preliminary fuel use shown in Tabl e P1.D1.
Anal ysi s of t akeoff indicates that each engine must produce an
installed thrust of 214 kN on a hot day (38°C) at 0.1 Mach and 1.6-km
pressure altitude. To provi de for reasonable-lengt h landing gear, the
maxi mum di amet er of the engine inlet is limit ed to 2.2 m. Based on stan-
dard design pract ice (see Chapt er 10), the maxi mum mass flow rate per
unit area is given by
A--=rh 231.8_~o~0 ° ( kg/ s ) / m2
T ab l e P1 . D1
Distance, Fuel used,
Description km kg
Taxi 200 a
Takeoff 840 a
Climb and acceleration 330 5 , 8 8 0 a
Cruise 10,650 50,240
Descent 140 1,090 a
Loiter (30 min at 9-km altitude) 2,350
Land and taxi 6 0 0 a
11,120 61,200
aThese fuel consumptions can be considered to be constant.
62 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
1 . D2
Thus on a hot day (38°C) at 0.1 Mach and 1.6-km pressure altitude,
0 = (38 + 273. 1)/288. 2 = 1.079, 00 = 1.079 x 1.002 = 1.081,
8 = 0.8256, 6o = 0.8256 x 1.007 = 0.8314, and the maxi mum mass
flow through t he 2. 2-m-diam inlet is 704.6 kg/ s.
Calculations (HP-1 Aircraft).
1) I f the HP-1 starts out the cruise at 11 km with a weight of
1, 577, 940N, find the allowable TSFC for the distance of
10,650 km for the following cases:
(a) Assume the aircraft performs a cruise cl i mb (flies at a constant
Co/CL). What is its altitude at the end of the cruise climb?
(b) Assume the aircraft cruises at a const ant altitude of 11 km. Deter-
mi ne Co/CL at the start and end of cruise. Using the average of
these t wo values, calculat e the allowable TSFC.
2) Det ermi ne the loiter (endurance) Mach numbers for altitudes of 10, 9,
8, 7, and 6 km when the HP-1 aircraft is at 64% of WTO.
3) Det ermi ne the aircraft drag at the following points in the HP-1
ai rcraft ' s l l , 120-km flight based on the fuel consumpt ions just
listed:
(a) Takeoff, M = 0.23, sea level
(b) Start of cruise, M = 0.83, 11 km
(c) End of cruise climb, M = 0.83, altitude = ? ft
(d) End of 11-km cruise, M = 0.83, 11 km
(e) Engi ne out (88% of WTO), M = 0.45, 5 km
Background (HF-1 Aircraft). You are to det ermi ne the thrust and fuel
consumpt ion requirement s of the two engines for the hypothetical
fighter aircraft HF-1. This t win-engine fighter will supercruise at 1.6
Mach and will be capable of the following requirements:
1) Takeof f at maxi mum gross t akeoff weight WTO from a 1200-ft
(366-m) runway at sea level on a standard day.
2) Supercruise at 1.6 Mach and 40-kft altitude for 250 nm (463 km) at
92% of WTO.
3) Perform 5-g t ums at 1.6 Mach and 30-kft altitude at 88% of WTO.
4) Perform 5-g t ums at 0.9 Mach and 30-kft altitude at 88% of WTO-
5) Perform the maxi mum mission listed in the following.
All of the data for the HF-1 contained in Exampl e 1.2 apply. Pre-
liminary mission analysis of the HF-1 using the met hods of Ref. 12
for the maxi mum mission gives the prel i mi nary fuel use shown in
Tabl e P1.D2:
Analysis of t akeoff indicates that each engine must produce an
installed thrust of 23,500 l bf on a standard day at 0.1 Mach and sea-level
altitude. To provi de for opt i mum integration into the airframe, the
maxi mum area of the engine inlet is limited to 5 ft 2. Based on standard
design pract ice (see Chapt er 10), the maxi mum mass flow rate per unit
INTRODUCTION
T ab l e P1 . D2
63
Distance, Fuel used,
Description nm Ibm
Warmup, taxi, takeoff
Climb and acceleration to 0.9 Mach and 40 kft
Accelerate from 0.9 to 1.6 Mach
Supercruise at 1.6 Mach and 40 kft
Deliver payload of 2000 lbf
Perform one 5-g turn at 1.6 Mach and 30 kft
Perform two 5-g turns at 0.9 Mach and 30 kft
Climb to best cruise altitude and 0.9 Mach
Cruise climb at 0.9 Mach
Loiter (20 min at 30-kft altitude)
Land
700 a
35 1 , 8 0 0 a
12 7 0 0 a
203 4,400
0 0 a
0 1,000 a
0 700 a
23 400 a
227 1,600
1,100
0 a
500 12,400
~These f uel c o n s u mp t i o n s c a n be c ons i de r e d t o be cons t ant .
ar ea f or subsoni c fl i ght condi t i ons i s gi ven by
rn 4 7 . 5 ~ ( l b m/ s ) / f t 2
A
Thus at 0.1 Mach and s ea- l evel st andar d day, 0 = 1.0, 0o = 1.002,
6 = 1.0, 6 0 - - 1 . 0 0 7 , and t he ma x i mu m mas s fl ow t hr ough t he 5-ft 2
i nl et i s 238. 9 l b m/ s . For super soni c fl i ght condi t i ons, t he ma x i mu m
mas s fl ow r at e per uni t ar ea i s s i mpl y t he dens i t y of t he ai r p t i mes it s
vel oci t y V.
Calculations (HF-1 Aircraft).
1) I f t he HF- 1 st art s t he super cr ui se
2)
3)
at 4 0 k f t wi t h a wei ght of
36, 800 l bf, fi nd t he al l owabl e TSFC f or t he di s t ance of 203 nm f or
t he f ol l owi ng cases:
(a) As s ume t he ai r cr af t per f or ms a cr ui se cl i mb (fl i es at a const ant
Co/CL). Wha t i s i t s al t i t ude at t he end of t he cr ui se cl i mb?
(b) As s ume t he ai r cr af t cr ui ses at a const ant al t i t ude of 40 kft . Det er -
mi ne CD/CL at t he st art and end of crui se. Us i ng t he aver age of
t hese t wo val ues, cal cul at e t he al l owabl e TSFC.
Fi nd t he bes t cr ui se al t i t ude f or t he subsoni c r et ur n cr ui se at 0. 9 Mach
and 70. 75% of WTo.
Det er mi ne t he l oi t er ( endur ance) Ma c h number s f or al t i t udes of 32,
30, 28, 26, and 24 kf t when t he HF- 1 ai r cr af t i s at 67% of WTo.
64 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION
4)
Det er mi ne t he ai r cr af t dr ag at t he f ol l owi ng poi nt s i n t he HF- 1 ai r-
cr af t ' s ma xi mum mi s s i on bas ed on t he f uel cons umpt i ons j us t l i st ed:
(a) Takeof f , M = 0. 172, sea l evel
(b) St ar t of super cr ui se, M = 1.6, 40 kf t
(c) End of super cr ui se cl i mb, M = 1.6, al t i t ude = ? ft
(d) End of 40- kf t super cr ui se, M = 1.6, 40 kf t
(e) St art of subsoni c cr ui se, M = 0.9, al t i t ude --- best cr ui se al t i t ude
(f) St ar t o f l oi t er, al t i t ude = 30 kf t