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I n t r o d u c t i o n

1.1 Propulsion

The Random House College Dictionary defines propulsion as "the act of

propelling, the state of being propelled, a propelling force or impulse" and defines

the verb propel as "to drive, or cause to move, forward or onward. ''1 From these

definitions, we can conclude that the study of propulsion includes the study of the

propelling force, the motion caused, and the bodies involved. Propulsion involves

an object to be propelled plus one or more additional bodies, called propellant.

The study of propulsion is concerned with vehicles such as automobiles,

trains, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft. The focus of this textbook is on the propul-

sion of aircraft and spacecraft. Methods devised to produce a thrust force for the

propulsion of a vehicle in flight are based on the principle of j et propulsion (the

momentum change of a fluid by the propulsion system). The fluid may be the gas

used by the engine itself (e.g., turbojet), it may be a fluid available in the sur-

rounding environment (e.g., air used by a propeller), or it may be stored in the

vehicle and carried by it during the flight (e.g., rocket).

Jet propulsion systems can be subdivided into two broad categories:

airbreathing and non-airbreathing. Airbreathing propulsion systems include the

reciprocating, turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, turboprop, and turboshaft engines.

Non-airbreathing engines include rocket motors, nuclear propulsion systems,

and electric propulsion systems. We focus on gas turbine propulsion systems

(turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft engines) in this textbook.

The material in this textbook is divided into three parts:

1) Basic concepts and one-dimensional gas dynamics,

2) Analysis and performance of airbreathing propulsion systems, and

3) Analysis of gas turbine engine components.

This chapter introduces the types of airbreathing and rocket propulsion

systems and the basic propulsion performance parameters. Also included is an

introduction to aircraft and rocket performance. The material on aircraft perform-

ance shows the influence of the gas turbine engine on the performance of the air-

craft system. This material also permits incorporation of a gas turbine engine

design problem such as new engines for an existing aircraft.

Numerous examples are included throughout this book to help students see the

application of a concept after it is introduced. For some students, the material on

basic concepts and gas dynamics will be a review of material covered in other

2 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

courses t hey have al ready taken. For ot her students, this may be their first

exposur e t o this mat eri al , and it ma y requi re mor e effort t o underst and.

1. 2 Uni t s and Di mensi ons

Si nce the engi neeri ng wor l d uses bot h the met ri c SI and Engl i sh unit system,

bot h will be used in this t ext book. One si ngul ar di st i nct i on exists bet ween the

Engl i sh syst em and SI - - t h e uni t o f f or ce is defined in the f or mer but deri ved

in t he latter. Ne wt on' s second l aw of mot i on relates f or ce to mass, length, and

time. It states t hat t he sum of the f or ces is proport i onal t o the rate of change of

t he mome nt um ( M = mV). The const ant of proport i onal i t y is 1/gc:

~ - ~ F - - 1 d ( mV ) _ 1 dM

(1.1)

gc dt gc dt

The units f or each t er m in the pr ecedi ng equat i on are listed in Tabl e 1.1 for bot h

SI and Engl i sh units. I n any uni t syst em, onl y four of t he five i t ems in the table

can be specified, and the latter is deri ved f r om Eq. (1.1).

As a result of sel ect i ng gc = 1 and defi ni ng the units of mass, length, and t i me

in SI units, the uni t of force is deri ved f r om Eq. (1.1) as ki l ogr am- met er s per

square second ( kg. m/ s2) , whi ch is cal l ed the newton (N). In Engl i sh units, the

val ue of g~ is deri ved f r om Eq. (1.1) as

gc = 32. 174 f t . l bm/ ( l bf - s 2)

Rat her t han adopt t he convent i on used in many recent t ext books of devel opi ng

mat eri al or use wi t h only SI met ri c units (gc = 1), we will mai nt ai n g~ in all

our equations. Thus g¢ will also show up in the equat i ons for potential energy

(PE) and kinetic energy (KE):

PE - - mgz

gc

mV 2

KE =

2go

The total ener gy per unit mass e is t he sum of the specific internal ener gy u,

specific ki net i c ener gy ke, and speci fi c pot ent i al ener gy pe:

V 2 gz

e =-- u + k e + pe = u + x - - - + - -

zgc gc

Ther e are a mul t i t ude of engi neer i ng units f or the quantities of interest in

propul si on. For exampl e, ener gy can be expressed in the SI uni t of j oul e

Table 1.1 Uni ts and di mensi ons

Unit system Force gc Mass Length Time

SI Derived 1 Kilogram, kg Meter, m Second, s

English Pound-force, lbf Derived Pound-mass, Ibm Foot, ft Second, s

INTRODUCTION 3

(1 J = 1 N. m) , i n B r i t i s h t h e r ma l u n i t s ( Bt u ) , o r i n f o o t - p o u n d f o r c e ( f t - l b f ) .

On e mu s t b e a b l e t o u s e t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a i n t h e u n i t s p r o v i d e d a n d c o n v e r t

t h e u n i t s wh e n r e q u i r e d . T a b l e 1. 2 i s a u n i t c o n v e r s i o n t a b l e p r o v i d e d t o h e l p

y o u i n y o u r e n d e a v o r s .

Tabl e 1. 2 Uni t convers i on t abl e

Un i t Co n v e r s i o n

L e n g t h 1 m = 3. 2808 f t = 39. 37 i n.

1 k m = 0. 621 mi l e

1 mi l e = 5 2 8 0 f t = 1. 609 kr n

1 nm -= 6 0 8 0 f t ----- 1. 853 k m

Ar e a 1 m 2 = 10. 764 f t 2

1 c m 2 = 0. 155 i n. 2

Vo l u me 1 ga l = 0 . 1 3 3 6 8 f t 3 = 3. 785 l i t er

1 l i t er = 10 - 3 m 3 = 61. 02 i n. 3

T i me 1 h = 3 6 0 0 s = 60 mi n

Ma s s 1 k g = 1000 g = 2 . 2 0 4 6 I b m = 6. 8521 x 10 - 2 s l u g

1 s l u g = 1 l b f . s 2 / f t = 32. 174 I b m

De n s i t y 1 s l u g / f t 3 = 5 1 2 . 3 8 k g / m 3

For c e 1 N = 1 k g . m/ s 2

1 l b f = 4 . 4 4 8 N

En e r g y 1 J = 1 N. m = l k g . m2 / s 2

1 Bt u = 7 7 8 . 1 6 f t . l b f = 2 5 2 cal = 1055 J

1 cal = 4 . 1 8 6 J

1 kJ = 0 . 9 4 7 8 1 3 Bt u = 0 . 2 3 8 8 4 kc a l

P o we r 1 W = 1 J / s - - I k g . | n 2 / S 3

1 h p = 5 5 0 f t - l b f / s = 2545 B t u / h = 7 4 5 . 7 W

1 k W = 3 4 1 2 B t u / h = 1. 341 h p

Pr e s s u r e ( s t r e s s ) 1 a t m = 14. 696 l b / i n . 2 or ps i = 760 t or r = 101, 325 Pa

1 a t m = 30. 0 i n Hg = 4 0 7 . 2 i n H2 0

1 ks i = 1000 ps i

1 mmHg = 0 . 0 1 9 3 4 ps i = 1 ton"

1 Pa = 1 N/ m 2

1 i n Hg ----- 3376. 8 Pa

En e r g y pe r u n i t ma s s 1 k J / k g = 0 . 4 2 9 9 B t u / l b m

Spe c i f i c h e a t 1 k J / ( k g . °C) = 0 . 2 3 8 8 4 B t u / ( l b m. °F)

Te mp e r a t u r e 1 K = 1. 8° R

K = 273. 15 + ° C

° R = 4 5 9 . 6 9 + ° F

Te mp e r a t u r e c h a n g e 1 ° C = 1. 8° F

Spe c i f i c t hr us t 1 l b f / ( l b m/ s ) = 9. 8067 N/ ( k g / s )

Speci f i c p o we r 1 h p / ( l b m/ s ) = 1. 644 k W/ ( k g / s )

Th r u s t s pe c i f i c f ue l 1 l b m/ ( l b f - h) = 28. 325 mg / ( N, s)

c o n s u mp t i o n ( TSFC)

P o we r s pe c i f i c f ue l 1 l b m/ ( h p - h ) ---- 168. 97 mg / ( k W, s)

c o n s u mp t i o n

S t r e n g t h / we i g h t r at i o (o/p) 1 k s i / ( s l u g / f t 3) = 144 f t 2 / s 2 = 13. 38 m2 / s 2

4 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

1.3 Operational Envel opes and Standard At mosphere

Each engine type will operate only within a certain range of altitudes and

Mach numbers (velocities). Similar limitations in vel oci t y and altitude exist for

airframes. It is necessary, therefore, to mat ch airframe and propulsion syst em

capabilities. Figure 1.1 shows the approxi mat e vel oci t y and altitude limits, or

corridor o f flight, within which airlift vehicles can operate. The corridor is

bounded by a lift limit, a temperature limit, and an aerodynamic f orce limit.

The lift limit is determined by the maxi mum level-flight altitude at a given

velocity. The t emperat ure limit is set by the structural thermal limits of the

material used in construction of the aircraft. At any gi ven altitude, the maxi mum

velocity attained is t emperat ure-l i mi t ed by aerodynami c heating effects. At lower

altitudes, velocity is limited by aerodynami c force loads rather than by

temperature.

The operating regions of all aircraft lie within the flight corridor. The operat-

ing region of a particular aircraft within the corridor is determined by aircraft

design, but it is a very small portion of the overall corridor. Superimposed on

the flight corridor in Fig. 1.1 are the operational envel opes of various powered

aircraft. The operational limits of each propulsion syst em are determined by

limitations of the component s of the propulsion syst em and are shown in Fig. 1.2.

The analyses presented in this text use the properties of the atmosphere to deter-

mi ne bot h engine and airframe performance. Since these properties vary with

location, season, t i me of day, etc., we will use the U.S. standard atmosphere 2 to

give a known foundation for our analyses. Appendi x A gives the properties of

the U.S. standard atmosphere, 1976, in both English and SI units. Values of the

pressure P, t emperat ure T, density p, and speed of sound a are given in dimen-

sionless ratios of the property at altitude to its value at sea level (SL), the

reference value. The dimensionless ratios of pressure, temperature, and density

f

Helicopter

Lift (stall) limit / " \ ~a~,m~L / ~5

\ ' r°c e 7

"~Upperlimit ~1 / .~

/ < , t u r b o f a n / /

/ \~ \, / Temperature

I

Uppe r - l i mi ~ # limit

turboprop I I

• . I I J Limited by

Upper-llml.t "~"1 I . , , ~ aerodynamic

piston engine I [ / force loads •

Mach number

Fi g. 1.1 Fl i ght limits.

INTRODUCTION 5

- • Piston engine and propeller

Turboprop

Turbofan t

Turbojet t

Ramjet

I I I I I

1 2 3 4 0

Flight Mach number

F i g . 1.2

I Piston engine and propeller

f Turboprop

Turbofan t

Turbojet /

Ramjet

I I I I I

20 40 60 80 100

Altitude (1000 ft)

E n g i n e o p e r a t i o n a l l i m i t s .

are gi ven t he symbol s 8, 0, and ~r, respect i vel y. These ratios are defined as

fol l ows:

P

a -~ (1. 2)

Pt~f

T

0 = (1.3)

Tref

P

~r =-- - - (1. 4)

Pref

The reference val ues of pressure, t emperat ure, and densi t y are gi ven f or each uni t

syst em at t he end o f its pr oper t y table.

For nonst andar d condi t i ons such as a hot day, the nor mal pr ocedur e is t o use

t he st andard pressure and cor r ect t he densi t y, usi ng the perfect gas rel at i onshi p

~r = 8/0. As an exampl e, we consi der a 100°F day at 4- kf t altitude. Fr om Appen-

di x A, we have 8 = 0. 8637 f or the 4- kf t altitude. We cal cul at e 0, usi ng t he 100°F

t emperat ure; 0 = T / T r e f = ( 1 0 0 + 4 5 9 . 7 ) / 5 1 8 . 7 = 1.079. Not e t hat absol ut e

t emperat ures must be used in cal cul at i ng 0. Then t he densi t y ratio is cal cul at ed

usi ng ~r-- 8/ 0 = 0. 8637/ 1. 079 = 0. 8005.

1.4 Airbreathing Engines

The t urboj et , t urbofan, t urboprop, t urboshaft , and r amj et engi ne syst ems

are di scussed in this part o f Chapt er 1. The di scussi on of t hese engi nes is in

t he cont ext o f pr ovi di ng thrust f or aircraft. The listed engi nes are not all t he

engi ne t ypes (reci procat i ng, rocket s, combi nat i on t ypes, etc.) t hat are used i n

pr ovi di ng pr opul si ve thrust t o aircraft, nor are t hey used excl usi vel y on aircraft.

The thrust o f t he t urboj et and ramj et results f r om the act i on of a fluid j et l eavi ng

t he engi ne; hence, the name j et engine is of t en appl i ed t o t hese engi nes. The

6 E L E M E N T S OF P R O P U L S I O N

turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft engines are adaptations of the turbojet to

supply thrust or power through the use of fans, propellers, and shafts.

1.4.1 Gas Generator

The "heart" of a gas turbine type of engine is the gas generator. A schematic

diagram of a gas generator is shown in Fig. 1.3. The compressor, combustor, and

turbine are the maj or components of the gas generator which is common to the

turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft engines. The purpose of a gas gen-

erator is to supply high-temperature and high-pressure gas.

1.4.2 Turboj et

By addi ng an i nl et and a nozzl e t o the gas generator, a t ur boj et engi ne can be

constructed. A schematic diagram of a simple turbojet is shown in Fig. 1.4a, and a

turbojet with afterburner is shown in Fig. 1.4b. In the analysis of a turbojet

engine, the maj or component s are treated as sections. Also shown in Figs. 1.4a

and 1.4b are the station numbers for each section.

The turbojet was first used as a means of aircraft propulsion by von Ohain (first

flight August 27, 1939) and Whittle (first flight May 15, 1941). As devel opment

proceeded, the turbojet engine became more efficient and replaced some of the

piston engines. A phot ograph of the J79 turbojet with afterburner used in the

F-4 Phant om II and B-58 Hustler is shown in Fig. 1.5.

The adaptations of the turbojet in the form of turbofan, turboprop, and tur-

boshaft engines came with the need for more thrust at relatively low speeds.

Some characteristics of different turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft

engines are included in Appendix B.

I ~ Gas generator

I - r

)

U

r

b

Compressor Combustor i

n

e

2 4 5

Fig. 1.3 Schematic diagram of gas generator.

INTRODUCTION 7

q

Gas generator

Inlet

Fi g. 1.4a

Low-pressure Combustor H L Nozzle

compressor pressure P

compressor T

2 2.5 3 4 4.5 8

HPT = High-pressure turbine

LPT = Low-pressure turbine

Sc he ma t i c di agr am o f a t urboj et (dual axi al c o mpr e s s o r and t urbi ne) .

The thrust of a turbojet is developed by compressing air in the inlet and com-

pressor, mi xi ng the air with fuel and burni ng in the combustor, and expanding the

gas stream through the turbine and nozzle. The expansion of gas through the

turbine supplies the power to turn the compressor. The net thrust delivered by

the engine is the result of converting internal energy to kinetic energy.

The pressure, temperature, and velocity variations through a J79 engi ne are

shown in Fig. 1.6. In the compressor section, the pressure and temperature

increase as a result of work being done on the air. The temperature of the gas

9

Gas generator

Spray bar

4.5

P

HPT = High-pressure turbine

LPT = Low-pressure turbine

Fi g. 1. 4b Sc he mat i c di agr am o f a t urboj et wi t h af t erburner.

8 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

Fig. 1.5 General Electric J79 turbojet with afterburner. (Courtesy of General

Electric Aircraft Engines.)

is further increased by burning fuel in the combustor. In the turbine section, energy

is being removed from the gas stream and converted to shaft power to turn the

compressor. The energy is removed by an expansion process that results in a

decrease of temperature and pressure. In the nozzle, the gas stream is further

expanded to produce a high exit kinetic energy. All the sections of the engine

must operate in such a way as to efficiently produce the greatest amount of

thrust for a minimum of weight.

200 - 2400 r 2000

175 - 2100P 1600

150 - 18001,- 1200

125 - 1500[- 1000

100 - 12001- 800

75- 9001- 600

50- 6001- 400

25- 3001- 200

O- 0 L- 0

©

a. E

#

/

Vel oci t y z / •

x

k4-

/I ~ "

\

/

__ Afterbuming f

operat i on ~/

, - - Military ~e~v/, ,

\ operat i on ~/ /,

(no AB) / / "

/:

I' Compressor , I 0 Combustor ] Turbine I~ Exhaust , ]

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ % ~ ~ ' Exhaus t gas es

i f

Fig. 1.6 Property variation through the General Electric J79 afterburning turbojet

engine. (Courtesy of General Electric Aircraft Engines.)

INTRODUCTION 9

1.4.3 Turbofan

The turbofan engi ne consists of an inlet, fan, gas generator, and nozzle.

A schematic diagram of a turbofan is shown in Fig. 1.7. In the turbofan, a

portion of the turbine work is used to supply power to the fan. Generally the

turbofan engi ne is more economical and efficient than the turbojet engi ne in

13 17

18

I

Nozzl e

Inlel

0 2

Fig. 1.7

2.5 3 4 4.5 5 7 8

HPT = High-pressure turbine

LPT = Low-pressure turbine

Schematic diagram of a high-bypass-ratio turbofan.

Fig. 1.8a Pratt & Whitney JT9D turbofan. (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney.)

10 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

LOW PRESSURE

Fig. 1.8b

iNLET

CASE

Pratt & Whitney PW4000 turbofan. (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney.)

\

Fig. 1.8c General Electric CF6 Turbofan. (Courtesy of General Electric Aircraft

Engines.)

Fig. 1.8d Rolls-Royce RB-211-524G/H turbofan. (Courtesy of Rolls-Royce.)

INTRODUCTION 11

subsonic flight. The thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC, or fuel mass flow

rate per unit thrust) is lower for turbofans and indicates a more economi cal oper-

ation. The turbofan also accelerates a larger mass of air to a lower velocity than a

turbojet for a higher propulsive efficiency. The frontal area of a turbofan is quite

large compared to that of a turbojet, and for this reason more drag and more

weight result. The fan diameter is also limited aerodynamically when compres-

sibility effects occur. Several of the current high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines

used in subsonic aircraft are shown in Figs. 1. 8a-1. 8f.

Fig. 1.8e General Electric GE90 turbofan. (Courtesy of General Electric Aircraft

Engines.)

Fig. 1.8f SNECMA CFM56 turbofan. (Courtesy of SNECMA.)

12 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

o

Fig. 1.9a Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 afterburning turbofan. (Courtesy of Pratt

& Whitney.)

Figures 1.9a and 1.9b show the Pratt & Whitney FIO0 turbofan and the

General Electric Fl l 0 turbofan, respectively. These afterburning turbofan

engines are used in the F15 Eagle and F16 Falcon supersonic fighter aircraft.

In this turbofan, the bypass stream is mixed with the core stream before

passing through a common afterburner and exhaust nozzle.

1.4.4 Turboprop and Turboshaft

A gas generator that drives a propeller is a turboprop engine. The expansion

of gas through the turbine supplies the energy required to turn the propeller.

A schematic diagram of the turboprop is shown in Fig. 1.10a. The turboshaft

engine is similar to the turboprop except that power is supplied to a shaft

rather than a propeller. The turboshaft engine is used quite extensively for sup-

plying power for helicopters. The turboprop engine may find application in ver-

tical takeoff and landing (VTOL) transporters. The limitations and advantages

of the turboprop are those of the propeller. For low-speed flight and short-field

takeoff, the propeller has a performance advantage. At speeds approaching the

speed of sound, compressibility effects set in and the propeller loses its aero-

dynamic efficiency. Because of the rotation of the propeller, the propeller tip

will approach the speed of sound before the vehicle approaches the speed of

sound. This compressibility effect when one approaches the speed of sound

limits the design of helicopter rotors and propellers. At high subsonic speeds,

Fig. 1.9b General Electric Fl10-GE-129 afterburning turbofan. (Courtesy of

General Electric Aircraft Engines.)

INTRODUCTION

Propeller - , Gas generator

>

Fig. 1.10a Schemat i c di agr am of a t ur bopr op.

13

A ~r ; nl ~f

Three-stage

axial flnw

Prop,

drive:

"~ - -" Combustion . . . . . v . . . . . . . . ~enuuugai

chamber turbine compressor

Fig. 1.10b Canadi an Pr at t & Whi t ney PT6 t urboshaft . (Court esy of Pr at t &

Whi t ney of Canada. )

Fig. 1.10c Allison T56 t urboshaft . (Court esy of Allison Gas Tur bi ne Division.)

14 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

the turbofan engine will have a bet t er aerodynami c performance than the turbo-

prop since the turbofan is essentially a ducted turboprop. Putting a duct or

shroud around a propeller increases its aerodynami c performance. Exampl es

of a turboshaft engine are the Canadian Pratt & Whi t ney PT6 (Fig. 1.10b),

used in many small commut er aircraft, and the Allison T56 (Fig. 1.10c), used

to power the C-130 Hercules and the P-3 Orion.

1.4.5 Ramjet

The ramj et engine consists of an inlet, a combust i on zone, and a nozzle.

A schematic di agram of a ramj et is shown in Fig. 1.11. The ramj et does not

have the compressor and turbine as the turbojet does. Air enters the inlet

where it is compressed and then enters the combust i on zone where it is

mi xed with the fuel and burned. The hot gases are then expelled through the

nozzle, devel opi ng thrust. The operation of the ramj et depends on the inlet to

decelerate the i ncomi ng air to raise the pressure in the combustion zone. The

pressure rise makes it possible for the ramj et to operate. The higher the velocity

of the incoming air, the greater the pressure rise. It is for this reason that the

ramj et operates best at high supersonic velocities. At subsonic velocities, the

ramj et is inefficient, and to start the ramjet, air at a relatively higher velocity

must enter the inlet.

The combustion process in an ordinary ramj et takes place at low subsonic vel-

ocities. At high supersonic flight velocities, a very large pressure rise is devel-

oped that is more than sufficient to support operation of the ramjet. Also, i f the

inlet has to decelerate a supersonic high-velocity airstream to a subsonic velocity,

large pressure losses can result. The deceleration process also produces a temp-

erature rise, and at some limiting flight speed, the temperature will approach the

limit set by the wall materials and cooling methods. Thus when the temperature

increase due to deceleration reaches the limit, it may not be possible to burn fuel

in the airstream.

In the past few years, research and devel opment have been done on a ramjet

that has the combust i on process taking place at supersonic velocities. By using a

supersonic combust i on process, the t emperat ure rise and pressure loss due to

deceleration in the inlet can be reduced. This ramjet with supersonic combustion

is known as the scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet). Figure 1.12a shows

the schematic of a scramjet engine similar to that proposed for the National

Fuel spray r i ng Flame holder

• ~nlet =[= Combustion zone =[-- Nozzle---~

Fig. 1.11 Schemat i c di agram of a ramjet.

INTRODUCTION 15

:,~ Fuselage torebody Inlet comp.ression Fuse)age

Fig. 1.12a Schematic diagram of a scramjet.

AeroSpace Plane (NASP) research vehicle, the X-30 shown in Fig. 1.12b. Further

development of the scramjet for other applications (e.g., the Orient Express) will

continue if research and development produces a scramjet engine with sufficient

performance gains. Remember that since it takes a relative velocity to start the

ramjet or scramjet, another engine system is required to accelerate aircraft like

the X-30 to ramjet velocities.

1.4.6 Turbojet/Ramjet Combined-Cycle Engine

Two of the Pratt & Whitney J58 turbojet engines (see Fig. 1.13a) are used to

power the Lockheed SR71 Blackbird (see Fig. 1.13b). This was the fastest aircraft

Fig. 1.12b Conceptual drawing of the X-30. (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney.)

16

ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

Fig. 1.13a

Pratt & Whitney J58 turbojet. (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney.)

(Mach 3+) when it was retired in 1989. The J58 operates as an afterburning

turbojet engine until it reaches high Mach level, at which point the six large

tubes (Fig. 1.13a) bypass flow to the afterburner. When these tubes are in use,

the compressor, burner, and turbine of the turbojet are essentially bypassed,

and the engine operates as a ramjet with the afterburner acting as the ramjet' s

burner.

1.4.7 Aircraft Engine Performance Parameters

This section presents several of the airbreathing engine performance par-

ameters that are useful in aircraft propulsion. The first performance parameter

is the thrust of the engine that is available for sustained flight (thrust = drag),

accelerated flight (thrust > drag), or deceleration (thrust < drag).

Fig. 1.13b Lockheed SR71 Blackbird. (Courtesy of Lockheed.)

INTRODUCTION 17

As derived in Chapter 4, the uninstalled thrust F of a j et engine (single inlet

and single exhaust) is given by

(,:no + ; nD Ve - - , hoVo

F = + ( P e - - P o ) A e ( 1 . 5 )

gc

where

rho, rhf = mass flow rates of air and fuel, respectively

Vo, V~ = velocities at inlet and exit, respectively

Po, Pe = pressures at inlet and exit, respect i vel y

It is most desirable to expand the exhaust gas to the ambi ent pressure, which

gives Pe = Po. In this case, the uninstalled thrust equation becomes

( I n 0 -1- 1;nf ) W e - - i r l o g 0

F = for Pe = Po (1.6)

gc

The installed thrust T is equal to the uninstalled thrust F minus the inlet drag

D i n l e t and minus the nozzle drag Dnoz, or

T = F - O i n l e t - D n o z (1.7)

Dividing the inlet drag D i n l e t and nozzle drag Dno z by the uninstalled thrust F

yields the dimensionless inlet loss coefficient ~binlet and nozzle loss coefficient

~ n o z , o r

O i n l e t

~ i n l e t - -

F

Dnoz (1.8)

4~noz- F

Thus the relationship bet ween the installed thrust T and uninstalled thrust F is

si mpl y

r = F(1 - ~ i n l e t - ~noz) (1.9)

The second performance paramet er is the thrust specific fuel consumpt i on (S

and TSFC). This is the rate of fuel use by the propulsion syst em per unit of thrust

produced. The uninstalled fuel consumpt i on S and installed fuel consumpt i on

TSFC are written in equation form as

s = ~ (1.1o)

F

TSFC = m~ (1.11)

T

where

F

S

= uninstalled thrust

= uninstalled thrust specific fuel consumpt i on

18 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

T = installed engine thrust

TSFC = installed thrust specific fuel consumption

rhf = mass flow rate of fuel

The relation between S and TSFC in equation form is given by

S = TSFC(1 - t ~ i n l e t - (~noz) (1.12)

Values of thrust F and fuel consumption S for various jet engines at sea-level

static conditions are listed in Appendix B. The predicted variations of uninstalled

engine thrust F and uninstalled thrust specific fuel consumption S with Mach

number and altitude for an advanced fighter engine 3 are plotted in Figs.

1.14a- 1.14d. Note that the thrust F decreases with altitude and the fuel consump-

tion S also decreases with altitude until 36 kft (the start of the isothermal layer of

the atmosphere). Also note that the fuel consumption increases with Mach

number and that the thrust varies considerably with the Mach number. The pre-

dicted partial-throttle performance of the advanced fighter engine is shown at

three flight conditions in Fig. 1.14e.

The takeoff thrust of the JT9D high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine is given in

Fig. 1.15a vs Mach number and ambient air temperature for two versions.

Note the rapid falloff of thrust with rising Mach number that is characteristic

of this engine cycle and the constant thrust at a Mach number for temperatures

of 86°F and below (this is often referred to as a f l a t rating). T h e partial-throttle

performance of both engine versions is given in Fig. 1.15b for two combinations

of altitude and Mach number.

50,000

40,000

30,000

E

20,000

.~.

10,000

SL

J J 2 ° k f t 30kft

6 kft

40 kft

50 kft

I I I I

0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6

Mach number

Fi g. 1. 14a Un i n s t a l l e d t h r u s t F o f a n a d v a n c e d a f t e r b u r n i n g f i g ht e r e n g i n e at

m a x i m u m p o w e r s e t t i ng , a f t e r b u r n e r on. ( Ex t r a c t e d f r o m Re f . 3. )

INTRODUCTION 19

2.20

2.15

~ 2.10

~ 2.05

E

~ 2.00

~ 1.95

-N

.~ 1.90

e~

1. 85

1. 80

A l t ( k f t ) / S L

/

1 0

, 2o

30

- 5 / " 50

" 36

40

I I I I

0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6

Mach number

Fig. 1.14b Uni ns t al l ed fuel cons umpt i on S of a n advanced a f t e r bur ni ng fi ght er

engi ne at ma x i mu m power set t i ng, a f t e r b u r n e r on. ( Ext r act ed f r om Ref. 3.)

25,000

20,000

15,000

e

.~ 10,000

5,000

SL

A ~ 10

~ ~ 20_t- 30

4O

5O

0 I I I I I

0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2

Mach number

Fi g. 1.14c Uni ns t al l ed t hr us t F of a n advanced a f t e r bur ni ng fi ght er engi ne at

mi l i t ar y power set t i ng, a f t e r bur ne r off. ( Ext r act ed f r om Ref. 3.)

20 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSI ON

1. 15

~ 1. 10

"~ 1. 05

• = 1 . 0 0

~ 0.95

• ~ 0.90

!

.,~ 0 . 8 5

0 . 8 0

0 . 7 5

0

Al t (kft )

^ 20 30

u / 50 / a ~

/ / / / . ~ / - ~ v

I I I I

0 . 4 0. 8 1. 2 1. 6 2

Ma c h n u mb e r

Fig. 1.14d Uni nstai l ed fuel consumpti on S of an advanced afterburning fighter

engine at mi l i tary power setting, afterburner off. (Extracted from Ref. 3.)

e~

e~

r~

e-

8

.3

e~

2 , 0 -

3 6 / 3 6 k f /

1 . 8 - 0. 8

1. 6

1. 4

1. 2

1. 0

0. 8

0 . 6 I I I I I I

5 10 15 20 25 3 0

Un i n s t a l l e d t hr us t F ( 1 0 0 0 l bf )

I

3 5

Fig. 1.14e Partial-throttle performance of an advanced fighter engine. (Extracted

from Ref. 3.)

INTRODUCTION 21

Fig. 1.15a

50,000

45,000

,~ 40,000

2

e-,

35,000 [

30,000 r

\ \

\ , , \

. . . . "

"% - - T90-70

\ " x

\ ~ " x \

86°F and below

IO0°F

120°F

I I I I I I I

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Flight Mach number

JT9D-70/-70A turbofan takeoff thrust. (Courtesy of Prat t & Whitney.)

Although the aircraft gas turbine engine is a very compl ex machine, the basic

tools for model i ng its performance are devel oped in the following chapters.

These tools are based on the work of Gordon Oates. 4 They permit performance

calculations for existing and proposed engines and generate performance curves

similar to Figs. 1. 14a- l . 14e and Figs. 1.15a and 1.15b.

e~

O

" 5

e'~

0.80

0.75

0.70

0.65

I I

4~0 16,0~

• Maximum climb rating

k • Maximum cruise rating

", ~ ' . . • 0.9 . ~

',, ~ ~ 3O, ooo rto 8 . _ . . . a

I I I I I I I I I I

6000 8000 10,000 12, 000 14,000

Thrust (lbf)

Fig. 1.15b JT9D-70/-70A turbofan cruise-specific fuel consumption. (Courtesy of

Prat t & Whitney.)

22 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

Table 1.3 Typical aircraft engine thrust installation losses

Flight condition:

Aircraft type

M< I M> I

~ /~ inlet ~ ) n o z ( ~ i n l e t ( ~ n o z

Fighter 0.05 0.01 0.05 0.03

Passenger/cargo 0.02 0.01

Bomber 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.02

The val ue of the installation l oss coeffi ci ent depends on the charact eri st i cs of

the part i cul ar engi ne/ ai r f r ame combi nat i on, the Ma c h number, and the engi ne

throttle setting. Typi cal val ues are gi ven in Tabl e 1.3 f or gui dance.

The t hermal effi ci ency ~/r of an engi ne is anot her ver y useful engi ne perform-

ance paramet er. Th e r ma l ef f i ci ency is defined as t he net rate of or gani zed ener gy

(shaft power or ki net i c energy) out of the engi ne di vi ded by the rat e of thermal

ener gy avai l abl e f r om the fuel in the engine. The f uel ' s avai l abl e t hermal

ener gy is equal t o t he mass flow rate of the fuel rnf t i mes the fuel l ower-heat i ng

val ue hpR. Ther mal effi ci ency can be written in equat i on f or m as

' ~ T m

where

~Tr = t hermal effi ci ency of engi ne

l~'out = net power out of engi ne

Wout

in

(1.13)

Qi n = rate of t hermal ener gy rel eased OhfhpR)

Not e that for engines with shaft power output, l~out is equal to this shaft power. For

engines with no shaft power output (e.g., turbojet engine), Wout is equal to the net rate

of change of the kinetic energy of the fluid t hrough the engine. The power out of a

j et engine with a single inlet and single exhaust (e.g., turbojet engine) is given by

1

W o o t = [ ( , h 0 + ' h S ) V e - - ' h 0 V 0 I

The propulsive efficiency r/p of a propulsion syst em is a measure of how effec-

tively the engi ne power Wout is used to power the aircraft. Propul si ve efficiency is

the ratio of the aircraft power (thrust times velocity) to the power out of the engine

Wout. I n equat i on form, this is written as

TVo

-qp _ . (1.14)

W o u t

where

r/p = propul si ve effi ci ency of engi ne

T = thrust of pr opul si on syst em

INTRODUCTION 23

Vo = velocity of aircraft

Wo u t = net power out of engine

For a j et engine with a single inlet and single exhaust and an exit pressure

equal to the ambient pressure, the propulsive efficiency is given by

2(1 - ~binle t - ~ b n o z ) [ ( f h 0 -q- I ? l f ) V e - / ~ / o V o ] V o

n p = ( ' n o + hS)Ve - - hoVo 2

(1.15)

For the case when the mass flow rate of the fuel is much less than that of air and

the installation losses are very small, Eq. (1.15) simplifies to the following

equation for the propulsive efficiency:

~lp - Ve/Vo + 1 (1.16)

Equation (1.16) is plotted vs the velocity ratio V~/Vo in Fig. 1.16 and shows

that high propulsive efficiency requires the exit velocity to be approximately

equal to the inlet velocity. Turbojet engines have high values of the velocity

ratio Ve/Vo with corresponding low propulsive efficiency, whereas turbofan

engines have low values of the velocity ratio Ve/Vo with corresponding high

propulsive efficiency.

The thermal and propulsive efficiencies can be combined to give the overall

efficiency ~1o of a propulsion system. Multiplying propulsive efficiency b y

100

9 0

80

70

o 6 0

50

4 0

30

1. 0

I I I I I I

1.5 2. 0 2. 5 3. 0 3. 5 4. 0

Fig. 1. 16 Propul si ve efficiency vs vel oci ty rati o (Ve/VO).

24 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

thermal efficiency, we get the ratio of the aircraft power to the rate of thermal

energy released in the engine (the overall efficiency of the propulsion system):

Tlo = r/er/r

TV0

-0o m .

Qin

( 1 . 1 7 )

(1.18)

Several of the preceding performance parameters are plotted for general

types of gas turbine engines in Figs. 1.17a, 1.17b, and 1.17c. These plots can

be used to obtain the general trends of these performance parameters with

flight velocity for each propulsion system.

Since Oin : t ; r t f h p R , Eq. (1.18) can be rewritten as

TV0

' 1 7 ° - - l h f h p R

With the help of Eq. (1.11), this equation can be written in terms of the thrust

specific fuel consumption as

Vo (1.19)

~7o -- TSFC • h p R

90

80

70

60

50

o

40

2

~- 30

20

10

Turbojet

- ~ _ _ - / ~ B P R turbofan

Turboprop

Advanced_~~prop ~ ~ .

Conventional prop

I I I I I

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

AircraflMach number

Fi g . 1. 17a Spe c i f i c t h r u s t c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t y p i c a l a i r c r a f t e n g i n e s . ( Co u r t e s y o f

Pr a t t & Wh i t n e y . )

I NTRODUCTI ON 25

1.3

1.1

0.9

0.7

0.5

0.3

0.1

=<

A

- /

/

/

~ High-BPR turbofan

Conventional prop 7 / J r

/ ' vanced prop

z Z /

I I I I I

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Aircraft Mach number

Fig. 1.17b Thrust-specific fuel consumpt i on characteristics of typical ai rcraft

engines. (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney. )

0.7 -

0.6 -

0 . 5 -

II

0 . 4 -

b

~= 0 . 3 -

0 . 2 -

0 . 1 -

00

0

Fig. 1.17c

Whitney. )

Ot r a l l efficiency

0.1

Turt

Subsonic flight

thrust x aircraft velocity

11o = heat added

0 ~ % ~ ~ Year 2000 +

\

I I I I I I I I I I

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

thrust

Propulsive efficiency t/p = - - x aircraft velocity

core power

Efficiency characteristics of typical ai rcraft engines. (Courtesy of Pratt &

26 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSI ON

Us i ng Eqs. (1. 17) and (1. 19), we can wr i t e t he f ol l owi ng for TSFC:

Vo

TSFC = (1. 20)

rle rlTheR

Example 1.1

An a dva nc e d f i ght er engi ne oper at i ng at Mach 0. 8 and 10- km al t i t ude has t he

f ol l owi ng uni ns t al l ed per f or mance dat a and uses a f uel wi t h hpg = 42, 800 kJ / kg:

F = 5 0 k N r h 0 = 4 5 k g / s and r n f = 2 . 6 5 k g / s

Det er mi ne t he speci f i c t hrust , t hr ust speci f i c f uel cons umpt i on, exi t vel oci t y,

t her mal ef f i ci ency, pr opul s i ve ef f i ci ency, and over al l ef f i ci ency ( assume exi t

pr essur e equal t o ambi ent pr essur e) .

Solution:

F 5 0 k N

- - - 1.1111 k N/ ( k g / s ) = 1111.1 m/ s

rho 45 k g / s

S - - rhf _ _ _ 2 " 6 5 k g / s _ 0. 053 ( k g / s ) / k N = 53 mg / N • s

F 5 0 k N

( a 0 )

VO = Moao =- Mo - - aref = 0. 8( 0. 8802) 340. 3 = 239. 6 m/ s

\ a r e f /

Fgc +/noVo 50, 000 x 1 + 45 x 239. 6

Fr om Eq. (1. 6) we have

r e- -

= 1275. 6 m/ s

rh0 + rnf 45 + 2. 65

Wo ~ (~ho + , h~) Ve ~ - - , ~oVo ~

~'/T = Qin 2gcthfheR

Wo u t = ( ~ h 0 + ~ h l ) V e ~ - - ~ h 0 V o ~

2gc

47. 65 x 1275.62 - 4 5 x 239.62

_-- ---- 37. 475 x 10 6 W

2 x l

0in m_ /nfhpR = 2. 65 x 42, 800 = 113. 42 x 106 W

li¢out 37. 475 X 10 6

= 33. 04%

"qT = Qin - - 113.42 X 106

FVo 50, 000 x 239. 6

r/p = Wo u t 37. 475 x 106 = 31. 97%

FVo 50, 000 x 239. 6

r/ ° = Qin = 113. 42 x 106 = 10. 56%

INTRODUCTION 27

1.4.8 S peci fi c Thrus t vs F uel C ons umpti on

For a j et engine with a single inlet and single exhaust and exit pressure equal

to ambient pressure, when the mass flow rate of the fuel is much less than that of

air and the installation losses are very small, the specific thrust F//no can be

written as

F Ve- Vo

&o gc

Then the propulsive efficiency of Eq. (1.16) can be rewritten as

(1.21)

2

rip Fgc/(&oVo) + 2 (1.22)

Substituting Eq. (1.22) into Eq. (1.20) and noting that TSFC = S, we obtain the

following very enlightening expression:

Fgc//no + 2Vo

S -- (1.23)

2~qThpR

Aircraft manufacturers desire engines having low thrust specific fuel

consumption S and high specific thrust F//no. Low engine fuel consumption

can be directly translated into longer range, increased payload, and/ or reduced

aircraft size. High specific thrust reduces the cross-sectional area of the engine

and has a direct influence on engine weight and installation losses. This

desired trend is plotted in Fig. 1.18. Equation (1.23) is also plotted in Fig. 1.18

and shows that fuel consumption and specific thrust are directly proportional.

Thus the aircraft manufacturers have to make a tradeoff. The line of Eq. (1.23)

shifts in the desired direction when there is an increase in the level of technology

(increased thermal efficiency) or an increase in the fuel heating value.

r.~

g

Eq. (1.23)

t e c h n o l o g y

Specific thrust F/rh o

Fig. 1.18 Relationship between specific thrust and fuel consumpti on.

28 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

Another very useful measure of merit for the aircraft gas turbine engine is

the t hrust / wei ght ratio F/W. For a given engine thrust F, increasing the

t hrust / wei ght ratio reduces the weight of the engine. Aircraft manufacturers

can use this reduction in engine weight to increase the capabilites of an aircraft

(increased payload, increased fuel, or both) or decrease the size (weight) and cost

of a new aircraft under development.

Engine compani es expend considerable research and devel opment effort on

increasing the t hrust / wei ght ratio of aircraft gas turbine engines. This ratio is

equal to the specific thrust F/&o divided by the engine weight per unit of mass

flow W//no. For a gi ven engine type, the engine weight per unit mass flow is

related to the efficiency of the engine structure, and the specific thrust is

related to the engine thermodynamics. The weights per unit mass flow of some

existing gas turbine engines are plotted vs specific thrust in Fig. 1.19. Also

plotted are lines of constant engine t hrust / wei ght ratio F/W.

The engine companies, in conjunction with the U.S. Depart ment of Defense

and NASA, are i nvol ved in a large research and devel opment effort to increase

the engine t hrust / wei ght ratio F/ W and decrease the fuel consumption while

maintaining engine durability, maintainability, etc. An earlier program was

called the integrated high-performance turbine engine technology (IHPTET)

initiative (see Refs. 5 and 6).

2 5 t

20

F/W= 2 3 4 5

15

10

0

0 50 100

F/& o

130

Fig. 1.19 Engine thrust/ wei ght ratio F/W.

INTRODUCTION 29

1. 5 Ai r cr af t Per f or mance

This section on aircraft performance is included so that the reader may get a

better understanding of the propulsion requirements of the aircraft. 7 The coverage

is limited to a few significant concepts that directly relate to aircraft engines. It is

not intended as a substitute for the many excellent references on this subject (see

Refs. 8- 11) .

1.5.1 P erformance Equati on

Relationships for the performance of an aircraft can be obtained from

energy considerations (see Ref. 12). By treating the aircraft (Fig. 1.20) as a

movi ng mass and assuming that the installed propulsive thrust T, aerodynami c

drag D, and other resistive forces R act in the same direction as the velocity V,

it follows that

[T - (D + R)]V = W dh Wd ( ~ -~-2)

rate of dt ÷ g ~

mechanical storage storage

rate of rate of

energy

input potential kinetic

energy energy

(1.24)

Not e that the total resistive force D + R is the sum of the drag of the clean

aircraft D and any additional drags R associated with such proturberances as

landing gear, external stores, or drag chutes.

By defining the energy height Ze as the sum of the potential and kinetic energy

terms

Ze - h+- -

Eq. (1.24) can now be written si mpl y as

V2

(1.25)

2g

[T - (D + R)]V = W dze (1.26)

dt

By defining the weight specific excess power Ps as

dze

Ps ~ - (1.27)

dt

Aircraft

velocity

V *C

Fi g . 1. 20 F o r c e s o n a i r c r a f t .

30 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSI ON

Eq. (1.26) can now be written in its dimensionless form as

T - ( D + R ) _ P s _ 1 d ( h + ~ g (1.28)

w v ~\

This is a very powerful equation that gives insight into the dynamics of flight,

including both the rate of climb dh/ dt and acceleration dV/ dt .

1.5.2 L i ft and Drag

We use the classical aircraft lift relationship

L = n W = CLqSw (1.29)

where n is the load fact or or number of g perpendicular to V (n = 1 for straight

and level flight), CL is the coefficient of lift, Sw is the wing pl anform area, and q is

the dynamic pressure. The dynamic pressure can be expressed in terms of the

density p and vel oci t y V or the pressure P and Mach number M as

1 V 2 1 V 2

= - - (1.30a)

q = "2 P- ~ c 2 0"Oref g c

or

T p M 2 _T ~prefMo 2

q = ~ 0 = 2

(1.30b)

where 6 and ~r are the dimensionless pressure and density ratios defined by Eqs.

(1.2) and (1.4), respectively, and y is the ratio of specific heats ( y = 1.4 for air).

The reference density Pref and reference pressure Pref of air are their sea-level

values on a standard day and are listed in Appendix A.

We also use the classical aircraft drag relationship

D ---- CDqSw (1.31)

Figure 1.21 is a plot of lift coefficient CL vs drag coefficient Co, commonl y called

the lift-drag polar, for a typical subsonic passenger aircraft. The drag coefficient

curve can be approxi mat ed by a second-order equation in CL written as

co = K~ C~ + X2CL + Coo

(1.32)

where the coefficients K1, K2, and CDO are typically functions of flight Mach

number and wing configuration (flap position, etc.).

The Coo t erm in Eq. (t . 32) is the zero lift drag coefficient that accounts for

both frictional and pressure drag in subsonic flight and wave drag in supersonic

flight. The K 1 and K2 terms account for the drag due to lift. Normal l y K2 is very

small and approxi mat el y equal to zero for most fighter aircraft.

INTRODUCTION 31

cL

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 I I

0.01 0.08

I I I I I I

0. 02 0. 03 0. 04 0. 05 0. 06 0. 07

Co

Fi g. 1.21 Typi cal l i ft-drag pol ar.

Example 1.2

For all the exampl es given in this section on aircraft performance, two types of

aircraft will be considered.

a) Fighter aircraft (HF-1). An advanced fighter aircraft is approxi mat el y

model ed after the F-22 Advanced Tactical Fighter shown in Fig. 1.22. For con-

venience, we will designate our hypothetical fighter aircraft as the HF-1, havi ng

the following characteristics:

Maxi mum gross t akeoff weight WTo = 40,000 l bf (177,920 N)

Empt y weight = 24,000 l bf (106,752 N)

Maxi mum fuel plus payl oad weight = 16,000 l bf (71,168 N)

Permanent payl oad = 1600 l bf (7117 N, crew plus return armament )

Expended payl oad = 2000 l bf (8896 N, missiles plus ammunition)

Maxi mum fuel capacity = 12,400 l bf (55,155 N)

Wi ng area Sw = 720 ft 2 (66.9 m 2)

Engine: low-bypass-ratio, mi xed-fl ow turbofan with afterburner

Maxi mum lift coefficient CLmax = 1.8

Drag coefficients given in Tabl e 1.4

b) Passenger aircraft (HP-1). An advanced 253-passenger commerci al

aircraft approximately modeled after the Boeing 787 is shown in Fig. 1.23. For con-

venience, we will designate our hypothetical passenger aircraft as the HP- 1, having

the following characteristics:

Maxi mum gross t akeoff weight WTO = 1,645,760 N (370,000 lbf)

Empt y weight = 822,880 N (185,500 lbf)

32 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

Fig. 1.22 F-22, Advanced Tactical Fighter. (Photo courtesy of Boeing Defense &

Space Group, Military Airplanes Division.)

Maxi mum landing weight = 1,356,640 N (305,000 lbf)

Maxi mum payload = 420,780 N (94,600 lbf, 253 passengers plus 196,000 N

of cargo)

Maxi mum fuel capacity 2 716,706 N (161,130 lbf)

Wi ng area Sw = 282.5 m (3040 ft 2)

Engine: high-bypass-ratio turbofan

Maxi mum lift coefficient CLmax = 2.0

Drag coefficients given in Table 1.5.

Table 1.4 Drag coefficients for hypothetical fighter aircraft (HF-1)

Mo Ki K2 CDO

0.0 0.20 0.0 0.0120

0.8 0.20 0.0 0.0120

1.2 0.20 0.0 0.02267

1.4 0.25 0.0 0.0280

2.0 0.40 0.0 0.0270

INTRODUCTION 33

Fig. 1.23 Boeing 787. (Photo courtesy of Boeing.)

Table 1.5 Drag coefficients for hypothetical passenger aircraft (HP-1)

Mo KI K2 CDO

0.00 0.056 -- 0.004 0.0140

0.40 0.056 -- 0.004 0.0140

0.75 0.056 -- 0.008 0.0140

0.83 0.056 -- 0.008 0.0150

Example 1.3

Det ermi ne the drag pol ar and drag vari at i on for the HF-1 aircraft at 90% of

maxi mum gross t akeoff wei ght and the HP-1 aircraft at 95% of maxi mum

gross t akeoff weight.

a) Fighter aircraft (HF-1). The vari at i on in Coo and KI with Mach

number for the HF-1 are pl ot t ed in Fig. 1.24 from the data of Tabl e 1.4.

Fi gure 1.25 shows the drag pol ar at different Mach numbers for the HF-1 aircraft.

Usi ng these drag dat a and the precedi ng equations gi ves the vari at i on in aircraft

drag with subsonic Mach number and altitude for l evel flight (n = 1), as shown in

Fig. 1.26a. Not e that the mi ni mum drag is constant for Mach numbers 0 to 0.8 and

then increases. This is the same vari at i on as Coo. The vari at i on of drag wi t h l oad

factor n is shown in Fig. 1.26b at two altitudes. The drag i ncreases with i ncreasi ng

Cvo

0.025

0.030 0.40

/£2=0

I I

CD0

0.020

0.015

0.010

0.005

34 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSI ON

0.35

0.30

K1

0.25

0.20

0.15

0 . 0 0 0 I I I 9 . 1 0

0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0

Mach number

Fi g. 1 . 2 4 V a l u e s o f K ] a n d Coo f or HF- 1 a i r c r a f t .

~ . ~ 1 . 0

1 . 0 ~3 ~" k/.~/_~ ~

0.8 ~

0.6

G

0.4

0.2

0 . 0 0 . 0 I I

0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.2

CD

Fi g. 1.25 Li f t - d r a g p o l a r f or HF- 1 a i r c r a f t .

INTRODUCTION 35

8OOO

7000

6 0 ~

500(

400(

300(]

0

SL 10 20

30 36 40 50 kft

l i 20 / / ~ 30

/ 36

40

50

Alt=SL 10kft 20kft 30kft 36kft

I L I I i I I I

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Mach number

Fig. 1.26a Dr ag f or level flight (n = 1) f or HF-1 ai rcraft .

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

Sea /

i i I I i

0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0

Mach number

Fi g. 1. 26b Dr ag of HF- 1 ai rcraf t at s ea l evel and 36 kf t f or n = 1 and n = 5.

36 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

0 . 0 1 5 2

0 . 0 1 5 0

0. 0148

0 . 0 1 4 6

Coo

0 . 0 1 4 4

0 . 0 1 4 2

0 . 0 1 4 0

K 1 = 0 . 0 5 6

I i I i

? /

Co o

0. 0090

0. 0080

0. 0070

0. 0060

- 0. 0050

- 0. 0040

- 0. 0030

0. 0138 I I I I 0. 0020

0. 0 0 . 2 0. 4 0 . 6 0. 8 1. 0

Ma c h n u mb e r

Fig. 1.27 Val ues of Kz and Coo for HP-1 aircraft.

load factor, and there is a flight Mach number that gives minimum drag for a

given altitude and load factor.

b) Passenger aircraft (l i P-1). The variation in CDo and K2 with Mach

number for the HP-1 is plotted in Fig. 1.27 from the data of Table 1.5.

Figure 1.28 shows the drag polar at different Mach numbers for the HP-1 aircraft.

Using these drag data and the preceding equations gives the variation in aircraft

drag with subsonic Mach number and altitude for level flight (n = 1), as shown in

Fig. 1.29. Note that the minimum drag is constant for Mach numbers 0 to 0.75

and then increases. This is the same variation as CDo.

Example 1.4

Calculate the drag at Mach 0.8 and 40-kft altitude of the HF-1 aircraft at 90%

of maximum gross takeoff weight with load factors of 1 and 4.

Solution: We begin by calculating the dynamic pressure q:

T 8 P r e f M0 2 = 0.7 X 0.1858 X 2116 X 0.8 2 176.1 l bf/ ft 2

q=~ =

From Fig. 1.24 at M = 0.8, Coo = 0.012, K1 = 0.20, and K2 = 0.

I NTRODUCTI ON 37

cL

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.012

0.8 -

0.7 - 3 ~

0.6

0.5

0.4

\ i i i i i i i

0.016 0. 02 0. 024 0. 028 0. 032 0. 036 0.04

co

F i g . 1 . 2 8 L i f t - d r a g p o l a r f o r H P - 1 a i r c r a f t .

1 0 0 , 0 0 0 -

9 5 , 0 0 0

90,000

z

~ 85,000

80,000

75,000 -

70,000

0.2

SL

/

!

SL

SL 3

3km

6

9

" 11 km

km 9km

I I I I I I

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Mach number

F i g . 1 . 2 9 D r a g f o r l e v e l f l i g h t ( n = 1 ) f o r H P - 1 a i r c r a f t .

38 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

Case 1: n = 1

n W 1 x 0. 9 x 40, 000

CL qSw 176.1 x 720 = 0. 2839

Co = K1C2L -4- K2CL -4- Coo = 0. 2(0. 28392) -I- 0. 012 = 0. 0281

D = CoqSw = 0. 0281 x 176.1 x 720 = 3563 l bf

Case 2: n = 4

n W 4 x 0. 9 x 40, 000

CL . . . . 1. 136

qSw 176.1 x 720

Co = K~C~ + KaCL + Coo = 0. 2(1. 1362) + 0. 012 = 0. 2701

D = CoqSw = 0. 2701 x 176.1 x 720 = 34, 247 l bf

Not e t hat t he dr ag at n = 4 i s about 10 t i mes t hat at n --- 1.

1.5.3 Stall, Takeoff, and Landing Speeds

Stall i s t he f l i ght condi t i on when an a i r c r a f t ' s wi ng l oses l i ft . I t is an unde-

si r abl e condi t i on si nce vehi cl e cont r ol i s l ost f or a t i me. Dur i ng l evel fl i ght

(l i ft = wei ght ) , st al l wi l l occur when one t r i es t o obt ai n a l i f t coef f i ci ent

gr eat er t han t he wi n g ' s ma x i mu m CLmax. The stall speed i s def i ned as t he

l evel fl i ght s peed t hat cor r es ponds t o t he wi n g ' s ma x i mu m l i f t coeffi ci ent , or

= , [ 2gc W (1. 33)

Wstall V pCL m a x Sw

To keep away f r om stall, ai r cr af t are fl own at vel oci t i es gr eat er t han Vstan.

Ta ke of f and l andi ng are t wo f l i ght condi t i ons i n whi ch t he ai r cr af t vel oci t y is

cl os e t o t he st al l vel oci t y. For saf et y, t he t akeof f s peed VTo o f an ai r cr af t is t ypi -

cal l y 20% gr eat er t han t he st al l speed, and t he l andi ng speed at t ouchdown VTD i s

15% gr eat er :

V T O = 1 . 2 0 V s t a l l

(1. 34)

V T D = 1 . 1 5 V s t a l I

Example 1.5

Det er mi ne t he t akeof f s peed of t he HP-1 at sea l evel wi t h ma x i mu m gr oss

t akeof f wei ght and t he l andi ng s peed wi t h ma x i mu m l andi ng wei ght .

INTRODUCTION 39

From Appendi x A we have p = 1.255 k g / m 3 for sea level. From Exampl e

1.2b we have CLmax = 2. 0 , W = 1,645,760 N, Sw ---- 282.5 m 2, and

V /

2 × 1 1,645,760

Wstall ~--" 1.225 x 2.0 282.5 =

69.0 m/ s

Thus

VTO = 1. 20Vst al l = 8 2 . 8 m/s (~185 mph)

For landing, W = 1,356,640 N, and

5 2_x_l 1,356,640

Vstall • V 1.225 X 2.0 282.5

= 62.6 m/ s

Thus

VTD ~--- 1.15Vstall = 72.0 m/ s ( ~161 mph)

1.5.4 F uel Cons umpti on

The rate of change of the aircraft weight d W/ d t is due to the fuel consumed by

the engines. The mass rate of fuel consumed is equal to the product of the

installed thrust T and the installed thrust specific fuel consumpt ion. For const ant

acceleration of gravit y go, we can write

dW . - my g o = _T(TSFC)(g0"~

= - w f = gc

, gcJ

This equat ion can be rewritten in dimensionless f or m as

d W _ T ( T S F C ) ( g o ~ d t (1.35)

W w \ go~

1. 5. 4. 1 Es t i ma t e o f TSFG. Equat ion (1.35) requires est imat es of

installed engine thrust T and installed TSFC to calculate the change in aircraft

weight. For many flight conditions, the installed engine thrust T equals the air-

craft drag D. The value of TSFC depends on the engine cycle, altitude, and

Mach number. For preliminary analysis, the following equations (from Ref. 12)

can be used to est imat e TSFC in units of ( l bm/ h) / l bf , and 0 is the dimensionless

t emperat ure ratio T/Tref:

1) High-bypass-rat io t urbofan

TSFC = (0.4 + 0 . 4 5 M0 ) ~ (1.36a)

40 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

2) Low-bypass-ratio, mixed-flow turbofan

Military and lower power settings:

TSFC = (1.0 -t- 0 . 3 5 M0 ) ~

Maxi mum power setting:

TSFC = (1.8 + 0.30Mo)x/O

3) Turbojet

Military and lower power settings:

TSFC = (1.3 + 0 . 3 5 Mo ) ~

Maximum power setting:

TSFC = (1.7 + 0 . 2 6 Mo ) ~

4) Turboprop

TSFC = (0.2 + 0.9Mo)VrO

(1.36b)

(1.36c)

(1.36d)

(1.36e)

(1.36f)

1.5.4.2 Endurance. For level unaccelerated flight, thrust equals drag

(T = D) and lift equals weight (L = W). Thus Eq. (1.35) is simply

dW

W CL (TSFC) dt (1.37)

We define the endurance fact or (EF) as

CL gc

EF -- (1.38)

CD(TSFC) go

Then Eq. (1.37) becomes

dW dt

m

W EF

(1.39)

Not e that the minimum fuel consumption for a time t occurs at the flight condition

where the endurance factor is maximum.

For the case when the endurance factor is constant or nearly constant, Eq.

(1.39) can be integrated from the initial to final conditions and the following

expression obtained for the aircraft weight fraction:

ws / t \

= e x p / - =-=} (1.40a)

INTRODUCTION 41

o r

Wf = e x p [ _ ~D_(TSFC)tgo]

Wi k CL gc_l

(1.40b)

1. 5. 4. 3 Range. For portions of aircraft flight where distance is important,

the differential t i me dt is related to the differential distance ds by

ds = V dt (1.41)

Substituting into Eq. (1.37) gives

dW _ CD TSFC go ds

W CL V gc

(1.42)

We define the range fact or (RF) as

CL V gc

RF -- (1.43)

Co TSFC go

Then Eq. (1.42) can be si mpl y written as

dW ds

- - ( 1 . 4 4 )

W RF

Not e that the mi ni mum fuel consumpt ion for a distance s occurs at the flight

condition where the range fact or is maxi mum.

For the flight conditions where the RF is const ant or nearly constant, Eq. (t .42)

can be integrated from the initial to final conditions and the following expression

obt ained for the aircraft weight fraction:

s

WI = e x p ( - ~ ) (1.45a)

o r

- - _ ( CD TSFC x s go]

Wf _ exp (1.45b)

Wi CL V gc/

This is called the Breguet range equation. For the range fact or to remai n constant,

Ct . / Co and V/ TSFC need to be constant. Above 36-kft altitude, the ambi ent

t emperat ure is constant, and a constant velocit y V will correspond to constant

Mach and const ant TSFC for a fixed throttle setting. I f CL is constant, CL/ Co

will remai n constant. Since the aircraft weight W decreases during the flight,

the altitude must increase to reduce the densit y of the ambi ent air and produce

the required lift (L = W) while maint aining CL and velocit y constant. This

flight profile is called a cruise climb.

42 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

Example 1.6

Cal cul at e the endurance fact or and r ange fact or at Mach 0.8 and 40-kft altitude

of hypot het i cal fight er aircraft HF-1 at 90% of maxi mum gross t akeoff wei ght

and a l oad fact or of 1.

Solution:

q = ~ 6 P r e f M0 2 = 0.7 x 0. 1858 x 2116 x 0 . 8 2 = 176.1 l b f / f t 2

2

Fr om Fig. 1.24 at M = 0.8, Coo = 0. 012, K1 = 0.20, and K2 = 0:

nW 1 x 0. 9 x 40, 000

CL = qSw 176.1 x 720 0. 2839

CD = K1C 2 + K2CL + Coo = 0. 2(0. 28392) + 0. 012 ---- 0.0281

Usi ng Eq. (1.36b), we have

TSFC = (1.0 + 0.35M0)q' -0 ----- (1.0 + 0. 35 x 0 . 8 ) ~ = 1.110 ( l bm/ h) / l bf

Thus

E F =

RF - -

CL g__f_~= 0. 2839 32.174__ = 9. 102 h

CD(TSFC)g0 0. 0281 x 1. 11032. 174

CL V gc

CDTSFCgo

0. 28390. 8 x 0. 8671 x l l l 6 f l / s 3 6 0 0 s / h 32. 174

0. 0281

1.110 ( l bm/ h) / l bf 6080 f t / nm 32. 174

= 4170 nm

Example 1.7

Det ermi ne the vari at i on in endurance fact or and range fact or for the t wo

hypot het i cal aircraft HF- 1 and HP- 1.

a) F i g h t e r a i r c r a f t ( H F - I ) . The endurance fact or is pl ot t ed vs Mach

number and alt it ude in Fig. 1.30 for our hypot het i cal fight er aircraft HF-1 at

90% of maxi mum gross t akeof f weight . Not e that t he best endurance Mach

number ( mi ni mum fuel consumpt i on) increases wit h altitude, and the best fuel

consumpt i on occurs at altitudes of 30 and 36 kft. The range fact or is plot t ed vs

Mach number and alt it ude in Fig. 1.31 f or t he HF-1 at 90% of maxi mum gross

t akeof f weight . Not e t hat the best cruise Mach number ( mi ni mum fuel consump-

t ion) increases wi t h altitude, and t he best fuel consumpt i on occurs at an altitude

of 36 kft and Mach number of 0.8.

I NTRODUCTI ON 43

10 [-

[ Alt (kft)

1

8

i ,

50

I I

36

0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Mach number

0.8 0.9 1.0

Fi g. 1. 30 E n d u r a n c e f a c t o r f o r HF - 1 a i r c r a f t .

v

5000

4500

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

0

Alt (kft)

2C

10

SL

50

0.3 0.4 0.5

40 50

20

I0

0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Mach number

Fi g. 1. 31 Ra n g e f a c t o r f o r HF - 1 a i r c r a f t .

44 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

3 8 -

36

34

32

30

28

0.2

SL

SL

Alt (km)

I ~ 3 / 1 \ / 9 I

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

6

9

I

Mach number

Fi g. 1. 3 2 Endurance factor for HP- 1 ai rcraft.

b) Passenger aircraft ( HP- I ) . The endurance factor is plotted vs Mach

number and altitude in Fig. 1.32 for our hypothetical passenger aircraft HP-1

at 95% of maximum gross takeoff weight. Note that the best endurance Mach

number (minimum fuel consumption) increases with altitude, and the best fuel

consumption occurs at sea level. The range factor is plotted vs Mach number

and altitude in Fig. 1. 33 for the HP-1 at 95% of maximum gross takeoff

weight. Note that the best cruise Mach number (minimum fuel consumption)

increases with altitude, and the best fuel consumption occurs at an altitude of

11 km and Mach number of about 0.83.

Since the weight of an aircraft like the HP-1 can vary considerably over a

flight, the variation in range factor with cruise Mach number was determined

for 95 and 70% of maximum gross takeoff weight (MGTOW) at altitudes of

11 and 12km and is plotted in Fig. 1.34. I f the HP-1 flew at 0.83 Mach and

12-km altitude, the range factors at 95% MGTOW and at 70% MGTOW are

about the same. However, if the HP-1 flew at 0.83 Mach and l l - km altitude,

the range factor would decrease with aircraft weight, and the aircraft' s range

would be less than that of the HP-1 flown at 0.83 Mach and 12-km altitude.

One can see from this discussion that the proper cruise altitude can dramatically

affect an aircraft' s range.

1. 5. 4. 4 Maximum CL/CD. For flight conditions requiring minimum fuel

consumption, the optimum flight condition can be approximated by that

I NTRODUCTI ON 45

28,000

26,000

24,000

22,000

20,000 -

18,000 -

16,000 -

14,000 -

12,000

0.2

Alt (km) 11

6

7/6/9

I / 3 I I I I ~ , L ,

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Mach number

I

0.9

Fi g. 1. 33 Ra n g e f a c t o r f o r HP - 1 a i r c r a f t f o r v a r i o u s a l t i t u d e s .

26, 400

26, 000

25, 600

25, 200

24, 800

24, 000

0.71

95% @ 11 km

i

~ 5 ~x~'~ ~ ~

I I I I I

0.79 0. 80 0.81 0.82 0.83

Mach number

Fi g. 1. 34 Ra n g e f a c t o r f o r HP - 1 a i r c r a f t a t 7 0 a n d 9 5 % M G T O W.

• a p m , ! l l U 1 J ~ I - 9 £ 1 ~ I - A H

a q l a o j a o l a u j a ~ u u a p u u ' a o l a u j a a u u a n p u a ' a D / 7 D ~ u a p j o u o s ! a u d m o D ~ ; £ ' 1 " ~ ! A

J o q t u n u q a e l N

0 8

~ ' 6

0 ' 0 1

g O I

f i l l

g 9 O

O O g £

0 6 " 0 ~ 8 ' 0 0 8 ' 0 g L ' O O L ' O

O ' L

g ' L

~ ' 8 d N

0 ' 6

d ~

I I I I

0 0 9 £

o o L £ ~

0 0 8 £

0 0 6 £

0 0 0 ~

o o L ~ ~ .

g

0 0 ~

0 0 £ ~

J o j J O l a 6 J a a u e J n p u a o q & ' [ ( q 9 u [ ) " b ~ t a d s ] J a q t u n u q a 6 I A [ q l ! A ~ a s 6 a J a U ! s l !

p u e D d S ~ L q S ! q a t I 1 o l a n p [ - c l H a q l J O j , ( a D / T D ) O l ~ u ! p u o d s a J a o a 1 6 q l u 6 q l

J o q u a n u q a 6 l N J a ~ o I £ I I 6 ! l u m s q n s 6 1 6 t u n u i t x 6 t u 6 s ! J o l a 6 j a a u e J n p u a a q £

• t u m u ! u i t u a J 6 s 8 6 J p a a a t t ~ s J a q u I n u q a 6 l N a t u 6 s a q l ' [ - d H a r t 1 J o j g L ' 0 q a e l N

1 6 p u 6 I - d H a q l J o j 8 ' 0 q a 6 l N 1 6 s a n a a o a D / 7 D t u n t m x 6 t u a q l 1 6 q l m O N " I - d H

o t t l J O j 9 U I ' g ! d u ! p u e 1 j 6 J a J ! e [ - d H a q l J O j g ~ ' [ " 8 ! d u ! p a l l o l d a a e a p n l ! l [ 6

u 6 1 6 J a q m n u q a 6 l N S A a D / v D p u 6 ' . t O l a 6 J a a u 6 1 n p u a ' J O l a 6 j a ~ u 6 a ' G ~ 6 J p a q &

( 8 1 r ' l ) ~ X + l X o a o / ~ ' ~ ( ° O )

£ q U a A I ~ S . ~ 0 0 / ' 7 0 t u n t m x 6 t u p u 6

( L ' e ' I ) ° a o = 7 , O

s ! ( 7 3 / 0 3 t u n u a ! u ! t u ) a D / V 3 t u n t m x e t u s a m g 1 6 q l l u o ! a g j a o a 1 J I I a q £

7 O 7 O

( 9 ~ ' I ) - - + ~ Y + 7 D ~ . 5 1 = - -

o a o o O

: ~ o / ~

t u n t u ! u v u S O A I ~ 1 6 q l 7 D o q l a o j ~ U . I A I O S p u 6 ' o J a z O l I e n b o 1 ! ~ U ! l l a S ' u o ~ s s a M x a

~ u ! A ~ o I I o J a q l j o 0 A ! l e A p a p a q l ~ U p I 6 1 ~ q p u n o J o q u 6 a ( T D / O o t u n t u ! u ! t u )

O D / 7 D t u n t m x 6 m o q l ' ( g U I ) " b 3 t u o J g " c : D / 7 D m n t m x 6 m o l ~ u ! p u o d s a J a o a

N O I S 7 N d O H d 3 0 9 1 N 3 ~ 3 7 = 1 9 #

INTRODUCTION 47

90,000

80,000

70,000

60,000

50,000

40,000

_v

~- 30,000

20,000

10,000

0.60

CdCD

I I I I

0.65

32

30

28 ~

26

24

22

20 ~

18

16

0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85

Mach number

Fi g. 1 . 3 6 C omp ar i s on of d rag CL/CD, end urance factor, and range f act or f or t h e

HP- 1 at l l - k m al t i t ude.

the HP-1 is a maximum at the same Mach number that CL/ Co is maximum due

to the lower TSFC of the high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine [see Eq. (1.36a)].

The Mach number for an altitude giving a maximum range factor is called the

best cruise Mach (BCM). The best cruise Mach normally occurs at a little higher

Mach than that corresponding to (Cc/CD)*. This is because the velocity term in

the range fact or normally dominates over the increase in TSFC with Mach

number. As a first approximation, many use the Mach number corresponding

to (CL/CD)* for the best cruise Mach.

Example 1.8

Calculate the Mach giving maximum CI J CD at 20-kft altitude for the HF-1

aircraft at 90% of maximum gross takeoff weight and a load factor of 1.

Solution: From Fig. 1.24 at M0 < 0.8, Coo = 0.012, K1 = 0.20, and K2 = 0:

C~ = V K1 V ~ = 0.2449

w 0.9 x 40,000 _ 204.16 l bf/ ft 2

q - CLSw -- 0.2449 X 720

M0 = ~ q - - ~ 0 204.16

(y/2)6Pref .7 × 0.4599 × 2116 = 0.547

48 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

1 . 5 . 4 . 5 A c c e l e r a t e d fl ight. For flight conditions when thrust T is great er

than drag D, an expression for the fuel consumpt ion can be obt ained by first

noting from Eq. (1.28) that

T Ps

m ~

W V[1 - ( D + R ) / T]

We define the ratio of drag D + R to thrust T as

D +R

u -- - - (1.49)

T

The preceding equat ion for thrust to weight becomes

T P~

W - - V(1 - u)

(1.50)

Now Eq. (1.35) can be rewritten as

dW TSFC go

m

W V(1 - u) gc

Ps dt

Since P~ dt = dZe, the preceding equation can be expressed in its most useful

forms as

dW TSFC gOdz e - TSFC go ( V 2]

W V-(i----u)gc V- ~ U) ~ c d h + ~ g

/

(1.51)

The t erm 1 - u represent s the fraction of engine power that goes to increasing the

aircraft energy ze, and u represents that fraction that is lost to aircraft drag D + R.

Not e that this equat ion applies for cases when u is not unity. When u is unity,

either Eq. (1.39) or Eq. (1.44) is used.

To obtain the fuel consumpt ion during an accelerat ion flight condition, Eq.

(1.51) can be easily integrated for known flight paths (values of V and Ze) and

known variation of TSFC/ [V(1 - u)] with ze.

1.5.5 A eros pace Vehicle Des i gn~A Team Effort

Aeronaut ical and mechanical engineers in the aerospace field do many things,

but for the most part their efforts all lead to the design of some t ype of aerospace

vehicle. The design t eam for a new aircraft may be divided into four principal

groups: aerodynami cs, propulsion, structures, and flight mechanics. The design

of a vehicle calls on the ext raordinary talents of engineers in each group. Thus

the design is a t eam effort. A t ypical design t eam is shown in Fig. 1.37. The

chi ef engineer serves as the referee and integrates the efforts of everyone into

the vehicle design. Figure 1.38 shows the kind of aircraft design that might

result i f any one group were able to dominat e the others.

INTRODUCTION

Chief engineer

vehicle integration

49

Armament and [

avionics

I

Aerodynamics

group

Aerospace ground

equipment (AGE)

I

Aerodynamic

heating

IJ J r

Propulsion Structures Flight mechanics

group group group

I I I I I I

Engine Inlet Stress Weights Performance Stability

and control

Fi g. 1 . 3 7 O rgani zati on of a typi cal vehi cl e desi gn team.

Controls group

Aerodynamic group

Power plant group

Stress group

Fi g. 1.3 8 Ai rcraft desi gns.

1.6 Rocket Engines

Non-airbreat hing propulsion syst ems are charact erized by the fact that t hey

carry bot h fuel and the oxidizer within the aerospace vehicle. Such syst ems

thus may be used anywhere in space as well as in the at mosphere. Figure 1.39

50 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

~ S ~ Fuel ~ ~

Fuel pump

I Gas

turbine

Oxidizer ~ Oxidizer Combustion

V----q

pump chamber

Fig. 1.39 Li qui d- propel l ant rocket mot or.

shows the essential features of a liquid-propellant rocket system. Two propellants

(an oxidizer and a fuel) are pumped into the combustion chamber where they

ignite. The nozzle accelerates the products of combustion to high velocities

and exhausts them to the atmosphere or space.

A solid-propellant rocket motor is the simplest of all propulsion systems.

Figure 1.40 shows the essential features of this type of system. In this system,

the fuel and oxidizer are mixed together and cast into a solid mass called the

grain. The grain, usually formed with a hole down the middle called the per-

foration, is firmly cemented to the inside of the combustion chamber. After

ignition, the grain burns radially outward, and the hot combustion gases pass

down the perforation and are exhausted through the nozzle.

The absence of a propellant feed system in the solid-propellant rocket is one of

its major advantages. Liquid rockets, on the other hand, may be stopped and later

restarted, and their thrust may be varied somewhat by changing the speed of the

fuel and oxidizer pumps.

1.6.1 Rocket Engine Thrust

A natural starting point in understanding the performance of a rocket is the

examination of the static thrust. Application of the momentum equation devel-

oped in Chapter 2 will show that the static thrust is a function of the propellant

flow rate mp, the exhaust velocity Ve and pressure Pe, the exhaust a r e a Ae, and

the ambient pressure Pa. Figure 1.41 shows a schematic of a stationary rocket

I ~ /

Sol'id ;ropel'lant

. grain . .

Perforation I Nozzle

Fig. 1.40 Sol i d- propel l ant rocket mot or.

I NTRODUCTI ON 51

Y t

X

••

Propellant tank(s)

~ " ~ - ~ , ~ , Ae,

• Ve

Pe

(Y

f ~ 1 " - l

, !

t I"

Forces on control volume

(Pe - Pa)Ae

f

!

t I

Momentum flux for control volume

~ V e

Fi g. 1.41 Schemati c di agram of stati c rocket engi ne.

t o be consi dered for analysis. We assume t he flow to be one-di mensi onal , wi t h a

st eady exit vel oci t y Ve and propel l ant flow rat e rhp. About this r ocket we pl ace a

cont rol vol ume ~r whose cont rol surface int ersect s t he exhaust j et perpendi cul arl y

t hrough the exit pl ane of t he nozzl e. Thrust act s in t he di rect i on opposi t e to the

di rect i on of Ve. The react i on t o the t hrust F necessar y t o hol d t he r ocket and

cont rol vol ume st at i onary is shown in Fig. 1.41.

The moment um equat i on appl i ed t o this syst em gi ves t he fol l owi ng:

1) Sum of forces act i ng on t he out si de surface of t he cont rol vol ume:

y ~ F x =F - ( Pe - Pa) A e

2) The net rate of change of moment um for t he cont rol vol ume:

A( moment um) = 3;/out -- inpVe

gc

Since the sum of t he forces act i ng on t he out si de of the cont rol vol ume

is equal to t he net rate of change of the moment um for t he cont rol vol ume,

we have

F - (Pe - Pa)Ae -- #;rtpVe (1. 52)

gc

52 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

I f the pressure in the exhaust pl ane Pe is t he same as t he ambi ent pressure

Pa, t he t hrust is gi ven by F = rhpVe/gc. The condi t i on Pe = Pa is called

on-design or optimum expansion because it corresponds t o maxi mum t hrust

for t he gi ven chamber condi t i ons. It is conveni ent to define an effective

exhaust velocity C such t hat

(Pe - Pa) Aegc

C ~ Ve -] (1.53)

Thus t he static t hrust of a r ocket can be writ t en as

F = inpC (1.54)

gc

1.6.2 Specific Impul s e

The specific impulse lsp for a r ocket is defined as the thrust per unit of propel-

lant wei ght flow:

F F gc

- - - - ( 1 . 5 5 )

/sp ~Vp lhp g 0

where go is the accel erat i on due t o gravi t y at sea level. The unit Of/sp is the second.

Fr om Eqs. (1.54) and (1.55), t he specific i mpul se can also be wri t t en as

C

Isp = - - (1.56)

go

Ex a m p l e 1 . 9

Fi nd t he specific i mpul se of t he space shuttle mai n engi ne (SSME) shown in

Fig. 1.42a t hat produces 470, 000 l bf in a vacuum wit h a propel l ant wei ght flow of

1030 l bf / s. By usi ng Eq. (1.55), we find that the SSME has a specific impulse Isp

of 456 s ( = 470, 000/ 1030) in vacuum.

An est imat e of t he variat ion in t hrust wit h alt it ude for the space shuttle mai n

engi ne is shown in Fig. 1.42b. The t ypi cal specific impulses f or some rocket

engi nes are listed in Tabl e 1.6. Ot her per f or mance dat a for r ocket engines are

cont ai ned in Appendi x C.

1.6.3 Rocket Vehicle Acceleration

The mass of a rocket vehi cl e vari es a great deal during flight due to the con-

sumpt i on of t he propellant . The vel oci t y t hat a rocket vehi cl e attains during

power ed flight can be det ermi ned by consi deri ng the vehi cl e in Fig. 1.43.

The figure shows an accel erat i ng rocket vehi cl e in a gravi t y field. At some

t ime, t he mass of t he rocket is m and its vel oci t y is V. In an infinit esimal t ime

dt, t he rocket exhaust s an i ncrement al mass dmp wit h an exhaust vel oci t y Ve

INTRODUCTION 53

Fi g. 1. 42a Space shuttle mai n engi ne ( SSM E) .

r el at i ve to t he r ocket as t he r ocket vel oci t y changes t o V + dV. The net change i n

mome nt um of t he cont r ol vol ume cr i s c ompos e d of t he mome nt um out of t he

r ocket at t he exhaust pl us t he change of t he mome nt um of t he r ocket . The

mome nt um out of t he r ocket i n t he V di r ect i on i s - Ve dmp, and t he change i n

t he mome nt um of t he r ocket i n t he V di r ect i on i s m dV. The f or ces act i ng on t he

cont r ol vol ume o" ar e c ompos e d of t he net pr essur e force, t he dr ag D, and t he

gr avi t at i onal force. The s um of t hese f or ces i n t he V di r ect i on i s

) ~ Fv = ( P e - - e a ) A e - - D - m__gg cos 0

gc

The r esul t ant i mpul s e on t he r ocket ()--~ Fv ) d t mus t equal t he mome nt um

change of t he s ys t em A( moment um) = ( - Ve dmp + m dV) / gc. Thus

(Pe - - Pa)Ae - D - mg O] - V e dmp + m d V

- - cos dt =

gc J gc

470

f

460

450

44O

E-

430

420

410

400

0

54 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSI ON

I I I I

20 40 60 80

Altitude (kft)

100

Fi g. 1 . 4 2b R o c k e t t h rus t v ari at i on w i t h al t i t ude.

Fr o m t he pr ecedi ng r el at i onshi p, t he mome nt um change of t he r ocket (m dV) i s

m dV [ (Pe - Pa)Ae - D mg O] Ve -- ---gc cos dt-~ gc (1. 57)

Si nce drop = rnp dt = -(dm/dt)dt, t hen Eq. (1. 57) can be wr i t t en as

m d_Vgc [ (Pe-Pa)Ae + thpVe-D-mgcosOldtgc gc _1

T ab l e 1 . 6 R anges of s peci f i c i mp ul s e l sp f or

t y p i cal r oc k e t engi nes

Fuel / oxi di zer Isp, s

Solid propellant 250

Liquid O2: kerosene (RP) 310

Liquid 02: H2 410

Nuclear fuel: H2 propellant 840

INTRODUCTION

mg

E

Fi g . 1 . 4 3 R o c k e t v e h i c l e i n f l i gh t .

55

By using Eq. (1.53), this relationship becomes

= - - cos dt

gc \ g c gc

or

d V = - C d m Dgc dt _ g c o s Od t (1.58)

m m

The velocit y of a rocket along its trajectory can be det ermined f r om the

preceding equat ion i f C, D, g, and 0 are known.

In the absence of drag and gravit y, integration of Eq. (1.58) gives the follow-

ing, assuming constant effect ive exhaust velocit y C:

A V : C f mt (1.59)

mf

where AV is the change in velocity, m i is the initial mass of the rocket syst em, and

mf i s the final mass. Equat ion (1.59) can be solved for the mass ratio as

m i A V

- - = exp (1.60)

my C

56 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

Example 1.10

We want to est imat e the mass ratio (final to initial) of an H2-O2 (C = 4000 m/ s )

rocket for an Earth orbit (AV = 8000 m/ s), neglecting drag and gravity. Using

Eq. (1.59), we obtain mf/mt = e - 2 = 0.132, or a single-stage rocket would be

about 13% payload and structure and 87% propellant.

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Pr obl e ms

Calculate the uninstalled thrust for Exampl e 1.1, using Eq. (1.6).

Devel op the following analytical expressions for a turbojet engine:

(a) When the fuel flow rate is very small in compari son with the air mass

flow rate, the exit pressure is equal to ambient pressure, and the

installation loss coefficients are zero, then the installed thrust T is

given by

T = __/n° (Ve -- Vo)

gc

(b) For the preceding conditions, the thrust specific fuel consumpt ion is

given by

Tgc//no + 2V0

TSFC - -

2"OThpR

(C) For Vo = 0 and 500 f t / s, plot the preceding equat ion for TSFC

[in ( l bm/ h) / l bf ] vs specific thrust T/rho [in l bf / ( l bm/ s) ] for values

of specific thrust from 0 to 120. Use ~ r = 0.4 and hpR = 18,400

Bt u/ l bm.

(d) Explain the trends.

Repeat 1.2c, using SI units. For Vo = 0 and 150 m/ s , plot TSFC [in ( mg/

s)/ N] vs specific thrust T/rho [in N/ ( kg/ s ) ] for values of specific thrust

from 0 to 1200. Use ~T = 0.4 and hpR = 42,800 kJ/ kg.

A J57 t urbojet engine is t est ed at sea-level, static, standard-day conditions

(Po = 14.696 psia, To = 518.7°R, and Vo = 0). At one test point, the

thrust is 10,200 l bf while the airflow is 164 l bm/ s and the fuel flow is

8520 l bm/ h. Using these data, est imat e the exit velocit y Ve for the case

of exit pressure equal to ambi ent pressure (Po = Pe).

The thrust for a turbofan engine with separate exhaust st reams is equal to

the sum of the thrust from the engine core Fc and the thrust from the

bypass st ream Fs. The bypass ratio of the engine a is the ratio of the

mass flow through the bypass st ream to the core mass flow, or

a =--/nM/nc. When the exit pressures are equal to the ambient pressure,

1. 6

1.7

1. 8

1.9

INTRODUCTION 57

the thrusts of the core and bypass stream are given by

I

Fc = - - [(rhc + Fnf )Vce - thcVo]

gc

rnB

FB = - - ( V B e -- VO)

gc

where Vce and Vse are the exit velocities from the core and bypass,

respectively, Vo is the inlet velocity, and rnf is the mass flow rate of fuel

burned in the core of the engine.

Show that the specific thrust and thrust specific fuel consumpt ion can be

expressed as

F _ 1 C+i nf / t h c ol )

l~lo gc "-1--~-'-~ Wce "q'- " ] - ' ~ wBe - VO

s =' hs - , ns/ , hc

F (F/rh0)(1 + c0

where rno = rhc + rh~.

The CF6 turbofan engine has a rated thrust of 40,000 l bf at a fuel flow rate

of 13,920 l bm/ h at sea-level static conditions. If the core airflow rate is

225 l bm/ s and the bypass ratio is 6.0, what are the specific thrust [l bf/

(Ibm/s)] and thrust specific fuel consumption [(l bm/ h)/ l bf]?

The JT9D high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine at maxi mum static thrust

(Vo = 0) on a sea-level, standard day (Po = 14.696 psia, To = 518.7°R)

has the following data: the air mass flow rate through the core is

247 Ibm/ s, the air mass flow rate through the fan bypass duct is

1248 Ibm/ s, the exit velocit y from the core is 1190 ft / s, the exit velocit y

from the bypass duct is 885 ft / s, and the fuel flow rate into the combust or

is 15,750 l bm/ h. Estimate the following for the case of exit pressures

equal to ambient pressure (Po = Pe):

(a) The thrust of the engine

(b) The thermal efficiency of the engine (heating value of j et fuel is about

18,400 Bt u/ l bm)

(c) The propulsive efficiency and thrust specific fuel consumption of the

engine

Repeat Problem 1.7, using SI units.

One advanced afterburning fighter engine, whose performance is depicted

in Figs. 1. 14a-1. 14e, is installed in the HF-1 fighter aircraft. Using the air-

craft drag data of Fig. 1.26b, determine and plot the variation of weight

specific excess power (Ps in feet per second) vs flight Mach number for

58 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

1.10

1.11

1 . 1 2

1.13

1 . 1 4

1 . 1 5

1 . 1 6

level flight (n = 1) at 36-kft altitude. Assume the installation losses are

constant wit h values of ~bi nl e t = 0.05 and ~bnoz = 0.02.

Det ermi ne the t akeoff speed of the HF-1 aircraft.

Det ermi ne the t akeoff speed of the HP-1 aircraft at 90% of maxi mum

gross t akeoff weight.

Deri ve Eqs. (1.47) and (1.48) for maxi mum CL/Co. Start by taking the

derivat ive of Eq. (1.46) wit h respect to CL and finding the expression

for the lift coefficient that gives maxi mum CL/Co.

Show that for maxi mum CL/CD, the corresponding drag coefficient CD is

gi ven by

CD = 2CDo + K2 C~

An aircraft with a wing area of 800 f t 2 is in level flight (n = 1) at

maxi mum CL/Co. Gi ven that the drag coefficients for the aircraft are

Coo = 0.02, K2 = 0, and K1 = 0.2, find

(a) The maxi mum CL/CD and the corresponding values of CL and CD

(b) The flight altitude [use Eqs. (1.29) and (1.30b)] and aircraft drag for

an aircraft weight of 45,000 l bf at Mach 0.8

(c) The flight altitude and aircraft drag for an aircraft weight of

35,000 l bf at Mach 0.8

(d) The range for an installed engine thrust specific fuel consumpt ion

rate of 0.8 ( l bm/ h) / l bf , i f the 10, 000-1bf difference in aircraft

weight bet ween parts b and c is due only to fuel consumpt ion

An aircraft weighing 110,000 N with a wing area of 42 m 2 is in level

flight (n = 1) at the maxi mum value of CL/Co. Given that the drag coeffi-

cients for the aircraft are CDo = 0.03, K2 = 0, and g l = 0. 25, find the

following:

(a) The maxi mum CL/CD and the corresponding values of CL and Co

(b) The flight altitude [use Eqs. (1.29) and (1.30b)] and aircraft drag at

Mach 0.5

(c) The flight altitude and aircraft drag at Mach 0.75

The Breguet range equation [Eq. (1.45b)] applies for a cruise climb flight

profile with constant RF. Anot her range equat ion can be developed for a

level cruise flight profile wit h varying RF. Consider the case where we

keep CL, Co, and TSFC const ant and vary the flight velocit y with aircraft

INTRODUCTION 59

1.17

1 . 1 8

weight by the expression

/ --2g c W

v = v --C wcSw

Using the subscripts i and f for the initial and final flight conditions,

respectively, show the following:

(a) Substitution of this expression for flight velocit y into Eq. (1.42) gives

dW "v/Wi

- - ds

gFi

(b) Integration of the preceding bet ween the initial i and final f con-

ditions gives

, s ] 2

Wi 2(/~Fi)

(c) For a given weight fraction Wf/Wi, the maxi mum range s for this

level cruise flight corresponds to starting the flight at the maxi mum

altitude (minimum density) and maxi mum value of vr-C-L/Co.

(d) For the drag coefficient equation of Eq. (1.32), maxi mum ~'CZ/Co

corresponds to CL = (1/6K1)(x/12K1Coo + K~ - K2).

An aircraft begins a cruise at a wing loading W/Sw of 100 l bf / f t 2 and Mach

0.8. The drag coefficients a r e K 1 = 0 . 0 5 6 , K 2 = - 0 . 0 0 8 , and Coo = 0.014,

and the fuel consumption TSFC is constant at 0.8 (l bm/ h)/ l bf . For a

weight fraction Wf/Wi of 0.9, det ermine the range and other parameters

for t wo different types of cruise.

(a) For a cruise climb (maximum CL/CD) flight path, det ermine CL, Co,

initial and final altitudes, and range.

(b) For a level cruise (maximum ~-CZ/Co) flight path, det ermine CL,

Co, altitude, initial and final velocities, and range.

An aircraft weighing 70,000 l bf with a wing area of 1000 ft 2 is in level

flight (n = 1) at 30-kft altitude. Using the drag coefficients of Fig. 1.24

and the TSFC model of Eq. (1.36b), find the following:

(a) The maximum CL/CD and the corresponding values of CL, Co, and

Mach number (Note: Since the drag coefficients are a function of

Mach number and it is an unknown, you must first guess a value

for the Mach number to obtain the drag coefficients. Try a Mach

number of 0.8 for your first guess.)

(b) The CL, CD, CL/CD, range factor, endurance factor, and drag for

flight Mach numbers of 0.74, 0.76, 0.78, 0.80, 0.81, and 0.82

60 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

(c) The best cruise Mach ( maxi mum RF)

(d) The best loiter Mach ( maxi mum EF)

1.19 An aircraft weighing 200,000 N wit h a wing area of 60 m 2 is in level flight

(n = 1) at 9-kin altitude. Using the drag coefficients of Fig. 1.24 and TSFC

model of Eq. (1.36b), find the following:

(a) The maxi mum CL/C D and the corresponding values of CL, CD, and

Mach number (Note: Since the drag coefficients are a function of the

Mach number and it is an unknown, you must first guess a value for

the Mach number to obtain the drag coefficients. Try a Mach number

of 0.8 for your first guess.)

(b) The CL, CD, CL/CD, range factor, endurance factor, and drag for

flight Mach numbers of 0.74, 0.76, 0.78, 0.80, 0.81, and 0.82

(c) The best cruise Mach ( maxi mum RF)

(d) The best loiter Mach ( maxi mum EF)

1.20 What is the specific impulse in seconds of the JT9D t urbofan engine in

Probl em 1.7?

1.21 A rocket mot or is fired in place on a static test stand. The rocket exhausts

100 l bm/ s at an exit velocit y of 2000 f t / s and pressure of 50 psia. The exit

area of the rocket is 0.2 ft 2. For an ambient pressure of 14.7 psia, deter-

mine the effect ive exhaust velocit y, the thrust transmitted to the test

stand, and the specific impulse.

1. 22 A rocket mot or under static testing exhausts 50 kg/ s at an exit velocit y

of 800 m/ s and pressure of 350 kPa. The exit area of the rocket is

0.02 m 2. For an ambi ent pressure of 100 kPa, det ermine the effective

exhaust velocit y, the thrust t ransmit t ed to the test stand, and the specific

impulse.

1.23

1 . 24

The propellant weight of an orbiting space syst em amount s to 90% of the

syst em gross weight. Given that the syst em rocket engine has a specific

impulse of 300 s, determine:

(a) The maxi mum attainable velocit y i f all the propellant is burned and

the syst em' s initial velocit y is 7930 m/ s

(b) The propellant mass flow rate, given that the rocket engine thrust is

1 , 67 0 , 0 0 0 N

A chemi cal rocket mot or with a specific impulse of 400 s is used in the

final stage of a multistage launch vehicle for deep-space exploration.

This final st age has a mass ratio (initial to final) of 6, and its single

rocket mot or is first fired while it orbits the Eart h at a velocit y of

26,000 ft / s. The final stage must reach a vel oci t y of 36,700 f t / s to

escape the Ear t h' s gravitational field. Det ermi ne the percent age of fuel

that must be used to perform this maneuver (neglect gravit y and drag).

1 . D1

INTRODUCTION 61

Gas Turbine Design Problems

Background (HP-1 aircraft). You are to det ermine the thrust and fuel

consumpt i on requirement s of the t wo engines for the hypot het ical pas-

senger aircraft, the HP-1. The t win-engine aircraft will cruise at 0.83

Mach and be capabl e of the following requirements:

1) Takeof f at maxi mum gross t akeoff weight WTo from an airport at

1.6-km pressure altitude on a hot day (38°C) uses a 3650-m

(12-kft) runway. The craft is able to maint ain a 2.4% single-engine

cl i mb gradient in the event of engine failure at liftoff.

2) It transports 253 passengers and luggage (90 kg each) over a still-air

dist ance of 11,120 km (6000 n mile). It has 30 mi n of fuel in reserve

at end (loiter).

3) It attains an initial altitude of 11 km at beginning of cruise

(Ps = 1.5 m/ s) .

4) The single-engine craft cruises at 5-km altitude at 0.45 Mach

(Ps = 1.5 m/ s).

All of the data for the HP-1 cont ained in Exampl e 1.2 apply. Prelimi-

nary mission analysis of the HP-1 using the met hods of Ref. 12 for the

l l , 120- km flight with 253 passengers and luggage (22, 770-kg payl oad)

gives the preliminary fuel use shown in Tabl e P1.D1.

Anal ysi s of t akeoff indicates that each engine must produce an

installed thrust of 214 kN on a hot day (38°C) at 0.1 Mach and 1.6-km

pressure altitude. To provi de for reasonable-lengt h landing gear, the

maxi mum di amet er of the engine inlet is limit ed to 2.2 m. Based on stan-

dard design pract ice (see Chapt er 10), the maxi mum mass flow rate per

unit area is given by

A--=rh 231.8_~o~0 ° ( kg/ s ) / m2

T ab l e P1 . D1

Distance, Fuel used,

Description km kg

Taxi 200 a

Takeoff 840 a

Climb and acceleration 330 5 , 8 8 0 a

Cruise 10,650 50,240

Descent 140 1,090 a

Loiter (30 min at 9-km altitude) 2,350

Land and taxi 6 0 0 a

11,120 61,200

aThese fuel consumptions can be considered to be constant.

62 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

1 . D2

Thus on a hot day (38°C) at 0.1 Mach and 1.6-km pressure altitude,

0 = (38 + 273. 1)/288. 2 = 1.079, 00 = 1.079 x 1.002 = 1.081,

8 = 0.8256, 6o = 0.8256 x 1.007 = 0.8314, and the maxi mum mass

flow through t he 2. 2-m-diam inlet is 704.6 kg/ s.

Calculations (HP-1 Aircraft).

1) I f the HP-1 starts out the cruise at 11 km with a weight of

1, 577, 940N, find the allowable TSFC for the distance of

10,650 km for the following cases:

(a) Assume the aircraft performs a cruise cl i mb (flies at a constant

Co/CL). What is its altitude at the end of the cruise climb?

(b) Assume the aircraft cruises at a const ant altitude of 11 km. Deter-

mi ne Co/CL at the start and end of cruise. Using the average of

these t wo values, calculat e the allowable TSFC.

2) Det ermi ne the loiter (endurance) Mach numbers for altitudes of 10, 9,

8, 7, and 6 km when the HP-1 aircraft is at 64% of WTO.

3) Det ermi ne the aircraft drag at the following points in the HP-1

ai rcraft ' s l l , 120-km flight based on the fuel consumpt ions just

listed:

(a) Takeoff, M = 0.23, sea level

(b) Start of cruise, M = 0.83, 11 km

(c) End of cruise climb, M = 0.83, altitude = ? ft

(d) End of 11-km cruise, M = 0.83, 11 km

(e) Engi ne out (88% of WTO), M = 0.45, 5 km

Background (HF-1 Aircraft). You are to det ermi ne the thrust and fuel

consumpt ion requirement s of the two engines for the hypothetical

fighter aircraft HF-1. This t win-engine fighter will supercruise at 1.6

Mach and will be capable of the following requirements:

1) Takeof f at maxi mum gross t akeoff weight WTO from a 1200-ft

(366-m) runway at sea level on a standard day.

2) Supercruise at 1.6 Mach and 40-kft altitude for 250 nm (463 km) at

92% of WTO.

3) Perform 5-g t ums at 1.6 Mach and 30-kft altitude at 88% of WTO.

4) Perform 5-g t ums at 0.9 Mach and 30-kft altitude at 88% of WTO-

5) Perform the maxi mum mission listed in the following.

All of the data for the HF-1 contained in Exampl e 1.2 apply. Pre-

liminary mission analysis of the HF-1 using the met hods of Ref. 12

for the maxi mum mission gives the prel i mi nary fuel use shown in

Tabl e P1.D2:

Analysis of t akeoff indicates that each engine must produce an

installed thrust of 23,500 l bf on a standard day at 0.1 Mach and sea-level

altitude. To provi de for opt i mum integration into the airframe, the

maxi mum area of the engine inlet is limited to 5 ft 2. Based on standard

design pract ice (see Chapt er 10), the maxi mum mass flow rate per unit

INTRODUCTION

T ab l e P1 . D2

63

Distance, Fuel used,

Description nm Ibm

Warmup, taxi, takeoff

Climb and acceleration to 0.9 Mach and 40 kft

Accelerate from 0.9 to 1.6 Mach

Supercruise at 1.6 Mach and 40 kft

Deliver payload of 2000 lbf

Perform one 5-g turn at 1.6 Mach and 30 kft

Perform two 5-g turns at 0.9 Mach and 30 kft

Climb to best cruise altitude and 0.9 Mach

Cruise climb at 0.9 Mach

Loiter (20 min at 30-kft altitude)

Land

700 a

35 1 , 8 0 0 a

12 7 0 0 a

203 4,400

0 0 a

0 1,000 a

0 700 a

23 400 a

227 1,600

1,100

0 a

500 12,400

~These f uel c o n s u mp t i o n s c a n be c ons i de r e d t o be cons t ant .

ar ea f or subsoni c fl i ght condi t i ons i s gi ven by

rn 4 7 . 5 ~ ( l b m/ s ) / f t 2

A

Thus at 0.1 Mach and s ea- l evel st andar d day, 0 = 1.0, 0o = 1.002,

6 = 1.0, 6 0 - - 1 . 0 0 7 , and t he ma x i mu m mas s fl ow t hr ough t he 5-ft 2

i nl et i s 238. 9 l b m/ s . For super soni c fl i ght condi t i ons, t he ma x i mu m

mas s fl ow r at e per uni t ar ea i s s i mpl y t he dens i t y of t he ai r p t i mes it s

vel oci t y V.

Calculations (HF-1 Aircraft).

1) I f t he HF- 1 st art s t he super cr ui se

2)

3)

at 4 0 k f t wi t h a wei ght of

36, 800 l bf, fi nd t he al l owabl e TSFC f or t he di s t ance of 203 nm f or

t he f ol l owi ng cases:

(a) As s ume t he ai r cr af t per f or ms a cr ui se cl i mb (fl i es at a const ant

Co/CL). Wha t i s i t s al t i t ude at t he end of t he cr ui se cl i mb?

(b) As s ume t he ai r cr af t cr ui ses at a const ant al t i t ude of 40 kft . Det er -

mi ne CD/CL at t he st art and end of crui se. Us i ng t he aver age of

t hese t wo val ues, cal cul at e t he al l owabl e TSFC.

Fi nd t he bes t cr ui se al t i t ude f or t he subsoni c r et ur n cr ui se at 0. 9 Mach

and 70. 75% of WTo.

Det er mi ne t he l oi t er ( endur ance) Ma c h number s f or al t i t udes of 32,

30, 28, 26, and 24 kf t when t he HF- 1 ai r cr af t i s at 67% of WTo.

64 ELEMENTS OF PROPULSION

4)

Det er mi ne t he ai r cr af t dr ag at t he f ol l owi ng poi nt s i n t he HF- 1 ai r-

cr af t ' s ma xi mum mi s s i on bas ed on t he f uel cons umpt i ons j us t l i st ed:

(a) Takeof f , M = 0. 172, sea l evel

(b) St ar t of super cr ui se, M = 1.6, 40 kf t

(c) End of super cr ui se cl i mb, M = 1.6, al t i t ude = ? ft

(d) End of 40- kf t super cr ui se, M = 1.6, 40 kf t

(e) St art of subsoni c cr ui se, M = 0.9, al t i t ude --- best cr ui se al t i t ude

(f) St ar t o f l oi t er, al t i t ude = 30 kf t

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