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3asic 4heory
We could try using --D *lo' results *or each section, but correct them *or the in*luence o* the
trailing %orte! 'ake and its do'n'ash" 4his is the idea o* li*ting line theory"
We use the --D result that5
together 'ith the relation5
to obtain5
3ut the angle o* attack used here is reduced through the e**ects o* do'n'ash so that the e**ecti%e
angle o* attack is the true angle6 minus the do'n'ash angle5
Where the induced do'n'ash, Wind, is gi%en by the 3iot-7a%art 8a'5
Combining the e!pression *or gamma5
'ith the e!pression *or the do'n'ash angle5
pro%ides an integral e(uation *or the circulation distribution along the 'ing"
9ust as in thin air*oil theory, the integral e(uation can be sol%ed by assuming a :ourier series
representation *or the distribution"
7ubstitution o* the e!pression *or circulation into the integral e(uation leads to5
A*ter integrating 'e ha%e5
4he solution o* this e(uation *or all %alues o* y is not (uite so easy as in the case o* thin air*oil
theory 'here 'e could get closed *orm e!pressions *or the An;s" 4his is generally done
numerically" <o'e%er, se%eral interesting and simple results appear *rom this analysis 'ithout
e%er actually computing the An;s *rom the distribution o* local angle o* attack" 7ome o* these are
discussed in the ne!t section"
lliptic Wing =esults
)*, *or e!ample, 'e
represent the li*t
distribution 'ith only
a single term in the
:ourier series, then5
4his represents an elliptic distribution o* li*t"
4he do'n'ash angle is, in this case5
4he integral is constant 'hen >y> ? b/-"
)n this domain5
7ince the do'n'ash distribution is constant the Cl distribution is @ust5
)* the angle o* attack is also constant along the 'ing Ano t'istB then the Cl is constant and since5
4hen in this case the section Cl is e(ual to the 'ing C8 and5
or5
=ecall that this holds *or uns'ept elliptical 'ings"
Ceneral 8i*t Distributions
)* 'e are gi%en the li*t distribution 'e can compute the An;s as 'e 'ould 'ith any :ourier
e!pansion" And once 'e kno' the :ourier coe**icients, 'e may compute the do'n'ash
distribution and the induced drag5
7ubstitution and e%aluation o* the de*inite integral66 leads to5
4his *ormula gi%es the do'n'ash in the plane o* the 'ing *or arbitrary load distributions" :or the
simple elliptical case, closed *orm solutions *or the do'n'ash and side'ash at the start o* the
'ake sheet e!ist" 4he simple relation *or the %elocity induced by an elliptic 'ing tailing %orte!
sheet is5
<ere, the %ariable D is the comple! coordinate y E iF and 'o is the do'n'ash at the 'ing root5 y
G F G +"
4his *ormula permits computation o* induced %elocities behind a 'ing as they e**ect do'nstream
sur*aces such as horiFontal tails"
Note that the do'n'ash is only constant in the plane o* the 'ing and behind the 'ing" As 'e
mo%e outboard o* the 'ing or out o* the plane o* the 'ake, the do'n'ash %aries considerably and
there is a rather large up'ash beyond the 'ing tips"
4his do'n'ash *ield produces se%eral important e**ects" )t changes the li*t o* sur*aces in other
sur*aces 'akes" 4his is important in the analysis o* airplane stability and the e**ecti%eness o*
horiFontal tails" As can be seen *rom the do'n'ash plot, the inter*erence o* a canard 'ake 'ith a
'ing is e!treme5 the 'ing li*t is reduced behind the canard and the part o* the 'ing outboard o*
the canard has increased li*t"
4he do'n'ash also produces induced drag as discussed in the ne!t section"