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3asic 4heory
We could try using --D *lo' results *or each section, but correct them *or the in*luence o* the
trailing %orte! 'ake and its do'n'ash" 4his is the idea o* li*ting line theory"
We use the --D result that5
together 'ith the relation5
to obtain5
3ut the angle o* attack used here is reduced through the e**ects o* do'n'ash so that the e**ecti%e
angle o* attack is the true angle6 minus the do'n'ash angle5
Where the induced do'n'ash, Wind, is gi%en by the 3iot-7a%art 8a'5
Combining the e!pression *or gamma5
'ith the e!pression *or the do'n'ash angle5
pro%ides an integral e(uation *or the circulation distribution along the 'ing"
9ust as in thin air*oil theory, the integral e(uation can be sol%ed by assuming a :ourier series
representation *or the distribution"
7ubstitution o* the e!pression *or circulation into the integral e(uation leads to5
A*ter integrating 'e ha%e5
4he solution o* this e(uation *or all %alues o* y is not (uite so easy as in the case o* thin air*oil
theory 'here 'e could get closed *orm e!pressions *or the An;s" 4his is generally done
numerically" <o'e%er, se%eral interesting and simple results appear *rom this analysis 'ithout
e%er actually computing the An;s *rom the distribution o* local angle o* attack" 7ome o* these are
discussed in the ne!t section"
lliptic Wing =esults
)*, *or e!ample, 'e
represent the li*t
distribution 'ith only
a single term in the
:ourier series, then5
4his represents an elliptic distribution o* li*t"
4he do'n'ash angle is, in this case5
4he integral is constant 'hen >y> ? b/-"
)n this domain5
7ince the do'n'ash distribution is constant the Cl distribution is @ust5
)* the angle o* attack is also constant along the 'ing Ano t'istB then the Cl is constant and since5
4hen in this case the section Cl is e(ual to the 'ing C8 and5
=ecall that this holds *or uns'ept elliptical 'ings"
Ceneral 8i*t Distributions
)* 'e are gi%en the li*t distribution 'e can compute the An;s as 'e 'ould 'ith any :ourier
e!pansion" And once 'e kno' the :ourier coe**icients, 'e may compute the do'n'ash
distribution and the induced drag5
7ubstitution and e%aluation o* the de*inite integral66 leads to5
4his *ormula gi%es the do'n'ash in the plane o* the 'ing *or arbitrary load distributions" :or the
simple elliptical case, closed *orm solutions *or the do'n'ash and side'ash at the start o* the
'ake sheet e!ist" 4he simple relation *or the %elocity induced by an elliptic 'ing tailing %orte!
sheet is5
<ere, the %ariable D is the comple! coordinate y E iF and 'o is the do'n'ash at the 'ing root5 y
G F G +"
4his *ormula permits computation o* induced %elocities behind a 'ing as they e**ect do'nstream
sur*aces such as horiFontal tails"
Note that the do'n'ash is only constant in the plane o* the 'ing and behind the 'ing" As 'e
mo%e outboard o* the 'ing or out o* the plane o* the 'ake, the do'n'ash %aries considerably and
there is a rather large up'ash beyond the 'ing tips"
4his do'n'ash *ield produces se%eral important e**ects" )t changes the li*t o* sur*aces in other
sur*aces 'akes" 4his is important in the analysis o* airplane stability and the e**ecti%eness o*
horiFontal tails" As can be seen *rom the do'n'ash plot, the inter*erence o* a canard 'ake 'ith a
'ing is e!treme5 the 'ing li*t is reduced behind the canard and the part o* the 'ing outboard o*
the canard has increased li*t"
4he do'n'ash also produces induced drag as discussed in the ne!t section"