3 views

Uploaded by marchelo_chelo

Calculus I

save

You are on page 1of 6

**MATH 2914: Calculus I
**

Dr. Marcel B. Finan

7 The Limit of a Function

In this section we discuss the ﬁrst topic of calculus which is the concept of a

limit. We ﬁrst introduce what is called a sided limit.

Left-Hand and Right-Hand Limits

Conisder the function shown in Figure 7.1.

Figure 7.1

Notice the following about this graph. Given a small number > 0 you can

create the interval (L − , L) as shown in the Figure 7.1. Also, you can ﬁnd

a positive number δ and the interval (a − δ, a). Now if you pick any number

x in the interval (a − δ, a), that is a − x < δ, you notice that L − f(x) < .

More formally, if f(x) satisﬁes the property that for every > 0 (as small as

we want) we can ﬁnd a δ > 0 (suﬃciently small) such that if a −x < δ (that

is x is in the interval (a−δ, a)) then |f(x)−L| < (i.e. f(x) is in the interval

(L − , L) if f is increasing or in the interval (L, L + ) if f is decreasing)

then we say that L is the left-hand limit of f(x) as x approaches a (with

x = a). Symbolically, we write

lim

x→a

−

f(x) = L.

Likewise, if f(x) satisﬁes the property that for every > 0 (as small as we

want) we can ﬁnd a δ > 0 (suﬃciently small) such that if x − a < δ (that is

x is in the interval (a, a + δ)) then |f(x) − L| < then we say that L is the

1

right-hand limit of f(x) as x approaches a (with x = a). See Figure 7.2.

Symbolically, we write

lim

x→a

+

f(x) = L.

Figure 7.2

The Limit of a Function

The limit of a function can be deﬁned in terms of left-hand limit and right-

hand limit. We say that f(x) approaches L as x approaches a (from either

direction with x = a) if and only if

lim

x→a

−

f(x) = lim

x→a

+

f(x) = L.

In this case, we write

lim

x→a

f(x) = L.

This deﬁnition says that for every > 0 (as small as we want) we can ﬁnd a

δ > 0 (suﬃciently small) such that if |x − a| < δ (that is x is in the interval

(a−δ, a+δ)) then |f(x)−L| < (that is f(x) is in the interval (L−, L+)).

Example 7.1 (Graphical evaluation of a limit)

Evaluate graphically, lim

θ→0

sin θ

θ

.

Solution.

The graph of f(θ) =

sin θ

θ

is given by Figure 7.3. From this, we see that

lim

θ→0

sin θ

θ

= 1

2

Figure 7.3

Example 7.2 (Evaluating a limit numerically)

Evaluate numerically lim

t→0

16(2+t)

2

−16(2)

2

t

.

Solution.

t -.2 -.1 -.01 -0.001 0 .0001 .001 .01

16(2+t)

2

−16(2)

2

t

60.8 62.4 63.84 63.98 undeﬁned 64.0016 64.016 64.16

From the table we conclude that

lim

t→0

16(2 + t)

2

− 16(2)

2

t

= 64

Properties of Limits

Using the formal deﬁnition of a limit using and δ is diﬃcult for complex

functions. Instead, a set of very useful results were established:

lim

x→a

[af(x) + bg(x)] =a

lim

x→a

f(x)

+ b

lim

x→a

g(x)

(1)

lim

x→a

[f(x)g(x)] =

lim

x→a

f(x)

·

lim

x→a

g(x)

(2)

lim

x→a

x =a (3)

lim

x→a

c =c (4)

lim

x→c

(a

n

x

n

+ a

n−1

x

n−1

+ · · · + a

1

x + a

0

) =a

n

c

n

+ a

n−1

c

n−1

+ · · · + a

1

c + a

0

(5)

lim

x→a

f(x)

g(x)

=

lim

x→a

f(x)

lim

x→a

g(x)

(6)

3

provided that lim

x→a

g(x) = 0.

Example 7.3 (Evaluating a limit algebraically)

Use algebra to ﬁnd lim

t→0

16(2+t)

2

−16(2)

2

t

.

Solution.

Expanding the numerator gives

16(2 + t)

2

− 16(2)

2

t

=

16t

2

+ 64t

t

.

Thus,

lim

t→0

16(2 + t)

2

− 16(2)

2

t

= lim

t→0

(16t + 64) = 64

Generalizing the idea of instantaneous velocity, we deﬁne the instantaneous

rate of change of a function y = f(x) at x = a to be

lim

x→a

f(x) − f(a)

x − a

or alternatively, by letting h = x − a

lim

h→0

f(a + h) − f(a)

h

Example 7.4

Evaluate

lim

h→0

f(a + h) − f(a)

h

when f(x) = x

2

.

Solution.

Since f(x + h) = (x + h)

2

= x

2

+ 2xh + h

2

and f(x) = x

2

, we have

lim

h→0

f(a + h) − f(a)

h

= lim

h→0

2xh + h

2

h

= lim

h→0

(2x + h) = 2x

Examples of Non-existing Limits

Thus far we have considered functions with exisiting limits. In the next

several examples, we look at functions with no limits at a given point.

4

Example 7.5

Find lim

x→0

|x|

x

.

Solution.

Finding the left-hand limit we obtain

lim

x→0

−

|x|

x

= lim

x→0

−

−x

x

= −1.

Finding the right-hand limit we obtain

lim

x→0

+

|x|

x

= lim

x→0

+

x

x

= 1.

Since the left-hand limit is diﬀerent from the right-hand limit, we conclude

that lim

x→0

|x|

x

does not exist

Example 7.6

Show, graphically, that lim

x→0

1

x

does not exist.

Solution.

The graph of f(x) =

1

x

is

It follows that both left-hand and right-hand limits do not exist. Hence,

lim

x→0

1

x

does not exist

Example 7.7

Show, numerically, that lim

x→0

sin

1

x

**does not exist.
**

Solution.

Consider the following tables

5

x sin

1

x

−

2

π

−1

−

2

3π

1

−

2

5π

−1

−

2

7π

1

.

.

.

x sin

1

x

2

π

1

2

3π

−1

2

5π

1

2

7π

−1

.

.

.

It follows that both left-hand and right-hand limits do not exist. Hence,

lim

x→0

sin

1

x

**does not exist
**

Limits at Inﬁnity

If the variable x increases without bound or decreases without bound while

the function f approaches a value K then we write

lim

x→−∞

f(x) = L or lim

x→∞

f(x) = L.

Geometrically, we call the line y = L a horizontal asymptote.

Example 7.8

Find, graphically, lim

x→−∞

1

x

and lim

x→∞

1

x

.

Solution.

From the graph (See Example 7.6) we see that

lim

x→±∞

1

x

= 0

6

- pipelineprojectUploaded byapi-219176177
- Addmath ProjectUploaded byIntan Julia Azman
- Limits of Functions of Two VariablesUploaded byHugo Mayorga
- 34800113-Projek-Add-Math-Smk-Sungai-Limau.docxUploaded byDeborah Yong Ren Ying
- Limit FailsUploaded byary_reve
- 25-CompositionLimitsUploaded byapi-3738981
- Calculus Cheat Sheet AllUploaded bykwame
- Sec6.4Uploaded byTheGreatPostulio
- P07.IntegrationUploaded byCLEMENTE RODRIGUEZ ARRAEZ
- Practice Midterm 2Uploaded byAhmad Imran Idzqandar
- STPM Baharu 2014 Sem 2( Mathematics T 954 )Uploaded byAlex Tan
- Math 135 Project GuidelinesUploaded byVhigherlearning
- 635Uploaded byAnonymous W70TzG8
- Rate of Change & LimitUploaded byAbdul Hamid Bhatti
- Numerical AnalysisUploaded byJoshua Cook
- pipeline projectUploaded byapi-302213567
- ErrPDC4Uploaded bygoogle
- CCP403Uploaded byapi-3849444
- Final Exam p2Uploaded byTey Nyok Sun
- PP Paper 2 Trial 2009.docUploaded byRavendran Munian
- Tutorial 4Uploaded bySarah Balqis
- boyoor tawsendUploaded byBranden Brown
- RMO 2017 SolutionsUploaded byNoel Binu
- inequalitiestestreviewUploaded byapi-291820023
- mth goruUploaded byRaVinder SinGh
- Matematik Kertas 1 Tingkatan 4Uploaded byNur Nadiah
- 5UebungUploaded bykillmelorry1627
- CSEC Mathematics Diagnostic.rtfUploaded byGerneille Knights
- Insight 2015 Mathematical Methods Examination 2 SolutionsUploaded bynochnoch
- Infinite-Series.pdfUploaded bytranhuutuong

- A Study of Electro Materials for Lithium-ion BatteriesUploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura24Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura25Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura27Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura26-AUploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura26-AUploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura24Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura25-AUploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura25Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- La Isla de Los Muertos - James BeckerUploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura27Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura25-AUploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Cálculo Diferencial. Samuel FuenlabradaUploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura26Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura26Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura23Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura20Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura17Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura19Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura16Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura20Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura18Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura16Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lecture19Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura18Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura17Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura21Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura15Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura23Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Sistemas de Sensores en Red Lectura21Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo