Statically Indeterminate (Sections 4.4 & 4.5):
Statically Indeterminate, Thermal Strain, Poisson’s Ratio
number of unknowns > number of the equilibrium equations
Additional equation is needed to solve the problem
Thermal Strain (Section 4.6):
TL
T
A =o o T
L
T
T
A = = o
o
c
Poisson’s ratio (Section 3.6):
al longitudin
lateral
c
c
v ÷ =
) 1 ( 2 v +
=
E
G
g
Lecture 3
Chapter 7: Torsion (Sections 5.1~5.4)
Internal torque in a shaft
Relating the stress in a shaft to its angle of twist
Relating to the shear stress to the internal torque in the shaft
A sign convention for shaft torsion
Torque diagrams
Ch t 8 BM & SF di b ilib i (S ti Chapter 8: BM & SF diagrams by equilibrium (Section
6.1)
Point Forces and Couples
Distributed Forces
Chapter 7 Torsion
For the drive shaft in a rear wheel drive
R
For the driveshaft in a rear wheel drive
car, the gearbox applies a twisting
moment or torque to one end of the
h ft d th diff ti l li
Rear
wheel
Engine
w
Shaft Differential
shaft, and the differential applies an
opposite torque at the other end.
‘Cut’
Internal torque in a shaft
ve
M
+
=
¿
0
T T T T = ¬ = + ÷
int int
0
Relating the stress in a shaft to its angle of twist
 µ L = u
Relationship
β
L
B
ρ is radius of the shaft;
L is the length of the shaft
 µ
A
ρ
g
Φ is the angle of twist under the internal
torque T.
A’
Ф
O
Shear strain on the surface of the shaft is given by
L
u
= =
µ
 ¸
surface
Relating the stress in a shaft to its angle of twist
r
µ
¸ ¸
r
surface r radius at
=
r
µ
L
u
=
µ
¸
surface
L
r
¸ =
r radius at
Untwisted Twisted
¸ t G =
Hooke’s Law
L
Gr
t =
Note:
Shear stress and shear strain are greatest on the surface of the shaft and
L
Shear stress and shear strain are greatest on the surface of the shaft and
zero at the centre.
Relating the shear stress to the internal torque in a shaft
dA dF t =
dr rd dA u =
G 
L
Gr
t =
dr rd
L
Gr
dF u

=
dF dM
d d
Gr
dM u

3
rdF dM =
ELEMENT
dr d
L
dM u

ELEMENT
=
}
=
t 2
ELEMENT HOOP
dM dM
dr
L
Gr
dM

t
3
HOOP
2 =
}
0
ELEMENT HOOP
L
4
}
=
µ
0
HOOP
dM M
2
4
tµ
= J

tµ
G
L
M
2
4
=
L
JG
M

=
2
Relating the shear stress to the internal torque in a shaft
M T =
JG
M T =
L
JG
T

=
Torque is a moment that twists a member
about its longitudinal axis.
Where J is called the polar moment of area of the
shaft It is a geometric property of the crosssection
g
shaft. It is a geometric property of the cross section
of the shaft.
Solid shaft
2
4
tµ
= J
ρ is the radius of the shaft
2
Hollow shaft
ρ is the radius of the shaft.
ρ
i
ρ
o
Hollow shaft
) (
4
4
µ µ t ÷
2
) (
i o
J
µ µ t
=
ρ
o
is the outer radius of the shaft.
ρ
i
is the inner radius of the shaft.
Summary
Relationship between the shear stress τ and the angle of twist Φ
Gr
t =
L
t
JG
Relationship between the internal torque T and the angle of twist Φ
L
JG
T

=
The Engineers’ Theory of Torsion is as follows
TL L
= =
t

L is the length of the shaft
G is the shear modulus
J is the polar moment of area
GJ Gr
 J is the polar moment of area
r is the radius at which we want to calculate the
shear stress
A sign convention for shaft torsion
When you look at the shaft When you look at the shaft
from an end, the end closer
to you is twisting positively.
We cut the shaft to investigate the internal
torque in a shaft with a positive twist.
We rotate our view of each portion, so that we
are looking straight onto the cut surface. We
see that a positive internal torque appears see that, a positive internal torque appears
anticlockwise.
When the shaft is viewed from the side, T
int
and Φ are positive if, the torque at the left hand
A B
T
T
p , q
end appears to act upward, and the torque at
the right end appears to act downward.
T
T
For multiple torques,
To determine the magnitude and sign of the
internal torque at Point P, between B and C. q
Using equilibrium to determine T
int
.
S ti A B P
0 =
¿
M
Section ABP:
ve +
¿
Nm T T 5 0 10 15
int int
÷ = ¬ = ÷ +
Section PCD:
ve
0
+
=
¿
M
Nm T T 5 0 5
int int
÷ = ¬ = +
For multiple torques,
Using the similar procedure, we can determine
the internal torque at other portions of the shaft the internal torque at other portions of the shaft.
Nm T 10
int
+ =
Between A and B:
Between B and C: Nm T 5
int
÷ =
Between C and D: Nm T 0
int
=
¿
¿
÷
=
downward" point " that P of left the to torques All
upward" point " that P, of left the to torques All
int
T
¿
downward point that P, of left the to torques All
Point P between B and C:
Nm T 5 15 10
int
÷ = ÷ =
Torque Diagram,
Nm T 10
int
+ =
Between A and B:
Between B and C: Nm T 5
int
÷ =
Between C and D: Nm T 0
int
=
Draw a diagram of the internal torque vs distance (x) along the shaft,
A
T
int
Draw a diagram of the internal torque vs distance (x) along the shaft,
We move from left to right, an
A
B
C D
We move from left to right, an
“upwards” torque causes an
increase in the torque diagram and
a “downwards” torque causes a
x
a downwards torque causes a
decrease in the torque diagram.
Torque Diagram,
Two points A and B are separated by a distance
x. The internal torque (T), shear modulus (G),
and polar moment of area (J) are all constant
between A and B. The angle of twist of B relative
Torque diagram
g
to A is as follows
Tx
= 
A
T
int
Torque diagram
JG
A B
=
/

T T
A
B T
A B
JG
Tx
x
JG
T
/
Area  = = × =
x
JG
T
is equal to the area under a graph of vs x
between A and B.
JG
Tx
JG
T
JG
T
x
B and A between x vs
J G
T
of graph a under Area
/
=
A B

x
J G
Weighted torque diagram
Example 1,
To determine the angles of twist of B relative to A, C relative to A
0.5m L , 70 , 9m  1E J
B, and A Between
4
= = = GPa G
Torque diagram
0.6m L , 60 , 9m  2E J
C, and B Between
4
= = = GPa G
Torque diagram
T
d 0714 0 5 0 143 0 
10
Between A and B,
rad
A B
0714 . 0 5 . 0 143 . 0
/
= × = 
5 x
T/J G
B t A d C
0.143
A C
6 . 0 0417 . 0 5 . 0 143 . 0
/
× ÷ × = 
Between A and C,
0.5m
0.0417 x
0.6m
rad 0464 . 0 =
Example 2,
The torques shown are exerted on pulleys B
and C. The shafts are solid,
• AB is made of aluminium (G=28GPa) with a
diameter of 30mm, and
• BC is made of steel (G=77GPa) with a
diameter of 40mm.
Determine the angle of twist of C relative to B,
and C relative to A. Also determine the a d C e a e o so de e e e
maximum magnitude of the shear stress, and
where it occurs.
Torque diagram—T vs x
Weighted Torque diagram—T/JG vs x
Tx
Area under the weighted Torque diagram
JG
Tx
A B
=
/

Step 1, Determine the support reaction at the wall
A C
T
wall
B
400Nm
300Nm
Use equilibrium Use equilibrium,
ve
0
+
=
¿
M
Nm T T
wall wall
100 0 300 400 ÷ = ¬ = ÷ +
Step 2, Construct a torque diagram for this problem
T
Use “cut’ and equilibrium
300Nm
A
C
Use cut and equilibrium,
Nm T
BC
300 =
100Nm
x
B
Step 3, Determine the values of shear modulus (G) and polar moment
of area (J) for each part of the shaft
4
4 4
) 2 / 30 ( 142 . 3 × tµ
Between A and B,
4
8 953 . 7
2
) 2 / 30 ( 142 . 3
2
m E J ÷ =
×
= =
tµ
2
) 3 227 . 2 ( ) 9 28 ( ) 8 953 . 7 ( Nm E E E JG = × ÷ =
4
4 4
) 7 514 2 (
) 2 / 40 ( 142 . 3
m E J
× tµ
Between B and C,
) 7 514 . 2 (
2
) (
2
m E J ÷ = = =
µ
2
) 4 935 . 1 ( ) 9 77 ( ) 7 514 . 2 ( Nm E E E JG = × ÷ =
Step 4, Weight the torque diagram by 1/JG
T/JG
0.0155
1.2m 0.9m
0.0449
x
Step 5, the rotation of C relative to B is equal to the area under the
weighted torque diagram between B and C.
0.0155
T/JG
1.2m
0.0449
x
1.2m
0.9m
rad
B C
0140 . 0 9 . 0 0155 . 0
/
= × = 
Step 6, the rotation of C relative to A is equal to the area under the
weighted torque diagram between A and C.
rad
A C
0399 . 0 2 . 1 0449 . 0 9 . 0 0155 . 0
/
÷ = × ÷ × = 
Th h i l di ti f th t ti i b th i f Φ d The physical direction of the rotation are given by the signs of Φ
C/B
and
Φ
C/A
, and the sign convention described earlier.
Step 7, The maximum shear stress can be calculated by rearranging
the Engineers’ Theory of Torsion
GJ
TL
Gr
L
= =
t

L
Gr
J
Tr 
t = =
GJ Gr
O th t id f h ft ti AB
L J
MPa
E
E
J
T
861 . 18
) 8 953 7 (
2 / ) 3 30 ( 100
÷ =
÷ × ÷
= =
µ
t
On the outside of shaft portion AB:
E J ) 8 953 . 7 ( ÷
On the outside of shaft portion BC:
MPa
E
E
J
T
866 . 23
) 7 514 . 2 (
2 / ) 3 40 ( 300
=
÷
÷ ×
= =
µ
t
Power: shafts are often to transmit power.
T P e = T P e
ω is the angular velocity of the shaft in radians/second.
Chapter 8 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagrams
To determine stresses in a beam being bent is to find the internal bending To determine stresses in a beam being bent is to find the internal bending
moment and shear force being carried.
The procedures for construction bending moment and shear force diagrams
were presented in the unit Fundamentals of Mechanics were presented in the unit Fundamentals of Mechanics.
Example 1—Point forces and couples
10kN
4kNm
3.5m
2m
4kNm
Draw shear force and bending moment
diagrams for the beam shown.
1. Cutting the beam
2 Draw the free body diagram
5m
2. Draw the free body diagram
3. Use equilibrium
0 M 0 F 0 = = =
¿ ¿ ¿
F
4. Find internal bending moment and
h f
0 M , 0 F , 0
A y
= = =
¿ ¿ ¿ x
F
shear force
Step 1: Calculate the support reactions 10kN
4kNm
Use equilibrium.
3.5m
5m
2m
Use equilibrium.
0 H 0 = ¬ ÷ =
+
¿
ve
x
F
10kN
4kNm
H
0 10 0 = ÷ + ¬  =
+
¿ B A
ve
y
R R F
3.5m
5m
2m R
B
R
A
0 4 2 10 5 0 = ÷ × ÷ × ¬ =
+
¿ B
ve
A
R M
4 2 10 + ×
kN R
B
8 . 4
5
4 2 10
=
+ ×
= ¬
kN R 2 5 8 4 10 = ÷ = kN R
A
2 . 5 8 . 4 10 = =
Step 2: Identify every point where the loading on the beam changes
At x=2m, a point force 10kN is applied
At x=3 5m a point couple 4kNm is applied
¦
¦
´
¦
< <
< <
m x m
m x
5 . 3 2
2 0
At x 3.5m, a point couple 4kNm is applied
¦
¹
< < m x m 5 5 . 3
Step 3: Make an imaginary cut (0<x<2m)
10kN
4kNm
H
x
Make an imaginary cut through the
beam at K. The internal forces include
3.5m
5m
2m R
B
R
A
K
a normal (axial) force N
x
a shear force v
x
K
M
x
a shear force v
x
a bending moment M
x
x
v
x
N
x
5.2
The subscripts x indicate that N
x
, v
x
and M
x
may be functions of the distance along the
beam beam.
Sign Convention for Internal
Forces Forces
Sign convention is established for internal forces for Sign convention is established for internal forces for
theconsistencyinanalysis
Internal forcesat aspecifiedpoint Internal forcesat aspecifiedpoint
Bending Moment
Axial Force
Shear Force
Axial force
(+) Axial force
Sign Convention for Internal
Forces
Shear force
(+) Shear force
Bendingmoment
(+) Bendingmoment ( ) g
Use the equilibrium equations to find
expressions for N
x
, v
x
and M
x
10kN
4kNm
H
x
3.5m
5m
2m R
B
R
A
K
0 0 = ¬ ÷ =
+
¿ x
ve
x
N F
0 2 5 0
¿
F
K
M
x
0 2 . 5 0 = ÷ ¬  =
+
¿ x
ve
y
v F
kN v
x
2 . 5 =
0 2 . 5 0 = × ÷ ¬ =
+
¿
x M M
x
ve
K
x
V
x
N
x
5.2
kN M 2 5
Step 4: Make an imaginary cut (2m<x<3.5m)
xkNm M
x
2 . 5 =
2
10kN
4kNm
R R
H
x
K
3.5m
5m
2m R
B
R
A
K
0 10 2 . 5 0 = ÷ ÷ ¬  =
+
¿ x
ve
y
v F
k
K
N
x
52
M
x
10
0 ) 2 ( 10 2 . 5 0 = ÷ × + × ÷ ¬ =
¿
x x M M
x K
kN v
x
8 . 4 ÷ =
x
V
x
5.2
+ve
kNm x M
x
) 20 8 . 4 ( + ÷ =
Step 5: Make an imaginary cut (3.5m<x<4m)
10kN
4kNm
H
x
3.5m
5m
2m R
B
R
A
H
K
0 10 2 . 5 0 = ÷ ÷ ¬  =
+
¿ x
ve
y
v F
kN v 8 . 4 ÷ = 5m
K
M
x
10
0 4 ) 2 ( 10 2 . 5 0 = ÷ ÷ × + × ÷ ¬ =
+
¿
x x M M
x
ve
K
kN v
x
8 . 4
x
V
x
N
x
5.2 4
kNm x M
x
) 24 8 . 4 ( + ÷ =
Step 6: Constructs graphs of shear force and bending moment
Shear force
Bending moment
v
x
=5.2 v
x
M
x
=5.2x
M
x
M
x
=4.8x+20
M
x
=4.8x+24
x
v
x
=4.8
x
Distributed Forces
w
x
The intensity of the distributed force can be The intensity of the distributed force can be
constant or can vary along the beam, and is
given the symbol ω
x
.
Note:
ω
x
Is defined to be positive if it is acting downward, and it has units of
force per length (N/m) force per length (N/m).
The subscript x indicates that the intensity can be a function of distance
along the beam (x).
The equivalent point force of the distributed force F
eq
has a magnitude
equal to the area of the region under a graph of ω
x
versus x. The line of
action of F
eq
passes through the centroid of this region. action of F
eq
passes through the centroid of this region.
F
eq
=wL
Uniformly distributed force (ω
x
=constant)
F
eq
=w
max
L/2
Linearly varying force
w
F
eq
wL
w
max
L/2
L
L
L/3
Example 2: Distributed Force
3kN/m
Find expressions for the shear force and
2m
x
A B
C
Find expressions for the shear force and
bending moment being carried by the beam
shown, as functions of the distance from the
l ft h d d ( )
5m
x C
left hand end (x).
1. Cutting the beam
2 Draw the free body diagram 2. Draw the free body diagram
3. Use equilibrium
0 M 0 F 0 = = =
¿ ¿ ¿
F
4. Find internal bending moment and
h f
0 M , 0 F , 0
A y
= = =
¿ ¿ ¿ x
F
shear force
Step 1: Replace the distributed force by an equivalent point force
3kN/
10kN F
eq
=9kN
2m
3kN/m
A B
10kN F
eq
9kN
H
5m
x C
5m
1.5m R
B
R
A
Step 2: Use the equivalent point force, calculate the support reactions
0 H 0 = ¬ ÷ =
+
¿
ve
x
F
0 9 0 = ÷ + ¬  =
+
¿ B A
ve
y
R R F
0 5 3 9 5 0
¿
R M 0 5 . 3 9 5 0 = × ÷ × ¬ =
+
¿ B
ve
A
R M
kN R
B
3 . 6
5 . 3 9
=
×
= ¬
B
5
kN R
A
7 . 2 3 . 6 9 = ÷ =
2m
3kN/m
Step 3: Identify every point where the
loading on the beam changes
5m
x
A B
C
K
loading on the beam changes
The loading changes where the
distributed force starts at point C (at
K
M
x
p (
x=2m).
Step4: Make an imaginary cut (0<x<2m)
x
V
x
N
x
2.7
Step4: Make an imaginary cut (0 x 2m)
Use the equilibrium equations to find
expressions for N
x
, v
x
and M
x
0 0 = ¬ ÷ =
+
¿ x
ve
x
N F
0 7 . 2 0 = ÷ ¬  =
+
¿ x
ve
y
v F
kN v
x
7 . 2 =
0 7 . 2 0 = × ÷ ¬ =
+
¿
x M M
x
ve
K
x
xkNm M
x
7 . 2 =
2m
3kN/m
Step 4: Make an imaginary cut (2m<x<5m)
5m
x
A B
C
Step 4: Make an imaginary cut (2m x 5m)
0 ) 2 ( 3 7 . 2 0 = ÷ ÷ ÷ ¬  =
+
¿ x
ve
y
v x F
K
0 ) 2 ( 3
2
7 2 0 ×
÷
+ × ¬
¿
x
x
x M M
kN x v
x
) 3 7 . 8 ( ÷ =
2
3kN/m
0 ) 2 ( 3
2
7 . 2 0 = ÷ × + × ÷ ¬ =
+
¿
x x M M
x
ve
K
kNm x x M
x
) 6 7 . 8 5 . 1 (
2
÷ + ÷ =
v
x
K
2m
x
A
C
27
M
x
5m
2.7
2m
F
eq
=3(x2)
v
x
K
2m
A
2.7
M
x
(x2)/2
2.7
Step 5: Constructs graphs of shear force and bending moment
Sh f
Bending moment
Shear force
v
x
=2.7
v
x
Bending moment
M
x
=2.7x
M
x
M
x
=1.5x
2
+8.7x6
x
x
x
v
x
=8.73x
Note
1. Make a cut and a new free body diagram for every change in the beam’s
loading.
2 Unfortunately this can make drawing shear force and bending moment 2. Unfortunately, this can make drawing shear force and bending moment
diagrams very tedious. Chapter 9 and 10 will look at shortcut ways to
draw these.
f 3. When determining the shear force and bending moment under a
distributed force, always cut the beam and replace the distributed force
by an equivalent point force.
4. We could use a free body diagram of section of the beam on the right
hand side of the cut point (K) instead of the left hand side, as used
above above.
a. Since every action has an equal and opposite reaction, the positive
directions for v
x
and M
x
on the right hand portion are equal and
opposite to those on the left hand portion.
b. The length of the portion is equal to the overall length minus x.