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The Iconic Revolution

Martha Senger
In The Alphabet Versus the Goddess, Leonard Shlain, the distinguished and
recently deceased author and surgeon, described a coming shift he called the
iconic revolution. A shift from five millennia of domination by the written word and
patriarchal left-hemispheric values that “conquered right brain values, and, with
them, the oddess! -- a “triumphant march of literacy! of which “patriarchy and
misogyny have been the inevitable result"! Shlain proposed the iconic image is now
returning, and together with an increasing reliance on holistic image information will,
he predicts, move culture toward a new equilibrium between left and right
hemispheres, masculine and feminine, word and image.
“Surfing along on electronic waves,! Shlain e#pects this iconic revolution “will
ultimately crest any man-made obstacle! and introduce “a new olden Age,” He
doesn’t, however, identif an i!age he believes has the potenc to trigger this shift..
Thus " write to tell about an icon that in fact possesses such a potenc# $#isting in
the revolutionary geometrical synthesis that%s emerging between relativity and
quantum physics, its iconic image is even now ma&ing electronic waves both
through graphic depictions and discussions of its unifying dynamics among
physicists and mathematicians throughout the internet.
It also emerged dramatically and mysteriously in an e#perience I had in the
seventies in an artists live'wor& enclave in San (rancisco. A radically
reconstructive moment that completely changed my life, it ultimately caused me to
abandon painting, conceive a trans-art movement that unifies art, science and life,
form the ) Institute for Integral Aesthetics and produce a lecture series I call
*Aesthetic +hase Shift% to usher it in.
,his icon, the torus or vorte$ sphere, is ancient, but revived recently in math and
physics is providing the cosmic metapattern for what-s being called -loop guantum
gravity%. A dodecahedral geometry that-s a prime candidate for achieving physics
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long sought -,heory of $verything,- its five-fold rotation permits the unification of
relativity and quantum physics and of collective unconscious desire with material
reality in its fractally cohering flow . all mediated by the iconic pentagra!, the
-divine proportion- by which it unfolds.
/y meeting-mating with the torus coincided with a brea&down in -ob0ective- reality
when the underground artist-s culture I was part of 1the old oodman 2uilding 1in
San (rancisco3 cohered and shifted to a quantum state in the seventies when our
deeply integral and economical live'wor& habitat was threatened with demolition by
4edevelopment Agency bulldo5ers and we too& over its management ourselves" a
decision that released a stream of meaning that came to encompass all we did.
6espite overwhelming odds we managed to sustain its flow for a decade, identifying
and evolving shared goals and strategies for action at often miraculous wee&ly
meetings where we%d opt out of what didn%t feel right and affirm what did.
In Science, %rder, and &reativit, physicist 6avid 2ohm described such a flow
between an underlying -implicate- order of dar' !atter and the -e#plicate- order we
ordinarily perceive. A subquantum (holo!ove!ent,( 2ohm describes it as 7a dense
gas of electrons that e#hibits radically different behavior from other, normal states of
matter, a highly organi5ed system which behaves as a whole...almost li&e a living
being.7 8e added, 7I was fascinated with the question of how such organi5ed
collective behavior could go along with the almost complete freedom of movement
of the individual electrons. I saw in this an analogy to what society could be, and
perhaps as to how living beings are organi5ed.7
(ascinating to me as an artist was my growing awareness that our collective pra#is,
li&e 2ohm-s holomovement, had a vorte$ for!. ,hat is, the escalating feedbac&
loop between our growing coherence of vision and the agency-s one-dimensional
response which we-d always de- and re-construct began ta&ing shape in my
imagination as a double spiral, a vorte# sphere. 9nfolding our ideas of wholeness
and beauty through this vorte# 1which turns out to be fractal3 we-d -dissipate- the
entropic slac& of their inert and costly proposals. ,hus in our pra#is of aesthetic
reduction . its alche! . we%d released the flow of the holomovement.
In the language of chaos math, we-d fallen into synch with a -strange- or fractal
attractor . a self-similar mode of thin&ing and being that-s not linear or determinate
but open to the hidden order artists &now that mathematicians and comple#ity
theorists now call chaos. :o longer constrained by ;artesian dualism, the systemic
double bind that-s leading humanity into what regory 2ateson called -an
evolutionary cul-de-sac,- self)si!ilar, analogue cognition turns in and out on itself,
recursivel, in golden mean proportions, along an -edge of chaos- tra0ectory in
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phase space" a five-dimensional space at right angles to four-dimensional space-
time that Arthur $ddington believed was the curvature of uncertaint or ti!ing.
Astonishingly, the quantum mechanism of this five-fold symmetry is revealing itself
to be the pentagram. A golden ratio co-patterning between order and chaos, it%s
also the geometry of the harmonious complementarity between male and female"
principles the patriarchy re0ected in their denunciation of matter and the feminine
finally validated by math and physics<
Long &nown as the -divine proportion- by which nature and art unfold, /ario Livio
retold the history of this elegant form, which =epler
considered to be 7the prototype of creation! in The
Golden *atio# 9pdating its reappearance in the
-quintessence,% the dar& matter'energy that-s causing the
universe to e#pand, he also notes its emergence in the
previously “forbidden! fivefold symmetry of the
*quasicrystals% that provide the global patterning of >#ford
physicist 4oger +enrose-s -twistor structure.-
+arado#ically, however, Livio finds no way to relate the beauty found in the golden
ratio by the painter and poet to the 7beauty of mathematics,7 claiming 7there is no
theory of beauty that people agree on,7 and concluding, based on a dialogue among
7a delegation of distinguished mathematicians7 that 7there is hardly any formal,
accepted description of aesthetic 0udgment in mathematics and how it should be
applied.7
Livio fails to note that +enrose ma&es a ma0or point of connecting the cognition of
five-fold symmetry with analogue perception which he and his 7delegation of
distinguished mathematicians7 might well not possess< In The +!peror(s ,ew
Mind, +enrose went so far as to identify aesthetic 0udgement with quantum-gravity
and its rotationally symmetrical curvature" the observing and measuring mechanism
whose five-fold rotation reduces the quantum state vector while reducing !atter into
increasingl !eaningful, lowest energ configurations. +enrose repeatedly stresses
the analogue nature of this e#change and its nonlinear flowing character, comparing
it to the rhythmical movement of music and emphasi5ing that this is a qualitative,
feeling)based process that can not be computed
In fact +enrose defines consciousness as our ability to ma&e aesthetic 0udgments,
suggesting it is “somehow able to ma&e contact with the +latonic absolutes of
beauty, goodness, and mathematical truth.! As he e#pressed it in Shadows of the
Mind, “,o me the world of perfect forms is primary 1as was +lato%s own belief3 . its
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e#istence being almost a logical necessity . and both the mental and material
worlds are its shadows.! 8owever, in +enrose%s *revised +latonism% the ideal for!s
aren’t static but unfold from a space of comple# numbers via nonlocal
quasicrystalline *spin% networ&s into the *worlds% of space, time and mind.
In his playful metaphorical style +enrose refers to quantum theory as
*?uintessential ,rin&ets% . *magic dodecahedra% that have the ability to send
information instantaneously across spaceli&e-separated *events%@because they
are in an entangled state and can%t be considered as separate independent ob0ects.
As he e#plains, quantum entanglement seems to be “some &ind of *%spoo&y action%
at a distance! of an e#tremely subtle &ind that can%t be used for actually sending
messages but is accounted for by the fact that atoms are suspended in the centre of
dodecahedra and their spin states, each of spin A') are connected by dodecahedral
symmetry when one of the spin states is measured by the other<
Bhile I-ve spo&en of the vorte# structures of 6avid 2ohm and 4oger +enrose, I
have yet to mention the person who first introduced me to it%s toroidal topology, the
2er&eley philosopher and mathematician Arthur /. Coung. $arly in the oodman
e#perience when I was first having intimations of the spiraling movement of our
e#panding dialogue, I -happened- upon a remar&able boo& by Coung in a +ol&
Street boo&store, ,he *efle$ive -niverse, which answered all the questions I had
then and still continue, together with a later boo&, The Geo!etr of Meaning, to
inspire as I constantly return to them for his rich insights into the geometry not only
of meaning and matter but of evolution.
Arthur, whom I came to &now, believed humanity has reached an evolutionary
turning point from its emergence in light and freedom to its enmeshment in molar
matter, “a marriage that was underta&en by first cause, that is purposive light and
intelligence, to teach the laws that govern it.! In this view, “species-specific group
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souls in trial and error e#periments characteri5e the emergence of plant, animal,
and early human life, with humans given the evolutionary opportunity to consciously
learn the law of cause and effect and, through self control, escape the fi#ed wheel
of determinateness into freedom.!
As he concluded in The Geo!etr of Meaning, “,here is only one true escape from
the wheel@this is to reverse our direction upon it.7 Instead of moving with the
normal sequential cycle of action which would precipitate an increase in entropy,
when humanity learns this law of cause and effect, it can throw off the self-centered
e#pansiveness and act deliberatel, transforming the compulsion to control and be
controlled by the environment into a control of the self and in building order against
the general trend toward disorder, reverse entrop. ,hus moving away from
manifestation directly toward goals and unity we gain freedom from determination
by acting in phase with the toroidal quantu! of action and .beco!e cause#”
$#plaining the *necessary% connection he%d made between action and purpose
1following +lanc&%s discovery of the quantum of action or photon as the ultimate unit
of light3 he writes, .Be have noted that purpose, inasmuch as it is decision, comes
in wholes, and that there is a necessary connection, in that when wholeness is
divided, purpose or function ceases. Be conclude that light is the unitary purposive
principle which engenders the universe, and that it has the nature of first cause.!
This was the nature of our deepl integral pra$is at the Good!an /uilding" that we
would fractally, incrementally, carve out wholeness together, a whole form of life we
envisioned as we went along, deconstructing whatever prevented it, didn-t feel right
or enhance it. It didn-t always flow smoothly but mostly we-d wor& through
contradictions together, mediating them at the wee&ly meetings that became a
group ritual over the years. :ew people and ideas would flow in from outside
attracted by our ideas and actions and those in the five storefronts we-d -liberated-
and turned into a theater, gallery and community wor&shops. Swirling as it did
around the vorte# of an evolving shared vision, I-ve since called this movement
(neo)vorticis!( because unli&e the Dorticist movement in $ngland in the twenties
that celebrated the e#plosive dynamics of the machine 1their 0ournal was called
2LAS,<3, neo-vortical movement is a cu!ulative ccling that both de- and
reconstructs matter and meaning.
As Arthur described the torus in ,he Geo!etr of MeaningE 7this is a sphere that
e#pands and contracts, the contraction accumulating the proceeds of the
e#plosion.7
Be lost the oodman 2uilding in the early eighties to a developer who too& our low
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cost, low impact :$A funded feasibility plan and the landmar& benefits we%d gained
for the building, stuffed it with atomi5ed apartments subsidi5ed by a five million
dollar 896 supported subsidy and forced our eviction. 2ut regrouping with our own
nonprofit development corporation, Artsdeco, we continued on for another twelve
years, assisted with subsidies for our group relocation, to create oodman) on
+otrero 8ill . the first affordable artists live'wor& building to be constructed in the
;ity.
I wrote an essay about it, “oodman)E ;haos Architecture . A /etapattern ,hat
;onnects,! that was published in Architecture &alifornia and is posted now on
www#g0institute#org# 6esigned by architect 6avid 2a&er based on the toroidal
structure I saw underlying the oodman%s bottom-up dynamics, ) won an AIA
pri5e for 6avid who stated at a press conference that ) was .the first visionar
architecture that was ever actuall built##”
,his inner city epic of the real now serves as a heuristic myth for the ) Institute in
its critique of commodity culture. An integral way of living and wor&ing that
conserves resources and energy through its compact form as it creates shared
meaning through narrative discourse and a rich mi# of cultural productions,
oodman) is a bottom-up *green% alternative to the top-down society of waste,
competition and dominance that%s destroying humanity%s psyche and the planet.
In his recent boo&, Art1ife, Lawrence 4inder, dean of graduate studies at ;alifornia
;ollege of the Arts, wrote of coming to believe 7the basic structure by which we
define, teach, e#hibit - and even see - art is fundamentally flawed.7 And of
beginning to feel 7the stirring of something with a deeper social meaning, as if the
divine stream of 6elphi was again rising to the surface of the earth.7
I sense that-s what Shlain was doing too in his pursuit of a deeper iconic structure"
writing in Art 2 3hsics of light as the quintessential structure that would lin& all the
others. ,he revelatory news is the emergence of this iconic'aesthetic structuring in
the golden ratio geometry of light%s quantum spin" the quantum gravitational vorte$
geometry that unfolds'enfolds a higher dimensional reality through space and time,
matter and mind . or would, as 4avid /oh! points out, if we didn’t bloc' its
ethereali5ing golden !ean vorte$ with our frag!ented thin'ing and institutions6
Also surfacing now in the dar& matter'energy astrophysicists say ma&es up some
FGH of the universe I is causing it to e#pand, Lawrence =rauss compares it 1in
7uintessence8 The Mster of Missing Mass in the -niverse9 to Aristotle%s fifth
essence, a “unique element, scarcely material in form, within which the operation of
geometric law proceeds unclogged by any mechanical aid or impediment.! Seeing
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its emergence as a potential phase transition in which “its quite li&ely that the
properties of matter would dramatically alter, and with them the properties of the
observable universe! he warns “It is unli&ely we should survive such a transition<!
In Hperspace, physicist /ichio =a&u also sees such a potential phase transition,
but while observing that the four-dimensional world may be starting to collapse, he
suggests higher dimensions are beginning to unfurl that can draw us into their
compacted curvilinear configurations. 6escribing this as a phase transition fro! a
quantitative to a qualitative, !ore stable state, =a&u relates it to the dialectical
resolution of a conflict when there-s a sudden shift to a higher synthesis" that is, at
the moment when tensions have reached a brea&ing point 7the ob0ect goes to a
higher stage.7 :a'u also speculates that beaut is a phsical principle in the
universe related to the co!pactification process6
,his is the premise of )%s -Aesthetic +hase Shift- theory and event series - an
aesthetic synthesis I see arising from resolving the ever-mounting contradictions
between art, science, theory, and a newly globali5ed consciousness that%s
increasingly aware of the unsustainability of the e#isting social and economic order.
"n this snthesis and supercession of the world’s e$isting realit paradig!, art will
be superceded as an autono!ous do!ain and e$pand in snch with the fractal
e$pansion of consciousness and dar' !atter ;which as 1awrence :rauss clai!s is
not onl <out there’ but <in here’9 into a qualitative, stable, all)enco!passing and
higher di!ensional realit#
In this *determinate negation% of ob0ectified, quantified reality that 8egel predicted,
humanity%s collective unconscious - the formative, aesthetic imagination of the artist
which 6avid 2ohm said is at one with the unfolding *holomovement% - will finally be
released to create an aestheticall reconstructed life)world, healing the split
between art and life that arose through a division of the categories of &nowing at the
beginning of the modern era.
In this split that led to art%s autonomy, truth, as science, was separated from
morality, as goodness, leaving art as the sub0ective abode of beauty" an identity it
later re0ected in no small part on account of this disconnect from truth 1which was
:eit5che%s *holy dread%3 and association with what eorge Lu&acs identified as its
bourgeois *contemplative stance% vis a vis a reified, rationali5ed I e#ternali5ed
reality. 1Bhat a long strange trip this has been<3
,his long-held dream of the historic avant-garde, unachievable through the
deterministic, physical-only spacetime continuum of relativity or the purely random
quantum dynamics that followed, can now be reali5ed through the self)si!ilar
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fractal dna!ics of quantu! gravit that in uniting these two theories, also unites
mind, spacetime and matter in a higher dimensional feedbac& loop that%s neither
deterministic nor random but !eta)deter!ined by the self-similar, golden mean flow
between order and chaos that underlies 2ohm%s subquantum holomovement,
+enrose%s grantum gravitational twistor structure, and Coung%s toroidal geometry of
meaning.
And how aestheticall satisfing that Shlain%s insight into the coupling of the
dimensions of the cosmos he e#plored in Art 2 3hsics and search to find a
harmonious complementarity between female I male processes in The Alphabet
and the Goddess should both be validated in the self-similar fractal structuring
between order and chaos< (or the *divinely proportioned% pentagram star - or
pentacle - was a pagan, pre-;hristian symbol of nature and the sacred feminine that
was seen to &eep a harmoni5ed balance between masculine and feminine before it
was demoni5ed by the church and the *divine goddess% obliterated from religion<
,his bac& and forth spiraling process was also considered to be the *principle of all
principles% by $dmund 8usserl, the founder of phenomenology, who considered it to
be *the pure form of every historical e#perience%. +roposing that humanity%s sense of
ideality and unity has been buried under layers of sedimentation, 8usserl taught it
must be reactivated by a *5ig-5ag% process of *return inquiry% - by the iteration or
repetition of the geometric sense of origin we all share.
As 8usserl e#plained in The &risis of +uropean Science, “eometrical e#istence is
not psychic e#istence@it dos not e#ist as something personal within the personal
sphere of consciousness" it is the e#istence of what is >b0ectively there for
everyone.! (urther, these “geometrical shapes, the phoronomic shapes that by
their origin in an early shared history . a geometrical ideality of unity . alone assure
the possibility of historicity.!
As formations developed out of pra#is and thought of in terms of gradual perfection,
8usserl saw them serving as bases for “a new sort of pra#is out of which similarly
named new constructions grow"! where “In the unity of communication among
several persons the repeatedly produced structure becomes an ob0ect of
consciousness, not as a li&eness, but as the one structure common to all.!
;haos theory holds a similar view, suggesting that archaic *chaos% culture was
mar&ed by participating consciousness in which there was no sense of sub0ectivity
and thus no separation of sub0ect from ob0ect, and that we%re now in the midst of a
historic shift from the present *periodic% order of patriarchal domination characteri5ed
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mathematically by regular closed cycles to an open, irregular order of *chaos% that%s
now underway. ;haos theorist 4alph Abraham locates its re-emergence in the late
si#ties, when the *periodic% order began to be questioned at every level. 2ut though
the chaos revolution%s open dynamics and sensibility have spread throughout the
disciplines and world culture, its potential for radically transforming the e#isting
order not only hasn%t materiali5ed but has given rise to a conservative bac&lash with
its demand for a return to foundationalist values.
,he e#planation from chaos theory is that we%re currently in a transition period
between orders . an interim dar& age of struggle between the old and emerging
orders that won%t definitively shift until and unless a higher dimensional structure of
meaning or *attractor% is articulated. Such a higher vibrational pattern would then be
e#pected to trigger a self-similar feedbac& from the higher dimensional order that%s
hidden within chaos, resulting in a comple#ifying *edge of chaos% pra#is that%s in
synch with nature%s fractal tra0ectory in phase space 1such as we e#perienced at the
oodman 2uilding3" a *performance of the real% I call *:eo-Dorticism.%
4ecently ac&nowledging this *strange% attractor%s vibration results fro! its golden
!ean configuration, chaos theory thus issues an aesthetic challenge to reunify
sub0ect and ob0ect and reconstruct the wholeness and beauty that underlies
humanity%s repressed aesthetic sensibility, it%s pentagonal configuration that was
important to almost every ancient culture and perhaps the most potent, powerful
and persistent symbol in human history finally re-emerging in an aesthetically
radical and revolutionary challenge.
6efining *aesthetic% as “responsiveness to the pattern that connects,! regory
2ateson%s epistemology re-lin&ed *primary% unconscious processes - mimetic-poetic
thought and feeling - with *secondary% conscious, analytic processes in a self)
correcting circuit structure" a metapattern that%s connected, as he frequently
emphasi5ed, by beaut. As he wrote in Mind and ,ature, “I hold to the pre-
supposition that our loss of the sense of aesthetic unity was, quire simply, an
epistemological mista&e. I believe that that mista&e may be more serious than all
the minor insanities that characteri5e those older epistemologies which agreed upon
the fundamental unity.!
9ntil his death 2ateson hoped to discover the topolog of this process, imagining it
would serve as “a map where angels fear to tread.! Intuiting such a figure in the
spiral, that in retaining its shape and proportions satisfies the “formal demands
made by growth,! he noted the &ey words to be associated with spiral growth are
*(ibonacci series% and *golden section.%
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(ractal geometry and the spiraling vorte# structures I%ve described now provide the
topology he sought. A golden mean geometry whose curvature +enrose relates to
aesthetic =udg!ent and analogue !easure!ent 1italics mine3, this iconic form not
only confirms 2ateson%s epistemology but validates it ontologically. I%ve also
adopted it as the iconic logo of the ) Institute and its *Aesthetic +hase Shift%
lecture and event series.
At the end of The *oad to *ealit, his most recent boo&, +enrose wrote “It is quite
li&ely that the )J
st
century will reveal even more wonderful insights than those that
we have been blessed with in the )K
th
. 2ut for this to happen, we shall need
powerful new ideas, which will ta&e us in directions significantly different from those
currently being pursued. +erhaps what we mainly need is some subtle change in
perspective . something that we all have missed.!
I suggest that *something% is the five-dimensional *quintessential% reality that awaits
humanity%s recognition of and synchroni5ation with its rhythmical, harmonic
patterns.
+reparing a show of my aesthetic theory I pra#is recently, I created a neon
sculpture of its revolutionary icon showing the union that Shlain hoped to see
emerge between masculine left-brain order and feminine right brain chaos,
describing it as followsE
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Quintessence
har!onious balance in nature between !ale and fe!ale reappearing in the five)fold
s!!etr of the quintessential attractor > a fractal vorte$ of dar' !ater?energ
unfolding the fifth di!ension through the collective i!agination in golden !ean
proportions, uniting !ind 2 !atter, art 2 life#”
In his +pilogue to The Alphabet and the Goddess, Shlain admitted to “having an
uneasy feeling that I was turning on one of my best friends! in bringing a negative
charge against the left hemisphere, noting “/y left hemisphere%s gift of abstraction
has permitted me to discern the connections among seemingly disparate historical
events! adding “2ut it is no less true that relying on right-hemispheric attributes as
purely positive@without the ordering balance which is the forte of the left
hemisphere leads to a different &ind of disarray and can result in mindless anarchy
and sensuous e#cess. $mphasis on one hemispheric mode at the e#pense of the
other is no#ious. ,he human community should strive for a state of
complementarity and harmony#”
.the snthesis of art and phsics”
In Art 2 3hsics, noting that Leonardo had the “unusual ability to see time all-at-
once! Shlain wrote “I propose it was the equality of Leonardo% hemisphere%s that
enabled this dual man to perceive space and time differently from any artist before
him.! As he added, “If Leonardo could integrate the two halves of his divided
psyche, then how might the rest of us learn to do soL +erhaps the answer lies with
the synthesis of art and physics.!
In this paper I%ve proposed this synthesis can be actuali5ed in a dimensional shift
from $instein%s M-d physical spacetime that was anticipated by modern art%s cubical,
conical I spherical abstractions to the now theoretically validated but still largely
unreali5ed fractal vorte#-sphere of the quintessence" the N-dimensional sub-
quantum phase space of dar& matter%s invisible light that 6avid 2ohm said could
only be *unfolded% into the e#plicate order of M-d spacetime through the primary
imagination.
Intuiting the singularity%s *wormhole% shape, blac&'white hole complementarity as
well as the e#istence of imaginary time, in Art 2 3hsics Shlain prophetically and
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poetically imagined that “in its churning and mincing of space, time, energy, and
mass the singularity could be the celestial appliance which is the pu55ling source of
energy pouring forth from quasars. If this were to be true then what we have
perceived as a frightening image . the blac& hole . would turn out to be but one half
of a complementary cosmic pairing, Cin and Cang would be a graphically real
metaphor for this unity.!
A quote from ,eilhard de ;hardin that heads the final chapter of Art 2 3hsics
turns out to literally describe the singular path that leads to the emerging realityE
“/ore primordial than any idea, beauty will be manifest as the herald and generator
of ideas! as does Shlain%s quote from 6ostoyevs&y that heads the $pilogue of The
Alphabet Versus the GoddessE “2eauty will save the world.!
© Martha Senger, November, 2012
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References
Abraham, 4alph 8. &haos, Gaia, +ros. 8arper San (rancisco, JFFM 2ateson,
regory# Mind and ,ature. $.+. 6utton, :ew Cor&. JFOF 2ohm, 6avid" +eat, (. .
6avid. Science, %rder, and &reativit, 4outledge I =egan +aul Lit., London. JFPJ.
8usserl, $dmund. The &risis of +uropean Science and Transcendental
3heno!enolog. :orthwestern 9niversity +ress, $vanston, Ill. JFOK
=a&u, /ichio. Hperspace. Anchor 2oo&s 6oubleday, :ew Cor&-London-,oronto-
Sydney-Au&land. JFFM
=rauss, Lawrence. 7uintessence8 The Mster of the Missing Mass "n The
-niverse. 2asic 2oo&s, :ew Cor&, :.C. )KKK
Livio, /ario. The Golden *atio8 The Stor of 3hi, The @orld’s Most Astonishing
,u!ber. 2roadway 2oo&s, :ew Cor&. )KK)
+enrose, 4oger. The +!peror’s ,ew Mind" +enguin 2oo&s, :ew Cor&. JFFJ
4oger +enrose. The *oad to *ealit, Alfred A. =nopf, :ew Cor&. )KKM
4inder, Lawrence. Art)1ifeE Selected @ritings, ABBA)0CCD, regory 4. /iller and
;ompany, :ew Cor&, :C. )KKG
Shlain, Leonard. The Alphabet Versus the GoddessE The &onflict /etween @ord
and "!age# +enguin 2oo&s, :ew Cor&, :C. JFFF
Young, Arthur M. The Geometry of Meaning. Robert Briggs Associates, Lake Oswego, OR.
1976
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Illustrations
Page 1. 6iagram of Dorte# Sphere from &onsciousness and *ealit8 The Hu!an
3ivot 3oint, page JF, edited by ;harles /uses and Arthur /. Coung, published by
Avon 2oo&s, :ew Cor&. JFO)
Page 3. 6rawing of pentagram star by /ichael Schneider from his boo& A
/eginner’s Guide to &onstructing the -niverse8 The Mathe!atical Archetpes of
,ature, Art, and Science, page JJJ. 8arper;ollins +ublishers, Inc., :ew Cor&.
JFFM
Page 4. </agic 6odecahedron% from Shadows of the Mind, page )MJ, by 4oger
+enrose. +enguin 2oo&s, :ew Cor&. JFFJ
Page 10. 4oger +enrose ,wistor eometry fro! Stephen Haw'ing’s -niverse,
page )JM, by 6avid (il&in. 8arper ;ollins +ublishers, Inc., :ew Cor&
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