T i & T Di Torsion & Torque Diagrams
¿
= upward" point " that P, of left the to torques All
int
T
Internal Torque:
Shear Stress:
Tr Gr
¿
¿
÷ downward" point " that P, of left the to torques All
J
Tr
L
Gr
= =

t
Angle of twist (Engineers’ Theory of Torsion):
TL L t

L is the length of the shaft
GJ
TL
Gr
L
= =
t

G is the shear modulus
J is the polar moment of area
r is the radius at which we want to calculate the
shear stress
T
Torque diagram:
B and A between x vs
JG
T
of graph a under Area
/
=
A B

Quick review
BM & SF di b E ilib i BM & SF diagrams by Equilibrium
1 Cutting the beam 1. Cutting the beam
2. Draw the free body diagram
3 Use equilibrium 3. Use equilibrium
0 M 0 F 0
¿ ¿ ¿
F
4 Find internal bending moment and shear force
0 M , 0 F , 0
A y
= = =
¿ ¿ ¿ x
F
4. Find internal bending moment and shear force
Note: Identify every point where the loading on the beam
changes.
Lecture 4
Chapter 9: BM & SF diagrams by inspection (Section 6.2)
Two Rules
Using Rules to Construct SF & BM diagrams
End Conditions
Principle of Superposition
Chapter 10: BM & SF diagrams by Singularity functions
(Section 12.3)
Macaulay Brackets & Singularity functions
Applications
Summary y
Chapter 9 BM & SF Diagrams by Inspection
Shear force
Bending moment
2m
3kN/m
Shear force
v
x
=2.7
v
x
g
M
x
=2.7x
M
x
M
x
=1.5x
2
+8.7x6
5m
2m
x
A B
C
x
8 7 3
x
v
x
=8.73x
The important features that we want to determine are:
1. The shape of the diagrams in each region—horizontal, linear,
parabolic or cubic.
2. If it is parabolic or cubic, is it concave up or concave down.
3 The values of bending moment and shear force at each change of 3. The values of bending moment and shear force at each change of
loading.
4. The maximum values of bending moment and shear force.
Relating BM & SF diagrams to distributed forces, point forces and point
couples
2m
3kN/m
ω
x
ω
x
=3
2m
x
A B
C
Region ω
x
(kN/m) v
x
(kN) M
x
(kNm)
0<x<2m 0 2.7 2.7x
x
5m
2m<x<5m 3 3x+8.7 1.5x
2
+8.7x6
Shear force
By differentiating, the relationship
between ω
x
, v
x
and M
x
is as follows.
Shear force
v
x
=2.7
v
x
By integrating
dx
dM
v
x
x
=
}
}
= dx v M
x x
x
v
x
=8.73x
dx
dv
x
x
÷ = e
}
÷ = dx v
x x
e
Bending moment
M 2 7
M
x
M
x
=1.5x
2
+8.7x6
}
M
x
=2.7x
}
÷ = dx v
x x
e
}
= dx v M
Rule 1
Rule 2
x
}
dx v M
x x
Rule 2
Rule 1: The change in v
x
between any two points A and B is given by
f d di t ib t d th A
left the to forces point downward All 
force d distribute under the Area ÷ = ÷
xA xB
v v
F
2
F
3
F
4
F
5
area area
v
x
A B F
1
F
6
4 3
F F area v v
xA xB
÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
v
xA
v
B
v
xB
x
A
x
B
x
Rule 2: The change in M
x
between any two points A and B is given by
diagram force shear under the Area = M M
left the to couples point clockwise All
diagram force shear under the Area
+
= ÷
xA xB
M M
F
2
F
3
F
4
F
5
A B F
1
F
6
C
v
x
A B F
1
F
6
area
C area M M
xA xB
+ = ÷
x
A
x
B
x
M
M
xB
M
x
x
M
xA
Note that an area below the x axis is negative.
Example 3: Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for the
beam shown.
A
B
12kN
A
B
12kN
4m 2m
4m 2m R
A
R
B
Fi d th t ti
v
x
(kN)
Shear diagram
Find the support reactions
ve
A
M
+
=
¿
0
0
6
8
ve
y
F
+
 =
¿
0
0 12 = ÷ + ¬
B A
R R
kN R R
B B
4 0 2 12 6 = ¬ = × ÷ × ¬
0
4
2
x (m)
kN R
A
8 =
6
M
x
(kNm)
16
Sl 8
Slope=4
0
6
2
x (m)
Slope=8
Some further points to help with
constructing shear force and bending
moment diagrams are:
1. The change of v
x
at any point is equal to
F
1
F
6
minus the value of ω
x
at that point.
dv
v
x
1 6
Slope=ω
x
x
x
dx
dv
e ÷ =
x
2. The change of M
x
at any point is equal to
the value of v at that point
v
x
the value of v
x
at that point.
x
v
dM
x
v
x
x
x
v
dx
=
M
x
Slope=v
x
x
x
p
x
Some further points to help with constructing shear force and bending
moment diagrams are:
3. v
x
will have a local maximum or minimum value where its derivative is
equal to 0. This happens when ω
x
=0.
The value of v at this point is given by Rule 1 The value of v
x
at this point is given by Rule 1
) left the to forces point downward (All
left) the to of graph a under Area (
x /
e ÷ =
MIN MAX
v
4. Similarly, M
x
will have a local maximum or minimum value where its
) left the to forces point downward (All 
derivative is equal to 0. This happens when v
x
=0. From Rule 2, the
corresponding maximum (or minimum) value for M
x
is given by
l ft) th t f h d A ( M
) left the to couples point clockwise All (
left) the to v of graph a under Area (
x /
+
=
MIN MAX
M
Some further points to help with constructing shear force and bending
moment diagrams are:
5. Since , where ω
x
is positive (acting down), the graph of M
x
will
be concave down and whenever wherever ω
x
is negative (acting up),
x
x
dx
M d
e ÷ =
2
2
x
g ( g p)
the graph of M
x
will be concave up.
ω acting down ω acting down
ω acting up
MM
x
Concave up
x
Concave down
Some further points to help with constructing shear force and bending
moment diagrams are:
6. It is useful to remember the general shape of v
x
and M
x
for the common
types of loading.
Loading Shear force diagram Bending moment
diagram
P i t C l ( l k i ) N ff t U d t Point Couple (clockwise) No effect Upward step
C
M
x
v
x
x
x
Point Force (Upward) Upward step Kink
M
v
x
x
M
x
x
When integrating,
)
1
(y Cubic )
1
y ( Parabola kx) y ( line Straight k) y ( Constant
3 2
kx kx = ÷ =
'
÷ =
' '
÷ =
' ' '
This allows us to anticipate the shape of the bending moment and shear
force diagrams under different distributed loads.
)
6
(y Cubic )
2
y ( Parabola kx) y ( line Straight k) y ( Constant kx kx = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
Loading Shear force diagram Bending moment
diagram
U if l di t ib t d St i ht li P b l ( d Uniformly distributed
force
Straight line Parabola (concave down
if ω
x
points down)
M
x
v
x
x
x
Linearly changing
distributed force
Parabola Cubic (concave down if
ω
x
points down)
v
x
x
M
x
x
Some of the common loading cases are shown below.
Example 4: Construct shear force and bending moment diagrams for a
beam with the loading shown.
12N/m 12N 12N/m
A B
12N
20Nm
4m 4m 1m 1m
F
eq
=12×4=48N 12N
20Nm
4 4 R R 1 1
20Nm
4m 4m R
A
R
B
1m 1m
0 2 48 8 20 10 12 0 = × + × ÷ + × ¬ =
¿
+
A
ve
B
R M
Step 1: Find the support reactions,
N R
A
5 . 29 =
0 48 12 5 . 29 0 = ÷ ÷ + ¬  =
¿
+
B
ve
y
R F
N R
B
5 . 30 =
1 2N/ n 12 N
2 0N m
v (N)
4m 4m 29 .5N 30 .5N 1m 1m
v
x
(N)
12+29.5=17.5
Slope 12
4m 4m 1m 1m
x
Slope=12
Shear Force Diagram
12
17.512×4=30.5
26 17 5 1 46/2 38 76
M
x
(Nm)
44+17.5×4=26
26+17.5×1.46/2=38.76
10 6 2 1
x(m)
12
32
Bending moment Diagram
12×1=12
7.46
32
44
3212×1=44
Example 5: Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for the
beam shown.
A
B
6kN
12kN
A
B
6kN
12kN
2m 2m
2m
2m 2m R
A
R
B
2m
Fi d th t ti
v
x
(kN)
Shear diagram
Find the support reactions
ve
A
M
+
=
¿
0
0
6
8
kN R
R
B
B
10
0 4 12 2 6 6
= ¬
= × ÷ × ÷ × ¬
0
10
2
x (m)
Slope=2
ve
y
F
+
 =
¿
0
0 6 12 = ÷ ÷ + ¬
B A
R R
M
x
(kNm)
16
Sl 8
Slope=10
Slope=2
8×2=16
16+2×2=20
kN R
A
8 =
0
6
2
x (m)
Slope=8
8×2=16
End conditions
12N/m 12N
20Nm
J t t id th fi t d
4m 4m
A B
1m 1m
Just outside the first and
last force or couple on
the beam, M
x
=0 and
v
x
(N)
17.5
v
x
=0.
10
2
7.46
6
( )
17.5
12
x(m)
30.5
26
38.76 M
x
(Nm)
26
10 6 2 1
( )
x(m)
12
32
7.46
44
The Principal of Superposition The Principal of Superposition
The shear force and bending moment on a beam under the
action of two or more loads is equal to the sum of the shear
force and bending moment due to each of loads applied force and bending moment due to each of loads applied
individually.
The Principal of Superposition The Principal of Superposition
A
3kN/m
8kN
3kN/m
8kN
2m
A
B
A
3kN 3kN 4kN 4kN
v
x
v
x v
x
7
3
4
x
4
x
3
x
4
x
4
x
7
M
x
M
x
M
x
1.5
x
4
5.5
M
x
x
x
x
Expressions for the shear force and bending moment
12kN
3kN/m
A
B
12kN
A
B
x
4m 2m
4m
x
3 =
x
w
x v 3 6 ÷ =
´
¦
< <
=
2 0 8 x
v
x
dM x v
x
3 6 ÷ =
x x M
x
6 5 . 1
2
+ ÷ =
¹
´
< < ÷ 6 2 4 x
x
¹
´
¦
< < +
< <
=
6 2 24 4
2 0 8
x x
x x
M
x
dx
dM
v
x
x
=
¹
< < + ÷ 6 2 24 4 x x
Polynomial functions
1
d
n
a x B ) ( ÷
Could we use one single
1
) ( ) ) ( (
÷
÷ = ÷
n n
a x nB a x B
dx
d
B
}
1
equation for shear force and
bending moment?
C a x
n
B
dx a x B
n n
+ ÷
+
= ÷
+
}
1
) (
1
) (
Macaulay Brackets
We define a new notation consisting of angular brackets with
¹
´
¦
÷
>= ÷ <
zero or negative is a)  (x if 0
positive is a)  (x if ) ( a x
a x
¹
zero or negative is a)  (x if 0
Singularity functions
n
a x B > ÷ <
1
) (
÷
> ÷ < = > ÷ <
n n
a x nB a x B
dx
d
C a x
n
B
dx a x B
n n
+ > ÷ <
+
= > ÷ <
+
}
1
1
¹
´
¦
= > ÷ <
positive is 2)  (x if 12
zero or negative is 2)  (x if 0
2 12
0
x
¹
´
¦
÷
= > ÷ <
positive is 2)  (x if ) 2 ( 12
zero or negative is 2)  (x if 0
2 12
1
x
x
¹
´
¦
÷
= > ÷ <
positive is 2)  (x if ) 2 ( 12
zero or negative is 2)  (x if 0
2 12
2
2
x
x
Example 1:
12kN
A
M
x
K
12kN
A
B
‘Cut’
2m
x
8kN
v
x
4kN
M
¿
0
4m 2m
8kN 4kN
ve
K
M
+
=
¿
0
0 ) 6 ( 4 ) 2 ( 12 8 = ÷ × ÷ ÷ × + × ÷ ¬ x x x M
x
¹
´
¦
< < + ÷
< <
=
6 2 24 4
2 0 8
x x
x x
M
x
> ÷ < + > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < = 6 4 2 12 0 8 x x x M
x
) 6 ( 4 ) 2 ( 12 8 ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ¬ x x x M
x
´
¦
< <
=
2 0 8 x
v
¹
< < + 6 2 24 4 x x
0 0 0
6 4 2 12 0 8 > ÷ < + > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < = x x x v
x
¹
´
< < ÷ 6 2 4 x
v
x
x
Example 2: Determine expressions for shear force and bending moment
being carried in the beam shown.
M
A
5N/m
being carried in the beam shown.
A
B C
5N/m
F
eq1
=6×5/2=15N 2m
4m
M
A
B
8Nm
C
4N/m
R
A
7m
4m
0 5N
8Nm
10m
4N/m
7m
0.5N
10m
4N/m 0.5N
F
eq2
=3×4=12N
Step 1: Support Reactions
F
eq2
3 4 12N
0 5 . 0 12 15 0 = + + ÷ ¬  =
+
¿ A
ve
y
R F
¿
N R
A
5 . 2 = ¬
ve
A
M
+
=
¿
0
0 10 5 . 0 5 . 8 12 8 15 8 = × + × + × ÷ + ÷ ¬
A
M
A
Nm M
A
5 ÷ = ¬
F
eq1
=5(x4)/6×(x4)/2
Step 2: Cut the beam at a point just short of the right hand end.
x
5
K C
ω
xmax
=5(x4)/6
M
x
(x4)/3
ω
xmax
ω
max
L
x
x max max
e e =
7m
4m 8Nm
4N/m
2.5
v
x
xmax
0.5N
x
F
eq2
=(x7)×4
x
L
ve
K
M
+
=
¿
0
7 ) 4 ( ) 4 ( ) 4 ( 5 ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ × x x x x
0 ) 10 ( 5 . 0
2
7
) 7 ( 4
3
) 4 (
)
2
) 4 (
6
) 4 ( 5
( 8 ) 5 ( 5 . 2 = + ÷ × ÷ × ÷ ÷ × ×
×
+ + ÷ ÷ × ÷
x
M x
x
x
x x x
x
) 10 ( 5 0 ) 7 ( 2
) 4 ( 5
8 5 5 2
2
3
÷ + ÷ +
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ = ¬ x x
x
x M ) 10 ( 5 . 0 ) 7 ( 2
36
8 5 5 . 2 + + = ¬ x x x M
x
5
Use Macaulay brackets,
> ÷ < + > ÷ < + > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < = 10 5 . 0 7 2 4
36
5
4 8 0 5 0 5 . 2
2 3 0 0
x x x x x x M
x
Step 3: Differentiate the expression for bending moment to give an
expression for shear force p
Bending moment,
10 5 0 7 2 4
5
4 8 0 5 0 5 2
2 3 0 0
M
Shear force,
> ÷ < + > ÷ < + > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < = 10 5 . 0 7 2 4
36
5
4 8 0 5 0 5 . 2
2 3 0 0
x x x x x x M
x
0 2 0
10 5 . 0 7 4 4
12
5
0 5 . 2 > ÷ < + > ÷ < + > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < = = x x x x
dx
dM
v
x
x
Example 3: Find expressions for shear force and bending moment being
carried in the beam shown. carried in the beam shown.
A
10N
6Nm
7N/m
A
10N
6Nm
7N/m
F
eq
=3×7/2=10.5N
3m
B
6N
C
3m
A
B
6Nm
C
R
A
R
B
3m/3
7m
10m
7m
10m
Step 1: Support Reactions

¿
ve
A
M
+
=
¿
0
0 1 5 . 10 6 7 10 10 = × + ÷ × + × ÷ ¬
A
R N R
A
45 . 7 = ¬
0 5 . 10 10 0 = ÷ ÷ + ¬  =
+
¿ B A
ve
y
R R F
N R
B
05 . 13 = ¬
Step 2: Cut the beam at a point just short of the right hand end.
10N 7N/
) 7 (
3
7
max
÷ = x e
7
A
B
10N
6Nm
C
7N/m
w
xmax
A
10N
6Nm
2 / ) 7 ( ) 7 (
3
7
÷ × ÷ = x x F
eq
7m
3m
10m
3m
A 6Nm
C
7.45 v
x
M
x
7m
x 13.05
(x7)/3
¿
ve
B
M
+
=
¿
0
0 ) 10 ( 05 13
) 7 ( ) 7 ( ) 7 ( 7
6 ) 3 ( 10 45 7 = + ÷ × +
÷
×
÷
×
÷ ×
+ ÷ ÷ × + × ÷ ¬ M x
x x x
x x 0 ) 10 ( 05 . 13
3 2 3
6 ) 3 ( 10 45 . 7 + × + × × + × + × ¬
x
M x x x
) 10 ( 05 . 13 ) 7 (
18
7
6 ) 3 ( 10 45 . 7
3
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ¬ x x x x M
x
> ÷ < + > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < + > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < = 10 05 . 13 7
18
7
3 6 3 10 0 45 . 7
3 0
x x x x x M
x
Use Macaulay brackets,
18
Step 3: Differentiate the expression for bending moment to give an
expression for shear force p
> < + > < > < + > < > < 10 05 13 7
7
3 6 3 10 0 45 7
3 0
x x x x x M
Bending moment,
> ÷ < + > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < + > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < = 10 05 . 13 7
18
3 6 3 10 0 45 . 7 x x x x x M
x
Shear force,
0 2 0 0
10 05 . 13 7
6
7
3 10 0 45 . 7 > ÷ < + > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < ÷ > ÷ < = = x x x x
dx
dM
v
x
x
Note: