MI NI STRY OF SUPPLY

I~. & M. No. 2872
(14,830)
A.R.C. Technical Report
AERONAUTI CAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
REPORTS AND MEMORANDA
An Extension of Multhopp's Method
of Calculating the Spanwise Loading
of Wing.Fuselage Combinations
By
J. WEBER, Dr . rer. na t . ,
' D. A. KIRBY, B. Sc. ,
and
D. J . KETTLE
Crown Copyright Reserved
LONDON : HER MAJESTY' S STATI ONERY OFFI CE
1956
SEVEN SHI LLI NGS NET
An Extension of Mukhopp's Method
the Spanwise Loading of Wing°Fuselage
By
J. WEBER, Dr. rer. nat.,
D. A. KIRBY, B.Sc.
and
D. J. KET'rL
COMMUNICATED-BY THE PRINCIPAL DIRECTOR OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (AIR),
MINISTRY OF SUPPLY
of Calculating
Combinations
Reports and Memoranda No. 2 8 7 2
November, 19 51
Summar y. - - A simple method is described for calcMati~lg the spanwise loading over wing-fuselage combinations.
It is based on Multhopp's method ~, which is extended here to cover wings of finite thickness, large root chords
compared with the body diameter and also swept wings. The method is restricted to wings of moderate and large
aspect ratios (above about 2). The effect of different junction shapes above and below the wing in off-centre
positions of the wing cannot yet be calculated. The calculation can be performed in about one computer-day, and
comparisons with experimental results show good agreement in the symmetrical case.
1. I n t r o d u c t i o n . - - T h e mut ual interference between wing and fuselage is t he oldest of t he
interference problems in aeronautics, yet it has not been completely solved. Recent summary
reports by Schlichting I (1946) and by Flax and Lawrence 2 (1951) show the great variety of
problems involved and the met hods so far employed in dealing with them. In the past, efforts
have been mai nl y concentrated on straight wings of fairly large aspect ratio and the aim was
to predict the changes of lift and pitching moment due to the body for aerodynamic and structural
purposes. In general, the main effect of. the body was a reduction in lift because of the body
usually being set at a negative angle relative to the no-lift line of the wing (see, e. g. , Becker,
Squire, and Callen a (1943)).
The introduction of aircraft with swept wings of smaller aspect ratio (about 3) to fly at high
subsonic speeds has st i mul at ed interest in t he effect of the body oi1 the span loading. In this
case, the addition of the body to the wing may often result in an increase of overall lift. Since
it may be necessary to vary camber and twist along the span of a swept wing to obtain a desired
span loading, t he body interference effects must be known previous to this design work.
In this report, the load distribution over wing and body in incompressible non-viscous flow
is t r eat ed; t he influence of viscosity is only occasionally t aken into account. Compressibility
effects may be t reat ed by the Prandtl-Glauert analogy. It is considered t hat Multhopp' s
theoretical approach 4 provides a sound physical picture of the actual flow conditions, and his
theory is therefore t aken as a basis. However, this t heory has to be ext ended in several respects
as it is confined to thin unswept wings, t he chords of which are small compared with t he body
diameters. In the present report it is ext ended to cover t hi ck wings and larger chord-diameter
* R.A.E. Report Aero. 2446, received 25th April, 1952.
1
ratios. The t r eat ment of t hi ck wings does not allow for changes in j unct i on shape in asym-
met ri cal set t i ngs. Mul t hopp' s t heor y is also ext ended to swept wings. The met hod is appl i cabl e
to wings of moderat e or large aspect rat i o (above about 2). For smaller aspect ratio, an approach
on t he lines i ndi cat ed by R. T. Jones ~ (1946) will be more appropri at e.
To faci l i t at e t he use of Mul t hopp' s t heory, a brief out l i ne of his mai n ar gument s is gi ven first.
2. S u mma r y of Mul t hopp' s Wor k . - - Cons i de r an i sol at ed body at incidence in a uni form flow.
The pressure di st r i but i on over i t s surface produces a lift force near t he nose of t he body and a
downl oad near t he t ai l ; t he sum of t hese forces is zero in non-viscous flow. To i l l ust r at e this,
Fig. 1 shows t he pressure di st ri but i on over t he sect i on i n t he pl ane of s ymmet r y of an ellipsoid
at incidence from exact t heor y and also t he l oad di st r i but i on along i t s l engt h as i nt egr at ed
ar ound t he circumference at sections x = const. The exact t heor y is compared wi t h t he following
appr oxi mat i on from t he moment um t heor em for slender bodies:
1 dL( x) _ 2a sin o~ dr~ for axi al l y symmet r i cal bodies, (1)
½pVo dx " ""
where 2r is t he body di amet er
dA( x )
1 d L ( x ) _ 2 s i n ~ _ _
l p Vo2 dx d x
for any cross-section shape,
where A (x) is t he cross-section area. Al t hough t hi s appr oxi mat i on fails near t he st agnat i on
poi nt t he agreement is shown to be good enough for equat i on (1) to be used as a simple way of
maki ng an appr oxi mat e est i mat e.
I n most pr act i cal cases t he cent re par t of t he fuselage is near l y cyl i ndri cal a n d t he fineness
rat i o of t he fuselage is so large t ha t t he flow at t he cent re par t is near l y t he same as for an i nf i ni t el y
long cyl i ndri cal body, i. e. , no forces exi st there. The flows at t he nose and t he t ai l are t hen
separ at ed from one anot her and depend mai nl y on t he i ndi vi dual fineness rat i os of nose and
tail. Thi s is i l l ust r at ed i n Fig. 2. Equat i on (1) gives t he lift on t he cyl i ndri cal mi ddl e par t to
be exact l y zero. The l i ft at t he body nose is still count erbal anced by t he downl oad at t he t ai l
and onl y a moment remains.
For a wi ng, body combi nat i on at incidence, tile lift on t he wi ng will be carried across t he body
to some ext ent . The flow about t he body upst r eam and downst ream of t he wi ng wi l l also be
affected, as i l l ust r at ed in Fig. 3. Ups t r eam of t he wing, t he upwash i nduces a lift force decreasing
wi t h di st ance from t he wing. The front par t of t he body is usual l y long enough for t hi s l i ft
not to overlap, or to overl ap onl y by a small amount t he lift on t he nose of t he body. Behi nd
t he wing, t he lift i nduced by t he wing will also fade out. The t ai l of t he body however is al ways
i n t he downwash field of t he t rai l i ng vort i ces of t he wing. Consequent l y, t he local incidence
and t he downl oad t here are reduced. Apar t from t hi s effect, t he lift on t he body as i nduced
by t he wi ng can be det ermi ned by considering t he body to be cyl i ndri cal and of i nfi ni t e l engt h*.
Th e flow about t he wi ng is also modified by t he presence of t he body. Wi t h t he body at an
incidence ~ to t he mai n st ream, 0nl y t he cross-flow component c~BV0 has to be considered.
Because of t he di spl acement of t hi s flow by t he body, a vel oci t y i ncr ement is produced at t he
body j unct i on and out si de t he body near t he wing. Thi s is in effect an addi t i onal upwash,
producing, a lift on t he wi ng and exi st i ng eveI1 when t he wi ng is at zero incidence. For l ong
cyl i ndri cal bodies, t hi s upwash on t he wi ng can be det ermi ned from t he t wo-di mensi onal flow
* This assumption is justified by experimental evidence, s e e sections 6 and 7.
2
around the body cross-section. It thus depends on the shape of the body cross-section and on
the position of the wing on the body*. This is illustrated i n Fig. 4 for the special case of a body
with circular cross-section. As is well known, the velocity in the flow around a circle rises up
to twice the free-stream velocity, i . e . , the maximum velocity increment is c~BV0 and thus the
additional upwash is ~ on the body side for a mid-wing. Along the span of the wing, the
additional upwash decreases as o~B/(y/R) ~. This may be regarded as an effective twist of the
wing.
The load distribution over wing and fuselage must satisfy the condition t hat the downwash
field induced by it together with the free stream have no velocity component normal to both
wing and body surfaces. This complicated three-dimensional problem is considerably simplified
by assuming, in accordance with linearized theory, t hat the wake follows the direction of the
undisturbed flow and t hat the load distribution can be determined by considering the spanwise
section of wing plus body which is equal to the section of the wake far behind the wing in the
so-called Trefftz-plane as illustrated in Fig. 5.
The circulation and thus the load distribution of this configuration can then be found if the
configuration is made into a streamline in a uniform flow directed upwards in the Trefftz-plane.
The load so obtained gives minimum induced drag. The solution .for high aspect ratio wings
was given by Lennertz 7 (1927). It is closely related to the theory of very low aspect ratio
wing-body combinations by Spreiter s (1948), which is based on R. T. Jones' theory where the
boundary conditions are also satisfied in the Trefftz-plane.. The load distributions obtained
by Spreiter are identical to those of Lennertz, as has been pointed out by Flax and Lawrence.
Multhopp progressed from here by making the following two suggestions:-- Firstly, by using
the assumption t hat the downwash of the trailing vortices at the wing and body is constant
along the chord and equal to half its value at infinity, the boundary conditions in the Trefftz-plane
can be related to those on the wing and body. The latter take account of the wing plan-form
and local lift slopes CL/o~off, and thus the boundary conditions can be taken from the real wing
but satisfied in the Trefftz-plane. This implies t hat the vortices replacing the configuration
in the Trefftz-plane are still in the same position as in the minimum case, although this configura-
tion is not a streamline. This is, of course, permissible within the linearized theory. The
treatment is therefore not restricted to the minimum induced drag case only. Secondly, the
configuration in the Trefftz-plane can easily be transformed into another in which the body
cross-section appears as a vertical slit in the line of symmetry, which is automatically a streamline.
The transformation being conformal, the potential and hence the circulation remain unaltered.
This simplifies the calculation considerably compared with t hat of Lennertz, where the images
of the vortices in the circle were considered. The boundary conditions in the Trefftz-plane and
the transformation being known, the boundary conditions in the transformed Trefftz-plane
are also known and the problem reduces to t hat of satisfying an integral equation which is of
the same type as t hat for the load on a wing without body. The load distribution over the real
wing and across the body within the wing region can then be determined by transforming back
from the transformed Trefftz-plane the results obtained there by an ordinary calculatiop of a
wing loading. For the latter Mnlthopp' s method from Ref. 9 can conveniently be used.
3. Ou t l i n e o f the E x t e n s i o n s o f M u l t h o p p ' s M e t h o d . - - M u l t h o p p ' s theory can be extended to
take account of wing thickness, finite ratio between wing chord and body diameter, and sweep-
back.
To take the finite wing thickness properly into account a three-dimensional treatment would
be necessary. To avoid this, only a rough approximation is attempted here. One effect of
the finite thickness is to produce different junction shapes on the upper and lower surfaces if
* See, e. g. , Liess and Riegels 6 (1942), where the flow around bodies of various cross-sections has been calculated.
3
t he wi ng is in an off-centre posi t i on or at an angle to t he body axis. Thi s gives an addi t i onal
lift at and near t he j unct i on, whi ch does not change wi t h incidence. Thi s effect is not t r eat ed
in t hi s report. Wi t h a mi d-wi ng ar r angement , t he mai n effect of t he finite t hi ckness is to reduce
t he body upwash compared wi t h t ha t of a t hi n wing. Since t hi s reduct i on gives a second-order
t er m to t he l oad di st ri but i on, onl y a rough appr oxi mat i on is needed. If body and wi ng are
replaced by si ngul ari t i es (sources, doublets), onl y t hose si ngul ari t i es t hat replace t he par t of
t he body out si de t he wing cont r i but e to t he upwash. We t ake account of t hi s fact by reduci ng
t he upwash produced b y t he i sol at ed body by a fact or k t ha t is t aken as const ant along chord
and span. k is t aken equal to t he rat i o of t he body cross-sectional area above and below t he
wi ng to t he t ot al front al area of t he body. A si mi l ar met hod has been used for t he cal cul at i on
of t he i nt erference of t he body in t he wi ng-body j unct i on at zero lift, and sat i sf act or y resul t s
were obt ai ned by ar bi t r ar i l y t aki ng t hi s fact or at t he maxi mum wing t hi ckness ; t hi s has again
been done in t he present report .
The body upwash is l argest in t he wi ng-body j unct i on and fades out spanwise. I n t he case
of a circular cyl i nder t he upwash decreases from its maxi mum val ue at t he j unct i on to 1/9
of t hi s val ue at a di st ance of one di amet er from t he j unct i on. The root chord is, in general,
equal to or great er t han t he body di amet er, so t hat t he par t of t he wing t ha t is effectively t wi st ed
has an aspect rat i o of one or less. The lift di st r i but i on caused by t he t wi st produces a syst em
of t rai l i ng vortices, for whi ch t he condi t i ons on a small aspect rat i o wing apply. We can no
longer expect t hat t he i nduced downwash is const ant along t he chord and hal f t he val ue far
downst ream. Now t he mean dow~aawash on t he chord is near l y equal to t he val ue far downst ream.
The difference in t he l oad di st r i but i on bet ween t aki ng hal f t he val ue and t aki ng t he full val ue is
not great enough to war r ant a det ai l ed i nvest i gat i on. The resul t s of J. Ginzel 1° (1940) have
b e e n used where i t has been shown t hat wi t h such rapi d incidence changes of smal l ' aspect
rat i o' a good appr oxi mat i on for t he spanwi se lift di st r i but i on is obt ai ned by t aki ng t he downwash
on t he wing as equal to t he downwash at i nfi ni t y.
If in a special case t he wi ng chord is smal l compared wi t h t he body di amet er a second cal cul at i on
can be done t aki ng t he downwash over t he wi ng as hal f t he val ue at i nfi ni t y. I t will be .found
t ha t t he t wo t erms of t he addi t i onal l oad di st r i but i on i nduced by t he body upwas h- - whi ch
are small correction t erms anyhow- - di f f er by less t han a fact or 2 from one anot her.
Anot her consequence of t he small ' aspect rat i o' of t he ' t wi st ed' par t of t he wi ng is t ha t t he
chordwise di st ri but i on of. t he corresponding lift i ncrement differs from t he or di nar y fi at -pl at e
di st ri but i on in t ha t t he l i ft is concent r at ed near t he l eadi ng edge, produci ng a pronounced
suct i on peak there.
The t hi r d ext ensi on of Mul t hopp' s t heor y concerns t he effect of t he bound vor t i ces , whi ch
appears in t he boundar y condi t i ons in t he Trefft z-pl ane in t he form of t he sect i onal lift slope, a.
For unswept fl at wings t he val ue of a is const ant . This, however, is no longer t rue for swept
wings,
Generally, t he bound vort i ces of t he wing are reflected in t he body wall. I n t he body j unct i on
of swept wings, however, si mi l ar condi t i ons prevai l as at t he cent re of swept wings wi t hout body,
resul t i ng in a di st ort i on of t he chordwise loading t here and in a sect i onal lift slope di fferent
from t hat of t he t wo-di mensi onal aerofoil ( s e e Ki i chemann 11 (1950)). Thi s has been confi rmed
by experi ment s ( s e e R. A. E. Wi nd- Tunnel St afP 2 (1949)). The val ue of a t hus varies along t he
span. Wi t h t he t r ansf or mat i on of t he body i nt o t he vert i cal slit t he body j unct i on is t r ansf or med
i nt o t he cent re of t he wing and therefore t he cal cul at i on of t he lift di st ri but i on in t he t r ansf or med
Trefft z-pl ane is t he same as for t he or di nar y swept wing. The cal cul at i on met hod of Kt i chemann lj-
(1950) is used here. The effect of sweepback is t hus t aken i nt o account onl y as a var i at i on of
t he sect i onal lift slope along t he span ; ot herwi se t he same assumpt i ons are made as above. The
influence of t he t rai l i ng vor t ex sheet can still be comput ed by using hal f t he val ue of t he i nduced
downwash far behi nd t he wing. Thus t he cal cul at i on procedure for swept wing s is t he same
as t ha t for unswept wings.
4
4. The Load Di s t r i but i on over the Wi n g . - - 4 . 1 . General Me t hod o f Ca i c u l a t i o n . - - T h e lift
di st r i but i on over t he wing is det ermi ned by t he equat i on
=fee,)
c , . ( y ) , ~ . . ~ o , , ( y )
= a ( y ) . e~,f(y) . . . . . . . . . . (2)
where a = dCL/dc~of~ is t he sect i onal lift slope. The effective incidence ,off is det ermi ned by t he
vel oci t y component v~ nor mal to t he mai nfl ow and t he vel oci t y V0 of t he mai n f l ow: - -
v ~ . . . . . . ( 3 )
e f f - - VO . . . . . .
The downwash can be spl i t i nt o t hree t erms:
v: = - - -wVo + v~, + v,~ . . . . . . . . (4)
where ew is t he angle bet ween t he zero-lift line of t he wi ng and t he mai n flow direction,
v~ t he upwash produced by t he body and v~ t he vel oci t y i nduced by t he t rai l i ng vortices.
• The vel oci t y component s v~B and v~ are cal cul at ed by means of a conformal t r ansf or mat i on
of t he pl ane nor mal to t he body axis as expl ai ned above. A r ect angul ar co-ordi nat e syst em
x , y , z is used, where t he y, z-pl ane is nor mal to t he axis of t he fuselage and t he y- axi s i n spanwi se
direction. Let
~ = z + i y . . . . . . . . . . . . ( 5 )
be t he complex vari abl e in t he Trefft z-pl ane and
= 2 + i y . . . . . . . . . . . . ( 6 )
t he vari abl e in t he t r ansf or med Trefft z-pl ane, where t he body cross-section is t ransformed i nt o
a slit paral l el to t he 2-axis. If t he body is at an incidence c~ to t he mai n flow, t hen t he mai n
flow in t he u: pl ane has t he vel oci t y - - ~BV0 paral l el to t he. z-axi s aiId t he addi t i onal upwash
produced by t he i sol at ed body is
= - ~ V 0 [ T ( y ) - - 1 1 . . . . . . . . ( 7 )
where T ( y ) = R( d a / d u ) is t he real par t of t he di fferent i al quot i ent d a / d u . We are not going to
det ermi ne t he conformal t r ansf or mat i on of t he body wi t h t he t hi ck wi ng present . We t ake
as an appr oxi mat i on for t he upwash produced by a body at t ached to a t hi ck wi ng t he upwash
of t he i sol at ed body reduced by a fact or k, const ant along t he span.
v , B = - ~ j / , , k [ T ( y ) - - 1 1 . ( s )
I n t hi s report k is t aken as t he rat i o of t he body cross-section area above and below t he wi ng
t o t he t ot al body cross-section area at t he posi t i on of t he maxi mum wing t hi ckness; more
exper i ment al evidence ma y make anot her defi ni t i on preferable.
5
i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e i n d u c e d d o wn wa s h v,~ we ma k e us e of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c i r c u l a t i o n F( y)
does n o t a l t e r wh e n goi ng f r o m t h e u - p l a n e t o t h e ~- pl a ne , s i nce i t i s e q u a l t o t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y
of t h e p o t e n t i a l f u n c t i o n ¢ a l o n g t h e v o r t e x s h e e t i n t h e Tr e f f t z - p l a n e .
r ( y ) = r ( y ) .
T h e i n d u c e d d o wn wa s h i n t h e t r a n s f o r me d Tr e f f t z - p l a n e is g i v e n b y
1 f+~/~d-r' d 3 5 ; , .
= o r , y ) = dy'y
T h e d o wn wa s h v~ i n t h e u - p l a n e is o b t a i n e d b y mu l t i p l y i n g g.~ b y T ( y ) = R ( d ~ / d u ) f or t h e t h i n
wi ng:
1 ( + ~ d/~ d / f ' y . . . . . . . (9)
v~,(x = o r , y ) = ~ T ( y ) ~ - ~ df~' f~
F o r t h e t h i c k wi n g we r e p l a c e T ( y ) b y T* ( y ) :
T * ( y ) ----- 1 + k i T ( y ) - - 11 . . . . . . . . (10)
s i mi l a r t o e q u a t i o n (8).
We i n t r o d u c e t h e n o n - d i me n s i o n a l c i r c u l a t i o n
~ ( Y ) - - - P ( Y ) ' , Y( ~9) - - - - F( Y) - - b~( y) = - = . . . . . . . . (11)
bVo b V o b
wh e r e b a n d b a r e t h e wi n g s p a n i n t h e o r i g i n a l a n d t r a n s f o r me d pl a ne s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . ~( y)
c a n be wr i t t e n as t h e s u m of t wo t e r ms :
(a) 7w wh i c h d e p e n d s on ~w a n d n o t o n ~B,
(b) yB wh i c h is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o ~-B a n d i n d e p e n d e n t of ~w •
Co r r e s p o n d i n g l y , t h e downwasl ~ f a r d o wn s t r e a m c a n be wr i t t e n as a s u m of v.~(~,w) a n d v.~(y~).
As e x p l a i n e d a b o v e we t a k e t h e d o wn wa s h i n d u c e d b y rw a t t h e wi n g as ~v,~(Tw, x ---- oe) a n d
t h e d o wn wa s h i n d u c e d b y yB a t t h e wi n g as e q u a l t o v , ~ ( ~ ' B , x = or ) . To g e t h e r wi t h
Ku t t a - J o u k o ws k i ' s t h e o r e m:
r ( Y ) - - F ( y ) _ C L ( y ) c ( y ) _ a ( y ) c ( y ) . c z ~ f f ( y ) . (12)
b V o 2 b ~ 2 b . . . . .
we ge t f r o m e q u a t i o n s (3), (4), (8), (9) t h e f i n a l e q u a t i o n s :
P w ( ~ ) - - a ( ~ c - ( v ) t o : I=~ ~ T * ( k , ~ ) f + i d ~ w ( ~ ' ) d ~ ' l (13)
2b ( wt,,/ - - 2~ - d~' ~ - - ~' j . . . .
- 1 1 - -
2b
wh e r e t h e n o n - d i me n s i o n a l s p a n wi s e c o - o r d i n a t e
y
- - b/2 ""
h a s b e e n i n t r o d u c e d .
. 1 T , ( k , ~ ) I + l d ~ , ( ~ ' ) d~' l . . (14)
-1 d~' ~ - - ~ ' )
( 1 5 )
6
4.2. D e t a i l s o f t h e C a l c u l a t i o n . - - T h e equat i ons (13) a nd (14) can be sol ved usi ng t he me t h o d
whi ch has been devel oped b y Mul t hopp for t he uns we pt wi ng, s e e Ref s. 9 a n d 11. The i nt egr al
equat i ons ar e r epl aced b y a s ys t e m of l i near equat i ons :
2 b "~ _ ~Zw(~) + ~ , b~,,Pw(~,~) . . . . . . (16)
+
a ( ~ , ~ ) . C ( ~ - ~ ) Z * ( ~ ] v ) ] p W ( ~ v ) T * ( ~ v ) n = l
1 2 b ~ p . ( ~ ) = ~ , ( T * ( ~ ) - - 1 ) ~ ,
(b~, + 2 a ( ~ ) . c ~ ) T*(~, )J 2 T* ( ~ ) + , =~ b ~ , p , ( ~ , ) . . . (17)
Val ues of t he f i xed posi t i ons ~, a n d t he coeffi ci ent s b~ a n d b~,~ ar e gi ven i n Refs. 9 a n d 11.
The val ues of ~w, a , c ar e known al ong t he s pa n of t, he gi ven wi ng. Th e y h a v e t o be det er -
mi ned a t t he f i xed poi nt s ~ . The r el at i on be t we e n ~, a n d t he spart wi se co- or di nat e v~ = y ~ / l b
on t he gi ven wi ng is gi ven b y t he conf or mal t r a ns f or ma t i on. Fo r ci r cul ar a n d el l i pt i cal b o d y
cr oss- sect i ons t he t r a n s f o r ma t i o n is gi ven i n Ref. 4.
I f t he cross-sect i on of t he b o d y is a circle of r adi us R:
R ~
a = u + . . . . . . . . . . . ( l S )
U
so t h a t f or a s ymme t r i c a l l y pl a c e d' wi ng
R 2
~ = y - - _ _
Y
a n d
T h e s p a n in t h e ~ - p l a n e is
. . . . ( 2 0 )
R 2
T ( y ) = 1 + y ~
a n d
R2 (21) ~,
T * ( y ) = 1 + k y-~ . . . . . . . . . . ,
• wi t h
k = l - - 2 s i n - 1 t 2 t 1 . . . . . (22)
z~ 2 R ~ 2 R ~ " "
wher e t is t he wi ng- r oot t hi ckness. I n mos t cases t hi s can be r epl aced b y
2 t
k~- - - 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
~R"
J
7
(23)
If t he cross-section of t he body is an ellipse wi t h hei ght and wi dt h 2A' and 2 B' , respect i vel y,
t he t r ansf or mat i on is gi ven b y : - -
1
A' - - B' [ A' u - - B' V/(u~ - - A '~ + B' Z)l. (24)
Thi s resul t s from an i nt er medi ar y t r ansf or mat i on of t he flow ar ound t he ellipse (u-plane) i nt o
t he flow around a circle of radi us R1 (u~-plane):
U=U~ +
At 2 __ Bt 2
4u~
Rl = +
" 2
followed by t he t r ansf or mat i on of t he u~-plane i nt o t he ~-pl ane
For a s ymmet r i cal l y pl aced wi ng
= ul + R(2
Ul
and
9 - Y F A ' - + B, !l
A ' - - B' L. y
J
r(v). = ) p ~_ ~ I N ' - B ' ~/(9~ + A ' ~ - - - B ~ : A '2-) .... B '~ ) 1
( 2 s )
B ' [ ~ ( Y ~ y + + - - A ! - - - - B ' 2 ! l j . . . . . ( 2 ~ )
T * ( y ) = 1 + k. A, _ B, 1 - - A' 2 B, 2 |
Y
Fr om t he val ues of ~ t he y~ can t hus be det ermi ned and hence 0~w(~), c(~) and T*(~). The
local sect i onal lift slope a(~) and t hus a(~) can be worked out as shown in Ref. 11 for an i sol at ed
swept wing.
As all t he coeffi ci ent s in t he syst ems of equat i ons (16) and (17) are known, t he unknown
values of Pw and PB can be worked out. Thi s may be done by successive approxi mat i ons*, as
expl ai ned in Refs. 9 and 11. Fr om Pw and PB t he l oadi ng over t he ori gi nal wing outside t he body
can be obt ai ned from
3
~'(~) = P(v) ~ . . . . . . . . . . :.. (27)
. 5. The Load Di s t r i b u t i o n over the B o d y . - - 5 . 1 . L i f t I n d u c e d by the W i n g . - - W e consider first
onl y t he lift i nduced by t he wi ng on t he par t of t he body near t he wing, i . e. , we do not consider
a ny effects at t he nose and t he t ai l of t he body.
* I t will be suffi ci ent in mos t cases t o use 15 pi vot al poi nt s ai ong t he span (m = 15) for ~w. For YB, which
usual l y changes r api dl y near t he wi ng- body j unct i on, t he use of mor e poi nt s (m -~ 31) is r ecommended in t ha t
r e g i o n .
8
Wher eas t he i oad on t he wing has been obt ai ned from t he lift force on t he bound vortices by
considering t he di st r i but i on of t rai l i ng vor t i ci t y in t he wake, a Similar procedure cannot be
followed to det ermi ne t he l oad on t he body. As i l l ust r at ed in Fig. 6 t he bound vortices of t he
wi ng will r un across t he surface of t he body, j oi ned by anot her syst em of bound vor t i ci t y on
t he body of, in general, opposite sense. Trai l i ng vortices, whose st r engt h vari es ar ound t he
circumference, are shed from t he body and are found on t he circle far behi nd t he wing. Thei r
st r engt h is zero at t he hi ghest and lowest poi nt s of t he circle and t hey are of opposite sign at
correspondi ng poi nt s on t he ri ght - and l ef t - hand sides of t he circle. Thus in t r ansf or mi ng t he
circle i nt o a vert i cal slit, t wo correspondi ng vortices fall on t op of each ot her and cancel out.
Thi s is, of course, t he reason why t he cal cul at i on of tile flow is so much more easily done in t he
t r ansf or med plane. I t implies, however, t ha t t he t rai l i ng vor t i ci t y on t he body cannot be
det er mi ned in t he t r ansf or med plane.
Anot her way of det er mi ni ng t he l oad on t he body is to rel at e t he i nt egr at ed difference i n
pressure on t he upper and lower surfaces of t he body to t he pot ent i al difference at cert ai n poi nt s
in t he wake. Consider a section of t he fuselage in a pl ane paral l el to t he pl ane of symmet r y,
as in Fig. 7. The local lift is equal to t he difference bet ween t he pressure coefficients @ on
upper and lower surface, and t he t ot al lift coefficient CL at t hat spanwi se st at i on, y , can be found
by i nt egr at i ng t he pressure difference along x' from far upst r eam to far downst r eam of t he wing.
The suffixes US and LS denot e upper a~ld lower surface. The pressure coefficient is to a first
order equal to t wi ce t he vel oci t y i ncr ement v,, whi ch .in t ur n is equal to t he par t i al der i vat i ve
of t he pot ent i al funct i on ¢ of t he addi t i onal flow produced by wi ng and b o d y : - -
c , = - 2 = - 2
Vo Vo ~x
Thus
2
C£--
cVo
- - - [ ¢ . s ( x = o o ) - ¢ s ( x •
The difference ¢ us - - ¢ ~s can be cal cul at ed in t he a-pl ane, since i t does not al t er wi t h a conformal
t r ansf or mat i on.
So far t he pot ent i al has been det er mi ned onl y on t he wing, where
and
o o )
and t he cal cul at i on met hod (equat i on (9)) is onl y sui t ed to det er mi ne t he values there. To
fi nd t he pot ent i al at poi nt s on t he vert i cal slit would be compl i cat ed and tedious. However,
as t here are no si ngul ari t i es outside t he wing, ¢ (5) can be expanded in a power series wi t h respect
to ~ - - 5w, where iw corresponds to t he j unct i on wi t h t he t hi n wing ; if onl y t he first-order t er m
is t aken*,
* I n t h e case of mi n i mu m i n d u c e d d r a g whe r e t he d o wn wa s h is c o n s t a n t a l ong s pa n, t h e p o t e n t i a l a t t h e s l i t
c a n be d e t e r mi n e d mo r e eas i l y. I t is f ound t h a t t h e q u a d r a t i c t e r m i n t he a b o v e ser i es modi f i e s t h e l i f t r e d u c t i o n
i n t h e p l a n e of s y mme t r y , whe r e t h e e r r or i s g r e a t e s t , b y a f a c t o r 1 - - 2D/b.
9
Thus only the potential at the wing junction need be known. With the relations above,
2_r'(~ = 0) 2L~(2w, x oo) (2us -- 2w) - - ( 2 LS - - 2W)
Q ....... c g, ( .... + " Vo c
The values of 2~s and 2ns for a certain section of the fuselage can be found from the transforma-
tion ~(u). For a circular body cross-section and a symmetrically placed wing ' ( Z w- 2w = O)
we obtain
2 = 2 z = 2 R - - <~,,:,,~ ',, ~ ~ ,: ....
so t hat finally for the load distribution over the body at t ached to a thin wing:
In this relation the downwash is det ermi ned by the known load distribution:
= = 1 (+1 dp d~'
VO - - --t
3
= 2[b;~Pv -- Y/b~,,.p,,,] . . . . . . . . . . . (29)
Thus the linear variation of tile potential along the slit causes an elliptical distribution of the
lift reduction across the body.
The reduction of the load over the body wi dt h from the junction to the centre-line is less
for t he thick wing t han t he value given by equation (28) for the thin wing. We take account
of this fact by replacing R by v ' k R , as we have done in equations ( 8) and (10). If the bod, y
diameter is equal to the wing thickness, k = 0, t he load is assumed constant across the body.
For bodies with elliptical cross-section, the radius R in equation (28) has to be replaced by
+ B' ):
5.2. Change of Downl oad at the T a i l . - - We now consider the normal forces near the nose and
the tail of the body. To a first approximation the wing does not affect the flow near the nose
and so the lift there is unaltered. But t he trailing vortices alter the effective angle of incidence
of the flow at the rear end of the body and so affect the download. This gives a change of total
lift which has to be added to the lift induced by the wing on the part of the body near the wing.
An estimate f or the download acting on the tail of the isolated body can be obtained by
integrating equation (1)"
L
: , pTo = - 2 o,A . . . . . . . . . . ( a 0 )
where A is t he maxi mum cross-section area of the body and c~s~f~ the effective incidence of the
body. The coefficient for the download at the tail of a body of circular cross-secti0n referred
to the wing area is"
_ L ( D I e ) 2 '
CL ½pVo2b { - - o~o~. -~ . AR . . . . . . . .
where ~ is the mean wing chord and AR t he aspect ratio of the wing.
10
To obt ai n a second est i mat e for t he downl oad at t he t ai l of t he body, we use t he cal cul at ed
moment s of ellipsoids in paral l el flow, s e e , e . g . , Vandr ey ~3 (1940). The moment is:
( c ' B ' ) . . . . ( 3 2 )
M __ 4 ~ A ' B ' C ' . 2o~Bo,fm ~
l pVo~ 3 ' " " " "
where A ' , B ' and C' are t he semi-axes of t he ellipsoid. Vahl es of t he funct i on m ( C ' / A ' , B ' / C ' )
are gi ven in Fig. 8. Assumi ng a lift L at t he nose and a downl oad - - L at t he t ai l , act i ng at
poi nt s whi ch are at a di st ance 1/ 2 away from t he cent re of t he body, t hey produce a moment
M = L . l .
Thus t he downl oad on a b o d y of circular cross-section is give n by:
t
tN
c L = - 4 z ( D / e ) E K ',/c' 1 )
where lB is t he body l engt h. For t he body of circular section and hi gh fineness rat i o m will be
about 0. 9 (Fig. 8) and an appr oxi mat e val ue of 1 / 4 will be 0. 75, so t hat :
C , . ~ , o , . 0 . 8 = (D/~)~ . ( 3 3 ) 5 " . . . . . " "
i . e . , 0. 8 t i mes t he val ue est i mat ed by equat i on (31). The great er val ue of t he first est i mat e,
equat i on (31), can par t l y be expl ai ned by t he fact t hat equat i on (t) overest i mat es t he l oad near
t he st agnat i on poi nt ( s e e Fig. 1).
If t he t rai l i ng vortices produce at t he rear par t of t he body a downwash c~, t hen t he effective
i nci dence and t he amount of downl oad at t he body are reduced and t he lift of t he wi ng- body
combi nat i on is increased. Usi ng t he est i mat e of equat i on (31), we have
( D / e F - . . . . . . ( 3 4 )
A CL = e~ ~ AR . . . .
e~ varies across t he body. At t he wi ng-body j unct i on of a t hi n wi ng at t ached to a circular
body, e~ is equal to t wi ce t he val ue a~ gi ven by equat i on (29) ; in t he pl ane of symmet r y, c~: = 0.
To obt ai n a mean val ue i t is suggest ed t hat ei is t aken as equal to at from equat i on (29).
The lift on t he body as det ermi ned by equat i on (28) t oget her wi t h t he i ncrement A CL from
equat i on (34~ is what mi ght be expect ed in non-vi scous flow. A f ur t her lift i ncr ement arises
in viscous flow. The vert i cal component of t he ski n-fri ct i on forces on t he body produce a
l i ft i ncrement , as has been poi nt ed out by Mul t hopp 4. The addi t i onal lift depends on t he
square of t he incidence and is t herefore smal l at low values of CL.
A f ur t her effect of t he viscous flow round t he body, i s to give a t hi cker boundar y l ayer above
t han below ; t hi s effect i nt ensi fi es as t he poi nt considered is f ur t her back on t he body and has
t he effect of reduci ng t he effective incidence still furt her. In consequence, t he lift near t he
nose is l i t t l e affected but t he downl oad at t he t ai l may be much reduced. Par t i cul ar l y at low
Reynol ds numbers, t h e r e ma y even be a br eakaway of t he flow at t he rear of t he body, in whi ch
cas e al l t he downl oad ma y be lost, so t hat t he overall increase in lift is gi ven by:
( D/ ~ ) " . . . . . ( 3 5 )
A C L - o~, . . . . . .
2 AR
from equat i on (31).
11
6. Examples of Calculation Method. --In Fig. 9* t he resui t s of t he present met hod are compared
wi t h those of Mul t hopp' s met hod for t hi n wings in a par t i cul ar case. The effect of t he fuselage
is smal l er accordi ng to t he present calculation, due to tile finite chord of t he wi ng (full downwash
for p~ in equat i on (14)) and to a lesser degree, due to t he t hi ckness of t he wi ng (from t he fact or
k in equat i on (10) i in t hi s case k = 0-57). Exper i ment al values of t he lift i nduced on t he body
by t he wing, i nt egr at ed from measured pressure coefficients, are also pl ot t ed in Fig. 9 and show
good agreement wi t h t he cal cul at ed values.
Figs. 10 and 11 give t he cal cul at ed values of overall lift change due to a body on a s t r a i g h t
and a 45-deg swept back wi ng of aspect rat i o 3. Of t he t hree curves given, (a) denot es t he
cal cul at i on whi ch includes onl y t he load i nduced on t he body near t he wing, (b) includes t he
effect of wing downwash on t he t ai l l oad, from equat i on (34), and for (c) it has been assumed
t hat , due to viscous effects, equat i on (35), t here is no downl oad on t he t ai l of t he body.
The cal cul at ed span loadings for a series of bodies and wings havi ng 0 deg and 45 deg of
sweepback are shown in Figs. 12 and 13 for symmet r i cal arrangement s. Onl y t he l i ft i nduced
on t he body near t he wing is considered. I t will be seen t ha t t he effect of sweepback is to
modi f y t he basic wi ng di st r i but i on and to reduce t he decrease of lift over t he fuselage because
of t he much smal l er downwash in t he j unct i on (see Fig. 13). The overall lift change ACL due
to t he body has been cal cul at ed for t he same series of bodies and is pl ot t ed in Fig. 15. Thi s
shows t hat for large bodies on small aspect rat i o wings, t he lift increase over t he wing may be
cancelled by t he loss of i nduced lift over t he body. The overall lift difference t hen depends onl y
on t he downl oad at t he t ai l of t he body.
I n view of t he ma ny par amet er s i nvol ved i t is not possible to generalise these results, and any
gi ven wi ng-body ar r angement has to be cal cul at ed anew. Thi s does not, however, present
any par t i cul ar difficulties, since t he cal cul at i on procedure is simple and can be performed in
about one day.
The overall lift slope of t he wi ng- body combi nat i on is in itself not ver y i nf or mat i ve as to t he
act ual l oads; in ma ny cases t he overall change in lift may be ver y small whereas t here is an
appreci abl e lift i ncr ement on t he wing, compensat ed by a smal l er load on t he body. Wi t h
swept -back wings in par t i cul ar an overall increase 0f t he lift due to t he body is often observed.
A reduct i on of t he overall lift is usual l y caused by t he body being set at a smal l er angle of incidence
t han t he wing. To i l l ust rat e this, Fig. 16 shows t he effect of a wi ng-body angle i , on t he load
di st r i but i on ; t he addi t i onal lift due to t he different j unct i on shapes is not t aken i nt o account.
Compari ng t he resul t s for i = 4 deg wi t h those for i = 0 deg cl earl y shows t he lift reduct i on
whi ch is par t i cul ar l y not i ceabl e at small lift coefficients. In t hi s example, t he lift di st ri but i on
over t he wi ng is about t he same as t ha t of t he wing alone for a wi ng incidence e~v = 6 deg.
Thi s t ype of l oadi ng has often been considered as bei ng a general charact eri st i c of wi ng-body
interference. We find, however, t hat t hi s occurs onl y in ver y special cases.
7. Results from Systematic Model Testsl~.--Some exper i ment al dat a are avai l abl e for a syst em-
at i c series of bodies at t ached to st r ai ght cambered wings of aspect rat i os 5 and 10, t aper rat i o
2:1 ; for det ai l s see Anscombe and RanQy 14 (1949). Onl y t he effect on t he t ot al lift ha s been
measured.
Bodies wi t h t he same cent re pa r t (D/g -~ 0.9) but wi t h nose and t ai l ext ensi ons of var yi ng
l engt h were tested. The lift i ncrement s for a mi dwi ng ar r angement aide shown in Fig. 17. The
spaci ng of t he lines enclosing t he band of poi nt s corresponds to ~ 0 - 0 5 deg incidence, t hi s
represent s t he accuracy of t he tests. No effect of t he body l engt h can be seen ; t hi s i ndependence
of body l engt h was assumed in t he cal cul at i on met hod.
* A lift slope of a 0 = 0.75 . 2z~ has been used in the calculations of Figs. 9, 10 and 11, since this value corresponds
to the measured total lift coefficient CL/ct = 3.0 of the wing alone.
12
Mean values of t he change in lift slope from t he tests wi t h different front and rear l engt hs
are given in Tabl e 1 and pl ot t ed for t he mi d-wi ng in Fig. 18. Calculated values ( a ) , ( b ) , ( c ) , as
expl ai ned in section 6, are also pl ot t ed. The l oadi ng of t he wing alone is nearl y el l i pt i cal ; since
t hi s is usual l y t he case for unswept wings of large or fai rl y large aspect ratio, t he dat a are applic-
able to t r anspor t - t ype ai rcraft wi t h t hi ck wing roots.
The dat a are of furt her i nt erest since t hey show how large t he effect of t he difference in j unct i on
shape on t he upper and lower surface can be. Fig. 17 shows t ha t a change i n wi ng-body angle
causes a lift reduct i on ACL0 i ndependent of incidence. Mean values of ACL0 for t he various
body l engt hs are given in Tabl e 1 and show t ha t ACL0 is 0. 01 more negat i ve for each degree
of wi ng-body angle. The cal cul at ed val ue (case (b)) is - - 0 . 006. The difference bet ween t he
measured and t he cal cul at ed values is due t o t he different j unct i on shapes, whi ch are not t aken
i nt o account in t he calculation. I t is not possible to generalize t hese results, since t hey depend
on t he wing section ; t he model had a cambered wing, whi ch was 18 per cent t hi ck at t he root.
8 . C o ~ d , i s i o n s . - - E x p e r i m e n t s have proved t ha t beyond a cert ai n body l engt h t he lift
di st ri but i on over a wi ng-body combi nat i on is i ndependent of t he body l engt h. Therefore, for
cal cul at i ng t he spanwise lift di st ri but i on over t he wing and t he par t of t he body near t he wing,
an i nfi ni t el y long body' can be assumed. The effect of t he wing on t he t ai l of t he body is
considered separat el y. Mul t hopp' s met hod 4 for cal cul at i ng t he lift di st ri but i on is ext ended to
t ake account of:
(i) sweepback, by using t he corresponding sect i onal lift slope var yi ng along span, as expl ai ned
in Ref. 11
(ii) t he finite wing thickness, by reducing t he upwash of t he i sol at ed body by a fact or k
(iii) t he finite rat i o of root chord to body di amet er, by t aki ng t he downwash on t he wing as
equal to t he full downwash at i nf i ni t y when cal cul at i ng t he effect of t he t wi st due t o
t he body upwash.
The wing induces a downwash at t he t ai l of t he body, reduci ng t he downl oad t here and t hus
1 - ~
produci ng a lift i ncr ement appr oxi mat el y equal to ~ ( D / c ) ° / A R . For wings in an off-centre
posi t i on or at an angle to t he body axis an addi t i onal lift is produced by t he difference in j unct i on
shapes ; t hi s lift i ncrement , whi ch does not change wi t h incidence cannot be calculated, by t hi s
met hod.
1 3
No. Author
1 H. Schl i cht i ng . . . .
2 A. H. Fl ax and H. R. Lawrence . .
3 H. V. Becker, H. B. Squi re and C. Callen
4 H. Mul t hopp . . . . . . . .
5 R. T . Jones . . . . . . . .
6 W. Liess and F. Riegels . . . .
7 J. Lenner t z . . . . . . . .
8 J . R. Spr ei t er . . . . . . . .
9 It . Mul t hopp
10 J. Ginzel . .
11 D. Kt i chemann
12 R. A. E. Wi nd Tunnel St aff . . . .
13 F. Vandr ey . . . . . . . .
14 A. Anscombe and D. J. Ra ne y
REFERENCES
Title, etc.
•. Aer odynami cs of tile mut ual i nfl uence of ai r cr af t par t s (i nt erference).
VSl kenrode R. & T. No. 171. August , 1946. R. A. E. Li br ar y
Tr ansl at i on No. 275. A.R.C. 12,669. Oct ober, 1948.
' The aer odynami cs of l ow-aspect -rat i o wings and wi ng-body combi na-
tions. Proc. Thi r d Angl o-Ameri can Aeronaut • Conf., Br i ght on,
1951, p. 363.
The effect of fuselage and nacelles on wing bendi ng moment , shear
and torsion• R. & M. 2060• November , 1943.
Aer odynami cs of t he fuselage. Luftfahrtforschung Vol. 18, p. 52.
1941. RTP Tr ansl at i on No. 1220. A.R.C. 5263.
Pr oper t i es of l ow-aspect -rat i o poi nt ed wings at speeds below and
above t he speed of sound. N.A.C.A. Repor t No. 835. 1946.
Bemer kungen zum Rumpfei nfl uss. J ahr buch 1942 der deut schen
Luf t f ahr t f or schung, p. I, 366.
Bei t r ag zur t heoret i schen Behandl ung des gegenseitigen Einflusses
yon Tragfliiche und Rumpf . Z.A.M.M. Vol. 7, p. 249. 1927.
Dur and, Vol. IV, p. 152.
Aer odynami c propert i es of slender wi ng-body Combinations at
subsonic, transsonic, and s upe r s oni c speeds• N.A.C.A. Tech.
Not e 1662. Jul y, 1948.
•. The cal cul at i on of t he lift di st ri but i on of aerofoils. Luftfahrtforschu~g
Vol. 15, p. 153. 1938. RTP Tr ansl at i on No. 2392. A.R.C. 8516.
. . Die Auf t r i ebsver t ei l nng. ei nes t i efen ver wundenen Rechteckfliigels.
J ahr buch 1940 der deut schen Luf t f ahr t f or schung, p. I, 238.
. . A simple met hod for cal cul at i ng t he span and chordwise loadings
on t hi n swept wings• R. A. E. Repor t Aero. 2392• A.R.C. 13,758.
1950.
L0w speed pressure di st ri but i on on a 59-deg swept wing and compari -
son wi t h high speed resul t s on a 45-deg swept wing• C. P. 86.
Febr uar y, 1949.
Absch~t zung des Rumpfei nfl usses auf das L~ingsmoment eines
Flugzeuges. J ahr buch 1940 der deut schen Luf t f ahr t f or schung
p. I, 367.
. . Low-speed t unnel i nvest i gat i on of t he effect of t he body on C,~o and
aer odynami c cent r e of unswept wi ng- body combinations• C.P. 16.
April, 1949.
14
LIST OF SYMBOLS
Xjy,Z
At, B'
3~,~
• , # =
b
R
D
C'
AR
0~ W
i
CL
CL
ACL
~CL0
,l =-
Rectangular syst em of co-ordinates, x in wind direction, y sideways, z down-
wards
Co-ordinates in the transformed Trefftz-plane
Complex variable in the Trefftz-plane
Complex variable in the transformed Trefftz-plane
Wing-body angle, angle between body axis and zer0-1ift line of the wing
Local lift coefficient
Overall lift coefficient
Difference of the lift coefficients with and without body at the same incidence
Value of A CL for zero-lift angle of the wing alone
I' Qc Non-dimensional circulation
r = b}/ - , , =
2-b"
p - -
bVo
7w The part of 7 t hat depends only on ~w
~ The part of ~ t hat depends only on ~B
a -- dCL local lift slope without trailing vortices
d~
15
z +i y.
Z+i y,
Y
b/2
5/2
Local wing chord
Mean wing chord
Wing span
Wing span in the transformed Trefftz-plane
Wing thickness
Radius of fuselage with circular cross-section
2R
Semi-axes of ellipse or ellipsoid, respectively
b
Aspect ratio
Angle of sweep
Angle of incidence of the wing to the main flow
Angle of incidence of the body to the main flow
Induced angle of incidence
T *
k
b ' c v ) b . ¢ ] ~
LIST OF SYMBOLS--continued
Lift slope coefficient of the two-dimensional aerofoil
R(du'~ real part of d~
' ,du/ du
1 + k ( T - 1)
Ratio of the body cross-section area above and below the wing to t he total
frontal area of the body
Coefficients
Number of pivotal point
TABLE 1
Change in Lift clue to Body
Extract from Ref. 14)
Body t est ed
AR = 10
9-in. di am.
D
0. 909
D
b
0. 091
Wi ng
posi t i on
Hi gh
Mid
Low
(smal l
fillets)
Hei ght
r el at i ve to
body
cent re-l i ne
zw/½D
0. 556
0
- - 0 . 6 8 8
(Tile low wi ng agrees wi t h hi gh and mi d if a mi ni mum fillet is fi t t ed.
t he changes in ZI~L0 cannot be generalised.)
Wi ng- body
angle f r om 8A CL
No Li ft ~CL
(deg)
2. 1 0. 045
2. 1 0" 044
2. 1 0. 043
A CL iJ
9-in. × 13½-in.
4 ~-in. di am.
13½--in. di am.
AR = 5
4~-in. di am.
9-in. di am.
0"909*
0. 454
1. 363
0"454
0 909
0' 091"
0"045
0"136
0-091
0"182
Mid
Mid
Mid
Mid
Mid
Mid
- - 0 . 0 2 0
- - 0 " 0 1 7
- - 0 . 0 1 9
Wi t h no fillet or l arge fillets
0. 044
0. 044
0. 020
0. 074
- - 0 . 0 5 8
- - O . 0 2 9
- - 0 . 0 2 3
- - 0 . 0 4 0
- - 0 . 0 1 3
- - O. 034
6. 1
2. 1
2. 1
2. 35
2. 2
2- 2
O . 0 4 0
0 . 0 5 8
* I n t hi s case, t h e wi dt h of t he body is used for D.
16
" , , , 1
" I
I
I
- O ° G
- 0 , 4 . \
\ C C
\ ~ . , . p u s - P L S
" \ \
- 0 " ~ - "~"
0" ~- c" /
O ' e r
0 " ~
I I
P L A N E . O F 5 Y M ~ E - T F ~ Y
x x
I
I
0 " @
J d L
O ' ~ .
O
- O , ~ -
- 0 . 4
i
• .,,, . ~ p p R o ' ~ I h.l/x."r I 0 N
I
~ m N . ( ' )
\
x, ,
F;G. 1. Pr essur e and l oad di st ri but i on on axi al l y s ymmet r i cal
ellipsoid of fineness r at i o 6. 0c = 10 deg.
J _ . ~
~ V o ~ R ~ =
FIG. 2.
~ R
Load di st r i but i on on i sol at ed body wi t h cyl i ndri cal
mi ddl e par t ; equat i on (1),
| _ _ ~ L ~
p V o R a=
F Z G . 3 .
• I
I
1 i
I I
I I
i 5 0 L . A T E D " ~ . /
B O D Y
Sket ch of l oad di st ri but i on over body when at t ached t o a wing.
FIG. 4. Upwas h pr oduced by ci rcul ar body.
?
? z
-PLANE
Z
~- P & A N E
Fie,, 5, Original and transformed Trefftz-plane.
/ / . - h" l ' , " " - - ) ' , /
k h / - . ' / I', / k .
/
, ' / J / ~."?
. c' / ._, ,
/
/
eY.. /; ." / , /
A" ~ / , " / /
I " - I ~ , " / C h
,.__~ ( ~ . @ / .
FIG. 6. Vortex system for wing-body combination.
7 ~
I"-Y_ ' , I ~ / 7
t / , ' * q / ~ / /
V' ' , t / ~/ . /
FIG. 7. Integration of pressure along body.
I
I , g
I , O I R ' D
o o.~ o.a o.~ o.~ o,s o,G o.7 o ~ o.~ i-o
c'/A'
FIG. 8. A function u s e d in the calculation of the
unstable m o m e n t of ellipsoids. F r o m Ref. 13.
".D
C L
d :
9 " 0 '
C ~ .
W I N G A L O N E
WING + B O O Y
CF, LCULATI 0N (0-)
Q E.'F,,PE Fklhie NT
MF../kNVhC.UE~,Oz.~.~4.e.3
t ~, . N: 0 - ? y , lO 6 - I . S X l O ~
0'05 0' I0 0 " I 5 ~3 0"?__(5
j - ' ' ~
\
i
M U L T H O P P
P I k E . B E N T I ~ E . T H O O ~ , )
. . . . . . W I N & A L O N E .
I 1
0 O'P- O ' e r 0 . 6 ~1 O. e , I ' 0
FI G. 9. Sp a n wi s e l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n s .
C y l i n d r i c a l b o d y on s t r a i g h t wi n g .
_A_R = 3, 9~ = 0, t a p e r r a t i o ---- ! . 0,
D / c = 0 . 3 6 , ~/ c = 0 - 1 2 , #0 = 0 " 7 5 X 2 ~ ,
0.7
O-~
0-5
O.~-
0"3
0'~.
0.1
[
~. W I N G / ~ L O N E . ~ E.'KP.
® W I N r a -~- B O D Y
J
. . . . WI NCa A L O N E
GALe...
W I N F a + B O D Y
• C A L ¢ . (a.)
/
O
/ ,
/
/
/
/
/ /
/
/
? - ° ~ ' ° 6 ° & ° c ~ I ° ° I ~
0"09
r , E ~
0 " 0 2
O ' O I
(O.) B O D Y L I F T , N D U C . F . . O B'Y W I N r ~ .
( b ) B O D Y L I F T I N C l K E A B E D B Y o C . L x D O W N L O A D .
( C ) BODY L I F T I N C R E A S E D
B Y F U L L D O W N L O A D .
I
/ f
0-I 0 " ~
~ ©
~-~o ~ e
0 0 " 3 0 ° ~ - 0 " 5 0 " 6
C L y ;
FI G. 10. Ov e r a l l l i f t of c y l i n d r i c a l b o d y (D/c = 0 . 3 6 )
o n s t r a i g h t wi ng. AR = 3, 9 = 0, t a p e r r a t i o = 1,
tic = 0 . 1 2 , Re y n o l d s n u mb e r = 0 . 7 x 106,
0 " 0 ~
0 ' 0 2
0' 0$
. ©
1"
/
D / G " =O-3G , . -
/ " " j ( b )
0"1 0";;' 0"3 ~'R- 0" 5
Gl_.tV
~k.) BODY L I FT tNDUCED BY W~NG
( b) BODY LI FT INGRF...ABF-,..D Byd",,..LKDoWNL.O~,D
(C) BODY LIFT I NCREASED BY FULL DOWNI..O~,O
0 . 0 ;
r , E L
0"01
D/ C: O' l B
©
- - o - ' e _ ( ¢ .
0"1 0 " ~ 0 , 3 0"~" 0 ~ 5
GL w .
FI G. 11. Ov e r a l l l i f t i n c r e me n t c y l i n d r i c a l bodi e s on s we pt wi ng.
AR = 3, ~o = 4 5 deg, t a p e r r a t i o = 1 . 0 , t / c = 0: 12,
Re Ynol ds ml mb e r = 0 . 7 × 10 °.
20
t o
z~
GL
3
p/ c=
J /
\
3
AR: 5
Cu,
co.
,@
CL
5
0 - ~ - 0 - ~ - O ' G " 1 ~ 0 " 8 t ' O
FI C. 12. Ca l c u l a t e d s p a n wi s e l i f t di s t r i but i ons .
S t r a i g h t wi ngs , t a p e r r a t i o = 1. 0, ~,/c = O. 12, ~0 = 2~r.
3
2
21/
D/c: AR: 5
0"36
o
D / C = 0.TP_
i
5
Cl _
AR= 5
O
D / ¢ . . = 0 . 7 ~ .
o. 3G
Z
0
F I G . I K C a l c u l a t e d s p a n w i s e lift d i s t r i b u t i o n s .
S w e p t w i n g , ~ = 4 5 d e g , t a p e r r a t i o = 1 . 0 , t/c = O . 1 2 , a n = 2 ~ .
b~
b~
1 . 0
O ' B
or,.w
O . &
LO 0"4"
, f
Z
O
C~
0 "? -
- O° Z
Lo
K
0 .
D
- 0"~-
Y m . i 4 .
/ ¢, ,
D/C. =
\
" ~o \ ~ ,7a \
\ O,~,G
\
\ ~ O 72
\"' . ~ 0"35
\
\k
\
" %'')'''-0 A R
' l
I
I
Calculated downwash at the body
junction in Trefftz-plane,
O'OB
O.(DG
0"0~.
O'O?-
0"10
O'O~.
0"06
0 " 0 4 -
O'Oa
FIG. 15.
4. o
/
"7?..
/
L
1
- - - - - - - ( b )
t _ - ~ ( o )
\ \ - - _ (~
-<(o-1
/ I \ \
o - 7 z I
i
I
!
IO
(O-) BODY Li FT INDUCF_D BY WING,_
( b) ~ODY LI FT I NCREASED IbycLLxDOWNLOAD.
Overal l l i f t i ncrement, f r om Figs. 12 and 13,
Ca0
0 , 8
--~) _ . . i o
0 " £
o.~ . . . . . ~
~
. ~ - °
0 ' 1 . %
O . Z O , ~ 0 " 6 h / ~ - 0, 8, I,
O
- O. I , # : OO
A R : 5
D / C =o,Tz
-0.Z~
FIG. 16.
W%NG /~LONE.
- - - - - i = 0 "[
W ~ N ~ - B O D Y f
~_ = , ~ ° J
Effect of a wing-body angle on
the load distribution.
0 " 0 5 l
O ' 0 ~
0 " 0 3
P ' ~ L .
O.OI
( 9 1 . 1
E11. ?.-
A t , 3
'V i . +
O' I 0
o o o
- 0 ' O 3
- 0 " 0 ~
- 0 " 0 5 ~
- 0 " 0 '
I I I I
J
.I
~ z ~ z
3 ~
SYMBOLS (NUMBE.I~S DENOTE. 50DY I FNGTI4~
I I
Q ~..I ®3 . 1 ®~ - . I
2 . 2 . I ~ 3 . Z . 0 ~1-. ~ ,
w z. , e ¢, 3.' ~- 4) "+-' ~
0 - ~ ~ c ~ 3 - ~ ~ 0 " 5 O ' G
. - ~ L 4 ~ : ~ ~ - F I
. /
-0,0
i I ~ I
- - i J io
0 " 7 ~ O - 8
I DOTTED LI NES Show THE EFFECT 0F +---~o-DEG, R,~...F....
E P . R OR i N I NCI DE. NCE
D / E = O " 9 1 A F < = IO ) , T A P E R R A T I O 2-.:I
t / C = 0 " I B A T C F - N T I ~ E ) C5-12 A T TIP.
M I D W I N &
Fie. 17. Overall lift increment due to body.
0"10
o. oe,
? " EL.
O. OG
0 " 0 ~
O"0;
0
f~ODY Li FT INCR.EA~SED BY FULL DOWNLOADs,
/
EYODY LI FT INCRE.P, SED
BY ~C~L X DOWN LOPED
BODY LIFT IN WiNG
K E . G I O N ONl y.
"--- (C)
J
/
/ - ~ 7b)
y __ . \ (O 4
" ~ EY, PE. RI MKNTAL P, ESUI
O'?- O'R- 0" 6 0 - 5 I°0 I ' E I ' ~
D / ~
ASPECT P,P~TIO--- IO, &- CL WINc~ ~,LONF_= 4° 5; 5
& o c
I'G
0 . 0 @
0 o 0 £
0 " 0 ~
0.02.
0. 2.
FIG. 18.
, " 'ENPERINIENg/N.. RE5U LT5
/
- .~(o.)
0" + O' 6 ~" Oo8 I,O p?- | -~r 1o6
&~... WiNG ALONF_
ASPECT RATIO = 5"~ dL~ = 3*%7
Ov er al l l i f t i n c r e me n t w i t h u n s we p t wi ngs of aspect
r a t i o 5 and 10.
(6706) Wt. 18/680
2 4
Pr i nt ed in Great Br i t ai n under t he aut hor i t y of Her Maj est y' s St at i oner y Office
By The Hove Pr i nt i ng Co., Lt d.
K.7 12156 H.P.Co. 34-21tl
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