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Interview Questions
What is Active Directory Domain Services 2008?
Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), formerly known as Active Directory Services, is the
central location for configuration information, authentication requests, and information about
all of the objects that are stored within your forest. Using Active Directory, you can efficiently
manage users, computers, groups, printers, applications, and other directory-enabled objects
from one secure, centralized location.
Domain Functional Level
Domain functionality activates features that affect the whole domain and that domain only.
The four domain functional levels, their corresponding features, and supported domain
Controllers are as follows:
Windows 2000 mixed (Default)
Supported domain controllers: Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows
Server 2003
Activated features: local and global groups, global catalog support
What is DNS:-
 Domain Name Service/Domain Name System
 Provides resolution of name to IP addressing and resolution of IP addresses to names
What is DHCP:-
 It gives Addresses automatically to the client who is requesting for an IP address
 Centralized IP Address management
 DHCP prevent IP address conflict and help conserve the use of client IP Address on
the on the network
 DHCP reduces the complexity and amount of administrator work by assigning
TCP/IP configuration automatically to the clients.

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What is the Global Catalog?
A global catalog server is a domain controller. It is a master searchable database that contains
information about every object in every domain in a forest. The global catalog contains a
complete replica of all objects in Active Directory for its host domain, and contains a partial
replica of all objects in Active Directory for every other domain in the forest.
It has two important functions:
Provides group membership information during logon and authentication
Helps users locate resources in Active Directory
Read-Only Domain Controllers (RODCs):-
 RODC address some of the problems that are commonly found in branch offices.
 These locations might not have a DC, Or they might have a writable DC but no physical
security to that DC, low network bandwidth, or inadequate expertise to support that DC.
Functionality of RODCs:-
 Read-Only DS database
 Uni-directional replication
 Credential caching
 Administrator role separation
Read-only AD DS Database:-
 Except for accounts password, an RODC holds all the Active Directory objects and
attributes that a writable domain controller holds.
 However, changes cannot be made to the database that is stored on the RODC. Changes
must be made on a writable domain controller and then replicated back to the RODC.
What are FMSO Roles? List them.
FSMO roles are server roles in a Forest
There are five types of FSMO roles
1-Schema master
2-Domain naming master
3-Rid master
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4-PDC Emulator
5-Infrastructure master
The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications to the
schema. Once the Schema update is complete, it is replicated from the schema master to all
other DCs in the directory. To update the schema of a forest, you must have access to the
schema master. There can be only one schema master in the whole forest.
The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition or removal of domains
in the forest. This DC is the only one that can add or remove a domain from the directory. It
can also add or remove cross references to domains in external directories. There can be
only one domain naming master in the whole forest.
Infrastructure Master:
When an object in one domain is referenced by another object in another domain, it
represents the reference by the GUID, the SID (for references to security principals), and
the DN of the object being referenced. The infrastructure FSMO role holder is the DC
responsible for updating an object's SID and distinguished name in a cross-domain object
reference. At any one time, there can be only one domain controller acting as the
infrastructure master in each domain.
The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from all domain controllers
in a particular domain. When a DC creates a security principal object such as a user or
group, it attaches a unique Security ID (SID) to the object. This SID consists of a domain SID
(the same for all SIDs created in a domain), and a relative ID (RID) that is unique for each
security principal SID created in a domain. Each DC in a domain is allocated a pool of RIDs
that it is allowed to assign to the security principals it creates. When a DC's allocated RID
pool falls below a threshold, that DC issues a request for additional RIDs to the domain's
RID master. The domain RID master responds to the request by retrieving RIDs from the
domain's unallocated RID pool and assigns them to the pool of the requesting DC. At any
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one time, there can be only one domain controller acting as the RID master in the domain.
PDC Emulator:
The PDC emulator is necessary to synchronize time in an enterprise. Windows 2000/2003
Includes the W32Time (Windows Time) time service that is required by the Kerberos
Authentication protocol. All Windows 2000/2003-based computers within an enterprise
Use a common time. The purpose of the time service is to ensure that the Windows Time
Service uses a hierarchical relationship that controls authority and does not permit loops to
Ensure appropriate common time usage.
Basic Disk Storage
Basic storage uses normal partition tables supported by MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows 95,
Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me), Microsoft Windows
NT, Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP. A disk initialized for
Basic storage is called a basic disk. A basic disk contains basic volumes, such as primary
Partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives. Additionally, basic volumes include
multidisk volumes that are created by using Windows NT 4.0 or earlier, such as volume
sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, and stripe sets with parity. Windows XP does not support
these multidisk basic volumes. Any volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, or stripe sets with
parity must be backed up and deleted or converted to dynamic disks before you install
Windows XP Professional.
Dynamic Disk Storage
Dynamic storage is supported in Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 and Windows
Server 2003. A disk initialized for dynamic storage is called a dynamic disk. A dynamic disk
contains dynamic volumes, such as simple volumes, spanned volumes, striped volumes,
mirrored volumes, and RAID-5 volumes. With dynamic storage, you can perform disk and
volume management without the need to restart Windows.

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Dynamic Storage Terms
A volume is a storage unit made from free space on one or more disks. It can be formatted
with a file system and assigned a drive letter. Volumes on dynamic disks can have any of
the following layouts: simple, spanned, mirrored, striped, or RAID-5.
A simple volume uses free space from a single disk. It can be a single region on a disk or
consist of multiple, concatenated regions. A simple volume can be extended within the
same disk or onto additional disks. If a simple volume is extended across multiple disks, it
becomes a spanned volume.
A spanned volume is created from free disk space that is linked together from multiple
disks. You can extend a spanned volume onto a maximum of 32 disks. A spanned volume
cannot be mirrored and is not fault-tolerant.
A striped volume (RAID-0) is a volume whose data is interleaved across two or more physical
The data on this type of volume is allocated alternately and evenly to each of the physical
disks. A striped volume cannot be mirrored or extended and is not fault-tolerant.
A mirrored volume (RAID-1) is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is duplicated on two physical
disks. All of the data on one volume is copied to another disk to provide data redundancy. If
one of the disks fails, the data can still be accessed from the remaining disk. A mirrored
volume cannot be extended.
A Striping With Parity (RAID-5) volume is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is striped across
an array of three
or more disks. Parity (a calculated value that can be used to reconstruct data after a failure)
is also striped across the disk array. If a physical disk fails, the portion of the RAID-5
volume that was on that failed disk can be re-created from the remaining data and the
parity. A RAID-5 volume cannot be mirrored or extended.
The system volume contains the hardware-specific files that are needed to load Windows
(for example, Ntldr, Boot.ini, and The system volume can be, but does not
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have to be, the same as the boot volume.
The boot volume contains the Windows operating system files that are located in the
%Systemroot% and %Systemroot%\System32 folders. The boot volume can be, but does
not have to be, the same as the system volume.
RAID 0 Striping
RAID 1- Mirroring (minimum 2 HDD required)
RAID 5 Striping With Parity (Minimum 3 HDD required)
RAID levels 1 and 5 only gives redundancy
What is the SYSVOL folder?
The Sysvol folder on a Windows domain controller is used to replicate file-based data among
domain controllers. Because junctions are used within the Sysvol folder structure, Windows NT
file system (NTFS) version 5.0 is required on domain controllers throughout a Windows
distributed file system (DFS) forest.
This is a quote from Microsoft themselves basically the domain controller info stored in files like
your group policy stuff is replicated through this folder structure.
What’s New in Windows Server 2008 Active Directory Domain Services?
Active Directory Domain Services in Windows Server 2008 provides a number of enhancements
over previous versions, including these:
Auditing—AD DS auditing has been enhanced significantly in Windows Server 2008. The
enhancements provide more granular auditing capabilities through four new auditing
categories: Directory Services Access, Directory Services Changes, Directory Services
Replication, and Detailed Directory Services Replication. Additionally, auditing now provides the
capability to log old and new values of an attribute when a successful change is made to that
Fine-Grained Password Policies—AD DS in Windows Server 2008 now provides the capability to
create different password and account lockout policies for different sets of users in a domain.
User and group password and account lockout policies are defined and applied via a Password
Setting Object (PSO). A PSO has attributes for all the settings that can be defined in the Default
Domain Policy, except Kerberos settings. PSOs can be applied to both users and groups.
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Read-Only Domain Controllers—AD DS in Windows Server 2008 introduces a new type of
domain controller called a read-only domain controller (RODC). RODCs contain a read-only copy
of the AD DS database. RODCs are covered in more detail in Chapter 6, “Manage Sites and
Restartable Active Directory Domain Services—AD DS in Windows Server 2008 can now be
stopped and restarted through MMC snap-ins and the command line. The restartable AD DS
service reduces the time required to perform certain maintenance and restore operations.
Additionally, other services running on the server remain available to satisfy client requests
while AD DS is stopped.
AD DS Database Mounting Tool—AD DS in Windows Server 2008 comes with a AD DS database
mounting tool, which provides a means to compare data as it exists in snapshots or backups
taken at different times. The AD DS database mounting eliminates the need to restore multiple
backups to compare the AD data that they contain and provides the capability to examine any
change made to data stored in AD DS.
Repadmin.exe: Replication Diagnostics Tool
This command-line tool assists administrators in diagnosing replication problems between
Windows domain controllers.
Administrators can use Repadmin to view the replication topology (sometimes referred to as
RepsFrom and RepsTool) as seen from the perspective of each domain controller. In addition,
Repadmin can be used to manually create the replication topology (although in normal practice
this should not be necessary), to force replication events between domain controllers, and to
view both the replication metadata and up-to-dateness vectors.
What is NETDOM?
NETDOM is a command-line tool that allows management of Windows domains and trust
relationships. It is used for batch management of trusts, joining computers to domains,
verifying trusts, and secure channels
The KCC is a built-in process that runs on all domain controllers and generates replication
topology for the Active Directory forest. The KCC creates separate replication topologies
depending on whether replication is occurring within a site (intrasite) or between sites
(intersite). The KCC also dynamically adjusts the topology to accommodate new domain
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controllers, domain controllers moved to and from sites, changing costs and schedules, and
domain controllers that are temporarily unavailable.
How do you view replication properties for AD?
By using Active Directory Replication Monitor.
Start–> Run–> Replmon
What are sites What are they used for?
One or more well-connected (highly reliable and fast) TCP/IP subnets. A site allows
administrators to configure Active Directory access and replication topology to take advantage
of the physical network.
Name some OU design considerations?
OU design requires balancing requirements for delegating administrative rights – independent
of Group Policy needs – and the need to scope the application of Group Policy. The following
OU design recommendations address delegation and scope issues:
Applying Group Policy An OU is the lowest-level Active Directory container to which you can
assign Group Policy settings. Delegating administrative authority usually don’t go more than 3
OU levels
Logical Diagram of Active Directory?, What is the difference between child
domain & additional domain Server?
Well, if you know what a domain is then you have half the answer. Say you have the domain Now Microsoft has a server named server1 in that domain, which happens to
the parent domain. So its FQDN is If you add an additional domain
server and name it server2, then its FQDN is
Now Microsoft is big so it has offices in Europe and Asia. So they make child domains for them
and their FQDN would look like this: & Now let’s say
each of them have a server in those child domains named server1. Their FQDN would then look
like this: &

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What are Active Directory Groups?
Groups are containers that contain user and computer objects within them as members. When
security permissions are set for a group in the Access Control List on a resource, all members of
that group receive those permissions. Domain Groups enable centralized administration in a
domain. All domain groups are created on a domain controller.
In a domain, Active Directory provides support for different types of groups and group scopes.
The group type determines the type of task that you manage with the group. The group scope
determines whether the group can have members from multiple domains or a single domain.
Group Types
* Security groups: Use Security groups for granting permissions to gain access to resources.
Sending an e-mail message to a group sends the message to all members of the group.
Therefore security groups share the capabilities of distribution groups.
* Distribution groups: Distribution groups are used for sending e-main messages to groups of
users. You cannot grant permissions to security groups. Even though security groups have all
the capabilities of distribution groups, distribution groups still requires, because some
applications can only read distribution groups.
Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the Internet and yet NOT
have a default gateway?
If we are using public ip address, we can browse the internet. If it is having an intranet address
a gateway is needed as a router or firewall to communicate with internet.
What is CIDR?
CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing, sometimes known as supernetting) is a way to allocate
and specify the Internet addresses used in inter-domain routing more flexibly than with the
original system of Internet Protocol (IP) address classes. As a result, the number of available
Internet addresses has been greatly increased. CIDR is now the routing system used by virtually
all gateway hosts on the Internet’s backbone network. The Internet’s regulating authorities now
expect every Internet service provider (ISP) to use it for routing.
What is the difference between Authorized DHCP and Non Authorized DHCP?
To avoid problems in the network causing by mis-configured DHCP servers, server in
Windows 2000 must be validate by AD before starting service to clients. If an authorized
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DHCP finds any DHCP server in the network it stop serving the clients
Difference between inter-site and intra-site replication. Protocols using for
Intra-site replication can be done between the domain controllers in the same site. Inter-
site replication can be done between two different sites over WAN links
BHS (Bridge Head Servers) is responsible for initiating replication between the sites. Inter-
site replication can be done B/w BHS in one site and BHS in another site.
We can use RPC over IP or SMTP as a replication protocols where as Domain partition is
not possible to replicate using SMTP
How to take DNS and WINS, DHCP backup
%System root%/system32/dns
%System root%/system32/WINS
%System root%/system32/DHCP
What is DFS & its usage
DFS is a distributed file system used to provide common environment for users to access
files and folders even when they are shared in different servers physically.
There are two types of DFS domain DFS and Standalone DFS. We cannot provide
redundancy for standalone DFS in case of failure. Domain DFS is used in a domain
Environment which can be accessed by /domain name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name).
Standalone DFS can be used in workgroup environment which can be accessed through
/server name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). Both the cases we need to create DFS root (
Which appears like a shared folder for end users) and DFS links ( A logical link which is
Pointing to the server where the folder is physically shared)
The maximum number of DFS roots per server is 1.
The maximum numbers of DFS root replicas are 31.
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The maximum number of DFS roots per domain is unlimited.
The maximum number of DFS links or shared folders in a DFS root is 1,000
What is RIS and what are its requirements
RIS is a remote installation service, which is used to install operation system remotely.
PXE DHCP-based boot ROM version 1.00 or later NIC, or a network adapter that is
supported by the RIS boot disk.
Should meet minimum operating system requirements
Software Requirements
Below network services must be active on RIS server or any server in the network
Domain Name System (DNS Service)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Active Directory service