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THE science of Hebr ew grammar has, within a f ew
year s, been gr eatly impr oved by the labours of sever al
distinguished oriental scholar s on the continent of Eur ope.
The f ir st Hebr ew grammars published by Christians wer e
modeled af ter those of the Jewish Rabbins, f rom whom
the knowledge of the Hebr ew language was r eceived.
Among these, the most distinguished was Reuchlin's Rudt-
menta linguae Hebraeae (1506), which was used by most
lear ner s of the Hebr ew until the publication of Munster's
grammar (1556). The latter continued in gener al use
until Buxtor f published his Thesaurus (1609), which so f ar
excelled all other wor ks of the kind then extant, that it
came into almost universal use. A most important addi-
tion was made to the syntax of the Hebr ew language, by
the noble wor k of Glass, styled Philologia Sacra and pub-
lished at Leipsic in 1623. In 1679, Alting of Groningen
published his Ftmdamenta punctationis linguae sanctae ; and
in 1696, Danz of Jena, his Ldterator Ebraeo-Chaldaeus. Both
wor ks wer e constr ucted upon the pr inciples of Buxtor f ;
and f or mor e than half a centur y, they guided the He-
br ew studies of Holland and Germany. In 1737 appear ed
the gr eat work of Alber t Schultens, pr of essor at Leyden,
entitled Institutiones ad fundamenta linguae Hebraeae, in
which all the kindred languages, but especially the Ar a-
bic, wer e made to contr ibute to the illustration of the He-
br ew. In the steps of Schultens f ollowed Schr oder at
Groningen (1766), in his Institutiones ad Jundamenta lin-
guae Hebraeae. Stor r , Vater , Weckher lin, and Jahn har e,
mor e r ecently, distinguished themselves in the depar tment
of Hebr ew grammar.*
But the most important wor k, which has ever appear -
ed on this subject, is the lar ger Hebr ew grammar of Ge-
senius, pr of essor of theology at Halle, published in 1817
and containing about 900 pages. In this wor k, the whole
inter ior of Hebr ew grammar has r eceived a new arrange-
ment, and a multitude of dark places have been illumina-
ted. The publication of it has commenced a new er a in
this depar tment,an er a in which, it is pr obable, a more
radical and extensive knowledge of the Hebr ew will be
attained, than has been possessed since it ceased to be a
ver nacular language.
The pr esent wor k originated f rom the wants of the
Seminaiy, with which the author is connected. His duty
led him to wr ite lectur es on Hebr ew gr ammar ; and his
wishes to af f ord the young men, who ar e placed under
his instruction, all the assistance in his power in learning
the Hebr ew language, led him to make use of all the
* More than rix hundred Hebrew grammars have been published,
most of which are either imitations or abridgments of the authors
above noted.
helps in the depar tment of Hebr ew grammar, which wer e
within his r each. The r epeated r equests of his pupils,
that he would publish such a wor k; united with his own
desir e that Hebr ew students in gener al belonging to his
native country, might enjoy an opportunity of access to
what has been lately done to f acilitate the study of He-
br ew, and with the hope that his wor k may contr ibute
somewhat to lighten the labour s of oriental study, and r e-
move some of its dif f iculties so of ten the subject of com-
plaint ; wer e the motiyes which led him originally to pub-
lish a Hebr ew grammar.
The f ir st edition being entir ely exhausted in the cour se
of two year s, and f r equent demands being made lor a sec-
ond impression, he f elt himself impelled to make a new
ef f or t f or the impr ovement of the wor k, so f ar as was
within his power to accomplish it The changes, gr eat
and small, both as to matter and manner, which have been
made in this edition, ar e too numerous f or specif ication.
Ever y important part of the grammar has undergone an
investigation de novo, independently of any pr eceding gr am-
mar ; and the pr esent edition contains r esults in some
important r espects, and in a multitude of minor ones,
which ar e dr awn f r om no other sour ce than the author's
own exper ience and investigatioa If any one is desir ous
of comparing the two editions, he may per use the sections
upon the vowels and the vowel-changes; upon the class-
if ications of the ver bs and conjugations; upon sever al of
the irregular ver bs, particularly ver bs Pe Yodh and Axrin
doubled; upon the r ules and or der of declining nouns, and
the accounts of the declensions themselves; upon the
nature and consecution of the accents in the appendix;
and f inally the extent of the praxis at the close.
This last ar ticle stands connected with a specif ication of
the pr ogr ess which the student may be expected to make,
or , in other wor ds, a designation of his r ecitations f r om
day to day. The details in r espect to this may be seen
at the beginning of the praxis. The design in making
out these r ecitations was to save tr ouble to the teacher ,
and pr event mistake in lear ner s, as to the extent of their
studies f or any particular r ecitation. Twelve year s' expe-
r ience in teaching Hebr ew, has enabled the author to
judge how f ar lear ner s of ordinary diligence ought to pro-
ceed f r om day to day; and he is satisf ied that the truly
dif lgent student, of moder ate abilities, may advance as f ast
as the apportionment in the praxis r equir es, while active
and superior minds may much exceed it The apportion-
ment is designed f or a class, wher e talents of dif f er ent or-
der s mingle together , and the r ecitation must be made
f easible f or all who ar e not negligent
This apportionment of study was particularly designed
to accommodate the studies of the Seminary with which
the author is connected. Other instructors, who may use
the grammar, of course ar e not bound to f ollow in the
path marked out f or the classes her e; but may depar t,
f rom it as circumstances may require.
When the f ir st edition of this wor k was published, r e-
peated wishes wer e expr essed f rom dif f er ent quarters, that
the author would publish an edition of the work abridged.
A sincero r egar d to the inter ests of Hebr ew liter atur e f or -
bids him to do this. He has studied Hebr ew enough to
know, that a mer e synopsis of Hebr ew grammar must of
course be a mer e smattering of it, and leave at least as
many dif f iculties unexplained as it explains. No synopsis
can enable any one to r ead even the f ir st chapter of Gene-
sis, and account f or all the f orms of words which ther e occur.
It is beyond question that ever y student, who is to ob-
tain even a toler able knowledge of the language, must
have a grammar that embr aces the whole body of the
anomalous f orms.
But then the whole of the pr esent wor k need not be
studied, and should by no means "be studied, at once. No-
thing can be more tedious than the abstract study of a
grammar, without applying it to use. To avoid this as
much as possible, the author has made a selection f r om
the body of the grammar, f or the pr jmaiy cour se of the
student. The detail of this he will f ind at the head of
the praxis. The object of the selection is, to advance
him as soon as possible to the study of the language itself ,
as he f inds it in his Bible. No more, ther ef or e, than
what is bar ely necessar y to begin, is included in the f ir st
cour se; and it will be seen, by consulting the praxis, that
the student is to be led, step by step, to a sur vey of the
whole grammatical ground, thr ough the medium of dir ect
study of the language itself ; so that the tedium of ab-
str act grammar lessons may be in a gr eat measure avoid-
ed. In this way, ever y thing which he studies in his
grammar, af ter a f ew of the f ir st lessons, will be f or the
purpose of immediate and def inite application, and will
ther ef or e much more probably be r emember ed.
The praxis, it will be seen, is in some r espects con-
tr acted, in other r espects enlar ged. The f ormer will not
abr idge its utility; the latter will much increase it It is
printed so that the student may have it bound as he
chooses, either separ ately, or in connexion with the gram-
In the cour se of the wor k, sever al changes in the or-
der of the sections became desir able, some of which
had been r ef er r ed to in pr eceding sheets alr eady printed.
These r ef er ences, of cour se, ar e now incor r ect; but as the
table of Corrigenda gives them all, it will pr ove no serious
detr iment to the wor k. The gain in r espect to perspi-
cuity, by a change of the or der in regard to many of the
sections, is more than enough to compensate f or the little
tr ouble of cor r ecting the r ef er ences.
In printing a work of this kind, it is impossible to guard
against some def iciencies arising f rom the nature of He-
br ew types. Many of them ar e so small and slender ,
that they either draw out or br eak in the course of str ik-
ing of f the sheets, and thus escape detection. All possi-
ble diligence has been bestowed on the cor r ection and ac-
curacy of the impr ession; and though it is not immacu-
late, the author does not hesitate to say, he believes it
n z r i C L vi i
will be f ound as f r ee f rom blemishes of this sor t, as any
other book of this nature bef or e the public.
The revision of this wor k and the changes which have
been made, have cost much more labour than was be*
stowed on the original composition of the grammar. A
gr eat proportion of the copy was sent to the press in man-
uscr ipt Investigations de novo in the province of Hebr ew
grammar cost more time and patience than any one can
well conjectur e, who has not been actually engaged m
them. Nor could the author , in his state of broken
health f or the past year , have supported or completed
these, if he had not been aided in them by the f riendly
assistance of MR EDWARD ROBINSON, on whom the labour
of correcting the proof sheets has in a gr eat measure de-
volved, and who has, with gr eat per sever ance and dili-
gence, pursued the new investigations which wer e so of ten
demanded. To his kind and able assistance, the student
is indebted f or many of the impr ovements in manner, not
a f ew in matter , and f or much of the minute accuracy, of
the pr esent edition. The radical knowledge which MR
ROBINSON has acquired of this language, is a happy indica-
tion of the pr ogr ess which the study of it is making in
our countr y; and holds out in regard to him a promise
of extensive usef ulnesss in the department of sacr ed liter -
atur e.
The Hebr ew lexicon of Gesenius, now in the course of
translation and publication by MR J. W. GIBBS, will sup-
ply an important desider atum among the wor ks on Hebr ew
liter atur e accessible to students in this country. Much
may be hoped f or f rom the circulation and gener al use of
this excellent and ver y important wor k; which, it is expect-
ed, will be completed in the course of the pr esent year .
Other wor ks in the department of Hebr ew philology
ar e much needed. A book of exer cises on the orthogra-
phy and on the f orms and syntax of the Hebr ew, and a
vocabulary of all the anomalous f orms in the Bible, would
add gr eatly to the f acilities of acquiring a thor ough
knowledge of the language. A history of the language as
it r espects its f ormation, preservation, char acter &c. and
as it regards the study of it since the Christian er a; a
good Introduction to the sever al books of the Hebr ew
Scr iptur es; and a Hermeneutica adapted to the wr itii^s of
the Old Testament; would be important additions to the
pr esent help in this essential branch of theological edu-
cation. Should the publications already issued, or in press,
obtain suf f icient encouragement, they will probably be f ol-
lowed by other s of a similar char acter .
ANDOVER, SEPT. 15, 1 8 2 3 .
1 Of tbe oriental or Shemitish
2 Name and origin of tbe He-
brew language
3 Historic sketch of the Hebrew
4 Sbeinitiah letters or written
characters . . .
5 Hebrew characters
6 Manner of writing
7 Hebrew vowels . .
8 accents .
9 Writers to be consulted
10 Alphabets
ancient number and
order of letters .
present number of
Hebrew letters .
- names of the letters
final letters .
dilated letters
unusual letters
distinction of similar
sounds of the letters
divisions of the letters
20 Vowtlt; preliminary observa-
tions . . . .
21 names, classification
22 orthography
23 coalescence of quies-
cents, gutturals, &c.
orthography in con-
nection with vowel-let-
ters, &c.
Qamets Hhateph
26 Sbeva
27 Pattahh furtive .
28 Dagbesb
29 forte and lena
Sect. Page
30 Mappiq and Raphe . . 81
31 Methegh . . . . 82
32 Maqqepb . . . . 84
33 Accents . . . . 85
34 Tone-syllable of words . 87
35 Shifting of the tone-syllable 90
36 Critical marks and Affasoret-
ic notes . . . 92
37 Rules for reading Hebrew 93
38 Mode of reading Hebrew . 95
39 Coruonants; orthographical
commutations . . 98
40 grammatical commu-
tations . . . 99
41 - assimilation . 1 0 0
42 dropped . . 101
43 added to words . 103
44 - transposed . . 1 0 4
45 - which are not doubled 105
46 Gutturals; effect on preceding
vowels . . . 106
47 Quiescent*; cases where they
quiesce . . . 107
48 ' relation to preceding
vowels . . . 1 1 0
49 commutation & omis-
sion .
apocope k paragoge
51 Voxeelt; general causes of mu-
tation . . . 113
52 ' mutable & immutable 113
53 general principles of
mutation . . . 1 1 6
change of long into short 117
change of short into long 119
dropped . . 120
transposed . . 1 2 2
new inserted . . 1 2 2
furtive inserted . 124
changes from euphony
and the pause-accents . 125
of the article, prepo-
sitions. &c. . . 128
See/. Page
62 Radical words 133
63 Grammatical construction of
words 136
64 Kindred dialects intermixed
with the Hebrew
65 The article . . . . 138
66 Pronouns personal 138
67 140
rogative . . .
69 Verbs: general classification 141
70 conjugations . . 142
71 table of conjugations 143
72 144
73 arrangement of 144
74 names of 144
75 root of all the conju-
gations 145
76 145
77 Niphal . 146
78 i. Piel and Pual 147
79 Hiphil and
Hophal 148
80 . Hithpael 149
81 - unfrequent conjuga-
tions . . . . 151
82 pluriliteral . . 153
83 denominative . 153
84 flexion 154
85 ground-forms . 154
- formation and flexion
of the praeter 154
87 forms of the infinitive
mood . . . . 155
88 formation and flexion
of the future 157
89 of the im-
perative 159
90 of partici-
ples . . . . 159
paragogic and apoco-
pated future . 161
- imperative 165
93 Vav conversive 166
Vav before the praeter 167
paradigms; general
not* . . . .
96 Reg. verbs; notes on Kal
on Niphal 171
on Piel and
Pual 172
99 on Hiphil
and Hophal 173
100 oo Hithpael
and Hothpaal . 174
100 a on Poel 174
100 b Irreg. verbs; mode of de*
signatkm 175
Resh 175
102 guttural 176
103 178
104 179
105 181
106 182
KD .
109 * class I. 186
112 class IV. 190
112 a
f * , *
114 192
h -
. . 193
. 202
118 - 207
U9 i-
** .
& .
i t l notes on mfc 213
- doubly anomalous 222
124 a
relation to each
124 b mixed forms 225
1 OAc. Verbs: forms of Dlurilite-
rals 226
notes oo participles 226
126 - with suffix-pronouns
126 a fib with suffixes 235
127 Paradigms.
* I. Her. verb . .
II. I) guttural
III. $ guttural
IV. guttural
V. . . .
VI. *B class I. * 242
VII. class II. 242
VIII. ?B class III. . 243
IX. 4b class IV. .
",D . . .
. . . 244
i* . . .
XIII. . . . 247
& . . .
XVI. ?B and ffV
XVII. j a and 252
1. *JD and rfb 253
XX. Participles 254
XXI. Verbs with suffixes . 256
XXII. A with suffixes . 258
128 Nouns: general remarks . 259
129 general classification 259
130 composite and proper 262
131 gender 262
132 formation of the femi-
nine . . . . 265
133 of the olural
number 268
134 of the dual 270
constr. and suffix state 272
136 vowel-changes in de-
clenaion 277
187 arrangement of declen-
lioni 280
138 first declension 281
139 second 282
140 third
. 283
141 fourth 284
142 fifth 285
143 sixth 286
144 seventh 292
14$ eighth 293
Seel. Page
146 ninth . 295
147 tenth . 296
148 eleventh . 296
149 twelfth . 297
150 thirteenth . 298
151 notes on duals . 299
152 - irregular, nnd n ant era la 299
153 forms of adjectives . 302
154 Paradigms.
I. Nouns with suffixes * 303
U. in declensions . 304
1(|. dual . . . 3 1 2
IV. numerals . . 313
155 Particles; general remarks 315
156 adverbs . . 315
157 prepositions . 316
158 conjunctions . 319
159 inteijections . 319
160 Order of Sjntax . . 320
161 Noons nsed as adjectives 320
162 Adjectives used as nouns . 323
163 Nouns ; insertion of the ar-
ticle . . . 323
164 omission of the article 324
165 article before adjec-
tives 325
166 mode of ex pressing the
neuter gender 226
167 of multitude and phb-
ralis txccllcnliac 326
168 apposition
169 repetition 328
170 mode of expressing the
genitive 329
171 use of the genitive 330
172 construct state without
a genitive 331
173 mode of expressing ob-
lique cases 333 *
174 use of the accusative
175 case absolute . 334
176 construction of nume-
rals . . . . 335
177 Adjectives: comparativede-
gree 338
178 superlative degree 338
179 qualifying nouns 340
180 as predicates 341
Sect. Page
181 Pronouns,' concord with nouas 242
use of the primitives
- used for the verb of
- use of the suffixes
- place of the suffixes
- use of nouns for pro-
nouns . . .
- use of the relative
188 Verbs; concord with nouns
anomalies in concord
impersonal and indefi-
nite . . . .
general use of the tenses 353
use of the praeter tense 353
use of the future tense 355
use of the imperative 358
finite with cases . 358
governing an accusa-
tive . . . . 3 6 0
governing two accusa-
tives . . . 361
passive with cases . 362
use of the infinitive ab-
solute . . . 362
use of the infinitive
construct . . . 365
infinitive construct with
Lamedh . . . 366
infinitive with cases 367
use of participles . 368
participles with cases 369
used as adverbs . 370
Sect. Page
206 Particles; adverbs . . 3 7 1
207 prepositions . 372
208 conjunctions . 372
209 inteijections . 373
Figures of speech.
210 Pleonasm .
211 Ellipsis
212 Change of construction
213 Constructio praegnans
214 Zeugma
215 Hendiadys
216 Paronomasia
B Greek alphabets .
C Names of vowels .
D Derivation of nouns
E 1 Accents ; table .
2, 3, 4 number, names,
and position
position &c.
classification .
explanations .
double accentu-
original design
present utility
F Names of conjugations . 406
I N T R O D U C T I O N .
1. THE languages F western Asia, though differing in respect
to dialect, are radically the same; and have been so, as far back as
any historical records enable us to trace them.
Palestine, Syria, Phenicia, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Arabia, and
also Ethiopia, are reckoned as the countries, where the languages
commonly denominated oriental have been spoken. Of late, many
critics have rejected the appellation oriental, as being too compre-
hensive, and substituted that of Shemitish, a denominative formed
from Shetn the name of one of Noah's sons. Against this appella-
tion, however, objections of a similar nature pay be urged; for no
inconsiderable portion of those, who spoke the languages in ques-
tion, were not descendents of Shem. It is doubtless a matter of in-
difference which appellation is used, if it be first defined.
2. The oriental languages may be divided into three principal
dialects 5 viz, the Aramaean, the Hebrew, and the Arabic.
() The Aramaean, spoken in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Baby-
lonia or Chaldea, is subdivided into the Syriac and Chaldee dialects,
sometimes called also the west and east Aramaean.
() The Hebrew or Canaanitisb dialect (Is. xix. 18) was spok-
en in Palestine, and probably, with little variation, in Phenicia and
the Phenician colonies, c. g. at Carthage and other places. The re-
mains of the Phenician nnd Punic dialects are too few and too much
disfigured, to enable us to judge with certainty how extensively
these languages were the same as the dialect of Palestine.
(c) The Arabic, to which the Ethiopic bears a special resem-
blance, comprises, in modern times, a great variety of dialects as a
spoken language, and is spread over a vast extent of country; but,
so far as we are acquainted with its former state, it appears, more
anciently, to have been limited principally to Arabia and Ethiopia.
It is uncertain whether any of the oriental or Shemitish dia-
lects were spoken in Assyria proper, or in Asia Minor. The prob-
ability seems to be against the supposition that the Assyrians used
them ; and a great part of Asia Minor, before it was subjugated by
the Greeks, most probably spoke the same language with Assyria,
i. e. perhaps a dialect of the Persian. A small part only of this sec-
tion of Asia seem to have spoken a Shemitish dialect (Gesen. Ges-
chichte 4. 1 and 17. 3.) When western Asia is described, there-
fore, as speaking the Shemitish languages, the exceptions just made
are to be uniformly understood.
The Arabic is very rich in words and forms; the Syriac, so far
as it is yet known, is comparatively limited in both $ the Hebrew
holds a middle place between them, both as to copiousness of words
and variety of forms.
3. Besides the dialects already named, there were slighter va-
riations of language among the Jews, sometimes distinguished from
the general name by local appellations. The Ephraimites seem not
to have distinguished, as the Hebrews in general did, between the
fetters and to or D in speaking, being unable to aspirate the
(Jud. xii. 6.) Nehemiah was indignant that a part of his country-
men should speak the language of Ashdod. (Neh. xiiL 2325.)
The Samaritan dialect appears to be made up, as one might ex-
pect, (see 2 K. xvii,) of Aramaean and Hebrew. And thte slighter
varieties of Arabic are as numerous as the provinces where the lan-
guage is spoken.
In all these cases, however, we commonly name the slighter dif-
ferences provincialisms rather than dialects.
4. Of all the oriental languages, the Hebrew bears marks of
being the most ancient. The oldest records that are known to ex-
ist, are composed in this language; and there are other reasons
which render it probable, that it preceded its kindred dialects. (
ft. 2. &c.)
It flourished in Palestine, among the Phenicians and Hebrews,
until the period of the Babylonish exile; soon after which it declin-
ed, and finally was succeeded by a kind of HebraeoAramaean dialect,
such as was spqken in the time of oar Saviour among the Jews.
The west Aramaean had flourished before (his, for a long time, ip
the east and north of Palestine; but it now advanced farther west,
and during the period that the Christian churches of Syria flourish-
ed, it was widely extended. It is at preseut almost a dead lan-
guage, and has been so for several centuries. The Hebrew may
be regarded as having been a dead language, except among a small
circle of liUrati, for about the space of two thousand years.
Our knowledge of Arabic literature extends back very little be-
yond the time of Mohammed. But the followers of this pretended
prophet have spread the dialect of the Koran over almost half the
population of the world. Arabic is now the vernacular language of
Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and in a great measure of Palestine and all the
northern coast of Africa; while it is read and understood wherever
the Koran has gone, in Turkey, Persia, India, and Tartary.
5. The remains of the ancient Hebrew tongue are contained ip
the Old Testament, and in the few Phenician and Punic words and
inscriptions that have been here and there discovered.
The remains of the Aramaean are extant in a variety of books.
In Chaldee, we have a part of the books of Daniel and Ezra (Ban.
ii. 4vii. 28. Ez. iv. 8vi. 19, and vii. 12vii. 27) which are the
most ancient of any specimens of this dialect. The Targum of On-
kelos i. e. the translation of the Pentateuch into Chaldee, affords
the next and purest specimen of that language. All the other Tar-
gums, the Misbna, and Gernara are a mixture of Aramaean and He-
brew. It has been said that there are still some small districts in
the east, where the Chaldee is a vernacular language.
In Syriac, there is a considerable number of books and Mss. ex-
tant. The oldest specimen of this language, that we have, is con-
tained in the Puhito or Syriac version of the Old and N. Testament
A multitude of writers in this dialect have flourished, (vid. Assema-
ni Bibliotheca Orientalis,) many of whose writings probably are still
extant, although but few have been printed in Europe.
In Arabic, there exists a great variety of Mss. and books, histor-
ical, scientific, and literary. The means of illustrating this living
language are now very ample and satisfactory.
6. It is quite obvious from the statement made above, that a
knowledge of the kindred dialects of the Hebrew is very important,
10 1. or THE QRfEN
for the illustration of that language. Who can, even now, have a
very extensive and accurate understanding of the English language,
that is unacquainted with the Latin, Greek, Norman, French, and
Saxon ? Supposing then that the English had been a dead language
for more than two thousand years, and that all the remains of it
were comprised in one moderate volume ; who could well explain
this volume, that did not understand the languages with which it
is closely connected? The answer to this question will decide
whether the study of the languages, kindred with the Hebrew, is
important to the thorough understanding and illustration of the He-
brew Scriptures.
7. The relation of the Hebrew to the Aramaean and Arabic, is
not such as exists between the Attic and other dialects of Greece.
The diversity is much greater. It bears more resemblance to the
diversity between German and Dutch, or German and Swedish.
The idiom of all is substantially the same. The fundamental words
are of common origin. But the inflections differ in some considera-
ble measure; derivative words are diverse in point of form ; and
not a few words have been adopted in each of the dialects, which
either are not common to the others, or are used in a different sense.
The affinity between the Chaldee and Syriac is very great, in
every respect
8. The oriental languages are distinguished from the western
or European tongues, in general, by a number of peculiar traits; viz.
() Several degrees of guttural letters are found in them, which
we cannot distinctly mark; and some of which our organs are inca-
pable of pronouncing, after the age of maturity.
() In general, the roots are triliteral, and of two syllables. By
far the greater part of the roots are verbs.
(c) Pronouns, whether personal or adjective, are, in the oblique
cases, united in the same word with the noun or verb to which they
have a relation.
(d) The verbs have but two tenses, the past and future ; and in
general, there are no optative or subjunctive moods definitely
(e) The genders are only masculine and feminine ; and these
are extended to the verb, as well as to the nonn.
( f ) For the most part, the cases are marked by prepositions.
Two nouns coming together, the latter of which is in the genitive,
the first in most cases suffers a change which indicates this state of
relation, while the latter noun remains unchanged; i. e. the govern-
ing noun suffers the change, and not the noun governed,
(g) To mark the comparative and superlative degrees, no spe-
cial forms of adjectives exist.
From this observation the Arabic must be excepted, which, for
the most part, has an intensive form of adjectives that marks both
the comparative and superlative.
(A) Scarcely any composite words exist in these languages, if
we except proper names.
(t) Verbs are not only distinguished into active and passive, by
their forms; but additional forms are made, by the inflections of the
same verb with small variations, to signify the cause of action, or
the frequency of it, or that it is reflexive, or reciprocal, or inten-
sive &c.
* ( j ) Lastly, all these dialects (the Ethiopic excepted) are writ-
ten and read from the right hand to the left; the alphabets consist-
ing of consonants only, and the vowels being generally written above
or below the consonants.
2. Name and origin of the Hebrew language.
1. The appellation of Hebrew to far as we can learn
from history, was first given to Abraham by the people of Canaan
among whom he dwelt. (Gen. xiv. 13.) As the first names of nations
were commonly appellatives, it is quite probable that this epithet
was applied to Abraham because he came from beyond the Euphra-
tes? meaning over or beyond; so that Hebrew meant as
much as one who belonged over the Euphrates, or came from beyond it.
This derivation agrees much better with the general fact, that the
most ancient names of nations were appellative, than the mode of ex-
plaining the appellation as a patronymic, derived from the name of
Heber the grandson of Shem.
Whatever extent of meaning was attached to the appellation He-
brew before the time of Jacob, it appears afterwards to have been
limited only to his posterity, and to be synonymous with Israelite.
St. The origin of the Hebrew language must be dated farther
back, than the period to which we can trace the appellation Hebrew.
It is plain from the history of Abraham, that wherever he sojourn*
ed, he found a language in which he could easily converse. That
Hebrew was originally the language of Palestine appears plain,
moreover, from the names of persons and places in Canaan, and from
other facts in respect to the formation of this dialect E. g. the
tout is in Hebrew which means the tea, i. e. towards the Medi-
terranean sea. As the Hebrew has no other proper word for n*#t,
so it must be evident that the language, in its distinctive and peculiar
form, must have been formed in Palestine.
That this dialect was the original language of mankind, is not es-
tablished by any historical evidence, which may not admit of some
doubt But it seems highly probable, that if the original parents of
mankind were placed in western Asia, they spoke substantially the
language which has for more than fifty centuries pervaded that coun-
try. This probability is greatly increased, by the manner in which
the book of Genesis makes use of appellatives, as applied to the an-
tediluvians ; which are nearly all explicable by Hebrew etymology,
and would probably all be so, if we had that part of the Hebrew
which is lost
3. How far back then the Hebrew dialect in its distinctive form
is to be dated, we have no sure means of ascertaining. At the time
when the Pentateuch was written, it had reached nearly, if not quite,
its highest point of culture and grammatical structure. The usual
mode of reasoning would lead us to say, therefore, that it must, for
a long time before, have been spoken and cultivated, in order to at-
tain so much regularity of structure and syntax. But reasoning on
this sobject, except from facts, is very uncertain. Many of the sav-
age tribes in our wilds possess languages, which, as to variety in com-
binations, declensions, and expression, are said to surpass the most
cultivated languages of Asia or Europe. Homer was as little em-
barrassed in respect to variety of form, combination, of structure, as
any Greek poet who followed a thousand years later. The best
pledge for the great antiquity of the Hebrew is, that there never has
been, so far as we have any knowledge, but one language substantial-
ly in western Asia; and of thje various dialects of this, the Hebrew
has the highest claims to be regarded as the most ancient.
3. Historic sketch of the Hebrew language.
1. From the time when the Pentateuch was composed until the
Babylonish exile, the language, as presented to us in the Old Testa-
ment, wears a very uniform appearance ; if we except the variety
of style, which belongs of course to different writers. This period
has been usually called the golden age of the Hebrew.
On account of this uniformity, many critics deny that the Penta-
teuch could have been composed five hundred years before the
time of David and Solomon, or eren long before the captivity. They
are willing to admit the antiquity of a few laws, and of some frag-
ments of history in Genesis and some other books. But it is against
all analogy, they aver, that a language should continue so nearly the
same, as the Hebrew of the Pentateuch and of the historical books,
for a space of time so great as this. And besides, they affirm, there
are many internal evidences of a later origin, contained in occasional
notices of later events, which could not possibly be known in the
time of Moses.
In regard to this last allegation, only a single consideration can
be here stated. It may be safely admitted, that some things were
added to the Pentateuch by writers in later times; such as a com-
pletion of the genealogy of the Edomitish princes, Geo. xxxvi; an
account of the death and burial of Moses, Deut. xxxiv; and a few
other things of a similar nature. But the other allegation, that uni-
versal analogy, in respect to other languages, renders it highly im-
probable that such uniformity in the Hebrew could have been pre-
served, so long as from the time of Moses down to that of David, or
down to the period of the captivity, we may be permitted to doubt;
for a greater philological wonder than this, which so much excites
their incredulity, can be produced.
Dr Marshman, one of the Baptist missionaries at Serampore, who
Is extensively acquainted with the Chinese language, has published a
copious grammar of it, with a translation of the works of Confucius,
which were written about 550 years before Christ, or, according to
to the Chinese, much earlier. Dr Marshman asserts, that there is
ery little difference between the style of Confucius and that of the
best Chinese writers of the present day. One commentary on his
works was written 1500 years after the text, and another still
later, which Dr Marshman consulted. He found no difference be-
tween them and the works of Confucius, except that the original
was somewhat more concise. The documents of this philologist,
gathered from Chinese records, prove that the written and spoken
language of the Chinese (nearly one fourth part of the human race)
has not varied, in any important respect, for more than 2000 years.
(Quarterly Review, May, 1811. p. 401 &c. Marshman's Chinese
Oram, in var. loc.)
In respect to seclusion from other nations, the Jews bore a very
exact resemblance to the Chinese. Like them, they had no foreign
commerce or intercourse to corrupt their language. New inventions
and improvements in the arts and sciences there were not. What
then was there to change the language ? And why should not David,
and Solomon, and others write in the same manner, substantially, as
Moses did ?
In respect to the argument, which concludes against the compo-
sition of the Pentateuch by Moses, because there are some things in
it, which, if written by him, must be admitted to be predictions ; it
can here be observed only, that if the inspiration of the Scriptures
be admitted, criticism has no right to reject it in any investigations
respecting these books; for inspiration constitutes one of the circum-
stances in which the books were composed, and cannot therefore be
omitted in the critical consideration of them, without virtually de-
nying the fact of inspiration, and conducting the investigation in an
uncritical manner.
2. (a) The second or silver age of the Hebrew, reaches from the
period of the captivity down to the time when it ceased to be a liv-
ing language. The distinguishing trait of Hebrew writings belong-
ing to this age is, that tbey approximate to the Chaldee dialect.
Nothing is more natural, than that the language of exiles, in a foreign
country for seventy years, should approximate to that of their con-
querors who held them in subjection.
To this period beldng many of the Psalms, and the whole books
of Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Zechariah,* Haggai, Malachi, Chroni-
cles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, and perhaps some others. The
books of Job and Ecclesiastes abound in Aramaeisms; and Canti-
cles exhibits a considerable number. The age of these three last
books, as also that of Jonah, Daniel, and the Pentateuch, has been
the subject of animated contest among critics on the continent of
Europe, for almost half a century.
(b) The Chaldaisms or Aramaeisms of the silver age consist,
either (1) in adopting both the form and meaning of Aramaean words;
or (2) in preserving the Hebrew form, bat assigning to it an Ara-
maean signification. (Ges. Gesch. 10. 4,5.)
(c) What is called the younger or later Hebrew is somewhat
distinct from Aramaeism. It does not consist in using foreign words,
but in a departure from the customary idiom of the older Hebrew, by
the adoption of different expressions to convey the same idea. E. g.
the early Hebrew calls the skew-bread S
the younger
Hebrew nsnsjg Oi^v
The Hebrew of the Talmud, and of the Rabbins, has a close
affinity with the later Hebrew.
(J) All the books belonging to the second age are not of the
same character in respect to idiom. The book of Job, if it be set
down to a later age, though full of Aramaeisms, in other respects is
a peculiar example of the ancient simplicity of diction. Such is the
case with many Psalms, which belong, as their contents plainly show,
to the second period. Of the other authors comprised in this period,
Jeremiah and Ezekiel merely border upon the silver age in regard
to diction. Esther, Canticles, Chronicles, and Daniel are strongly
tinctured with the characteristics of later Hebrew; and the remain-
ing later books are less strongly marked. Nearly half of the books
of Daniel and Ezra, is composed in pure Chaldee.
(e) In general, the earlier Hebrew writers are entitled to pre-
eminence in respect to their compositions, when considered merely
in a rhetorical point of view. But still, among the later class are
some of most exquisite taste and genius. Some parts of Jeremiah
have scarcely been excelled. Psalms cxxxix, xliv, Ixxxiv, lxxxv;
several of the Psalms of degrees, c$x &c; Dan. vii &c; and other
parts of later authors, are fine specimens of writing: and some of
them may challenge competition, in respect to excellence of style,
with the writings of any age or country.
A large catalogue of the later Hebrew and Aramaean words,
forms, meanings, phrases, orthography, and peculiarities of flexion
and syntax, is exhibited by Gesenius in his Geschichte der Hebr.
Sprache 10. 5. The later orthography leans to the scriptio plena,
12. 2.n.
3. The Hebrew langunge throughout, both earlier and later, ex-
hibits a twofold diction, viz. the prosaic and the poetic. Hebrew
poetry, so far as we can ascertain, never comprised any thing of the
Roman and Grecian roeasnre of long and short syllables, and the va-
rieties of verse arising from this cause. Its distinguishing character*
is tics are four; viz. a rhythmical conformation of periods or distichs;
a parallelism of the same in regard to sense or expression ; a figu-
rative, parabolic style ; and a diction peculiar to this species of com-
position. (See Lowth's Lectures oo Heb. Poetry, Lec. xviiixx. De
Wette's CommenUir Uber den Psalmen, Einleit. 7. Vogel de Dia-
iecto poetica. Ges. Heb. Lex, Theil 1. xxvxxvii. Theil II.
1335. Meyer, Hermeneutik des Alt. Test.)
The poetic diction displays itself in the choice of words, the
meaning assigned to them, and the forms which it gives them.
() The choice of words. Thus instead of D*it* man ; irilit
instead of to come ; SHVft instead of word; instead of
Dip* former time ; DiJin instead of mater.
() Meaning of words. E. g. strong, for God; 'VliJ strongs
for bull; iirrr the only, the darling, for life;
Joseph, for the na-
tion of Israel &c.
(c) Forms of words. E. g. instead of God; iilil in-
stead of to be ; instead of nations ; rhr2> instead of
' T-I *
ITS years; niJa* instead of days; ">5*3 instead of 'ja from;
instead of he will go,
(d) In poetry, several grammaticalforms are peculiar. E. g. paragog*
ic Fj_ is suffixed to nouns in the absolute state; }_ and % are suffix-
ed to nouns in regimen ; I N. suffix is used instead of D_ them, their;
- and instead of VI- his ; fem. instead of thine; j r ,
and plur. instead of D*-. .
In other respects too, poetic usage gives peculiar liberty. The
conjugations Piel and Hithpael are sometimes used intransitively;
the apocopated future stands for the common future ; the participle
is often used for the verb; and anomalies in respect to concord, el-
lipsis &c. are more frequent than in prose.
4. As the Aramaean dialect was learned by the Jews during
their captivity, and a mixture of this and the Hebrew, ever after
their return, was perhaps spoken in Palestine by the people at large ;
so it is evident, that many words of the old Hebrew, in consequence
of this, must fall into desuetude, and the meaning of them become
obscured. Of course, the later Hebrew writers were obliged t o'
avoid such words. A comparison of the books of Kings with those
of the Chronicles, where they are parallel, is fall of instruction in
respect to this subject. It will be found, that the author of the
Chronicles has introduced the later orthography and forms of words;
substituted new words for old ones; given explanations of the an-
cient text from which he drew the materials of his history ; and in-
serted grammatical glosses of the same, so as to accommodate his
style to the times in which he wrote. (Ges. Gesch. 12.)
5. There is no probability that the Hebrew language ceased,
during the captivity, to be cultivated and understood, in a good de-
gree, by those who were well educated among the Jews. The num-
ber of books already extant in it at this period ; the reverence with
which they were regarded; the care with which they were pre-
served ; all render such a supposition entirely inadmissible. Every
nation, subjected to a foreign yoke and to exile, does indeed gradual-
ly lose its own language and approximate to that of its conquerors.
Yet the Jews, who held all foreign nations in abhorrence, were less
exposed to this, than most others would be. The fact, that after the
return from exile, so many authors wrote in the Hebrew dialect, and
for public use, demonstrates that the knowledge of the language was
not generally lost, although the dialect tpoken may have been a mix-
ed one.* After the worship of God was renewed in the second tem-
ple, the ancient Hebrew Scriptures were unquestionably used in it.
In the synagogues, which appear to have been erected not long af-
ter this, the Hebrew Scriptures were always used. Even so late as
the time of the Apostles, this was the case, (Acts xv. 21) ; as it has
continued to be ever since.
How long the Hebrew was retained, both in writing and conver-
sation ; or in writing, after it ceased to be the language of conver-
sation ; it is impossible to determine. The coins stamped in the
time of the Maccabees are all the oriental monuments we have, of
the period that elapsed between the latest canonical writers and the
advent of Christ; and the inscriptions on these are in Hebrew. At
the time of the Maccabees then, Hebrew was understood, at least
as the language of books ; perhaps in some measure also among the
better informed* as the language of conversation. But soon after
* Possibly this may be doubtful. See Nehem. xiii. 23 &c. Does the
language of Ashdod here mean a dialect that was diverse from good Hebrew ?
Or does it mean merely a dialect that differed from the language then common-
ly spoken by the Jews ?
this, the dominion of the Seleucidae in Syria over the Jewish na-
tion, uniting with the former influence of the Babylonish captivity
to diffuse the Aramaean dialect among them, appears to have de-
stroyed the remains of proper Hebrew, as a living language, and to
have universally substituted, in its stead, the Hebraeo-Aramaean as
it was spoken in the time of our Saviour.
A representation very different from this has been made by the
Talmudists and Jewish grammarians; and, in following them, by a
multitude of Christian critics. This is, that the Hebrew became al-
together a dead language during the Babylonish exile ; which, say
they, is manifest from Neh. viii. 8. But as this sentiment is wholly
built on a mistaken interpretation of the verse, and as facts speak so
plainly against such an opinion, it cannot be admitted. (Ges. Gesch.
13. )
6. From the time when Hebrew ceased to be vernacular, down
to the present day, a portion of this dialect has been preserved in
the Old Testament. It has always been the subject of study among
learned Jews. Before and at the time of Christ, there were flour-
ishing Jewish academies at Jerusalem. Those of Hillel and Sham-
mai are the most celebrated. After Jerusalem was destroyed, schools
were set up in various places ; but particularly they flourished at
Tiberias, until the death of Rabbi Judah, surnamed Haqqodesh or the
Holy, the author of the Mishna, about A. D. 230. Some of his pu-
pils set up other schools in Babylonia, which became the rivals of
these. The Babylonish academies flourished until near the tenth
century. From the schools at Tiberias and in Babylonia, we have
received, the Targums, the Talmud, the Masora, and the written
vowels and accents of the Hebrew language.
The Mishna or second law, i. e. the oral traditions of the fathers,
was reduced to writing by Rabbi Judah Haqqodesh, in the beginning
of the third century, as above stated. This constitutes the text of
both the Jerusalem and Babylonish Talmuds; and though tinctured
with Aramaeism, still exhibits a style of Hebrew that is pretty
The Gemara or commentary on the Mishna is later. The Jeru-
salem Gemara belongs, perhaps, to the latter part of the third cen-
tury ; that of Babylon is about three centuries later. Both exhibit
a very corrupted state of the Hebrew language. Other Jewish writ-
ings, composed about this period, are similar as to their dialect.
The Targums, or translations of the Old Testament, are con-
fessedly Chaldee ; hot they are quite impure, if you except that of
The Masora consists of critical remarks on the text of the Old
Testament A part of it is older than the Targums; but it was not
completed, or reduced to its present form, until the eighth or ninth
century. Its contents or criticisms show, that already the substan-
tial principles of Hebrew grammar, and the -analogical structure of
the language, had been an object of particular study and attention.
7. Among Christians, during the first twelve centuries after the
apostolic age, the knowledge of Hebrew could scarcely be said to
exist Epiphanius, who before his conversion was a Jew, probably
had a knowledge of the Hebrew tongue; and perhaps Theodoret, ^
and Ephrem Syr us whose native language was Syriac, may have un-
derstood it. But among all the fathers of the Christian churches,
none have acquired any reputation for the knowledge of Hebrew,
except Origen and Jerom. In regard to the former, it is very doubt-
ful whether he possessed any thing more than a superficial knowl-
edge of i t (Ges. Gesch. 27. 1.) But Jerom spent about twenty
years in Palestine, in order to acquire a knowledge of this tongue,
and has left the fruits of his knowledge behind him, in the celebrated
translation of the Hebrew Scriptures called the Vulgate.
8. In consequence of the persecutions and vexations of the Jews
In the east, by Christians, and specially by Mohammedans, in the tenth
and eleventh centuries, their Literati emigrated to the west, and their
schools in Babylonia were destroyed. The north of Africa, but par-
ticularly Spain, and afterwards France and Germany, became places
of resort for the Jews; and here, during the eleventh and twelfth
centuries, almost all those important Jewish works in grammar and
lexicography were composed, which have been the means of pre-
serving a knowledge of tbe Hebrew language in the world, and even-
tually of rousing Christians to the study of this sacred tongue.
It was during this period, that the Kimchi's, Jarchi, Aben Ezra,
and Maimonides flourished; and somewhat later appeared Ben Ger-
son, Ben Melech, Abarbanel, Elias Levita, and others; who, by their
philological labours, prepared the way for the diffusion of Hebrew
learning over the Christian world.
9. During the dark ages, the knowledge of Hebrew appears to
have been banished from the Christian world, and to have been com-
monly regarded as a proof of heresy. Bat in the fourteenth centu-
ly, some glimmerings of light appeared. The Council at Vienna, in
A. D. 1311, ordered the establishment of Professorships of oriental
literature in the Universities. After this, slow but gradual progress
was made among Christians in the study of Hebrew, until the six-
teenth century; when the Reformation, operating with other causes,
served to increase the attention among the learned to the original
Scriptures. But as yet, the study of Hebrew was embarrassed by
many Jewish traditions and conceits, which had been propagated by
the Rabbins among their Christian pupils. Nor was it until about
the middle of the seventeenth century, that Hebrew philology made
real advances, beyond the limits by which it had as yet been circum-
^scribed. During this century, many grammars and lexicons of the
Hebrew and its cognate dialects were published, which increased the
means of investigation for future philologists. In the first part of
the succeeding century, Schultens published bis philological works,
which exhibited deeper researches into the structure and nature of
the Shemitish languages, than had hitherto appeared. The appli-
cation of the kindred dialects, specially of the Arabic, to the illustra-
tion of the Hebrew, was urged much beyond what had before been
done. Many eminent philologists were nurtured in his school at Ley-
den. The great body of critics, almost until the present time, have
followed in the path which he trod. Many of them have made an
excessive use of the Arabic language, in tracing the signification of
Hebrew words. Some of the best lexicographers, such as Eichhorn
and Michaelis, are not free from this fault
Quite recently, a new and much better method of Hebrew phi-
lology has commenced, and is advancing, in a great measure, under
the patronage and by the labours of Gesenius at Halle. A temperate
use of all the kindred dialects is allowed by this method, or rather
enjoined, in illustrating the sense of words; but the most copious illus-
trations, borrowed from the kindred languages, are those which res-
pect the forms of words, their significancy as connected with the
forms, and the syntax of the Hebrew language. There is reason to
hope, that the present age will advance greatly beyond preceding
ones in respect to a fundamental and critical knowledge of the She-
mitish languages. The noble work of De Sacy (a professor at Paris
in the school for teaching the living oriental languages) on Arabic
grammar, has prepared the way for a more fundamental knowledge
of Hebrew idiom, than has hitherto been attained. The zeal with
which oriental study is now pursued in many parts of the Christian
world, promises a rich harvest to the department of Hebrew phi-
4. Shemitish leUert or written characters.
1. The origin of letters is lost in remote antiquity. But in tracing
the history of them, we arrive at a very satisfactory degree of evi-
dence, that in hither Asia they originated among those who spoke
the Hebrew language; that they passed from them to the Greeks;
and through them to the European nations in general.
2. The ancient Shemitish alphabets may be divided into two
I. The Phenictan character. To this belong: (a) Inscriptions dis-
covered at Malta, Cyprus &c; and upon Pbenician coins. (6) Inscrip-
tions upon Hebrew coins, (c) Phenico*Egyptian inscriptions on the
bandages of mummies. (d) The Samaritan letters, (e) The most an-
cient Greek alphabet.
II. The Hebraeo-Chaldaic character. To this belong: (a) The
square character of our present Hebrew Bibles. (6) The Palmyrene
inscriptions, (e) The old Syriac or Estrangelo. (</) The old Arabic
or Kufish character, which preceded the Nishi or common charac-
ter of Arabia at the present time.
3. To all these characters it is common, that they are read from
the right to the left; and that the vowels constitute no part of the
alphabet, but are written above, in, or below the line. ' The old
Greek character is, in part, an exception to this remark.
5. Hebrew characters.
There are three kinds of characters, in which the remains of the
ancient Hebrew are presented to us ; viz.
1. The square character in common use. This is sometimes called
the Chaldee or Assyrian character, because (as the Talmud avers,
Gem. Sanh. fol. 21. c. 2) the Jews brought it from Assyria or Baby-
lon, on their return from the captivity.
2. The inscription-character. This is found on ancient Hebrew
coins, stamped under the Maccabees.
3. The Samaritan character. This is only a variety, or degener-
ate kind, of the inscription character.
4. Although it is highly probable, that the present square char-
acter was introduced among the Jews by means of the exile, yet it is
not likely, that it usurped the place of the more ancient character at
once, but came into gradual use, on account of its superior beauty,
and the tendency of the language toward what was Aramaean. It is
most probable, that the inscription-character (no. 2. supra) approxi-
mates the nearest^ of all the alphabets now known, to the ancient
Hebrew or Phenician. The square character gradually expelled
this from use among the Hebrews; as the Nishi did the Kufish
among the Arabians; the present Syria'c, the old Estrangelo among
the Syrians; or the Roman type, the old black letter among the
English. The Palmyrene inscriptions seem to mark the character
in transitu ; about one half of them resembling the square charac-
ter, and the other half the inscription-letters.
It was very natural for the Maccabees, when they stamped coins
as an independent government, to use the old characters which the
nation had used when it was free and independent.
5. The square character was the common one in the time of our
Saviour; as in Matt. v. 8, Yodh is evidently referred to, as being the
least letter of the alphabet. It is highly probable, that it was the
common character in Hebrew Mss. when the Sept. version was
made ; because the departures from the Hebrew text in that ver-
sion, so far as they have respect to the letters, can mostly be ac-
counted for, on the ground that the square character was then
usfed? and that the final letters, which vary from the medial or initial
form, were then wanting. Ges. Gesch. 66 4043.
6. Manner of writing.
1. It has commonly been advanced as an established position, that
all the ancient Greek and Hebrew Mss. are without any division of
words, i. e. are writteo continua serie. But the Eugubine tables, and
the Sigean inscriptions, have one or two points to divide words; oth-
ers, still more : which however are not used at the end of lines, nor
when the words are very closely connected in sense, as a preposi-
tion with its noun. Most of the old Greek is written without any di-
vision of words.
- qjged by 1
Most of the Phenician inscriptions are written in a similar way,
but not all. Some have the words separated by a point. In this
manner, the Samaritan, and the Keil-cbaracter among the Persians,
are separated. The Kufish or old Arabic had spaces between words.
So have all known Hebrew Mss. now extant.
2. It is probable, however, that the scriptio continua, i. e. writing
without any division of words, was found in the Mss. used by the
LXX ; because many errors, which they have committed, arise from
an incorrect division of words.
.. The synagogue-rolls of the Jews, written in imitation of the an-
cient Hebrew manuscripts, have no vowel points, but exhibit a small
space between the words. The Samaritan Pentateuch is also desti-
tute of vowels, but divides the words.
3. The final letters with a distinctive form ( 14) are not coe-
val with the alphabet. The LXX manifestly were unacquainted
with t hem; as they often divide words in a manner different from
that which would accord with these final letters. But the Talmud,
Jerom, and Epiphanius acknowledge them.
4. That there were some abridgments of words in ancient He-
brew writings is probable. The Hebrew coins exhibit them; and
all the Rabbinic writings exhibit them in abundance.
6. The Hebrews designate numbers by letters of the alphabet.
But whether they anciently wrote with cyphers also, as did the Ara-
bians, cannot with certainty be determined. Many mistakes in our
present Old Testament with regard to numbers, may be explained
on the supposition that cyphers were used; still more, however, on
the supposition that alphabetic characters were used for numbers.
6. It can hardly be supposed that the square character now in
use, and which has become uniform in consequence of appearing
only in printed books, was altogether immutable while it was trans-
mitted only by Mss. Jerom complains of the smalloess of the He-
brew characters; but whether this was owing to the scribe who
wrote his manuscript, or to the form of writing then generally used,
cannot be determined. From what Origen and Jerom both say of
the similarity and relation of Hebrew letters to each other, it ap-
pears that the characters were then essentially the same as they
now are. (Ges. Gesch. 46. 1.)
7. Hebrew Mss. exhibit two kinds of writing; viz.
(a) The Tarn letter (probably so named from Tam, a grandson of
Jarchi, about A.D. 1200,) with sharp corners and perpendicular cor-
onulae, used particularly in the synagogue-rolls of the German and
Polish Jews.
(6) The VeUhe letter; such as we see in the Hebrew Bibles of
Simonis and Van der Hooght. In Mss. however, this species of char-
acter has coronulae upon some of the letters.
8. The Spanish printed Hebrew character resembles the Velshe ;
the German, resembles the Tatn letter. The coronulae in both are
omitted. The Spanish letters are square and upright; the German,
sharp-come red and leaning. The Italian and French character is a
medium between both.
7. Hebrew vowels
1. It has been mentioned ( 1. 8 . j ) that the Shemitish languages
exhibit alphabets destitute of vdWels; and that these, when added
to the text of any book, are placed above, in, or below the line of the
consonants. The question whether the written vowels of the Hebrew
language were coeval with the consonants, or at least very ancient,
has been agitated by many critics, for three centuries past, with
great interest and much learning. On the one side it has been main-
tained, that the vowel-points are coeval with the writings of the
Old Testament, or at least with the time of Ezra; on the other,
that they are an invention of the Masorites, at some period between
the fifth and tenth centuries.
A few however have taken a middle path, and maintained that
some of the vowel-points (probably three) are very ancient; and
that in the oldest Mss. they were appended to doubtful words.
2. The position that the written vowel signs are of comparative-
ly recent date, is now considered, by all critics of any note, as settled.
The principal reasons for this opinion may be summarily stated, in
a short compass.
(a) The kindred Shemitish languages anciently had no written
vowels. The most ancient Estrangelo and Kufish characters, i. e.
the ancient characters of the Syrians and Arabians, it is generally
agreed, were destitute of vowels.* The Palmyrene, and nearly
all the Phenician inscriptions, are destitute of them. Some of
* In regard to the Kofic, it is donbtfnl whether this opinion be correct. See
de Sacy, Gram. Arab. I 73.
the Maltese inscriptions, however, and a few of the Phenician, have
marks which probably were intended as vowels. Tbe Koran"*wa
at first confessedly destitute of them. The punctuation of it occa-
sioned great dispute among Mohammedans.
In some of the older Syriac writings is found a single point, which,
by being placed in different positions with regard to words, served
as a diacritical sign. The present vowel system of tbe Syrians was
introduced so late as the time of Theophilus and Jacob of Edessa,
about A. D. 800. The Arabic vowels were adopted soon after tbe
Koran was written; but their other diacritical marks did not come
into use, until they were introduced by Ibn Mokla about A. D. 900,
together with the Nishi character now in common use.
It should be added here, that tbe inscriptions on the Hebrew
coins have no vowel-points.
(6) Jewish tradition generally admits, that the vowels were not
written until the time of Ezra.
(e) The synagogue-rolls of the Pentateuch, written with the
greatest possible care and agreeably to ancient usage as handed down
by tradition, have never had any vowel-points.
(d) The LXX most manifestly used a text destitute of vowel*
points; as they have not only departed in a multitude of instances
from the sense of the pointed text, -but even pronounce the proper
names in a manner dialectically different from that in which they
must be read, according to the vowel-system. It is possible, that in
some words they may have found a diacritical point, resembling that
in some of the older Syriac manuscripts. (Vid. supra a.)
() No explicit mention is made in the Talmud of vowel-points
or accents not even in all the disputes among the Rabbins about
the sense of words, which are there recorded. Doubtful names of
some kind of diacritical signs have been produced from the Talmud,
and repeatedly discussed ; but no definite and satisfactory proof has
been educed from them, that they respect written vowel-points.
( / ) The various readings in our Hebrew Bibles, called Qeri,
many of which are quite ancient, have no reference to the vowel*
points of words.
{g) Neither Origen, nor Jerom, makes any mention of the pres-
ent vowel-marks, or of any technical expressions of Hebrew gram*
mar. Jerom says expressly, that
t he Hebrews very rarely use
vowels in the middle of words, but pronounce (according to the will
of the reader and the difference of countries) the same words with
different sounds and accents." (Epist. 126. ad Evagr.) On Hab. iii.
6, he says of
tres literae positae sunt in Hebraeoabsque ul-
la vocaliIn other places, he speaks of a diversitas accentuum upon
words; but whether he means a difference in pronouncing them, or
that some diacritical sign was occasionally used which he thus names,
it is difficult to determine.
3. Objections against this view of the subject may be readily an-
swered. The allegation that a language cannot be read without
written vowels, is certainly unfounded ; for hundreds of Jewish vol-
umes are every day read, that were never pointed: not to mention,
that in all the Shemilish languages there are unpointed books, man-
uscripts, or inscriptions.
Nor has the objection, that an alphabet without vowels is an ab-
surdity, any more weight; for the question is merely a matter of
fact, not a discussion respecting what a perfect alphabet ought to be.
Can it be shewn, that the Shemitish or Hebrew alphabet was per-
The allegation that the Targums approximate very closely to
the sense of our present Hebrew text as furnished with vowels, is
t rue; but the inference therefrom, that the Targumists must have
used M8s. with vowel-points, does not follow. On the contrary, we
may drawr the conclusion with more probability, that the vowel-
points were conformed to the sense which the Targums gave. Both
merely convey the traditionary explications of the Jewish schools ;
and the same thing is done by Origen and Jerom in their commenta-
ries. All that can be proved by such arguments is, that the vowel-
points have faithfully transmitted to us the sense, which the Jews
very early affixed to the words of the Hebrew Scriptures.
4. Laying aside Jewish traditionary stories, the first certain marks
of our present vowel-system may be found in the Masora, compiled,
though not concluded, about the fifth century. Most of the vowels
are there named. A few of the occidental and oriental readings, collect-
ed in the eighth century and printed in some of our Hebrew Bibles,
respect the diacritical points ; e. g. two of them respect Mappiq in
He. The various readings of Ben Asher and Ben Naphthali (about*
A. D. 1034) have exclusive regard to the vowels and accents. The
Arabic version of Saadias, made about this time, is predicated upon
a pointed t ext ; and the Jewish grammarians of the ninth century
appear plainly to proceed on the ground of such a text.
The time when the vowel-system was completed cannot be defi-
nitely fixed, for want of historical data. Most probably, it was dur-
ing the sixth or seventh century. Probably too, it first began, as
the accentuation of Greek did, in the schools; and gradually spread,
on account of its utility in a dead language, into a great part of the
Hebrew manuscripts.
6. The importance of the vowel-points to learners, can be fully
estimated only by those who have studied Hebrew without and with
the use of them. In respect to their being a constituent part of the
Hebrew language, it may be observed,
() That no language can exist without vowels; although it is
not necessary that they should be written; and originally, as we
have seen, they were not written in the Hebrew.
() It is certain that the vowel-points exhibit a very consistent,
deep, and fundamental view of the structure of the Hebrew, which
cannot well be obtained without them, by those who study it as a
dead language.
(c) Comparison with the Syriac and Arabic, the latter of which
is a living language, shews that the vowel-system, as to its princi-
ples, is altogether accordant with the structure of those languages.
(d) It is quite certain, from comparing the sense of the Hebrew
Scriptures ad given in the Targums and in the version and notes of
Jerom, that the vowel-points do give us an accurate, and for the most
part clear account of the manner, in which the Jews of the first four
centuries of the Christian era understood the text of the Old Testa-
ment. Indeed, it is quite astonishing, that there should be so ex-
act a coincidence between the vowel-system and commentaries or
rather versions of so remote an age; and this only serves to shew
with how great exactness the vowel-system has been arranged,
agreeably to the ancient Jewish ideas of the sense of the Old Tes-
tament. The importance then of the written vowels, as conveying
to us a definite idea of the ancient commentary of the Jewish church,
in regard to a great number of difficult and dubious passages, is ob-
viously great.
(e) The critic and interpreter, being satisfied that the written
vowel-system is not coeval with the composition of the Hebrew
3 4
Scriptures, will not feel himself bound to follow it in cases where
it makes no sense, or a sense inconsistent with the context.
( / ) The unwary student who is betrayed into the system of Mas-
clef and Parkburst, which rejects the vowel-points of the Shemitish
languages, can scarcely conceive how much loss and disappointment
he will experience, by pursuing the study of Hebrew in this meth-
od. In a period of one year, the progress by the use of the vowel-
points is considerably greater than without them. In two years it
is doubled. Moreover, if the student uses the points from the first,
he will be able, with almost no trouble, to pass to the reading of
Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic. One thing is pretty evident; there
never was, and it may be doubted whether there ever will be, a thor-
tugh Hebrew scholar, who is ignorant of the vowel-system. The He-
brew language destitute of vowels is " without form," and is but lit-
tle removed from being " void" and having chaotic " darkness upon
it. " Seven years experience of the writer, in teaching without the
vowel-points, has brought him fully to this conclusion.
8. Hebrew accents,
1. The system of accents, as it now appears in our Hebrew Bi-
bles, is inseparably connected with the present state of the vowel-
points ; inasmuch as these points are often changed by virtue of the
accents. The latter, therefore, must have originated cotemporane*
ously with the written vowels; at least, with the completion of the
2. Respecting the design of the accents, there has been great di-
versity of opinion, and much dispute. Three uses have been assign-
ed them, viz. (a) To mark the tone-syllable of a word. (6) To
mark the interpunction. (c) To regulate the reading or cantillation
of the Scriptures. Respecting each of these topics, it will be nec-
essary to say something hereafter. (Vide 33 and App. . 19. 20.)
9. Writers useful to be read and consulted, by those who
study the Hebrew language.
The object of this section is only to give a small selection of
the older and more recent writers, who are deserving of special
/ Miscellaneous
Waltoni Prolegomena, in Bib. Polyglott.
Loescher, de Causis ling. Heb.
Morini Exercitt. de Ling, primaeva.
Exercitt. Biblicae.
Wolfii Bibliotheca He brae a.
Cappelli Critica Sacra. (Ed. Scharfenburg.)
Arcanum Punct. revelatum.
Buxtorfius, de Antiq. etc. Heb. Punct. et Vocalium.
Glassii Philol. Sacra. (Edit. Dathii et Baueri.)
Hody, de Bibliorum Textibus etc.
Schultens, de Defectibus hod. Ling. Heb.
Origines Hebraeae.
Aurivillii Dissertt. (Ed. Michaelis.)
// Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures
Carpzorii Introductio ad libros.Vet Test.
Eichhorn, Einleitung ins Alt. Test
Jahn, Einleitung ins Alt Test.
Bertholdt, Historisch*critische Einleitung etc.
Home's Introduction to the Scriptures.
Ill Lexicography
Cocceii Lex. Heb.
Simoois Lex. Heb. (Ab Eichhornio.)
Michaelis Supplem. ad Lex. Heb.
Gesenius, HebriUsch-Deutsches Worterbuch.
Heb. Lexicon, translated by J. W. Gibbs.
IV. Grammars.
Buxtorfii Gram. Heb.
Schroederi Gram. Heb.
Jahnii Gram. Heb.
Vater, Hebr&ische Spracblehre.
Gesenias, Hebr&ische Spracblehre, also Lehrgebaude &c.
Altingii Fundamenta Punct. Heb.
Storrii Observatt. ad analogiam et Syntax, ling. Heb.
Boston, Tractatus Stigmologicus.
V. On the Mss. letters, genius, history ire. of the Hebrews.
Gesenins, Geschicbte der Heb. Sprache und Schrift.
Eckhel, Doctrina Nummorum Vet Vol. iii. 421 et seq.
Bellermann, Handbuch der biblischen Lit B. i.
Kennicott, Dissertatio Generalis.
Dissertt. on the Hebrew Text 2 vol.
Prideaux's Connexions.
Lowth's Lectnres on Hebrew Poetry.
Herder, Geist der heb. Poesie.
Vogel, de Dialecto poetica Hebraest
Tychsen, Tentamen de Codd. Heb.
Bayeros, de Nummis Samaritanis.
VI. Hebrew Antiquities
Josephus' Heb. Antiquities.
Waehneri Antiquitates Heb.
Warnekros, Entwarf der heb. Alterthttmer.
Harmar's Observations. (Edit. Clarke.)
Jahn's Biblical Archaeology, translated by T. C. Upham.
Goo^l -
$ e b r e t o ^ I p i j a b e t .
ented bj
ed as
Names in
Signification of
sf e*
OX 1
V Beth r r a house 2
A .
Glml camel 3
( t b in
door 4
n h
h He
a n
i V
V Var

nail, peg 6
T z
z Z&yiD
armour 7
hh Hheth r m
hedge 8
tt t
t Tet
ser pent 9
hand 10
'h K&ph
tf e
hollow hand 20
1 1 Lamedh
I t b
13 B
m m Mem
3 1 n n If un
r f ish
s s Samekh tr iclinium

r ?
f | ph f Pe
KB . mouth
* Y
ts ts Tsadhe
r e
f ish-hook
k Qoph
r r Resh
f f lll
sh sh Shin
V ?
th th Tav w
cr oss, mark : 400
iDr iental Zttpbtibtts*
Samar. Hebrew
alphabet. coin-letter.
F V <
K 1
> - 1
T ? O J
n OI A
T i
^ .
^ / X
9* Em
L b
i Z V s
a ^
a s
0 0
2 *
0 0

0 0
2 /|4/c
D a>
P ?
c c
n * 1 9 &
. a

i s
i s

i s
3 $
1 0 . . ALPHABETS.
1. In the first column of the Hebrew alphabet, the final letters,
which are unlike the medial or initial ones, are placed on the right
hand of them. The student needs only to be told here, that the let-
ters Kaph, Mem &c. are written in two ways, according to the place
in a word, which they may happen to occupy. Comp. 14.
2. In the second column, the representatives of the Hebrew let-
ters there given, are, in general, the most common ; for which rea-
son they are retained, rather than to introduce new ones. On the
plan, however, adopted for representatives of Hebrew letters in this
grammar, viz. that every different letter, as far as our alphabet ad-
mits, should have a distinct representative, departure from the com-
mon custom is, in a few cases, a matter of necessity. The object of
this is, to enable the reader of any represented word, as extensively as
is practicable, to trace the original Hebrew letters. On this ac-
count, q is put for p, though it sounds like a hard k. So bh is made
to represent a, although it sounds as v. So and 3> are inserted
without any attempt to represent tbem, because our language does
not furnish us with the means of doing i t But as D and Id sound
alike, they can be represented in our alphabet only by *. The same
is the case with tt and PI= t. For a particular account of the sound
of each letter, see 18.
3. The learner should particularly note, that the names of the
letters, in the fourth column, are not to be pronounced according to
English analogy, but agreeably to the sounds attached to the repre-
sentatives of the Hebrew consonants, in the third column, and in
12; and to those of the vowel-points, as given in 21. E. g. JMeph
is sounded as if written aw-lef; Beth, as baith &c. The plan of pre-
serving a uniform mode of representation, has occasioned some slight
changes from the more usual mode of writing some of these letters.
When the student becomes able to compare the Hebrew column of
the names of letters, with the names as written in the Roman let-
ters, he will see the ground of all the orthographical changes which
have been made.
4. The sixth column contains the most probable meaning of the
names. About some of them there is not certaintyj and some are
left untranslated, because no particular signification has, as yet, been
rendered very probable. (See 13.)
6. The seventh column contains the value of the Hebrew letters,
used as the signs of numbers. For a more complete account of this
subject, see appendix A.
6. The alphabet on p. 39 presents the reader with a comparison
of the Hebrew, first with the Samaritan and old Hebrew coin-let-
t er ; then with the modern Syriac and Arabic letters. Comp. 12.
In the Syriac, most letters of the alphabet have a slight varia-
tion from the form here presented, when tbey stand in the middle,
or at the end of a word. In the Arabic alphabet the variation in
similar cases is, for the most part, considerably greater than in the
7. In Syriac there are only five written vowels, commonly ex-
pressed thus; viz. Petbochd (
) =^= S; Rebbotso ( * ) = e ; Hhevot-
86 (
) = i ; Zeqopho ( ' ) = o; Etsotso (
) = u. The first three
may stand above or below the line; the last two, above only. For
the same vowels, there are also more ancient marks of a different
form, used in some Mss. and printed books either exclusively or in
conjunction with the above. There is no Sheva in Syriac; and no
8. In Arabic there are only three written vowels; viz. Fatah
( ' ) s s a, e ; Kesre ( / ) = e, i ; and Dhamma ( ) = o, u. There
is no Sheva vocal; Sheva silent is written thus (
), and called Jesm.
Daghesh is written over the letter thus ( j ), and called Teshdid.
*11. Alphabet; ancient number and order of letters
1. The number of letters in the ancient Hebrew alphabet is
clearly ascertained from several poetic pieces in the Old Testa-
ment, the verses and distichs of which are arranged in alphabetic or-
der. (Ps. xxv, xxxiv, xxxvn, cxi, CXII, cxix, CXLV. Prov. xxxi. 10
&c. Lam. r, ii, HI, iv.) This number was twenty-two ;f no distinc-
tion being then made in writing between to and to.J The same was
the ancient number in the Arabic alphabet, before the Nishi charac-
ter was introduced by Ibn Mokla about A. D. 900. The same
also is the number in the Syriac, Cbaldee, and Samaritan alpha-
bets ; and very probably the old Greek alphabet, which came by
t ID PS. XXV, XXXIV, and CXLV, one letter is omi t t ed; in Pa. xxxvn, is re-
peated and y omitted.
| See alphabetic pieces, Ps. cxix. 161168. Lam. u. 21. m. 61. xv. 21,
and all the alphabetic Psalms.
Cadmus from Phenicia, also contained the same number. (See ap-
pendix B.)
2. The testimony respecting the original order of the letters is
not uniform. In Lam. II, m, IT, Ayin stands after Pe. The predom-
inant testimony favours the common arrangement. (See Ps. cxix,
cxi, cxn, CXLV. Prov. xxxi. 10 &c. Lam. i.)
* 12. Alphabet; present number of Hebrew letters
1. Before the Nishi character was introduced (cent. 10th) into
Arabic writing, the Arabians wrote only twenty-one or twenty-two
letters, but sounded twenty eight; i. e. they occasionally aspirated,
sibilated, and hardened six or seven of their letters. Afterwards,
the distinction was marked in writing by a dot over or under these
letters, and the alphabet was increased to twenty-eight characters.
(See alphabet p. 39.)
2. In the Hebr ew alphabet, ther e is commonly r eck-
oned only one letter , the pronunciation of which is distin-
guished by a dot or diacritical sign; viz. ID = sh, and to
= s. The Hebr ew alphabet, however , by means of the
pr esent diacritical signs, actually consists of twenty-nine let-
ter s. These ar e as f ollows :
Let. Repr. Sound. Let. Repr. Sound. Let. Repr. Sound
a f it

hh hh E> ph f
2 bh V D t t &
a b b h y y 2 ts ts
> gh
g D kh 'h
q k
a g g S k k r r
T dh th(har d)
1 1 a
sh sh
1 d d 2D m m to s s
n h h 3 n n n
th th
1 V V D s s n t t
T z z 9
3. There are no distinct alphabetic names for any of those letters
which are distinguished by the dot in them called Daghtsh, 28.
The diacritical sign over to St, seems to be older than the Daghesh
in the other letters. (See Jerom on Gen. ii. 23. Amos vn.)
4. In the same manner (by points above or below) seven letters
ra the Arabic alphabet are distinguished, and differently sounded.
But the letters thus affected do not correspond throughout with the
Hebrew. (See alphabet p. 39.)
In Hebrew and Arabic n, TD, and n are double, i. e. have two
sounds. In Hebrew, but not in Arabic, 3, a, 3, and & are double.
In Arabic, but not in Hebrew, n, D, 9, and X have two sounds.
The same number of letters in each language represents two
sounds; but a difference of dialect led to a different selection. The
Arabic wants Samckh, and has only twenty-eight letters.
This illustration of the Hebrew from a kindred language now
extensively spofcen, may tend to remove objections raised against the
above representation of the present Hebrew alphabet.
* 13. Alphabet; names of the letters
1. The names and forms of the letters were, for the most part,
(probably all of them,) designations of sensible objects. But resem-
blance must not be sought for in the present forms of the Hebrew
letters, except in a few instances. The old Hebrew character and
the Samaritan are obviously the best sources of comparison; and
here one may generally find satisfaction.
2. The fact that the names of the Hebrew letters originally de-
signated sensible objects, and that these names apocopated or slight-
ly changed have passed into all the cognate languages, and plainly
into the Greek itself, satisfactorily demonstrates the great antiquity
of Hebrew literature; and renders it highly probable, that the in-
vention of letters must have taken place among those who spoke
the Hebrew language.
* 14. Alphabet; final letters
1. Originally, and when the Septuagint version was made, there
were no final letters which differed from the common form. ( 6. 3.)
They appear to have been introduced after the scriptio continua was
dropped, and are now found in all Hebrew manuscripts and printed
books. They are five; viz.
Common form 3 a B S
Final form b J E) f These final
forms stand also for 500 600 700 800 900
2. A final form stands in the middle of a word, Is. ix. 6. Com-
mon forms at the end, Neh. n. 13. Job xxxvni. 1. This, it can
hardly be doubted, arose at first from mistake of the copyist, which
has been perpetuated by some superstition.
* 15. Alphabet; dilated letters*
The Hebrews do not separate a word at the end of a line, as we
do when there is not space enough for i t To fill out an empty
space in printed books, several dilated letters are commonly used ;
as Meph He j-j, Lamedh Mem t3, Tav r t, and sometimes oth-
er letters.
In manuscripts, the same expedient was often adopted; but some-
times the space at the end was filled up with a part of the next
word left unpointed; and sometimes with unmeaning letters, some
appropriate sign being added to give the reader notice. (Eich.
Einl. Th. II. s. 57. Ges. Heb. Lehrgeb. s. 10.)
16. Alphabet; unusual letters.
These are the effect of Rabbinic conceit and mysticism.
They are
(a) Literae majuseulae; as Ps. LXXX. 16.
(b) minusculae; as Gen. II. 4.
JIT * :
(c) suspensae; as Ps. LXXX. 14.
{d) inversae; as 50C2 Numb. x. 35.
According to the Rabbins, the 9 suspended in e means Christ sus-
pended; the ft minusculum in b means Abraham, which is
made out by transposition of the letters fee. Few of these are found
in our present Hebrew Bibles; it is high time they were entirely
* 17. Alphabet / distinction of similar letters.
Sever al letter s bear a gr eat resemblance to each oth-
er . These should be car ef ully compar ed, and the dif f er-
ence noted by the student, that in reading the one may
not be taken f or the other .
1. Beth 3 D Kaph
2. Gimel * 3 Nun
3. Daleth ^ Kaph
4. Daleth *7
"1 Resh
5. Vav
i Yodh
6. Vav
1 1 Nun
7. Zayin
1 Vav
8. Zayin T 1 Nun
9. Hheth H H He
10. Hheth n n Tav
11. Mem 23 Tet
12. Mem Q D Samekh
13. Tsadhe y 1V Ay in
To aid the learner, it may be proper briefly to describe the dif-
ference between these similars.
1. a is distinguished from 3, by the right angle which its perpen-
dicular side makes with the strokes at the top and bottom of the let-
t er; s is round at its corners instead of being angular. In some
printed copies, D is distinguished from a only by the roundness of its
eorner at the bottom.
2. a is distinguished from 3, by having the stroke at the bottom
united to the perpendicular only by a small point; in a, the bottom
stroke is united without any variation of its magnitude.
3. ^ final descends below the line; 1 does not.
4. 1 is distinguished from by having a right angle at the top,
at which part ^ is round or Obtuse.
5. 1 descends to the bottom of the line; > does not.
6. ) final falls below the line; 1 does not.
7. The top of T is continued a little to the right of the perpen-
dicular, while that of "l is not; the upright line of T is small at th#
top, where it inclines to the right, while it is gibbons below* which ill
not the case with 1.
4 6
8. T descends only to tbe line; f final falls below i t
9. n has no space between its left side and the top; ft exhibits
a small chasm.
10. n has a small dotted circle at the bottom of the perpendicu-
lar stroke on the left hand; n has not this mark.
11. D is open at the top; 73 at the bottom.
12. o is almost round; & final is a square or parallelogram.
13. is angular on tbe right side of it, and tbe bottom is paral-
lel with the line ; y turns to the left only. Final y, in its falling
stroke, either turns a little to the right, or falls perpendicularly.
N. 3* The student will find it altogether the easiest method of
making himself familiar with the distinctions between the Hebrew
letters, and with the respective sounds of the letters, (as also of the
vowels 21,) to practise writing them down, calling each aloud by
its name and uttering the sound of it as often as he writes it. Let
this practice be persisted in, until all the vowels and consonants can
be recognized with facility and pronounced readily ; their distinc-
tions definitely described and drawn with tbe pen at pleasure ; and
their names familiarly recalled. In this way the student learns to
write Hebrew letters and vowels, (which he should by all means do,)
and he fixes the names, forms, and sounds of all the written signs in-
delibly upon his memory.
* 18. Alphabet ; sounds of the letters
1. Preliminary remarks.
(a) All reasoning a priori, or from the analogy of the western
languages, to determine what were the sounds of the Hebrew let-
ters, must be fallacious and inconclusive. How can we decide, from
the difficulties which we find in uttering sounds attributed to He-
brew letters, that those sounds never existed; or that they never
ought to have existed ?
(b) The deep guttural sounds, and the many degrees of distinc-
tion between gutturals, in the Hebrew, as attested by Jewish tradi-
tion, are by no means impossible. For every gradation of gutturals
in Hebrew, the Arabic now spoken has nearly two. (See Arabic al-
phabet in De Sacy or Vater's Arabic grammar.) The number of
guttural gradations in any language is simply a question of fact, to
be settled by testimony, not by reasoning from analogy or a priori.
1 8 * s ounds op t h e l e t t e r s . 47
(c) The sources of testimony in regard to the sounds of the He*
brew letters are four. (1) The ancient Greek translations of the LXX,
Aqnila, Symmachus &c. and also the version of Jerom; the authors
of which have endeavoured to express the Hebrew proper names,
as they pronounced them. But here let it be cautiously remember-
ed, that the Greek and Latin alphabets were quite incompetent to
convey all the sounds of the Hebrew, even supposing the authors
themselves of the ancient versions could pronounce them rightly.
(2) The best source of testimony is the traditionary pronunciation
of the Jewish literati. Cuique in sua arte credendum est. (3) The
analogy of the kindred languages, some of which are still living, is
another source. (4) The approximation of certain letters to each
other, and the exchange of certain ones for each other, casts mutu-
al light upon both.
2. Remar ks on the* sounds of the letter s; particularly
on those which are attended with dif f iculty.
Aleph (#) is generally represented by the spirxtus Unis of the
Greeks. Jt had a feeble sound; and at the beginning of a word, it
seems to have been scarcely audible, like h in herb, homme, &c. It
resembles He (ft), but is lighter. We cannot make the nice distinc-
tion that is necessaly to separate these gradations, ft therefore is
generally treated, in practice, as destitute of any sound.
In theory, it is frequently to be considered as a vocal letter. The
Hebrews doubtless sounded it. ( 23.)
Beth (a) = bh, a sound somewhat uncertain. In general, bh is
sounded as our v. So the modern Greek sounds at the present
time, a = b; i. e. the Daghesh or point in it removes the aspirate.
(See alphabet in 12.)
Gimel (a) = gh
a sound generally considered uncertain and un-
attainable. But the Arabians in general sound it as our j , and this
seems to be the genuine sound of g soft or aspirated; but some sound
it as our g hard. (De Sacy, Gram. Ar. 31.) * = g hard as in go.
Both of these letters, by the common usage of Enrope, are sounded
as g hard.
Duleth (*l) = dh, a sound very difficult for most Europeans, but
very easy for the modern Greeks and the English, being exactly
the sound of our th in that. % = d. Common usage among Euro-
ropeans sounds both as d, on account of the difficulty of sounding dh.
He (n) *= a feeble h* as in had.
4 8 1 8 . s ounds o r t h e l e t t e r s .
Vav (*l) = v was a feeble letter, as it often coalesced with the
Towel which preceded it ( 23) or was dropped. ( 24.) Our v, as
commonly pronounced, seems to be too strong to represent i t In
Arabic it sounds as our w. Probably its Hebrew sound was near to
this; and so, like our w in grow
show, &c. it often quiesced when pre-
ceded by a vowel. ( 23.)
Zayin (T) = z or ds. In Arabic, Dsal and Ze correspond to it.
Hheth (n) = hh was in general a strong aspirate; but at the begin-
ning and end of words, the LXX have sometimes represented it sim-
ply by a vowel, or by a mere spiritus Unit.
That usage in Hebrew assigned two gradations of sound to this
letter, is probable; as very different meanings are sometimes attach-
ed to words in which n stands, that are the same in respect to
orthography. . g. to destroy, and ban to take a pledge. Usage
probably distinguished these words in pronunciation. The LXX
commonly represent n by %. The Arabians sound it in two different
ways. ( 12. 4.)
Tet (o) = t emphatic or hard, as in turn; but n, also represent-
ed in English by the letter t, sounds as t soft, i. e. less hard than 0.
Yodh ( i ) = y when a consonant; bat it is a feeble letter, being
often lost in the sound of the vowel which precedes it. ( 23.)
Kaph (D) = kh, the sound of which we cannot certainly ascertain.
Common usage sounds it as an aspirate, like the h in the French
word Mrot. In the Septuagint it is commonly represented by g,
seldom by x. S = k.
Samekh\'6) = *, but whether it most resembled the t in tay, or that
in pleasure, it is difficult to decide. In the orthography of many words
in Hebrew, D and ID are carefully distinguished; in others they are
confounded. In the Syriac and Arabic, there is but one letter for
both these. The confounding of 0 and ID is, peculiar to the later
Hebrew orthography. From these considerations it appears prob-
able, that originally there was a nice distinction in the Hebrew be-
tween these two letters, which afterwards disappeared, or was com-
monly disregarded, and never was carried into the cognate Syrian
and Arabian dialects, which were of later origin. Originally, it is
probable, fcj was an intermediate sibilant between uj and o ; as the
Shemitish languages make nearly as many degrees of sibilants, as of
aspirates. By common usage, at present, to and 0 are both sounded
as our t in say.
Jlyin (?) we do not sound: not because we suppose the Hebrews
18. s ounds o r t h e l e t t e r s . 4 9
did not; but because we think the sound was probably such that we
cannot well imitate it. Grammarians have represented this letter
byg, gh, g, ngn, git, hh, hhk, hgh fa. The Arabians have two gra-
dations of sound for it, viz. Ain and Ghain. Probably the Hebrews
may have occasionally had the same, as the LXX have translated
S*nb9 r6pOQ$a, ttty rata Sue; while in other words they have giv-
en it no sound, as 'Hti, pbtt? Sic. It is more probable
that the Ayin of the Hebrews was in general a feeble letter, like
the Arabic Ain, than that it resembled the Ghain or guttural gh of
Arabia, because: (a) It suffers contraction, as for , which no
strongly sounding letter could do. (6) It is not unfrequently ex-
changed for Aleph. (Ges. Lex. tt.) (c) In the Syriac it is often
quiescent, contracted, or dropped, {d) Among the Persians, who
have received the Arabic alphabet, it is passed over in silence.
The sound of ng or gn, which many give to it, is palpably errone-
ous, as it makes a nasal of it instead of a guttural. It is safest per-
haps to pass it over without sounding i t ; as it seems to have had
a feeble sound, not easily distinguished. Such is the practice of the
best oriental scholars of the present time.
If however the student would give an impetus to the vowel of 3>,
(like that which he would give to the second a in if be
should accent the second syllable,) he would probably approximate
as near to the proper sound of 9 as can be done at the present day.
(De Sacy, Gram. Arab. 43.) Jerom calls 9 a vowel; which
contradicts the notion of its being a strong guttural sound among the
Hebrews. (De Nomin. Heb.)
Pe (D) = ph or / . In Arabic it has only this sound. The LXX
generally represent it by q>; but sometimes by 71, as nB natrgo, &c.
B = p. The old Greeks appear to have given only this sound to
the letter.
Ttadhe (at) = ft sibilated, i. e. ts ; as Zayin properly = 1 sibi-
lated, i. e. ds. The Arabian gives two sounds to this letter. ( 12.4.)
Qoph (p) = q. The difference between this letter and 2) = k
is, that p is deeper, harder, and more guttural.
Rah (*)) = r, not the common English r, but the rolling or
French r. Hence it is often ranked in Hebrew among the guttu-
Shin (to) = $h, or * aspirated. For the sound of to, see under fc.
Tav (n) = th in think, n = U and is sounded like D, but softer.
s o 1 9 . di vi s i ons o f t h e l e t t e r s .
* 19. Alphabet; divisions of the letters
1. The letter s are divided according to the organs
used in pronouncing them.
() Gutturals n 9
() Labials 2 1 & &
(c) Dentals T 0 5 O (to)
(d) Unguals 1 h 3 D
(c) Palatals 3
13 j?
Resh ("l) approaches nearest to the guttural class (18 under
Resh) but cannot properly be called a guttural.
2. Six are called aspirates; viz. 2, 3,1, 5, D, n, ( a l s o
technically called B*gh&dh-Keph&tb,) because,
without a dot or Daghesh in them, they are aspirated*
Without Daghesh, they are also sometimes called molles
or raphatae ; but with it, durae or dagessatae. ( 29.)
3. Four are called quiescents ; viz. a, H, 1, \ (alsa
technically called tf
he-vi,) because, having a f eeble
sound, they sometimes coalesce with the vowel that pre-
cedes them, or lose their sound in that of the vowel. ( 23.)
4. To these may be added a division of f our liquids,
viz. b, 23, 3,1 (as in Gr eek,) such division being usef ul in a
grammatical tr eatise.
N. B. Of the classes of letters enumerated in the present sec-
tion, it is important for the student to impress upou his memory only
the gutturals, the aspirates, and the quiescents.
* 20. Vowels ; preliminary observations.
1. In the Greek, Latin, and present European languages, the vow-
els are written in a line with the consonants. To each of these vow-
els, however, belong several sounds, although there are no distinct
marks to designate them. Intimate acquaintance with any language
enables the reader readily to distinguish these sounds, without the
danger of erring. In the Shemitish languages, the vowels are gen-
erally written above and below the consonants. Some of them have
2 0 . t o w e l s ; p r e l i mi n a r y o b s e r v a t i o n s .
only three vowel marks, as the Arabic ( 11.8) and the Sabaean; the
Syriac has five ( 11.7); the Ethiopic seven, vfrhich are united with the
consonants; and the Hebrew ten, or if yo.u number the Shev an, fourteen.
2. No language possesses so many distinct vowel signs as the He-
brew now exhibits. The reason of this may be traced to the anxie-
ty of the Hebrew grammarians or Rabbins, to perpetuate the nice
distinctions of the ancient pronunciation, which had been tradition-
ally handed down to them. No living language needs so many vow-
*1 signs; and none probably ever had so many.
3. In Hebr ew, as in Ar abic, ther e are only thr ee clas-
hes of vowels. These have a near relation to each other ,
and ar e of ten commuted f or each other .
NOTE 1. Before the present vowel marks were added to the He-
brew text, three of the quieseents (n. 2 infra) viz. K, % and i were
used in many cases as the signs of vowels; for these letters being
feeble easily coalesced with the preceding homogeneous vowels, and
might therefore be made to stand for them. In the unpointed man-
uscripts of the Hebrew, and in the dialects where no vowels are
written, these three letters are frequently inserted in the text, mere-
ly for the sake of designating a vowel. The fact that only three
letters were thus used, serves to confirm the statement made above,
that there are only three classes of vowels. The letters tt, i,
in reference to this use, are called vowel-letters, in distinction from
vowel-points. Commonly, by the older grammarians, they are cal-
led matres leetionis; which means, that they produce or direct the
right reading of the text. (Comp. 24.)
NOTE 2. The four letters n
1, and i are all called quiescents
( 23) because they frequently quiesce in the preceding vowel. But
only three of them, viz. n, 1, and are Trowel-letters or matres lectio-
is. The technical terras Ehevi and quiescents are synonymous, and
either of them comprehends fit, it, 1, % i. e. "WN. So the terms vow-
el-letters and matres leetionis are synonymous^ and either means
1, % ( 19. 3. 23.) In the following pages sometimes the one
designation is used, and sometimes the other, as is most convenient.
4. A great part of all the Arabic and Persian and nearly all
the Syriac and modern Hebrew books, are written without any
vowel-points; yet the habit of reading them makes it easy to read
them with rapidity, as every day's experience demonstrates.
52 2 1 . v o we l s ; names, c l a s s e s , e t c *
21. Vowels ; names, classification, quantity, sound.
tThe f ollowing table exhibits all these in a connected
= a in all
/ . Class: A sound, corresponding vowel-letter ().

MQ, B, n o
a . 1353
^ $
n i
a , taa
yajj Qamets
n n | Psttshh long
Pattahh short
VlJD Sf ghol long
Seghdl short
Rep. by
= a in father
= o in man
SB= a in hate
= a in climate
// C&m; E and I sound, corresponding vowel-letter f ) .
Tser i
Seghdl long
Seghol short
pTh Hhlrgq magnum
HhirSq parvwn
*13, &, DB
*B, B, r m
B, I B
2 , DB
= at in gain
= at in gam ,
= c in mat
= i in machine
= t in om
/ / / C/a*$ ; O am? 17 sound, corresponding vowel-letter (1).
oVlr i HholSm
Cjcpn yt 3p QftmCttHbftUph
p")/! ShurSq
QYbbuts long
QJbbuts short
to, B, d b
KB, b , d b
s s
= o in go
= o in not
= oo in moon
= oo in moon
= u in /utf

f i
f l . Id the second column, which exhibits the forms of the vow-
els, the letters 73, tt, N, n, % " are employed merely for the sake of
showing the learner how the vowels are placed in respect to the vo-
cal consonants and quiescents; whether above, below, or in them.
The vowel marks here exhibited are also used with all the other
letters of the alphabet, in a manner corresponding to their position
1*2. In learning the sounds of the vowels, the student
must divest himself , at the outset, of the habit of . giving
English sounds to the r epr esentatives of the Hebr ew vow-
3. Usual mode of representing the classification and quantity of the
vowels. The common division of the vowels, in most Hebrew gram-
mars, is into long and short. According to them, Qamets, Tseri,
Hhireq magnum, Hholem, and Sbareq are long; Pattabh, Seghol,
Hhireq parvum, Qamets Hhateph, and Qibbuts are short. This
division is very incorrect in itself, (inasmuch as some of the short
vowels are often lone:,) and embarrasses the student exceedingly in
learning the fundamental principles of the vowel-changes. The
facts, that the commutations of the vowels are confined to those of
the same classes; that in analogy with three classes there are three
composite Shevas corresponding to them ; that there are three vowel
Utters ( 20.3. n. 1); and especially that the Arabic even at the present
time contains but three vowels, seem to establish the propriety of
the division here made, beyond reasonable controversy. The older
Jewish grammarians made a triplex division; it is the more modern
ones (and with them Christian grammarians) who have divided the
vowels into long and short. Geseniqs has revived the old division,
has supported it by such evidence of its propriety, and has met with
such general approbation in respect to it, that it will, in all prob-
ability, be universally adopted.
Theory of the long and short vowels, ,
The explanation of certain terms applied to the vowels is in the
first place requisite, in order to facilitate the right understanding
of this subject.
54 2 1 . v o we l s 5 c l a s s U q u a n t i t y , e t c .
Pure and impure vowels,
t4. Vowels ar e either pure or impure. A pure vow-
el is one with which no consonant-sound is intermixed, or
with which no consonant-sound coalesces. An impure vow-
el is one with which a consonant-sound is intermixed, or
with which a consonant-sound coalesces.
. g. in s the Qamets is pure, being succeeded by no consonant
which affects it by adding to its length or by coalescing with it.
But in tta, the sound of the N coalesces with that of the Qamets and
lengthens it ( 23), so that the Qamets is here impure. So in !j*na
ba-rekh, (which is so written instead of tj'na bar-rekh, the analogous
form with Resh doubled 46. 1,) the Qamets is impure, because
the letter omitted goes into the preceding vowel and lengthens it, so
as to make a Qamets out of the Pattahh which the analogous form
would have ; for in ^na only one Resh is contained, but in there
are two. ( 29. 1.)
t5. All cases of impure vowels may be tr aced to the
intermixture of consonant-sounds with them; i. e. to the co-
alescence of consonants with them.
With the principle in view which has just been exhibited in
this explanation, the theory of long and short vowels in Hebrew may
be easily understood.
I. Class of vowels.
f 6. Qamets is always long; but not always equally
so. Qamets impure is longer than Qamets pure.
E. g. a is Monger than a ; than 73 ; and in -f^a (for ^ a )
the Qamets in a , having virtually in it a coalescent Resh ( 23), is
longer than the same vowel in i aa where it is pure. But the student
in Hebrew cannot always distinguish the qua nt i t y of Qamets by its ap-
pearance, as the quiescents and coalescing consonants which prolong it
are often omitted in writing ( 24,46). Thus OJ5 is commonly written
instead of DNj? ; and so in a multitude of cases where Qamets is impure,
it is written in the same manner as if it were pure. So also in regard
to the mode of writing when other consonants besides the quiescents
2 1 . v o w e l s ; c l a s s i . q u a n t i t y , e t c . 5 5
coalesce with it, and are omitted in writing. E. g. in -jna the Qamets
appears to be pure, but is really impure, because it is protracted by
a coalescent Resh, as has been sufficiently exemplified above.
But in ^"12 ba-rakh, where the Qamets has the same appear-
ance, it is pure, because it is affected by no succeeding consonant
coalescing with it. Some knowledge of Hebrew forms is there-
fore necessary, before the student can, in many cases, apply the
theory of quantity to the vowels with any good degree of certain-
ty. This observation will apply to most of the other vowels, as well
as to the one in question.
t7. P&tt&hh is long only and always when it is impure.
E. g. in kq-r&th) in tin m& &c. it is protracted, because the
quiescent which follows coalesces with it ( 23). So in bns bd-hel
(so written instead of the analogous form b^ra bah-hcl) Pattahh is pro-
longed by the coalescent n, which is omitted in the writing ( 45).
What is the relative quantity of Pattahh impure and Qamets pure or
impure, we possess no adequate means of ascertaining.
The student will perceive, that the same difficulties attend the
business of ascertaining the quantity of Pattahh, as of Qamets. E.
g. in ^fia and in i n s , the Pattahh in the first syllable of each ap-
pears to be of the same length : but in the first case it is impure, and
therefore long; in the second it is purp, and therefore short. This
difficulty, as in the case above, can be overcome only by a knowl-
edge of what belongs to the different Hebrew forms.
t8. Patt&hh is short in all c^ses whor e it is pure,
whether in a simple or mixed syllable.*
E. g. in *mD pa-hhddh, it is short in both syllables; for in the
first it is pure, having no consonant-sound mixed with it to protract
i t ; in the second, the sound of the consonant 1 which follows is heard
after the Pattahh, and does not at all coalesce with it.
In all mixed syllables destitute of quiesc nt letters, Pattahh is
of course short, and the student can in general easily distinguish it.
In simple syllables it may be long or short, accordingly as it is pure
or impure. But to judge of this, a knowledge of Hebrew forms
is of course necessary. In respect to the mode of writing merely,
. A simple syllable Is one which ends with a vowel or a quiescent; a mixed
stllablo is one which ends with a vocal or moveable consonant ( 33. 4. note*).
5 6 2 1 . v o w e l s ; c l a s s i i . q u a n t i t y , e t c .
(not of real quantity,) Pattahh in simple syllables may be regard-
ed as a doubtful vowel; as are a, *, v in Greek.
t9. Seghdl is long only and always when it is impure.
E. g.- before quiescent tt, as in tim-tsS-nd; or before
as go-li; or before *% as ge. So when a coalesce at con-
sonant is omitted; as in D^nSl hi-ha^rim, the 5 in the article be-
ing omitted ( 35. 1. 1. 2), the Seghol, which in this case is put for
Qamets ( 60. 1), is therefore protracted ( 46), i. e. is long.
tlO. Seghol is short when pure, or when in a mixed
Seghol in a timple syllable, like Pattahh, may be either pure or
impure, aod therefore short or long. Simple syllables, consequent-
ly, in which Seghol is employed, are of doubtful quantity in respect
to their appearance, but not doubtful in reality. A proper knowl-
edge of Hebrew :orms enables the student easily to decide, whether
they are long or short. E. g. in Seghol is in a simple syllable,
but is impure and long, as is shewn above. But in ^23, the syllable 73
is short, because Seghol is pure. As a proof of this, it is enough to
suggest, that a pause-accent falling on 73 lengthens it into 73; e. g.
*^73, in pause So before Hbateph Seghol (:), Seghol is
short; e. g. nb-hephakh, written for or JSJia. As to
Seghol in all mixed syllables, there can be no doubt that it is short
II. Clat of vowel*.
t i l . Tser i is always long; but, like Qamets, Tser i
impure is longer than Tser i pure, and f or the same reason.
E. g. in arc* ye-thebh (so written instead of a p ^ ) the * is impure
because the Yodh which follows quiesces in it, i. e. coalesces with it
( 23. 2). Whether this quiescent Yodh be written down or omitted,
makes no difference in the quantity of the Tseri ( 24). But in
the other syllable a$, the Tseri is pure and less, protracted, be-
cause the following consonant-sound does not coalesce with it, but is
heard after the vowel-sound. So in be-rekh, (thus written in-
stead of the analogous form 46,) the a is long and impure, be-
cause a coalescent Resh is contained in the vowel; but in ^ Tseri
is long and pure, because no consooant sound is contaioed in it.
2 1 . v o w i l s ; c l a s s i i . q u a n t i t y , k t c . 57
As Tseri pare and Tseri impure assume, in writing, the same
form in numberless instances, (the quiescent which follows Tseri
impure being often omitted, and no signs of other coalescent letters
being written,) it needs, as in the cases above, a knowledge of He-
brew forms to distinguish between the two kinds of this vowel.
1*12. Seghol impure is long. Seghol pure is short,
whether in a simple or mixed syllable.
E. g. in 'JpBS kap-pi-kha, also written Seghol is impure and
long; but in hhi-lidh, yl-h
phakh, it is short. The diffi-
culty of distinguishing the quantity, when Seghol stands in a simple
syllable, is the same as mentioned in treating above of Seghol as be-
longing to the first class of vowels.
1*13. Hhlr &j magnum is always impure and long,
whether in a simple or mixed syllable.
E. g. in tsad-di-qim, (which may be written
or OpTC 24,) it is long and impure. So in ia>s 6t-*er, put for the
analogous form "v^s it is long and impure, because it con*
tains the coalescent y.
tl 4. Hhlr gq parvum is always pur e and short, wheth-
er in a simple or mixed syllable.
For the most part, there is no difficulty in determining when
Hhireq is parmun. But as the quiescents are not unfrequently omit-
ted in writing, the appearance of Hhireq is sometimes doubtful in
respect to quantity. E. g. in ad ck-rim (for Hhireq
in the syllable t n , so far as appearance is concerned, might be judged
to be paroum^ while in fact it is impure and long; and so in many
other cases. To distinguish the true quantity and nature of Hhireq,
when its appearance is thus doubtful, requires a knowledge of He-
brew forms.
There is one case where Hhireq appears to be pure, and which
I do not find particularly noticed by any of the grammarians. It is
in forms of the apocopated future of verbs ffc (123. d). E. g.
ghtL, for yigh-li ; vay-yi-ghil, for vdy-yigh-lS ; where I
take the Hhireq to be short and pure. 1 infer thdl it is short, be-
cause, when protracted, it is exchanged for Tseri, as vay-ye-rd.
68 2 1 . v o we l s ; c l a s s i i i . q u a n t i t y , e t c .
vdt-te-ghil fee. It is pure, because no consonant coalesces with
it. Its analogy with Pattahh in a similar situation, would seem to
establish the position that it is short; for Pattahh is clearly so. . g.
btVI vdy-ya-hhal for flbfl'Oi in pause vay-ya-hhdl; i. e. the
Pattahh in pause is lengthened into Qamets, and therefore must be
pure and short.
NOTE. In writing, short Hbireq regularly admits no quiescent af-
ter it. Nevertheless, in the later Hebrew of the Old Testament, a
Yodh is sometimes found in syllables that are short. E. g. 1 Chron.
12:1,20, tstq-lagh, which in 1 Sam. 30:1 is written aVpat. The
method of writing short Hhireq with a Yodh after it, prevails in
Chaldee and Rabbinic. The Yodh in such cases is a mere fulcrum,
and not a real quiescent. ( 24. 4.)
III. Class of vowels.
f l 5. Hholem is always long; but, like Qamets and
Tser i, Hholem impure is longer than Hholem pur e, and
f or the same reason.
E. g. in Vip niVj? qo-ldih &c. it is long and impure. In VB
Jfcd/, yiq-tol &c. it is long and pure, as no consonant-sound coa-
lesces with it.
The difficulty of distinguishing between Hholem pure and im-
pure, is the same as in the case of the preceding vowels. In rribp
and the syllable p appears to be the same; but in the for-
mer it is impure, as it stands for ^p ; while in the latter it is pure, be-
cause no consonant coalesces with it. Of course, an acquaintance
with Hebrew forms is necessary, in order to distinguish between the
NOTE. Hholem pure is sometimes irregularly written over a
Vav; e. g. ViCj?*. But this is unfrequent, and belongs rather to the
later Hebrew. In such cases the Vav is not a real quiescent, (for
then it would make the Hholem impure,) but merely an orthograph-
ical fulcrum. ( 24. 4.)
tl6. Qamets Hhateph is always short, whether in a
simple or mixed syllable.
E. g. o-hlo, vdy-ya*r&bh.
2 1 . v o w e l s ; c l a s s h i . q u a n t i t y , e t c . 5 9
tl 7. Shurgq is always impure and long, being wr itten
only and always in a quiescent (i. e. coalescent) Vav.
E. g. Dip qum.
1*18. QTbbuts when impure is long, and in almost ever y
case wher e it is so, it stands f or Shur eq.
E. g. yd-qii~tnu instead or w p * ; bOj? qd-t&l instead of bl Bp.
The reason why Qibbuts is put for Shureq is, that in cases where
the Vav belonging to the Shureq is omitted, it is necessary to omit
the Shareq also, as it can be written only in the Vav. It becomes
necessary, therefore, in such cases, to designate the vowel belong-
ing to the syllable in some other way; and this is done by writing it
with a Qibbuts. In almost all cases where Qibbuts is in a simple
syllable, it stands for Shureq. But where it is in a mixed syllable
(e. g. ^Bp) a knowledge of the nature of forms is necessary, in order
to distinguish it from short Qibbuts.
Besides the use of long Qibbuts as a substitute for Shureq, it is
sometimes used as long and impure, where no Shureq can be plac-
ed. E. g. pii-rd ; flttna nu-kha-ma, for rtttn 3 nuhk-hhorma.
Bat this is very uncommon.
tl9. Qibbuts is short, when pure and in a mixed syl-
But it may stand in a mixed syllable and be impure and long,
as has just been observed. It is its being pure, which determines
its shortness.
NOTE. AS Qibbats long is sometimes written for Shareq, as is said
above, so Shareq, in a few instances of the later Hebrew, is writ-
ten for Qibbuts short. E. g. hhuq-qe instead of 'jsn; " t wa
ma-yuz-zi instead of **973. This method of writing short a is borrow-
ed from the Aramaean orthography. The * in these cases cannot
be considered in the light of a common i , which makes a sylla-
ble long and i mpare; but the 1 is a mere fulcrum (24. 4), or * is
substituted for Qibbuts short.
t20. General remarks on the comparative length of the
vowels, TheE class of vowels is loiter compar atively than
the I class; the O class logger than the U class. Hence
6 0 $ 2 1 . v o we l s ; q u a n t i t y , s ounds , e t c .
the shortening of the E class into the I class; and of the O
class into the U class; and vice versa, .the lengthening of
the shor ter into the longer . A due attention to this gen-
er al principle, will ser ve to explain many appear ances in
the mutations of the vowels. (Vide inf ra 22.)
t21. General Summary.
Qamets,Tser i,and Hholem are always long; but lon-
ger when impure than when pure.
Hhir eq magnum and Shur eq ar e always impure and
Pattahh, Seghol, and Qibbuts may stand in a simple
or mixed syllable, and may be impure and long, or pure
and short*
Hhir eq parvum and Qamets Hhateph may stand in a
simple or mixed syllable, but they ar e always pure and
shor t
Pattahh and Seghol in simple syllables ar e of doubtf ul
appearance in r espect to quantity.
Qibbuts in a simple syllable is long, but in a mixed
syllable is doubtf ul.
t22. The pure vowels of ever y kind ar e mutable.
The long pure vowels may be shor tened, and the shor t pure
vowels may be lengthened, i. e. they may be (and of ten ar e)
commuted f or each other , in consequence of the inf lections
and other changes of words. ( 51, 52 &c.) But the
commutation of short and long vowels for each other is con-
fined, nearly without exception, to the classes to which they re-
spectively belong. While this f act justif ies the above classi-
f ication, it also shews the importance of it to the student.
t23. Sounds of the vowels. The names of the vowels
ar e pr obably signif icant. (See app. C.) It is impossible,
however , to conclude with cer tainty that we have attain-
2 $ . t o w e l s ; o r t h o g r a p h y .
6 1
ed the r ight pronunciation of them, f rom investigating
the signif icancy of these names, or in any other manner.
The pronunciation of any one of the ancient Gr eek and
Latin translators, as exhibited by the pr oper names of Scr ip-
tur e, is so much at variance with itself and with other s,
as to elude all ef f or t to educe f rom it a unif orm system.
The traditionary pronunciation of the Jewish liter ati, the
gener al analogy of the European and oriental languages,
and the vowels of the Ar abic a Living cognate language,
ar e the principal guides in the assignment of the sounds in
the table.
4. The agreement is pretty general among Hebrew scholars,
in regard to the sound of all the vowels, excepting Qamets. The Ger-
mans and some others sound this as a in father. Bat the pronunciation
of the Jews in most of Earope', and (if 1 am rightly informed) in Pal-
estine, the general voice of the Rabbins, and the testimony of the
Masorites, are in favour of giving to it the sound of a in all. The
figure ( , ) stands also for short o: does not this indicate a supposed
approximation in the Qamefe-sound to the sound of o ? This approx-
imation it manifest, when we sound Qamets as a in all.
* 22. Vowels ; orthography
1. By the table in 21, it may be seen that the vow-
els ar e all written under the line, except Hholem (_L_ i )
and Shureq 0).
Bat Qamett is written in the bosom of a Kaph final, as ^ (comp.
26.2. a); which is merely a matter of convenience and calligraphy.
2. In very many cases, the quiescents, which by coalescing with
the vowels make them impure (21.4), are omitted; although in other
cases of the same kind they are inserted. This was occasioned by
the unsettled state of orthography among the Hebrews. In ether
cases, as was shewn in the last section, 1 and are inserted in a
few instances after pure or short vowels, where they do not proper-
ly belong. This resulted from the influence of orthography in the
kindred dialects, and from its unsettled state among the Hebrews.
( 24.)
3. The manner of writing Hholem over the letter is in some
cases peculiar. (1) The point over V serves as the diacritical
point of the letter, and as the vowel Hholem for the preceding let*
ter, if such letter have no other vowel point; as mpa tnd-shS. (2)
The point over tD serves as a diacritical point, and for a Hholem to
this same letter, if it have no other vowel-point; as H2ia so-n. (3)
With two points () this letter is read sho when it has no other vow-
el, the left hand point being a Hholem for the tt); as ugi j sho-mbr.
When the preceding letter has no other vowel, & is read os; as
&&V yir-pos, where the right point of the & serves as a Hholem
for the preceding letter &, which is destitute of any other vowel.
The examples are subjoined in one view, for the convenience
of the student.
!TpE md'thi *153 shd-mer
ilJiZ) so-nS ibB-p ytr-pot.
4. If Vav have a Hholem over it, and also a vowel of its own
the Hholem belongs to the preceding letter, and Vav retains its con-
sonant-sound. E. g. ftjb lo-ve, r n r r ythd-vd.
* 23. Vowels ; coalescence of the or quiescent letters, and also of
the gutturals Sf-c. (Comp. 46, 47.)
I. Quiescent*.
1. These letter s, having a f eeble sound, of ten lose
themselves or coalesce in the preceding vowel. ( 19. 3.)
E. g. in a s bd, we say Aleph is quiescent in Qamets, or coales-
ces with it, because the sound of it cannot be heard as distinct from
the vowel ( T ) Qamets.
2. The quiescents commonly (not always) coalesce
with the preceding homogeneous vowel. (Vide inf ra 4. 6.)
The vowels are said to be homogeneous, when they are adapted to
produce this coalescence; when they are not adapted to produce
it, they are said to be heterogeneous.
In gener al, f it, 1, and \ when pr eceded by any of the
class of vowels of which they are r espectively the corres-
ponding vowel-letter ( 21.1), quiesce as in the table below.
But Aleph (f it) is so f eeble a sound, that it quiesceS in
all the other vowels, except Shureq and Qamets Hhateph.
He (n) never quiesces except at the end of a wor d;
and then in vowels of dif f er ent classes.
Aleph (f it) in Qamets ( *) 6*3 ba. Class I.
- Pattahh ( - ) nf inpb llq-r&th.
- Seghol ( v ) tim-tse-na.
- Tser i () le-mor. Class II.
- Hhir eq ( ~) "j'lDf iO r i-shoa
- Hholem () bor. Class III.
- Qibbuts (...) HIKS pu-ra.
' % *
Yodh 0 ) in Hhir eq () ^ din. Class II.
- Tser i () bea
- Seghol ( v ) ge.
Vav 0 ) in Hholem () ^1p qol. Class III.
- Shur eq (*l) D^p qum.
He (n) in Qamets ( * ) ga-la. Class I.
- Pattahh ( - ) m&
- Seghol ( v ) go-le.
- Tser i () pf o gele. Class II.
- Hholem () ga-lo. Class III.
In English we have a multitude of cases similar to these. E. g.
low, show &c. with w quiescent; toy, day &c. with y quiescent. Al-
most every letter in oar alphabet is, in some, situations, quiescent be*
fore or after some other letter.
NOTE. ID regard to the quiescence of 1 in Hholem and Sbureq, the
beginner in Hebrew may be at a loss to see how this can take place,
inasmuch as the Shureq (and perhaps the Hholem) appears to be put
after the 1, rather than before it. But this is merely appearance,
and belongs simply to the convenience of writing. *p is the same as
if it were written Tp; and i p = I'p. The whole difficulty is mere-
ly orthographic.
3. The sound of any one of the Ehevi when quiescent
is not lost; but, coalescing with the preceding vowel, it
lengthens that vowel; i. e. the vowel in which the Ehevi
quiesce, becomes of course longer. Long vowels by this co-
alescence become more pr otr acted, and shor t ones become
long. ( 21. 4, 6.)
4. One simple rule enables the lear ner to distinguish
all the cases, in which the Ehevi quiesce; viz. When-
ever a vowel or a Sheva belongs to them, they are moveable ;*
otherwise, they coalesce and are quiescent.
Of course, they are always moveable or r etain their
consonant power ,
() When they begin a syllable: whether they have a
vowel belonging to them, as ")!DN t Ka-m&r, DH hem, iV*
ya-l&dh, iVl ve-ledh; or a Sheva, as TSlV yel&m-medh,
f ct
m&r .
- ; v
() When they end a syllable, if they have a Sheva unr
der them: as ibf iO y&-sor, nh-p&kh, sha-
l&v-tl, v&y-yd-mSr the same as (29.1.)
In the case h then, aithough the towel preceding may be homogene-
ous, the vowel-letters do not quiesce. In fact, the Sheva in such cases is
put under them, to show that they are exempted from the general
rule of quiescence.
* A moveable tetter is one which is pronounced or sounded hy itself. The
term moveable is used as the opposite of quiescent.
t We do not sound Aleph (i 18. 2), but the Hebrews did in such cases.
5. The quiescents, pr eceded by heterogeneous vowels,
remain moveable consonants: as ID tav, qav, "bjD sha-
lev, IT ziv, hh&y, Ndho-n&y, ^ goy, gSrluy
or *^3 ga-lf iy.
6. Sometimes the Ehevi do not contribute at all to
modif y the sound of a wor d; i. e. they ar e neither em-
ployed as consonants, nor used as quiescents to lengthen the
pr ecedii^; vowel (supr a 3), but are employed simply f or
the sake of or thogr aphy. They ar e then said to be in
otio, This happens in the f ollowing cases.
(a) When a Sheva precedes them, as Mian hhet. Hal.
(b) Or a quiescent letter, niO^q he-bte-thd.
(c) Or Daghesh forte ( 29) follows, mdz-zi =
(d) Yodh is in otio, when preceded by (*)and followed by the
suffix pronoun 1 ku at the end of a word ; as <Ubha-rav, hi$
In English, compare u in honour, a in hear iic.
11, Coalescence of the gutturals, Resh SfC. with the vowels.
7. As the gutturals and Resh scar cely ever admit of
reduplication ( 45), on account of the harshness of sound
which this would produce ; in those cases, wher e by the
gener al analogy of the language the guttur als ought to
be wr itten double, i. e. to have a Daghesh in them ( 45),
this Daghesh, L e. the f ir st of the two guttural letter s
( 29.1.) is omitted, and the letter which is thus omitted in
writing coalesces with the preceding vowel and lengthens
it, as a compensation f or its omission. ( 46.)
E. g. ha-txa-rZts instead of f *3*n hdtt-ttd-rfts ; yc-
ttd-i2r instead of -iJMO yiN-Nd-mfr; Vil? bd-hel with Pattahli long
and impure ( 21.7) instead of bna bdh-hel; fn-hei with Hbireq
long and impure (21. 13) instead of Vrtt bih-h2l; t mej tod-hhim
with Pattahh long and impure instead of ipng ttahh-hhim ; ana ni-
hham with Hhireq long and impure instead of fina nXhh-hkam ;
ba-Ser instead of ba$-9er / tjy mc-yim instead of tJSja mir-ytm ;
be-rekh instead of ^ 2 bxr-rekh; *jna ba-rckh instead of ^ 5 bar-
rikh &c. (Comp. 45, 46.) So also in respect to any other let-
ters, when they ought by analogy to be doubled, but the Daghesh is
omitted. E. g. vd-yehi with Pattahh long and impure instead
of vdy-ythi with Yodh doubled and Pattahh short. But such
cases are not frequent, except with the gutturals, Resh, and Yodh
with Sheva.
8. The ef f ect produced on the vowels which pr ecede
the coalescent gutturals, Resh,.or other letter s, when by
analogy these letter s would be doubled, is the same as that
produced on them by the quiescents, i. e. they are length-
ened. In other words, ther e is a real addition to the pre-
ceding vowel-6ound. This vowel-sound, mor eover , is ren-
der ed impure and immutable by the coalescence of the
guttur als &c. with it, in the same manner as it is by the
union of one of the quiescents.
These facts are amply sufficient to justify the ranking of the qui-
escents and the coalescent gutturals, Resh, or other letters where
the doubling is omitted, under the same category. In this way, the
student comes at the very outset, to a fundamental knowledge of all
the causes which make any vowels in the Hebrew language impure
and immutable. The whole lies within a very narrow compass, viz.
that the homogeneous quiescents remit their sound to the preceding vowel,
coalesce with it, lengthen it, and by their mixture with it render it impure
and immutable. So also the gutturals, Resh, and occasionally some other
letters when they should by analogy be doubled, remit the sound of the first
letter to the preceding vowel, and affect it in a similar manner.
It should be well noted by the student, that the gutturals, Resh
&c. are the subjects of such a coalescence, and produce such an ef-
fect then, and only then, when by analogy they would be doubled;
and that it is the first of the two gutturals kc. in such cases, which
coalesces with the preceding vowel; i. e. it is that letter which
would be designated by the Daghesh, if the Daghesh were inserted
24. Vowels ; orthography in connexion with voweUletters and
]. As the vowel-letter s, when quiescent, do not es-
sentially change the sound of words or syllables, but mer e-
ly prolong the preceding vowel ( 23. 3), a gr eat var iety
of orthography in r espect to them has arisen in the He-
br ew language. They are sometimes inserted, and some-
times emitted, in cases wher e they regularly belong to a
wor d; and in some other cases, they are inserted as f ul-
cr a (inf ra 4) wher e they do not belong. (Vide 21. 14
note, 15 note, 19 note.)
2. When they are inserted as quiescents, the vowel
in which they quiesce is said to be fully written ; as
qd-tel, wher e the Hholem is fully written.
When they r eally belong to a word, but ar e omitted,
the vowel is said to be defectively written ; as ^t?jp qd-tel.
3. Wor ds to which the Ehevi essentially belong, are
of ten wr itten both fully and defectively.
Fully. Defectively.
03 , ntr.
C173S DOS kdrm&s.

Tbe pronunciation remains the same in both cases.
4. Use of Jvkra. Wor ds to which the vowel-letter s do
not essentially belong, are sometimes wr itten with them.
n&b? more properly ntob? y&modh.
inb sd-bhibh.
^Jin ""jgn hhuq-qi.
In all these cases, the Vav or Yodh is a mere fulcrum or ortho-
graphic support of the vowel, and contributes nothing either to its
leogth, or to determine its mutability. (Comp. 21. 14 note, 16
note, 19 note.) But to distinguish such cases from those where
6 8
Vav and Yodb are real qniescents, a knowledge of Hebrew forms and
the nature of the vowels is necessary.
5. Vav and Yodh occasion almost all the irregularities spoken of
in this section. Aleph is seldom omitted where it is regularly re-
quired ; and still more seldom inserted where it does not belong.
In general, He is exempted from the irregularity in question.
6. The qaiescents are less frequently inserted in the earlier He-
brew Scriptures, and more so in the later ones. In Samuel we have
YH Da-vidh, in Chron. T' n. In all parts of the Hebrew Scriptures,
however, there reigns a variety in regard to the insertion of the
matres Uctionis, which seems to have resulted from the unsettled
state of the Hebrew orthography. Thus we have Ttf
all pronounced haqi-ino-thi, and differing only ortho-
graphically in respect to the insertion or omission of 1 and "* quies-
* 25. Vowels ; Qamets Hhateph
The f igur e ( , ) is employed to designate shor to( 21),
as well as the long vowel Qamets == a. It is impor-
tant that the student of Hebr ew should be dir ected how
to distinguish when it is to be read as 5 or a.
1. The figure Qamets ( , ) is short o, in a mixed sylla-
ble unaccented. This happens in the f ollowing cases.
(a) When a simple Sheva f ollows Qamets, without
a Metheg between them; as hhokh-ma.
NOTE 1. But with a Metheg ( 3 1 ) it is read thus, FIASN hhd~
khimcL There are a few cases, however, where the Metheg after
Qamets ( , ) does not make this vowel long; viz. when it is in the a-
tepcnult syllable of a word; as d&r-bhd-notk, not da-rtbh6-n6th.
The reason of this is, that Metheg in such cases is not placed after
Qamets as a sign of its being a long vowel, but with another design
and by another rule. (31. 3. a.)
NOTE 2. In a very few instances, Metheg stands after Qamets
in the penult syllable without making it long; as qor-bdit, not
qd-rsbhdn ; tKom-ra, not sh&merd. But here manuscripts and
editions differ; and it is plainly a violation of t he common principle.
To distinguish the excepted cases in notes 1 and 2, a knowledge
of Hebrew forms is necessary.
NOTE 3. The rule is, that the syllable in which the Qamets it
followed by Sbeva must be unaccented, in order to make short o; for
if it be accented, the long sound of ( , ) remains. Thus mdv-
tha* shav, lay-la ; not mfo-tha, gh&v, loy-ld.
(b) When Qamets is f ollowed by Daghesh f or te
( 29.1) it is shor t o; as
33n hhon-ne-nl, DFI3 bot-tlm.
This is the same as the case a / for the words written out would
stand thus, ": : : n, finna.
f " % T
NOTE 1. A Metheg here on the antepenult does not necessarily
make Qamets long; e. g. D^na bM-tc-khitn. (See above a, note 1.)
NOTE 2. Qamets remains long in a tone-syllable; as JIEF yam-
ma, rra? lamina. (See above a, note 3.)
(c) Qamets in a f inal mixed syllable unaccented is
shor t o; as v&y-ya-qdm.
The same as case a ; for written out fully it stands thus,
All the cases, ther ef or e, r esolve themselves into the
simple r ule bef or e given; and they all r espect Qamets in
a mixed syllabic.
2. The figure Qamets (
) is sometimes short o in a
simple syllable. This happens in the f ollowing cases.
() When another Qamets Hhateph f ollows; as
po-Pol-kha, rjSBjJ q6-t6bh-kha.
In cases of this nature, the Qamets ( , ) is generally to be read
as short o; but the Metheg universally added here seems to
indicate that the O sound is somewhat protracted. In a very few ca-
ses, a (
) thus situated is to be read as d ; e. g. qd-tdn-ni from
flDp. Etymology only can determine these cases.
() When Hhateph Qamets ( 26. 3) f ollows; as
f oe p6-5lo; i-ina bo-hhr i.
The Metheg alwayt appears here after (* ), but in all the cases
under no. 2, it plainly serves in a different office, from that in which
it serves when (* ) is followed by Sheva simple, as in no. 1. (Vide
supra 1. a, note 1. Vide etiam 31. 2. 6, d.)
70 2 6 SHEVA.
NOTE 1. Exceptions to the rule in b ar e cases wher e
( ) stands under the ar ticle bef or e nouns; as PI*3N1 ha-
* : it
f itnty-ya, the f igur e Qamets designating ( 35.1.2.)
It is the same.where the article is elided, and the prepositions
1, 5, b come into its place ( 35.1. 6) ; as *T*3Mj| &d-8niy-yd &c.
But prepositions, not coming into the place nor taking
the vowel of the ar ticle, are read according to the r ule;
as l5-hhll &c.
r ; IT
NOTE 2. ihd-ra-thim and qb-dha-shim have d in the
first -syllable, because they are the plurals of tho-rlth and
qo-dhith, the o being preserved but shortened in the plural. A few
eases of this nature occur in the language, where nothing but a
knowledge of etymology can determine. Nor is it of much conse-
quence to determine. It were indeed a very desirable thing to the
student, to have a distinct sign for short o; but we must learn the
language as it is, and not construct another. In daily usage, there
could have been no more difficulty for a Hebrew to distinguish when
to read a or d, than there is among us to determine when to read
the letter o as 6 or as t, in Che words not, son &c.
6 26. STlttJ Shiva.
tl . ' The Hebr ews appear but ver y r ar ely to have
combined or amalgamated two or more consonants togeth-
er , without any intervening vowel-sound, as we of ten do in
English ; e. g. hand, hands, stripe, shrink This was prac-
tised only at the end of a word ; and even her e, it was the
usual method, wher e two consonants occurred without
an intervening vowel, as "1ED, to supply a furtive vowel
( 59. 2) in the pronunciation, as 1DD sepher .
The usage which so gener ally inhibited the combina-
tion of two consonants after a vowel in the same syllable,
did - not oper ate so extensively, nor in exactly the same
paanner, in r espect to the admission of two consonants be-
2 6 . SHIVA. 71
fore a vowel. Two often appear ; but they ar e modif ied
in r egar d to their pronunciation. The Hebr ews do not
appear ever to have pronounced as we do, br a, br e, amal-
gamating the br into one compound sound; but between
the b and the r in such a case, they utter ed a kind of half
vowel (usually a ver y shor t a or e), as b
r a, b
r e; much
like our e in the words begone, begin &c.
This custom of pronunciation gave rise to the sign of
Sheva ; and the whole object answer ed by all the She-
vas, both simple and composite, is mer ely to aid the pro-
nunciation of syllables which begin with two consonants.
More than two moveable letters can never begin any syllar
ble ; more than two can never end one ; nor even this number,
except at the end of a word. Syllables like street, sprain &c.
ar e impossible in Hebr ew; equally so ar e such as works,
thinks &c.
f 2. Instead of limiting Sheva to the simple of f ice of
denoting a half -vowel between two consonants which begin
a syllable, and writing it only in this case, the authors of
the punctation-system consider it as belonging to ever y let-
ter (the quiescents excepted) which has no vowel of its
own. Under the f inal letter s of words, however , it is not
written, but implied in case these letter s be destitute of a
vowel; e. g. Dp qam is the same as Dp.
Orthography omits Sheva under all final letters, except in the
following cases. (a) In final ; as ini-ttkh, where it is mere-
ly calligraphic. (6) In a final syllable ending with two moveable
letters; as PflTab la-mddht. When one of these final letters is a qui-
escent, usage is variable; as we have both ntta and nets bath.
(c) When Pattahh furtive ( 27) stands in the room of the penult
Sheva; as n?ip shdHnd
9t instead of rung shd-m&St.
NOTE. It is easy to distinguish such a Pattahh furtive by the or-
thography. If it were a real vowel, the Sheva under the final let-
ter would be omitted, as in njJgtf shd-md-sath.
72 2 6 . s h e v a .
t3. Ther e ar e two kinds of Shevas, viz. simple and
Sh*va (simple) ( : ) = c in begin.
' Hhateph Patt&hh ( - , ) = a in Germany.
> Hhateph Sf ghol (v.-) = e in begin. j_
< Hhateph Qamets (
. ) = o in ivory.
The student will perceive, that the composite Shevas are consti-
tuted by the mere juxtaposition of the short vowels at the left hand
of the simple Sheva.
1*4. In the quantity of all the Shevas, ther e is no dif -
f er ence. All of them are excluded f rom the rank of
vowels; if E> p*qodh, 371T z
Mbh, f ct
le, hhll,
being all monosyllables in theor y. None of them ar e ever
sounded, except between two moveable consonants which begin
a syllable.
1*5. The composite Shevas stand, f or the most par t,
only under the gutturals ( 46. 2); and her e they occur
only when those guttur als begin a syllable. They ar e
mer ely substitutes for simple Sheva. The only dif f er ence
between them and simple Sheva is, that they give a vari-
ety of tones to the Sheva-sound, which renders it easier
to be pronounced, or more euphonic, when connected with
those dif f icult letter s.
When a guttural endt a syllable it takes a simple Sheva, like the
other consonants; as nlh-p&kh. Two of the composite Shevas
are occasionally found under other letter^ besides the gutturals; as
SijT, also unt ; r o n a , also &c. So qodha-thim and
qb-dha-thim. But Hhateph Seghol never occurs except under gutturals.
t6. In consequence of Sheva being considered as be-
longing to all moveable letter s destitute of a vowel (supr a
2), it of ten occurs at the end of a syllable. But her e
it must not be sounded. This has given occasion to the
26. SHBVA. 7 3
distinction between Sheva vocal and silent. As both have
the same f igur e, viz. ( : ), it becomes necessary to give a
r ule by which the student may distinguish them. The
universal r ule is the f ollowing.
jill Shevas at the beginning of a syllable are vocal;
all at the end of a syllable, or after the vowel, are silent,
Sheva vocal
() All composite Sbevas (supra 5).
() Simple Sheva after a simple syllable; as STiab Id-mtdka.
(c) after another Sheya; as VlJDbl t/U-nudhu.
(<f) under a letter with Dagbesh forte ; as 3l7ab tim-midku.
(e) at the beginning of a word; as Sab Umddh.
( / ) under a letter repeated; as ^bbn hdl-Ulu not hal-lu.
( 4 6 . 6 . )
Sheva silent.
(a) After a short vowel in fe mixed syllable ; as yll-mddh,
(b) After a long vowel in a mixed tone-syllable ; as nni abn tlZ-
(c) If two Shevas occur at the end of a word, both are silent;
as n*ib ld-mddht.
Much easier would it have been for reader and writer, if the
punctators had written Sheva only when it is vocal. But we must
study the language as it is, rather than attempt to devise a better
t7. Hhateph Qamets ( r :) the composite Sheva is eas-
ily distinguished f rom Qamets Hhateph the vowel ( 25).
The f or mer (r ?) is never a pr oper vowel (supr a 4), and
is always wr itten under one letter , with Sheva at the r ight
hand of the f igur e Qamets, as H; Qamets Hhateph, on
the contrary, is always a proper vowel ( 21), and, when
in a mixed syllable, it has a Sheva on the lef t of the f ig-
ur e Qamets and under the f ollowing letter ; as HtiDH
NOTE 1. Hhateph Pattahh ( ^ ) is by far the most frequent of the
composite Sbevas, because the A tone is more congenial with the
gutturals than the other tones. Hhateph Q/ameto ( ) Is the most
unfrequent of them.
NOTE 2. The older Hebrew grammarians vary the sound of sim-
ple Sheva. (a) Before the gutturals, they sound it like the vowel
belonging to the gutturals. (b) Before a Yodh, it is assimilated to
the / sound, (e) In other cases, it sounds as very short Pattabh or
Seghol. The LXX, the other ancient Greek translators, and Je-
rom, exhibit in the proper Hebrew names which they have endeav-
oured to express, many traces of the correctness of these general
principles. E. g. ri&ti JSoXofimv, fihO JSo&o/ta, berith he.
But these minutiae are not worth attention in practice at the pres-
ent day.
~27. Paltahh furtive
1. The words which end with a guttural being dif f i-
cult to pronounce, euphony and f acility of utter ance have
introduced into the Hebr ew language the custom of pro-
nouncing all f inal syllables, which end in a moveable guttu-
ral, with the A sound, as best adapted to this purpose. In
accordance with this principle, the proper vowel Paltahh
is ver y gener ally wr itten in a f inal syllable with a gut-
tural ( 46. 3), instead of other vowels. But in case
other vowels are retained in the f inal syllable, a Jurtive
Paltahh, as .it is called, is thrown iq af ter them, in order
to ease the pronunciatioa This is wr itten under the gut-
tural but sounded bef or e it, as f VH r i^hh; being in res-
pect to quantity mer ely as a Hhateph Pattahh (-:). To
pronounce lay the str ess of the voice on ru, and mere-
ly touch the
hh; as in English, trial, vial &c. In theo-
r y, r pn is a monosyllable.
2. Pattahh Jurtive is put under Mappiq ^ ( 30), H,
and at the end of words, when the f inal vowel is not an
A sound. Aleph does not r eceive Pattahh f ur tive, because
at the end of words it is quiescent Thus f t'DS ga-bhoh,
rPlDtt ma-shPhh, 27^ r e
f l
7; but f i&f t mtte-tse without the
f ur tive Pattahh.
* 28. Daghish.
Daghesh is a point in the bosom of a letter . It is
divided into two kinds, viz. Daghesh forte and Daghesh
lene. Dagh&h (ttOT) signif ies strengthening, hardening.
29. Daght8h forte and lent.
/. Daghesh forte.
t l . This kind of Daghesh signif ies, that the letter in
which it is inser ted is to be r epeated or r ead as if twice
wr itten. E. g. *721V lim-medh =
How to distinguish Daghesh forte from Daghesh lene is describ-
ed in 19 infra.
2. Orthography of Daghesh forte. When the same letter is im-
mediately repeated, instead of being twice written out fully, it is the
usual practice to write it but once, and to insert a Daghesh forte in
it as a sign of reduplication. E. g. (pt-iel instead of VttBg.
3. To this usual orthography, however, there are a few arbi-
trary or anomalous exceptions. E. g. S&li uM4o instead of ;
shfrr-rikh instead of kc.
4. Besides these anomalous exceptions, in which the orthography
might conform to the general rule, there are many cases where the
same letter, immediately repeated, must be written out fully in both
() Where the first of the two letters has a Sheva vocal, or a
vowel belonging to it. Thus, tpb)?* yo-Wtm, not oV? which would
read Sdl-lim, and so destroy the true form of the word: qeld-
Id, not q'd-ld, which would entirely change the word.
() A letter which itself ought to have a Daghesh forte and
which is doubled in the pronunciation, cannot be designated by a Da-
ghesh forte inserted in a succeeding letter of the same kind, but must
be written out fully. E. g. put for nbVn hdl-Ulu and read in
the same manner (645.6), cannot be written hdl-ltu as this would
change the form of the word. So that here the first b cannot be
written by inserting a Daghesh forte in the second, for the reasons
above stated.
(e) Secondary forms of words, derived by declension from ground-
forms, do not admit a Daghesh forte if the ground-form excluded it.
E. g. ground-form const form not ng as it might be
written if it were not derived by declension. This custom is useful
in rendering the etymology of words obvious.
NOTE. Of the other oriental languages, only the Chaldee and
Arabic have a written sign for Daghesh forte.
t5. JDivision of Daghesh forte. It may be divided into
that which is necessary, and that which is accidental; or ,
in other terms, into that which is essential to the f orms
of words, and that which r espects only the occasional mode
of pronouncing them and is mer ely euphonic
t6. DAGHESH FORTE ESSENTIAL. This may be divided
into two kinds, viz.
(a) Compensative; i e . which stands f or a letter
omitted in writing, that r eally belongs to the f orm of a
word. EL g. *13f D na-th&n-nu = 133H3, wher e the same
letter is r epeated; 5* ylg-gSsh, put instead of Eft?? yto-
g&sh, the Nun being assimilated to the Gimel ( 41), and
r epr esented by Daghesh f or te.
(b) Characteristic; i. e. wher e it is intended to de-
signate a particular f orm of a word. E. g. Vcpj? qit-tel, the
Piel f orm of the ver b qa-t&L ( 78. 1.)
7. A few words exhibit a very anomalous use of Daghesh forte
compensative. thou is put for najt and is read at; shs-ta-
yim (too) is probably put for shin-ta^yun ; r n s (2 pers. fem. of
the verb r n3) is put for n r n s &c. Strictly speaking, the Daghesh
is here compensative, as the letter in which it is inserted stands in
the place of two letters. From the necessity of the case, however,
it is read merely as a Daghesh lene.
8 . DAGHESH FORTE EUPHONIC. Daghesh essential never
appear s in the beginning of a wor d; but Daghesh euphon-
ic is not unf requently f ound in the f irst letter of a wor d,
when the pr eceding wor d ends with a vowel-sound.
() When words are connected by a Maqqeph ( 32) ; as
m&z-zS, read as and sometimes written so, Ex. 4: 2; ai t t - ng
mat-tdbh. In all such cases, the final quiescent letter is considered
and treated in pronunciation as if it were in otio. ( 23. 6. c.)
() Without a Maqqepb ; particularly if the preceding word be
penacuted and furnished with a conjunctive accent, as flips?* read
9d-s2p-pen; sometimes also when the preceding word has an acute
accent, as md-sh&l-li-mdr. (App. E. 1.)
The Arabians, in reading, connect a .great number of their words
with one another, in a similar way.
9. Besides the foregoing Daghesh euphonic, which occurs only at
the beginning of a word, there is another euphonic Daghesh occasion-
ally (though very seldom) used $ viz. where a pause-accent falls on
the penult syllable of a verb and lengthens it, a Daghesh euphonic
is sometimes inserted in the final radical of the verb. E. g. rtin
for ibnn, which without a pause-accent would be ; nns for
WJ3, out of pause 33IT3. ( 60. 7.)
10. Dagbesh euphonic, in a considerable number of cases, is also
inserted in the letter which follows a short vowel, in order to strength-
en it. E. g. Hik-ktri-ha, instead of tk&kh-r-ha;
yiq-qerekh instead of yiq-rekh.
NOTE 1. The student should particularly observe, that the Dag-
hesh, in such a case and in all the cases of euphony merely, does not
really belong to the word, according to the common laws of the lan-
guage. Its insertion is merely accidental, or for the sake of a par-
ticular pronunciation of words. But as this insertion not unfrequent-
ly takes place, the learner ought to be informed of such a principle
in regard to the use of Dagbesh ; otherwise he will be greatly em-
barrassed in analysing the forms of words which exhibit it.
NOTE 2. For the cases in which Daghesh forte essential is omitted,
ee 46.
II. Daghesh lene.
t i l . Daghesh lene is inserted only in the aspir ates
(technically called nWW3 Beghadh-Kph&th 19.2), and
ser ves mer ely as a sign that the aspiration is r emoted.
E. g. 3 with Daghesh lene = k, but D = kk &c.
f l 2. When Daghesh forte happens to be insert-
ed in the aspirates, it not only doubles the letter (as in
other cases), but also perf orms the of f ice of Daghesh lene,
in r espect to removing tlie aspiration. E. g. &p-p!;
not iiph-phi, nor &ph-pu
In respect to cases of this nature it may be observed, tha\ Da-
ghesh forte is Something more than a mere sign of doubling the let-
ter. If we write the word out fully, it would read aph-pi, sot
dp-pi. The fact is, that in such cases an assimilation of the former
to the latter letter takes place (41), and Dagheshforte marks both
the reduplication and the assimilation.
1*13. FI RST GENERAL RULE. The aspir ates take Daghesh
lene, i. e. these letter s lose their aspiration, in the beginning
of a chapter , ver se, or disjunctive clause.
Any word which immediately follows a disjunctive accent (app.
. 1) is the beginning of a disjunctive clause.
tl 4. SECOND GENERAL RULE, (a) The aspir ates take Da-
ghesh lene af ter a consonant with a silent Sheva, either ex-
pr essed or implied. E. g. wher e ID f ollows Sheva
expr essed ; wher e f ollows Sheva implied.
(6) But af ter a vocal Sheva, a vowel, or a quiescent
letter , they r eject Daghesh lene.
The same principle applies to the aspirates at the end of words;
e. g. wheTe in follows silent Sheva expressed. So also when
ia furtive vowel ( 59. 2. c) is used instead of srlent Sbeva; e. g.
Id-qd-hhdt (put for ntiJsV), where n is used instead of n, became the
furtive Pattahh which precedes it is not reckoned as a real vowel,
hut only as a substitute for silent Sheva. ( 59. 2. c, note 2.)
15. Exceptions to the second general rule.
These are somewhat numerous, (a) In the middle of a word
derived by inflection from another word, Daghesh lene is omitted in
an aspirate, if that aspirate, in the ground-form of the word, is im-
mediately preceded by a vowel. E. g. ridh-phu, ground*form
2 9 . , DAGHESH LENS* 79
j j Tl where Hholem precedes the Pe, by the general rule would
be written l i nn ridh-pu. So m&Uche, ground-form where
Qamets precedes the Kaph, by the general rule would be
m&l-ki. So WT52 yd-ydz-bhu, groupd-form i t 52 where Hholem pre-
cedes the Beth, by the general rule would be T?2 yd-Zdz-bu.
(6) Some words, in their ground-forms, have She?a vocal under
their first letter and an aspirate for the second letter. If to sucfa
words there be^ made an accidental prefix, which causes the Sheva
vocal to become silent, the succeeding aspirate still rejects the Da-
ghesh lene, as it did in the ground-form.
sns, with prefix a Snsa bikh-thabk, by general rule SnDa.
VCS, with prefix 3D ^DD3 Jdkh-phir, TBM.
with prefix b Vhgh-bhal, -l ai ^.
rnnoa?, rrincsjV fah-pha-hhoth, rnrrcttfc.
In snch cases the original form of the word is exactly retained,
notwithstanding the accession made to the beginning of it, which i
regarded as merely accidental.
16. Departures from the principle of exception exhibited
above in no. 15. b.
The future tense, and infinitive mood with a prefix, follow the gen-
eral rule. E. g. fut. although the infinitive which is the ground-
form of the 3 pers. future is IDp. So inf. tJDtt), but with prefix prep.
B93&. Some instances of the infinitive, however, follow the rule in
16.6; as&3,B2S.
* I
The usage just described appears to be arbitrary; and can be
accounted for only on the ground, that the punctators viewed the
prefixes to the future and infinitife, in such cases, as constituting an
essential part of the word.
17. Particular anomalies.
() The suffixes D3,13 always reject Daghesh lene in every
() Words commencing with the aspirates S3, M, 53, fD,
DD, with Sheva under the first of these letters, insert Daghesh lene
in that first letter, whether the preceding syllable be pure or mixed.
To this principle there are but very few exceptions. The object
of this practice is to avoid the accumulation of the aspirates.
6 0
(c) AD aspirate following the word takes Daghesh lene,
because Jinn"' is read tk
dhd-ndy (Ges. Lex.), i. e. with a con-
sonant at the end of the last syllable. (Vide supra 14. a.)
(d) Denominatives ending in m omit Daghesh lene, contrary to
the general rule. E. g. from m w from
from &c. where we might expect the D and 1, in the last sylla-
bles of the derivative words, to have a Daghesh lene in them. The
furtive Seghol at the end of &c. is not a real vowel ( 59. 2),
but seems to be regarded as one, in the mode of writing the denom-
inatives in question.
(c) The derivatives of omit Daghesh lene, where by the gen-
eral rule we might expect to find it. E. g. 1^3, inaa, &c.
( / ) Vice versa, we have from d'HE?, from tFcttn,
where the principle of exception (15. o) would require TTQS,
(g) Besides these peculiar anomalies, the student will sometimes
find mistakes in the printing. He will moreover find some anomalies
in respect both to the insertion and omission of Daghesh lene, par-
ticularly at the beginning of words, which have been sanctioned by
time, and which are received into the common copies of the Hebrew
Bible ; but which originally arose, it can scarcely be doubted, from
variations in regard to the distinctive accents, or from errors of the
tl8. Distinction of Daghesh forte from Daghesh lene.
(a) Daghesh f or te can never be wr itten in the f inal
letter of a word, as it would r ender an additional syllable
necessar y to pronounce it. (b) Daghesh f or te can never
appear in the f irst letter of a wor d, excepting Daghesh eu-
phonic (8 supra), (c) Daghesh forte is always immediately
pr eceded by a vowel-sound; but Daghesh lene by a silent
Sheva. This simple principle will enable the lear ner to
deter mine when the aspir ates are to be doubled, and when
they mer ely lose their aspiration and remain single.
30. Mappiq and RdphS.
tl. The letter He (H) is commonly quiescent at the
end of a wor d ( 23. 2). Sometimes however it is move-
able, and to indicate this, a point is placed in the bosom
of it called M&pplq; as FP yah, not ya.
The point Mappiq is of use in distinguishing some
wor ds; as in the f inal f em. pronoun , to distinguish it
f r om the mer e f eminine ending of a noun. E. g. m&l-
kah means her king ; but m&l-k5 means a queen
In verbs ending with double He, when the future is apocopated
( 123. Kal. d), the middle radical (tt) is marked with a Mappiq to
show that it is not quiescent; as POrn vdt-tf-khdh instead of
vdU-tikh-he, root sins.
t t
NOTE. In the present editions of Hebrew books, Mappiq is found
only in He; but in manuscripts it is sometimes appended to all the
quiescents, when they are moveable at the end of a word.
II. Raphe (npn) means 53/}, and is the opposite of Da-
ghesh and Mappiq. It is now scar cely ever used in any
printed edition. But Hebr ew manuscripts exhibit it over
the aspirates, as a sign that they r etain the aspir ation;
e. g. *1^22 kha-bhedha. In some cases, it stands in man-
uscr ipts wher e Daghesh f or te would be wr itten according
to analogy, in order to show that the Daghesh is omitted.
It is sometimes also f ound over f t and H when they qui-
esce at the end of words.
In some printed editions, Raphe is occasionally used where a
Daghesh forte is omitted, Judg. 16: 16; or Daghesh lene, Judg.
16: 28 ; or Mappiq, Num. 32: 42. In all such cases, it is noted in
the margin. See Van der Hooght's Hebrew Bible.
82 31. HBTBMH.
31. ariJj Mahigk.
t l . MSthSgh signif ies check, restraint. Such is the
name of the perpendicular mark (>) under words, which
is called also the euphonic accent, because it denotes that the
pr eceding vowel sound is to be somewhat delayed, or dis-
tinguished in the pronunciation. Hence the name Me-
thegh. It compar es well with what we call the half-ac-
cent in English; as in undertake, underwrite &c.
% Manuscripts, editions, and grammarians dif f er ver y
much in r espect to the insertion or omission of this euphon-
ic accent. The f ollowing cases ar e those in which ther e
is, however , a gener al agr eement that it ought to be wr it-
() In the second syllable, if a simple one, bef or e the
tone-syllable, as ha-a-dham; or if the second sylla-
ble be a mixed one, then on the thir d if simple, as "irf lf iO
* "* |T
va-f itf v-va-ther.
Bat the conjunction 1 signifying and, i* e. being merely copula-
tive, does not receive i t ; as $*24, u-bhd-tse
Two words connected by Maqqepk ( 32) are considered as one
in reference to Methegh; as ki-tsad-dup
() Af ter a long vowel which comes next bef or e the
tone-syllable and is f ollowed by a Sheva; as nr PH ha-y*tha.
But there is not an entire uniformity in the observance of this
rule, the short vowels sometimes taking Metheg, as ythh-yi;
for what reason, it is difficult to say.
(c) When Daghesh f or te is f allen out, but the pre-
ceding vowel-point is still r etained; as CHTD bl-hhu-r im
instead of (Comp. 45.)
The tisage here is not universal; e. g. hd-hhd-thXkh, with-
out Metheg after
(d) Usually, af ter a long vowel in the syllable which
pr ecedes a Maqqeph; as shatb-li, ki-
The Metheg is used here to shtfw that the long* vowel is retain-
ed, notwithstanding the tonic accent is thrown off by the Maqqeph.
( 3 2 . 3 , 4 . )
(c) Always bef or e the composite Shevas; as ^"Trf tD
sa-hMhi, ye-hh
Metheg may be placed twice on the same word, if two reasons
for using it concur; e. g. Ut-tfudrSi-kifiK (See a and e
3. The f ollowing ar e cases in which Metheg is used
more or less of ten, but not unif ormly.
(a) On the third syllable before the tone-syllable, although it be
a mixed one ; as bbt-te-kk&m, mUhrndd-dtbhrnn.
(b) On the fourth syllable before the tone-yllable, the third be-
ing a mixed one ; as vdy-yUk-hhd-tiim, rribo^rn vthA-
(c) On those derivatives from the verbs n^Srt hd-yd (to be) aod
hkd-ya (to live) which receive a formative prefix ; as futures
yih-yS, rrrr ylhh-y6, S^nrj Bhk-yS &c.
(d) After fa vocal Sbeva under the first letter of some words; as
DM1 vcMith, stttfi, ""V?'* dtbhdr. By some grammarians the design
of this Is said to be, to qualify the Sheva sound and make it analo-
gous to the succeeding vowel; i. e. we must read vtl&etk, t
tku, dfbhdr
tic. ( 26. 7 note 2.)
NOTE 1. Methegh is of the same form as the accent Silluq (app.
E. 1), but is easily distinguished from it, inasmuch as Silluq is never
used except under the ultimate or penult syllable in a verse.
NOTI 2. Instead of Methegh, the conjunctive accents (app. E . 1)
are not unfVequently used ; especially when the word has a greater
distinctive accent; as IFny'iJaVl u-Umo-ydhltn with Munahh, instead
with Methegh.
NOTE 3. The use of Methegh as a diacritical sign in the cases b
and c under no. 2, is of real value. It is to be regretted that all the
other uses of it had not been spared; to the learner at least they are
of no real importance, but rather serve to perplex him. They have
been detailed here, to save him from confusion or mistake.
8 4
3 2 . MAQQEPH.
N. B. The learner will observe, that Methegh has been here de-
scribed as it is used in the text of the Hebrew Bible. In other books,
e. g. in Hebrew grammars, it is exhibited only after a Qamets fol-
lowed by simple Sheva, in order to distinguish it from Qamets Hha-
teph (25. 1. a, note 1), the other uses of it being superseded as un-
necessaiy. This usage is also followed ia the present grammar.
32. M&qqeph.
t l . M&qqeph, like our hyphen, ser ves to connect two
wor ds together , e. g. not to make a composite
wor d of them, but to connect them in r espect to interpunc-
tion and accent
t2. Wor ds connected by Maqqeph are closely con-
nected in sense ; so that its of f ice, in r espect to interpunc-
tion, is like that of a conjunctive accent. (App. E. 1.)
t3. The word which pr ecedes Maqqeph loses its ton-
ic accent
According to the theory of the punctators, two or more words
connected by a Maqqeph are to be pronounced as one word, the
tone-syllable being only on the last. Thus "j Dvd- yf hi - khen,
The rationale of this case may be easily explained. The He-
brews generally avoid having two tone-syllables in immediate succes-
sion. Where these would occur, they either insert a Maqqeph, which
is the sign that the tone is removed from the first; or they throw
back the accent of the former word one syllable, where the length
of such word admits it. Hence Maqqeph rarely appears, except af-
ter monosyllabic or dissyllabic words which precede others of a sim-
ilar character, so as naturally to occasion the crowding of tone-
syllables together.
1*4. If the syllable which pr ecedes Maqqeph is a mix-
ed syllable with a long pure vowel, that vowel is commonly
(not always) shor tened, on account of the Maqqeph which
r emoves the accent: f or a long vowel does not usually
occur in a mixed syllable unaccented. ( 54. 1. 6.)
3 3 . ACCENTS. 8 5
When a long vowel is retained, Methegh is usually placed after
it, as a sign that it is long; as thath-lI ( 31. 2. d). So
n r = i . *
NOTE. In the use of Maqqeph, the punctators are far from being
uniform or consistent. The same words, in the same connexion, at
one time have it, and at another time have it not. The same vowel
is sometimes shortened by it, and sometimes not. Does not such an
arbitrary use denote that this accent was connected rather with
modes of cantillating the Scriptures, than with (he sense of words?
33. Accents
1"1. Besides the two euphonic accents, Methegb and
Maqqeph, ther e ar e a lar ge number of tonic accents, as
they ar e called, which ar e appended to the Hebr ew text;
ar e inseparably connected with the pr esent vowel system;
and ser ve, if we may cr edit Hebr ew grammarians, a var i-
ety of purposes. Thr ee uses ar e assigned to them, viz.
(a) To mark the tone-syllable. (6) As signs of interpunction.
(c) As notes to dir ect the cantillation of the Hebr ew text.
2. Of these accents, some ar e wr itten above, and some
below the line, like the vowels; only one viz. Pesiq (l)
is wr itten in the line. (See the table App. E).
t3. Tonic power of the accents. So f ar as this power
is concer ned, they all stand upon the f ooting of equality
when they actually subser ve this end; all of them mer e-
ly acuting the ultimate or penult syllable on which they
stand. Ever y word (unless one bef or e a Maqqeph 32)
has one or more of the accents upon it
t4. Ther e ar e no less than seven of the accents,
which do not mark with cer tainty the tone-syllable, but
only coincide with it incidentally. (See App. E. 2. h. c.)
t5. When two accents of the same kind ar e placed
upon a wor d, the first of them marks the tone-syllable;
as *inn to-hG, with the tone on the penult
6 6 3 3 . ACCENTS.
f 6. When two accents of a dif f er ent kind ar e placed
on a word, the last of them marks the tone-syllable; as
dh]m, with the tone on the ultimate.
NOTE. Though the accents determine the tone-syllable of mast
words, yet the student cannot depend upon them universally as
guides, (supra 4). For the rules to determine the tone-syllable
in all cases, see 34,35.
7. Accents as signs of interpunction. This, in the view
of those who have most highly pr ized the accents, is their
principal use. In regard to this, the accents ar e distin-
guished into two gr eater classes, (a) Disjunctives, or those
which show a suspension in reading, or a division of the
sense gr eater or less. (6) Conjunctives, placed upon wor ds
to show that they ar e nearly r elated to other wor ds, and
must not be separ ated f r om them. In other wor ds, dis-
junctives indicate a pause of some sor t; and conjunctives
that ther e is no pause, but a continuation or conjunction.
For f ur ther explanation, see A pp. E.
8. Accents as signs of cantiUation. In the public r ead-
ing of the Scr iptur es, the Jews f rom time immemorial
have cantillated them,i.e. have read them in a kind of half -
singing recitativo way; much like what is called chanting
in some of our chur ches. In this manner Mussulmans
read the Kor an; and in this way the people of the east
gener ally deliver public discourses. The mode of cantil-
lating Hebr ew is, at pr esent, various in dif f er ent countr ies;
but is guided in all by the accents, i. e. the accents are used as
musical signs, though various power s ar e assigned to them.
For an exhibition of the powers of the accents as musical signs,
see Jablonskii Praef. ad Bib. Heb. 24, and Bartoloccii Biblioth.
Rabbin. Tom. iv. p. 431; where may be found the Sargas or accent-
songs, written out in musical notes.
Whether this was the original design of the accents, see discus-
sed in App. E. 19.
34. Tone-syllables of words.
f l . GENERAL RULE. The gener al law of the Hebr ew
language is, that the accent or tone is on the last syllable.*
To this there are a great many exceptions; bat still they are
not sufficient to reader the expression of a general rule improper.
In Syriac and Arabic, the tone-syllable is generally the penult.
But in Hebrew, this mode of accentuation is regarded as an excep-
tion to predominant usage.
NOTE. In Hebrew, a word aeuted, i. e. having the tone on the
last syllable, is called MUr& (from below), and a word penacut-
*2, i. e. having the tone on the penult syllable, is called MllTil
(from above). It is often convenient to use these technical terms;
and the student should therefore understand them.
t2. Exceptions to the general rule. Mild or penacuted
ar e sever al classes of words.
(a) All Segholate f orms, i. e. those which have a f ur-
tive vowel in their f inal syllable. ( 59. 2. 143).
This vowel almost without exception is Seghol, Pattohh, or Hhi~
req parvum. In a few cases Shureq and Hhireq magnum appear to
be furtive; as in *rih and i r i s which stand for Ij i h and i r t i , for
*19 ( 3) fa proper names ending with i n* the penult sylla-
ble is accented, as qr r b' S Mtcaiah ; so also in as the * is
furtive. ( 47. 3).
t(6) All duals ar e penacuted, as ; and plurals
of the same f or m with duals, as D*jh, ; wher e the
Hhir eq in the f inal syllable is parvum.
(e) Apocopated f utur es in ver bs nV> which take a
f ur tive vowel; as ( 123. I. <)
(d) All the f or ms of regular ver bs, which r eceive f or -
Word* with the tone on the ultimate are net io this grammar marked with
(be accent, except for special purposes. The reader wiU aaderstaad, therefore,
that a word witboot a tone-accent noted, ia usually to be regarded as having
the tone on the ultimate.
mative suf f ixes beginning with a consonant; excepting those
which have CP and ( 86 &c. 127. Parad. I.)
Exceptions to this rule may be found, but they are eithelr the re-
sult of error in copyists or printers, or the accent has been moved
from its proper place by some of the causes described in 35.
(e) In Hiphil of regular ver bs, all the persons are
penacuted which have Yodh char acter istic between the
two last radicals. The other persons f ollow the rule in d.
(J*) In Kal, Niphal, Hiphil, and Hophal of ver bs
the tone r ests on the penult in all the persons which have
f or mative suf f ixes beginning with a vowel, i. e. in all the
persons wher e f | _, % or is added to the root.
But sometimes the tone is Milra; as siSn, imper. *>\"\. Such ex-
ceptions are limited chiefly to Kal.
In all the persons of these ver bs which have f orma-
tive suf f ixes beginning with a consonant (excepting the suf -
f ixes Dn and the tone r ests on the epenthetic *1 or ^
( 115. 3), which is inser ted between the ver b and the
f or mative suf f ix.
To this rule there are a few exceptioos; as &c. where
the tone is on the ultimate.
Poel, Poal, and Hithpoel of these verbs are regularly accented;
i. e. they have their tone like the corresponding conjugations in a
regular verb.
(g) In Kal, Niphal, and Hiphil of ver bs TP, the tone
r ests on the penult in those persons which have f ormative
suf f ixes beginning with a vowel, i. e. the suf f ixes H_, \ V .
In a few cases, the tone here is on the last syllable; as
imper. This is very rare, except in Kal. (Comp. above un-
d e r / )
All the persons of these ver bs which have an epenthetic
or ( 117. 6) bef or e f or mative suf f ixes beginning with
a consonant (excepting the suf f ixes Of l and in), have the
tone on the epenthetic syllable, i. e. on the penult.
All the other parts of the verbs T* are regularly accented, viz.
Hophal, Pilel, Pulal, Hithpalel, and those persons in Kal which have
formative suffixes beginning with consonants and not preceded by
the epenthetic syllable; as najp &c. So participles of these verbs,
in the feminine and plural, are regularly accented. (Comp. under / . )
(h) Nouns, pronouns, participles, and adver bs, which
take H- or paragogic or local, ar e penacuted; as HEP,
r an, r k ( 50.4. c. 157.2. g.)
A few words of these classes with ft paragogic are Milra; and
Yodh paragogic always draws down the accent upon it.
NOTE 1. But verbs which take St.. and ft_ paragogic ( 9 1 , 9 2 ) are
accented in the same manner, as when they take the formative suf-
fixes n_, }, and % ; r.e. on the ultimate, in all cases except those not-
ed above in , /, and g. E. g. Milra ftnJaT for ->59J imper. Piel of -tfqT;
ftW for y? imper. of JHT Milel ftabfij for i o a 1 pers/fut. of aao;
8rsn3 for D13 from ; ft&npa for t nps from i n p.
NOTE 2. H - and N_ paragogic are rarely added to any persons,
except those which end with a radical of the verb; and this mostly
in the future tense. In the praeter, only the 3 pers. fem. in a very
few cases receives a paragogic ft. or ft., (all other apparent cases
of paragoge in the praeter being quite doubtful); and this 3 pers. fem.
retains, like a paragogic noun, the accent on the penult, contrary to
the rule in note 1. E. g. ftn&am} Josh. 6: 17; f tnf cV 3 2 Sam. 1: 26
with Pattahh under fit, where we might expect Qamets.
(t) Ver bs, nouns &c. are Milel with the f ollowing suf -
. ^ k k k k k k
f ix-pr onouns; viz, *0 *0 _, 151-, i r u, l i l - , H-, H
ID J, 13 13^, 'itl-, and some other s. (See 126. II.
135. II. wher e the penacuted suf f ixes ar e mar ked.)
Also with 0- , "J--, shor tened f rom 0, ;
which latter suf f ixes ar e Milra. (See as above.)
A word having the suf f ix with Sheva bef or e it, is
Milra, as but is Milel if a vowel pr ecedes the suf -
f ix, as
. Nan epenthetic inserted between a verb and its suffixes always
takes the tone, and of course makes the word Milel: as he
chastised me ; take tt.
( j ) Many words with a pause-accent ar e Mild.
( 60. 7.)
These accents, even in case they alter the regular tone-syllable
(as they often do), can stand upon the penult as well as on the ulti-
mate syllable. E. g. * ana penacuted, where the regular tone would
be on the ultimate; r i ay Milra, where the usual tone would be
Mild. *
35* Shifting of the tone-syllable.
The tone of wor ds is of ten shif ted by pr ef ixes and
suf f ixes, or by r elation to parae-accents, or by preceding or
f ollowing words. Cases of this nature ar e the f ollowing.
1. More or less of the cases stated in 34. 2. h, t, j.
2. Nun paragogic (added to any persons of ver bs
ending with ^ or
__ 43. 3) always dr aws down the tone
on the ultimate syllable.
Consequently, in cases of penult tone in 34. t. e^f g, it changes
the tone from the penult to the ultimate.
Besides the changes which this shifting of the tone may occasion
in the praeformatvoes which have a long vowel, (as f i r man instead
of 3n3nn,) the Nun paragogic totnetimes (but not generally) length-
ens, or restores and lengthens, the vowel of the preceding syllable j
as instead of But here usage varies, and is inconsistent
with its*el See Ps. 104 : 28, where both usages stand in the same
3. Vav pr ef ixed to the pr aeter commonly (not al-
ways) makes those persons Milra, which without it ar e
Mild; as 'THDOl, but without Vav Vn i ; Hiphf l
n^nani , without Vay n^nar t. (94.)
Thus also in verbs 99 and ( 34. 2. / , g) , those persons which
are Milel, commonly (not always) become Milra by taking a prefix
The following are generally (not always) exceptions to the pre-
ceding rule.
(a)' The first per. plur. of verbs, always; as
(b) Verbs ending with a quiescent; as *T
.31i *1
(c) Verbs with a pause-accent on the penult, ( 34. 2. ft).
(d) When a tone-syllable immediately follows, the tone is then
commonly (not always) thrown back; as
NOTE. There are a few anomalous cases, where the accent re-
mains on the penult when Vav is prefixed, for which no reason can
be given, unless it be the fault of transcribers or printers, or the in-
consistency of the accentuation itself.
4. Vav conver sive pr ef ixed to the f utur e commonly
(not always) makes the word Mild; as 1, but with-
out Vav -m&h ( 93.)
But here two conditions most take place, (a) The verb mast
end with a radical letter. (b) The penult syllable most be a simple
one. Otherwise Vav produces no change in the tone.
NOTE 1. In regular verbs, therefore, the change in question is
limited to Niphil future. In verbs Jlyin guttural, it takes place in
the fut. Niphil, and in all the Daghesh'd conjugations, viz. Piel, Pu-
al, and Hithpael, because in them the penult syllable is simple.
4 6 . 1 . ) ^
In verbs 99, in the fut. of Kal, Hiphil, and the Daghesh'd conju-
gations. In 19, in the same con jugations. In verbs fits with fit quies-
cent, in future Kal. In verbs SD, in fut. Kal and Hiphil.
NOTE 2. But verbs with Vav conversive may suffer apocope
and retraction of the accent, in all the conjugations. ( 123. I. d.)
NOTE 3. Exceptions to the general rule in no. 4 are the follow-
ing. (o) The first pers. sing, of verbs j as (6) Verbs kb with
fit quiescent; as (c) Words in pause ( 34.,;).
5. The negative bef or e the f uture of prohibition
or warning, af f ects it of ten (not always) in the same man-
ner as Vav conver sive.
Thus roirvbfit do not reprove
you mmt not add, with
the tone on the penult. But here practice is not uniform, as the ac-
cent is sometimes on the ultimate.
Verbs fib preceded by commonly suffer both apocope and re-
traction of the accent, as in case of Vav conversive (supra 4 note 2).
6. When an acuted word is immediately f ollowed
by a tone-syllable, it commonly (not always) becomes pen-
acuted. (Comp. 32. 3.)
The design in throwing back the accent in this case, is to avoid
the concurrence of two tone-syllables. But since the final syllables
of many words which are Milra, cannot be changed without a con-
fusion of forms or sense, and the penult syllable of many others is
mixed, and therefore not adapted to have the accent thrown back
(supra 4), the usage in question is not unfrequently neglected.
7. The imper ative and f uture apocopated having an
imper ative, optative, hor tative &c. sense (91, 92), com-
monly (not always) thr ow back the accent, like the f utur e
with Vav conver sive (supr a 4).
Thus keep thyself \ for let him #ee, for Slip");
for for nqnrj .
General remark respecting the cases in this section.
Inasmuch as the accent, when thrown back, is often removed
from a long syllable, the long vowel in such cases must be eichang-
ed for a short one; which is done agreeably to the laws in 54 re-
specting the mutation of vowels.
36. Critical marks and Masoretic notes.
1. In the common editions of the Bible with Masoretic notes &c.
a small circle over any word, e. g. fiHjnn, shews that the margin is
to be consulted, either for a different reading (as Gen. 8: 17 tt2*nin
the case above), or for literae majores vel minores, Piska, puncta ex
traordinaria &c. The mark ( ) over words in Van der Hooght &c.
refers to a marginal note.
2. Qri and Ktthibh. There are a considerable number of mar-
ginal readings (about 1000) in our common Masoretic Bibles, most
of which are quite ancient. Some of them correct grammatical anom-
alies, some are euphemisms, and some propose a different word. They
are probably the result of an ancient recension of Hebrew manu-
scripts. The marginal word is called j? Qtri, which means read;
i. e. this word is read, instead of the word in the text to which it re-
lates, and which is called STp Ktthibh, i.e. written or text. The vowel-
points under the Kethibh belong to the Qeri, which is printed with-
out points.
If a word is omitted in the text, the vowel-points stand in the
place with a small circle over them, while the letters belonging to
them are printed in the margin; as Judg. 20: 13. This is called
read but not written.
If a word is superfluous in the text, it is left unpointed; as Ezek.
48: 16. This is called *^p
written but not read.
3. Literae majores et minora distinguish themselves ( 16). Pukd
(ttpDft) means separation, i. e. a space left in the text in the middle
of a verse; as Gen. 36 : 22.
4. Puncta extraordinaria are marked thus, See Gen. 18:
9. 33: 4, where the points over the letters are extraordinaria.
The Rabbins regard these as designating some mysterious signi-
fications of the words over which they are placed. Probably the ori-
ginal design of them was, to denote that the reading was suspicious.
The number of words over which they are found is only fifteen.
For a full account of all the marginal and other notes in the
Masoretic editions of the Hebrew Bible, see the preface to Van der
Hooght's Hebrew Bible, 2345.
* 37. Rules for reading Hebrew
Having become acquainted with the nature and design of all the
letters, vowels, accents, diacritical points &c. &c. which appear on
the pages of the Hebrew Bible, the student is prepared to com-
mence the reading or pronunciation of the language. After rendering
himself familiar with the signs of the sounds, viz. the consonants
and vowel-points, his principal difficulty will consist in a want of skill
to make the proper division of syllables. To assist him in this, the
following rules should be observed.
N. B. Tbe student should here bear in mind the definition of
simple and mixed syllables, as given in 21. 8 note *.
RUL E 1. Ever y syllable must begin with a moveable letter .
Vav with Shureq (4) in the beginning of words is the only excep-
tion, and is sounded = oo in English. In Nd-mdr, 9d-
mddh &c. the ft and 9 are moveable, although we do not sound them,
because we know not what sound to give them. (18.2.)
RULE 2 . No syllable can have mor e than two move-
able letter s before its vowel; and none admits more than
one after its vowel except a f inal syllable, which may have
RULE 3. Every vowel stands in a simple syllable, when
f ollowed by a letter which has a vowel belonging to it
RUL E 4 Ever y short vowel makes a mixed syllable,
when f ollowed by a simple Sheva expr essed or implied,
or by a Daghesh f or te.
E. g. b p s bar-z<fl; io which the first syllable has a Sheva ex-
pressed ; the second, a Sheva implied. So TTab tm-ntidh nsjttV.
RULE 5 . Ever y long vowel makes a mixed syllable,
when f ollowed by a simple Sheva expr essed or implied,
or by a Daghesh f or te, provided such vowel be in a tone-
E. g. tfj? qdm,lrtz5bJ5* yiq-tol-nd where the tiholem is in a mix-
ed tone-syllable. So yam-ma = STM}\
RULE 6. A long vowel which is not in a tone-syllable,
makes a simple syllable, although f ollowed by a Sheva.
E. g. JrlrBg qartcla, CP'ttfe bd-ghtdhim.
RULE 7 . Ever y vowel f ollowed by a r eal quiescent
makes a simple syllable, provided the letter next af ter the
quiescent have a vowel belonging to it, or the quiescent
.stands at the end of a word.
E. g. in rc-hith, is a simple syllable, because the tfj
which comes next after it has a voweLof its own; in bd-rd,
is a final simple syllable.
RUL E 8. Ever y vowel f ollowed by a r eal quiescent
makes a mixed syllable, if the next succeeding moveable
letter is destitute of a vowel.
E. g. in ri'Shith, n* is a mixed syllable. But such sylla-
bles must always be tone-syllables; excepting the very few cases
3 8 . MODS OP R1&I W8 HMRXW.
where the quiescent letter* are irregularly used m abort syllables.
(21. 14 note, 16 note, 19 note.)
RULE 9. Ever y composite Sheva, and ever y simple
Sheva vocal, stands of course at the beginning of a sylla-
ble. ( 26. 6.)
* 38. Exemplification of the manner in which Hebrew is read
with references to rules and principles which respect the ortho
graph/ and orthoepy of the Hebrew text,}
Verse 1. 1. rPtijfirja bere-steth; Beth has a Dagbesh lene in it 29.
13$; Sheva under a is vocal 26. 6. e; in fcr^a btre, fit quiesces in the
Tfeeri 23. 2, which makes a simple syllable, rule T.In shlth,
Yodh quiesces in Hbireq and renders it impure 23. 2; and it is a
mixed syllable r. 8 (comp. r. 6); final n is written without a Sheva
expressed 26.2, and Is also written without a Daghesh lene 29. 14. b.
2. ttna bd-rd; a fro, Beth with Daghesh lene 29. 14; a simple
syllable r. 3. fitn ri a simple syllable r. T; M quiescent in Qamets
23. 2.
3. SPld-hun; tflo a simple syllable r. 3 and 26. 4; with
composite Sheva 26. 5, which is vocal 26.6. a. (comp. r. 9).ETn hfon
a mixed syllable r. 8 and 5; Yodh quiescent in Hhireq 23. 2; Q with-
out Sheva expressed 26. 2.
4. t%-nr\cth; a mixed syllable with a long vowel r. 5, Sheva being
implied under n, 26. 2; Daghesh lene omitted in n, 29.14. b.
5. Q*23i8?2 hash-ska-md-yim; ttftn h&sh, ?} being doubled by the Da-
ghesh 29.1 $ a mixed syllable r. 4 . s k d a simple syllable r. 3.
m r. 3, Pattahh pure and short 21.8.W] yim r. 4, Hbireq being
parvum; D without Sheva expressed 26. 2; a mixed syllable r. 4.
6. DJO vittith; Vav moveable 23.4. a; Sheva vocal 26.6. t; mix-
ed syllable with a long vowel r. 5 ; Daghesh lene omitted in n, 29.
14. b; Sheva implied under n, 26.2.
t The explanation of the accents is here omitted, and may be found la Ap-
pendix E.
| The first figure or number refers to the section (t) in the grammarj and
the other references in connexion, to the subdivisions in that section. The rules
referred to are these contained in 137.
7. V" ^ n hd-t&d-rit*; Ad, r. 3; ttd, r. 3 j rits
r. 4; y without
Shera 26! 2. '
Verse 2.
8. V^fi t m; sec nos. 6, 7.
9. i w n ha-yttha; Metheg after n SI. 2. 6; ha a simple syllable
r. 6.ID ytAd Yodh is moveable 23.4. a ; Sheva vocal 26. 6. 6; N final
quiescent 23. 2; a simple syllable r. 7.
10. %*nr)tho-hu; n without Daghesh lene 29. 14. 6, the A here
Allowing a quiescent letter in the preceding word. In Ait, Vav is
quiescent in Shureq 23.2.
11. SffcP va-bho-hu; vd, no. 6 and r. 3.bho without Daghesh lene
29. 14. 6; a simple syllable r. 3.AtS, no. 10.
12. ^ r n vehho-shikh; i no. 6.hhd with Hholem oyer 3} and co-
inciding with the diacritical point on its right 22. 3. (1); a simple syl-
lable r. 2.*AefcA, r. 4; Sheva in final Kaph 26. 2. a ; Kaph without
Daghesh lene 29 14 6.
13. "^5 $&l r. 4; Maqqeph after b? 32.
14. ptni; Pe with Daghesh lene 29. 14. a, because it follows
a mixed syllable; with Yodh quiescent 23. 2.
15. Oton thihom; monosyllable 26. 4; n without Daghesh lene
29. 14.6; Vav quiescent in Hholem 23. 2; a mixed syllable r. 6.
16. vtruPhh; monosyllable 26. 4 ; Vav quiescent 23. 2; Pat-
tahh furtive under n, 27. 1.
17. dTffcfit; see no. 3.
18. mtrd-hhi-phBth; na with long Pattahh because Da-
ghesh forte is omitted in n 21. 7.T}, r. 3.n$, r. 4 ; D and n with-
out Daghesh lene 29.14. 6; n without Sheva expressed 26.2.
19. see nos. 13, 14.D^n hdm-ind-y\m, no. 6.
Verse 3.
20. vay-ybrmlr; vdy with Yodh moyeable 23. 5, Daghesh
forte doubling the Yodh 29. I.In yd, Yodh is moveable 23. 4. a, and
fit is quiescent in Hholem 23.2.mlr, r. 4.
21. W yiht; Yodh moveable 23. 4. a; final Yodh quiescent 23. 2.
22. lifit fitor; fit moveable 23. 4. a ; Vav quiescent23. 2; mix-
ed syllable r. 8.
23. *nfitTP1 vd-yehi fitdr; in va, Pattahh is long and impure, be-
cause Daghesh forte is omitted in the Yodh 23.7, and of course the
syllable comes under r. 6. See nos. 21, 22 for the reading. Metheg,
no. 9.
Verse 4.
24. vdy-ydr; vdy, no. 20.ydr
r. 4.ft at the end is in otio
23. 6 . a.
25. ki-tdbh; s with Daghesh lene 29.14. a. ^ without
Metbeg after the Hhireq, and so an exception of 31. 2. d ; perhaps
because the next succeeding syllable is accented, but more probably
because the long vowel Hhireq has no Sheva after it 31. 2. b.aio,
see nifit no. 22.
26. vdy-ydbh-del; rdy, no. 20.ydbh, r. 4.2 without Da-
ghesh lene, 9. 14. b.dil mixed syllable r. 5; i with Dagbesh le-
ne 29 14. a.
27. "p3 ben; a with Daghesh lene 29.14. a; Yodh quiescent 23. 2;
mixed syllable r. 5 ; u - b h e n ; fi, r. 1.S without Daghesh lene
29. 14. b.^'rin, no. 12.
Verse 5.
28. vdy-yiq-rd; vdy, no. 20.yiq, r. 4.itn, no. 2.
Yodh moveable 23. 4. a; mixed syllable r. 5.
29. vtld-hhoshikh; Id with long Pattahh no. 23.qdrrd lay-Id,
25.1. a, note 3; -od-ythi 9&r&bh, ^ with Seghol pure and short 21. 10,
12.vd-yehi bhd-qir ydm fit$-hhadh, with long Seghol because Da-
ghesh forte in n is omitted 21. 9.
Verse 6. Vay-yo-mer WfaJtim ythi ra-qW, Pattahh furtive
under y, 27. 2, btthdkh hdmrmcMftm vt-ht mdihrdxl ben md-ytm IcHndryim.
Vtrse 7. Viy-yd-9as H
lo-htm ikSth hdrraHffs, Pattahh furtive under
9 27.2, vdy-ydbhrd&l ben hdm<nd-yrm "^fit R
shir, composite Sheva un-
der fit 26. 5, mU-td-hhath, Daghesh forte in Tav 29.1, Pattahh pure and
short 21. 8, Id-raHjPs u-bhm hdmrindryvn t&*shr me-9dl ld-ra-qi
9 vd-
yehi, 1 with long Pattahh no. 23, khen.
Verse 8. Vdy-yiq-rd tflo-him ldrrd-qi
9 ahd^ma^yxm vdrythi 96-ribh
vd-ytfn bhd-qbr yom shd-m.
Verse 9. Vay-<yd-m&r itffaJum jfiq-qa-vu, the first Vav moveable 23.
4. a, the second quiescent 23. 2, hdmrmd^ytm rmt-td-hhdth hdthrshd-md-
ytm Ml ma-qom t-hh&dh vtthc-rd-M hay-yab-bd-sha vdrythi khen.
Verse 10. Vay^yiq-rd Wld-fam Idy^ydb-basha fiti-rSts u-UmUpoi
hdmrmd-yim qa-ra ydmrimm vdy-ydr (no. 24) tflo-him fo-tdbh.
$ 39. Orthographical commutations of consonants
That consonants of a similar sound, or which ar e pro*
nounced with the same organs, should occasionally he ex-
changed f or each other both in wr iting and speakmg, is
an occurrence which is common in all languages. In He-
br ew this occasionally happens, and letter s ar e commuted
f or each other in the Mowing manner. See Ges. Lex*
wider the sever al letter s.
1. Letter s of the same organ.
() Labial*. *!*, and 5)3 the bade; and fif'-ja fat;
and obc to escape; Sept. Aofiva for Heb. 2 Chron. 21:10.
() Palatals. "VJ0 and ^20 to shut up; bi
! and to travel
about; $3^3 and
() Unguals. Of these only n, C and are interchanged; as
V3n and qnn to rob; for n s wr j ( 41.1. <*).
(d!) Dentals, Ybs, and to exult / p$t and to cry out i
pniD and pn to laugh.
\e) Gutturals. ftttS and HH3 to be pusillanimous ; D3t| and & to
be mournful.
2. Letter s of a dif f er ent organ.
(a) Sibilants are commuted for Unguals, 1. e. the sibilation is drop-
ped, and the letter is pronounced without it. . g. and to
40. comror&Tiows or COOTONANTS. 9t
quench, where T = d* and the scwod of s is dropped; *^X3 and ^&a to
zvatch over, where X= t s ; and nna ajtr tree ; and n^ n to
engrave. So In Greek, xagaaato and jraparrw.
(b) The liquids V, tt,a,lore sometimes commuted* E.g.ynV and f l i a
to oppress ; bViapri and to COIIM to shimj* *|T?1D and DQiD to hate ;
Bi 0 and 013 to totter ; "JDS and 1P5 dehor, a proper name. But these
changes are very unfrequent
(c) The Ehevi, when moveable. E. g. and B^ ^ a rags ; Ztb
and yyi Doeg, a proper name; and to go. For the exchange
of the vowel-letters when really quiescent, see 49.
{d) The Ehevi and Nun, which is a kind of semi-vowel. E. g. 32* and
asa to place; JifiO and flita to be beautiful. So future Kal IrtSf?'), but in
Syriac uniformly -*ap
NOTE. The above changes principally concern lexicography, and
serve to direct philological disquisition. They do not affect the
grammatical forms of the words in question; but the knowledge of
them it very useful to the student, in order to give him a proper
view of the essential nature of the Hebrew letters. If he know what
letters are correlative, or what letters are commuted for each other,
then, when he does not find satisfaction in the explanation of any
particular word, he may investigate its correlates
i. e. those words
which contain letters that are occasionally commuted with the let-
t en of the word in question.
40. Grammatical commutations of consonants
The following commutations of the consonants, on the other hand,
respect merely grammatical forms, or the changes which are pro-
duced in letters in consequence of inflection.
1. Io the conjugation Hithpael of ver bs beginning
with S, the n of the pr af or mative DH is changed into D,
and transposed with the S. . g. Kal pTC, Hithpael
instead of pnXnf i. ( 80. 2. ).
This usage prevails in all the kindred dialects of the Hebrew.
The immediate concurrence of two J'I is thus avoided, viz. one in
n and one in s = ts.
The Chinese, and many tribes of (he American savages, have no r and
speak I for it. The Japanese have no I and speak r for it.
2. He quiescent at the end of wor ds is changed into
Tav, when the word r eceives an accession or is in regimen
( 135) j as f em. ip r egimen i. e. be-
f or e the genitive,
In Arabic the feminine ending is and corresponds to the He-
brew ; and in Syriac ft and n are often interchanged, as innnK
for infitnjf. No satisfactory reason, however, has yet been given
for this change of into n, which so extensively prevails in the
Shemitish languages.
41. Assimilation of consonants.
The assimilation of a preceding letter to a succeeding one, in
order to avoid harshness of sound or to facilitate utterance, is com-
mon in most languages. Thus in Greek avXXaftpavu for <wvXup-
0avat, XiXtifAfnav for XtXtmftat, &c. In Latin illustrit for inlustris, dif-
fusus for disfutus, collator for conlabor &c.
1. Sever al Hebr ew letter s ar e occasionally assimilat-
ed in the same manner.
() Nun most frequently of all. E. g. nj t t for rflvafrom this, ttte*
for This is very common in verbs ]D ( i 13. 3), but not
() Lamedh rarely. Probably in the article brj in all cases ( 65);
as for b3 &c. (Comp. Arabic article bit.) Also in
the verb nj^b; as future nj5? for fl b\
(c) Resh very seldom. In as instead of who
will be; NOS for which is the form of the word in Syriac and
(d) Tav, in the preformative nn in Hithpael often assimilates it-
self to the first radical of the verb, when that radical is *l or tt; some-
times, when it is T, 3,3,"% or 5. E. g. for &c. ( 80.
2. 6, c.)
(e) Mem only in a few foreign words; as for in Greek
{ f ) Yodh in some verbs ( 112).
2. The student will per ceive that the assimilated let-
ter is marked, in all the f or egoing cases, by a Daghesh
f or te in the letter to which it is assimilated.
3. But in cases wher e the letter to which a pr eceding
letter is assimilated comes at the end of a wor d, this Da-
ghesh is necessar ily omitted; because a Daghesh f or te
cannot be wr itten or spoken at the end of a word. ( 29.
18. a. 45. 3.)
(a) JV before Too at the end of a word, frequently falls out in
this way; as nn for n3n to give ; P)K for anger ; ns for daugh-
ter, feminine of ]a son; for truth; nnE for nsn'Q gift.
(b) Daleth before Tav; as nb for to bear children; nnfit for
IVJPK one, feminine of
(c) Tav before another Too; as nTTttJE for feminine cor-
- ST * ' I *
rupted, rntifc for feminine serving.
NOTE 1. Instances like the foregoing are very unfrequent, ex-
cepting the case a j but the principle which is concerned in them
should be exhibited and explained, so that when they do occur, the
student may be able to satisfy himself respecting them.
NOTE 2. In all the above cases, on account of the Daghesh being
omitted in the letter to which the one which is dropped is assimilat-
ed, the tyro can find no certain index of assimilation. It is only an
acquaintance with the language, and especially with the principle of
assimilation, which will explain to him these apparent anomalies.
They are usually noted in the best lexicons.
NOTE 3. As those letters only which have a furtive Sefrbni J J Z

2) are dropped in this way, the conclusion is, that tttfs species of
Seghol was not very distinctly pronounced; otherwise no cacopho-
ny arising from the pronunciation would have required the omission
of a consonant. For it is only when two consonants come together,
without an intervening distinct vowel-sound, that there arises a harsh-
ness of utterance.
42. Consonants dropped.
This sections treats of the omission of those letters only, which
would be moveable if inserted. For the omission and apocope of
the Ehevi when quiescent, see 49, 50.
The f eeble consonants, particularly the Ehevi and the
liquids, ar e sometimes dr opped.
J. At the beginning of wor ds, by Aphaeresis, when
they have a Sheva under them.
() Aleph. E. g. *- n\ for we ; Cflfo for women ; for
nnif one (with Seghol); 1 9 and for who or which ; the
Syrians for D'Va'iKn, the ft being only the article and beginning the
word. This is very common in Aramaean, Rabbinic, and vulgar Arabic.
() Yodh. E. g. "lb for lb* imper. from lb*, and so commonly in
verbs (109 &c.); b^a for bl 3") provender, HSl for ft**!* knowl-
(e) Lamedh very seldom. E. g. ti usual imper. for from
n|5b. ( 114. IV. a.)
\d) Mem. Often in participles beginning with this letter; as Tljsb
for ngbfc taken. ( 90. 2.)
(e) Awn. E. g. ]n for ]na Imper. from }na, and so commonly in
verbs jc. (113 &c.)
NOTE. A few words (and only a few) suffer an aphaeresis of letters
which have vowels. E. g. Ti for f n * Judg. 19:11; Jinn for rtnro
2 Sam. 22: 41 (comp. Ps. 18: 41); ai for ai* Jer. 42: 10.
2. In the middle of words, by Syncope, when pre-
ceded by a Sheva; in which case, the vowel of the let-
ter dr opped is always transf erred to the letter that pr e-
cedes, and takes the place of the Sheva.
() Altp.*. E. g. for *1*$^ part Piel from 5^6$; Sib for ilb
() He very frequently. E. g. fut. Niph. IJ3V7 for IttbrP; fut,
Hiph. for T>brr; fut Hithpa. T?abn^ for Wbnr r (88.3.)
So when the article comes after a prefix preposition; as
for^bfflrtb; ^baa for ^f c^a; for &c. (61. 6. )
NOTE. In all such cases of verbs and nouns, the tyncope of theft is
the common usage ; and the occasional retaining of it is classed among the
(c) Vao very seldom. E.g. *3> for ruins, for island,
for brand.
(d) Yodh. E. g. lb* for;pbA,and so qften In verbs fib. ( 122 &c.)
() Ayin very seldom. E. g. ^2 for V?2 = Baal; *2 for ^ 2 /
pray you.
NOTE. In some few cases, contraction takes place in the middle of
words where a Sheva does not precede. E. g. nc for n; e mouth, itip
for lamb.
3. At the end of wor ds, by Apocope.
() Mem in the regimen of all masc. plurals.* ( 135. 2.)
() Nun, when a plural ending and in regimen ( 135. 2). Also at
. the end of some proper names in ; as i'Wtt for p i s n ; perhap*
rib"" for J
(c) Tt~ as a quiescent, very frequently. See in 50.1.
48. Consonants added to words
The present section treats of those letters only, which are move-
able. For an account of the manner in which the Ehevi when qui-
escent are added to words, see 50. II.
1. At the beginning of wor ds, by Prosthesis, in a f ew
wor ds which begin with two moveable consonants.
() Aleph. E. g. is En, Vianfit yesterday; ? ^T, arm ; -t5>
cruel &c. More seldom is it, that fit prosthetic is used before
words which begin with one consonant E. g. ]Dit for ]1D. Comp. in
Greek ; also the Latin spiritus and French esprit &c.
() He. E. g. in Hithpael btsjJnn. The He is merely prosthetic
here, as die corresponding Arabic shows, which omits i t The pros-
thetic He is used in all the forms of Hithpael, which have no praefor-
mative letter.
2. In the middle of wor ds, by Epenthesis.
() He in the plural of a few words. E. g. STOfit a maid, plural
r nn^fit.
() Nun between the future tenses of verbs and their suffixes. E. g.
for ( 126.6. d). This epenthesis is common.
So. in Latin, m at the end of a word and before another beginning with a
vowel, suffer* apocope. Qninctiliaa caya of it,elianui icribitur, tamen parum
exprimitur, obscuratur, et tantum aliqua inter duos rOcaUs vthU not* est,
ftc WMI coVant. Inst. Orat. ix. 4. 40.
(c) In later Hebrew, we find put for *2j5, where the Da-
ghesh is resolved into Nun; for p ^ a i , where the Daghesh is
resolved into Resh.
Such epentbeses are common in Chaldee ; but are unfrequent in
Hebrew, excepting the cae 6. Compare d epenthetic in the Latin
prodeo ; /? in the Greek pipfXstm &c.
3. At the end of wor ds, by Paragoge.
Nun is frequently added to those forms of the future tense of
verbs which end with % and , but without any change of their
For the effect of this paragogic Nun on the tone-syllable and on
the preceding letters and vowels of the word to which it is append-
ed, see 35. 2. 123. I. h.
44. Transposition of consonants.
A consider able number of wor ds exhibit a tr ansposi-
tion of letter s, without a change of signif ication. The f ol-
lowing ar e the classes of letter s which ar e most f r equent-
ly tr ansposed.
1. The sibilants and Resh.
E. g. V&3 and to be foolish, 3 ^ . and a lamb, and UJB 3 to
breathe, and f n c to break, Dtn and Syr. and Arab. t)Dl to wink &c.
2. The quiescents with b, 3, and with each other .
E* 8-
a n
d wickedness, piit and p#3 to sigh, and
nifipa vaUies, perhaps rnrtbg and rnbn$ terrors &c.
3. The liquids.
E. g. frabto and ilbai? a garment &c.
See also the transpositions in Hithpael 80. 2. a.
The transpositions noticed in this section belong, however,
rather to the province of the lexicon than of the grammar. A
good Hebrew lexicon will explain the detail, under particular
words. The principle of the transpositions in question is not an ex-
tensive one in Hebrew, and has been much abused by some lexicog-
raphers. It is important for the student to know that such a princi-
ple, in a moderate extent, does exist. Its origin must be traced to
vulgar usage, which makes such transpositions. Thus in Greek)
xapcegog is changed into xgaxegos; ovQifa into the Doric avgiadm
&c. In English, cupalo is a vulgar word for cupola &c.
45. Consonants which are never doubled
It should be borne in mind that when a letter is doubled, the first
of the two letters is commonly expressed by a Daghesh forte ( 29.1)
Inserted in the second letter. The present section, therefore, may
be considered as pointing out the cases where Daghesh forte euential
is omitted.
1. The guttur als wer e never doubled, on account of
the dif f iculty which this would have occasioned in pr o-
nouncing them. Daghesh ther ef or e is never f ound in the
guttur als.
2. Resh commonly was not doubled.
A few instances are fonnd, however, of Resh doubled, i. e. with
Daghesh forte. E. g. r n a , r n &c.
3. Letter s ar e not doubled, i. e. do not take Daghesh,
at the end of wor ds. ( 29.18. a. 41. 2.)
The Hebrews, agreeably to this canon, wrote na instead of na
for na$, (comp. 41.3. a). So i i rj l is written instead of where
the 1 at the end has a Daghesh forte ( 55.2). See examples in 41.
3, and verbs i s 115. 2.
4. Af ter a mixed syllable, the doubling, i. e. the Da-
ghesh f or te, is frequently omitted.
E. g. i np^ for for 'in'lrj. Orthography admits both
forms, i. e. both with and without Daghesh.
NOTE 1. This omission of Daghesh is not uncommon in the fut. Kal
of verbs JE ( 114.1, c) ; AS instead of from *03 Ex. 12:
37 ; for Gen. 7: 17. So also in verbs yy 116. IV. d.
NOTE 2. In a similar manner Daghesh is sometimes omitted in nouns,
when in the course of declension &c. the letter in which it stood comes
to have a Sheva; as Ps. 45:7, where the Daghesh is drop-
ped to avoid an impossible syllable ( 26.1). Sometimes also without
this necessity; as *$, Ex. 17: 1; 67:8.
( 137. Dec. III. d, e.)
106 4 6 . GUTTURALS.
NOTE 3. The omission of Daghesh in such cases is marked, in some
instances, by the use of a composite Sheva instead of a simple one, un-
der the letter in which Daghesh is omitted; as nnjsb instead of
!inp>b Gen. 2: 23. instead of Gen. 1 2 : 1 6 ; see the next
5* Regular ly Daghesh is omitted in a letter which
is f ollowed by the same letter ; as f or
The omission of Daghesh in such cases is merely orthographic.
The word is read as though Daghesh were written ( 26. 6. / ) . See
the preceding note.
6. Yodh and Vav with Sheva under them commonly
(not always) r eject Daghesh f or te, i. e. ar e not doubled.
E. g. for for D & c . On the contrary,
&c. with Daghesh. The former examples are merely an ortho-
graphic conformity to the vulgar pronunciation, which inclines to
the abridgment of words.
NOTE 1. The later Hebrew orthography not unfrequently sub-
stitutes a long vowel instead of Daghesh with a short one; as
for for &c. This is very common in
Chaldee, and in Rabbinic Hebrew.
NOTE 2. Vice versa, instead of a long vowel, the later orthogra-
phy sometimes writes Daghesh forte with a short one; as D*I0 for
for &c.
46. Gutturals / effect on preceding towels.
1. The guttur als and Resh not admitting r eduplica-
tion ( 45), the pr eceding vowel is lengthened as a com-
pensation f or Daghesh f or te excluded. ( 23. 7, 8.)
E. & *

Before ft and in, Pattahh commonly remains; as Vila for bna,
BTjK for In all such cases, Pattabh, Seghol &c. are really
long and impure. ( 21. 7, 9, 12, 18.)
2. Instead of simple Sheva, the guttur als commonly
(not always) take a composite Sheva.
E. g. ftvrbfit instead of ; "in** instead of t o* or &c.
i *i* t 1*
{ 4 7 . QUIESCENT LXTT1RS. 107
But we have also ant | &c. i. e. gutturals with simple
Sheva. It should be particularly noted, that the gutturals never take
a vocal Sbeva simple, but always substitute in its place a composite
Sheva. A silent Sbeva simple, however, is not unfrequently placed
under them; yet never except after a short vowel, and when the gutturals
stand at the end of a mixed syllable.
Resh sometimes admits a composite Sheva, but not oftener than
most of the other consonants.
3. The guttur als and Resh very generally take a Pat-
tahh, par ticular ly in a f inal syllable, in pr ef er ence to any
other mutable r owel; pr obably because they wer e utter -
ed mor e easily with Pattahh.
E. g. Future Kal instead of 9*33^; Piel 3^3 instead of
7. But if the vowel in the f inal syllable wher e they oc-
cur be immutable, then the guttur als take a Pattahh Jwr-
tive ( 27) in or der to ease the pr onunciation.
E. g. &c.
8. Resh never takes Pattabh furtive; and in regard to the syllable
in which it occurs, though it inclines to the use of Pattahh, like the
gutturals, yet it frequently adopts the common forms.
47. Quiescent Utters ; cases where they quiesce.
(Comp. 25.)
The fact that these letters quiesce, and in what vowels, has been
considered in 23. The design of the present section is, to show
in what position or when quiescence happens to them, and the laws
in accordance with which their consonant-power ceases.
N. B. As the principles exhibited in this section are fundament-
al in respect to all the verbs, nouns, and adjectives, which are irreg-
ular by reason of quiescents, the student should not fail to make him-
self most thoroughly acquainted with them. This is by far the short-
est method of obtaining a correct understanding of the irregularities
in question.
t l . The Ehevi quiesce in a homogeneous vowel, when
accor ding to the analogy of other consonants, they would
stand at the end of a mixed syllable, or have a silent She-
va expr essed or implied under them.
E. g. {rrprpa instead of ^ni rPB; instead of SENV in-
stead of instead of ac*>n.
I I *
This rule is universal for Vav and Yodh, and for Aleph at the
end of words. But ft in the middle of words frequently retains its
character as a guttural ( 46. 2). E. g. Pjctr instead of tjDM?.
When g quiesces here it reads where fit quiesces in Hholem.
t He quiesces only in a f inal- syllable ( 23. 2), and al-
ways quiesces ther e unless it have a Mappiq. ( 30.)
t In the cases above, it is taken f or gr anted that the
vowel pr eceding the quiescent is homogeneous ; but if it
be heterogeneous, the Ehevi r etain their consonant power .
E.g. 9dv4a, may-me-ntm &c. ( 23. 5.)
t2. Aleph, Vav, and Yodh commonly (not always) qui-
esce, when accor ding to the analogy of other consonants, a
Sheva would immediately precede them.
E. g. nttip instead of riitu).
In such cases, the preceding Sheva is dropped, and the vowel
belonging to the quiescent comes into its place; as tPfttt'l instead of
I'lttifin instead of instead of Sfita; tflRB instead
ef ma n ; Dsp instead of Dip ; W # instead of Ma^fit &c.
t *. | I Ml T
NOTE. The above principle of contraction is carried so far, that
in a few cases vowel-letters preceded b j Sbeva even destroy a pre-
vious syllable, in order that they may throw back their vowel on
the preceding letter and quiesce in it. E. g. rrDttVn instead of the
regular rDfitVft; MOp^ instead of najnpb; ntefitbn instead of ^tefitbn.
t3 Vav and Yodh of the end of words, when a Sheva
or a f ur tive vowel pr ecedes them, uniformly go into qui-
This is effected by changing the preceding vowel, and accommo-
dating it to the final quiescent.
E. g. W instead of TP ; instead of ^ ; tfin instead of i ri n;
3ria instead of i r i s; 3riQU)*i instead of i n n w the apoc. form of
. (1S3. VL b.)
On the contrary, Aleph remains t* otio at the end of a word, when
preceded by Sheva. E. g. MDlrj &c. ( 123.I. d.)
NOTE. The principle of quiescence in nos. 2 and 3 is the same;
bat in no. 3, the quiescent letter standing at the end of a word, and
having no vowel of its own to throw back apon the preceding let-
ter, and thus provide for ifs own quiescence, as is the case in no. 2,
resort is had to the various expedients just described. The Hebrew
language does not admit of a moveable Vav or Todh at the end of
words, when preceded only by a Sheva or by a furtive vowel.
1*4. Aleph, Vav, and Yodh f r equently quiesce, though
pr eceded and f ollowed by a vowel.
E. g. fi'lp instead of Ehj? qd^odm ; instead of bdryen; ttj&H
instead of ttjiH ro-Hish; instead of nijSJtt nlm-tsl-Klth.
NOTE. In the last case, viz. that of a Segholate form ( 59. 2),
the quiescence and consequent contraction always takes place if the
preceding vowel be homogeneous; as UfaH instead of ; n &B in-
stead of ; nteai instead of nj ba Sic. But if the preceding
vowel be heterogeneous, then the contraction does not take place;
as nTQ, rrj j . Quiescence is admitted here only by necessity, in or-
der to mark the construct state of nouns. ( 137. Dec. VI. e.f.)
5. Peculiarities of Ahph.
t(a) When Aleph with a composite Sheva is immedi-
ately pr eceded by a simple syllable with the cor r esponding
shor t vowel, this vowel is f r equently lengthened and Aleph
goes into quiescence.
E. g. WBNlb for for as it is often written;
rneo for HI*2 Niph. of Vntt; for i>2ey1fut Hiph. of &c.
(b) In the beginniig of a wor d, when a composite
Sheva belongs to it, Aleph not inf r equently takes a cor -
r esponding long vowel.
Instead of ( ~ ) is put ( ) as for
( ) - ( ) - * *
( ) (-
-) - t r t n *
NOTE. This is a Syriasm. At the beginning of a word, the Syr-
ians always enunciate Alepb and also Yodh with a proper vowel.
6. When two quiescents come together , and a yowel
between them is moved back or dr opped (supr a nos. 2, 4),
one of them is put in otio. ( 23. 6.)
. g. pfifX with 1 in olio instead of 'pfiOS; nlfitbn with 1 in otio
instead of rriKbtt ; with fit in olio instead of bfc|*l30-
7. A quiescent may again become moveable, if a
change of vowels or par ticular f or ms of wor ds r equir e it
E.g. ihizj (for a betvc, plural shevarrim.
48* Quiescents ; relation both to homogeneous and heteroge-
neous vowels
tl* In or der to admit of quiescence the pr eceding
vowel must be homogeneous; and if the vowel be shor t,
it is of cour se lengthened by the quiescent ( 23. 3.)
E g. SttfcOb instead of SttRb ; instead of in-
stead of &c. ( 47.)
Pattahh and Segbol sometimes remain before a quiescent letter,
but are prolonged ( 23. 3) ; as nNnjxb for riK^jPb, for
( 47. 2 note.)
The future Kal of verbs && exhibits an exception to the above
rule (comp. 47. 6. o) ; as instead of b2>N, by the rule
NOTE. HOW to determine whether the long vowel should be
Tseri or Hhireq magnum when Yodh quiesces, or Hholem or Skureq
when Vav quiesces, can be learned only from practice.
t2. If the pr eceding vowel be heterogeneous, the case
is managed in two ways in or der to ef f ect a quiescence.
(a) The vowel conf or ms to the quiescent.
E. g. at vi f t instead of (Vav receiving Hholem or Shureq
23); instead of STib; nbt e instead of iibl*; instead of
n *ba.
(b) The quiescent conf or ms to the vowel.
E. g. &N{ or dj? instead of aij?, Vav being changed into Alepb
which is often dropped; instead of rn, Vav into Yodh ; F&tfj
instead of ), Vav into He ; instead of Yodh into He.
NOTE 1. The case a is the most common. In 6, the vowel is
retained because it is essential to the characteristic form of the
words, and the quiescent is therefore made to conform to it.
NOTE 2. The vowel-letters (N *J ) in cases where they are move-
able, sometimes conform to the vowel-points of the preceding sylla-
ble ; as instead of where Aleph is put for Vav because
of the preceding Qamets; instead of Q2, a*rj instead of awi,
where Yodh is put for Vav because of the preceding Hhireq. This
is very common in the Arabic.
49. Quiescents ; commutation and omission.
1. As the same vowels ar e homogeneous to sever al
of the quiescents ( 23. 2), a var iety of or thogr aphy has
ar isen in r egar d to the quiescents, without occasioning,
however , any dif f er ence in the pr onunciation.
E. g. K is put for ST-, as for
N I i l l , -
^ -
*<- rio
i-u - - ttti
n-i - s r j * i n n
i - . ran
rt-, - to* ritoaj
- t n i &i
2. The quiescents ar e of ten wholly omitted, the pr o-
nunciation r emaining the same. ( 24.)
In many words, custom authorizes the omission of the quiescents
uniformly. In others usage is variable. In some they are scarcely
ever omitted.
3. Daghesh euphonic sometimes occasions the omission
of a quiescent.
E. g. maz-zi, written also rtJJg fee. ( 29. 8. a).
On the exchange of the quiescents for each other when moveable
consonants, see 39. 2. c.
50* Quiescents 4 apocope andparagoge
This section treats only of those letters which are really quies-
cent. For the apocope and paragoge of moveable letters, see 42,43.
/. Apocope.
1. In the f utur e of ver bs nVi and in the apocopated
imper ative, H-. and H f all away. ( 123. I. d, III. d.)
E. g. fut. apocopated or ; Piel imper. apoco-
pated >1 &c.
2. The same apocope occur s in nouns der ived f r om
these ver bs, especially when they r eceive incr ease. ( 137.
Dec. IX.)
II. Paragoge.
Paragogic letters are either orthographic, or they serve to lengthen
out words.
3. Aleph par agogic af ter V, \ and \ is of ten mer ely
or thogr aphic. '
E. g. tops the same as ; t o 3*1 the same as Sal ; Klb the same
as 51b. The Arabians always write an orthographic Aleph after a Vav
quiescent at the end of a word. In Hebrew this seldom happens.
4. Sever al par agogic letter s, with their vowels, ser ve
to lengthen out wor ds.
() n - . E. g. Bft, by parag. Mart; "Jii (fem. pron.) by parag. JlSiT
Also in verbs; see 91, 92. 34. 2. h notes.
() ft-. E. g. (interjection), by parag. rtlrt;
(e) fT-. . g. i *, by parag. Also in verbs; see
at above under a.
(<Q i - . E. g. t u, by parag. Sal mostly in suffixes ( 126, 135);
by parag. llVft. (Comp. 40. 2. 45.4.)
() V E. g. BV.1, by parag. b' MiS, 1W) ,
Ex. 15: 6.
For the tone-syllable of words which receive the above paragogic
letters, see 34. 2. h &c.
NOTE 1. In none of die preceding cases does the paragogic letter
affect the signification of the word to whkli it is appended. Compare
the last example in e, Ex. 15:* 6 and in verse 11.
NOTE 2. Pronominal suffixes to verbs and nouns, corresponding as
to appearance with most of the above paragogic forms, are also em-
ployed, and are treated of in 126, 135. The termination ap-
pear* also as a local preposition, indicating motion to a place. ( 157.)
5. A par agogic letter is most f r equently added to the
construct state of nouns ( 135). It also appear s of ten in
compound wor ds, L e. pr oper names; as 123
man of God, the f ir st noun being in the constr uct state.
51. Vowels ; general causes of mutation*
The numerous changes of the Hebr ew vowels ar e
f undamentally connected with the whole gr ammatical con-
str uction of the language. They r esult from the lengthen-
ing and shortening of words ; the position of the tone-sylla-
ble ; the relation <f nouns to each other ; euphony ; the placing
of words at the end of sentences ; and the influence of dialects.
52. Vowels ; mutable and immutable.
In order to understand the following rules, it is necessary that the
student should have made himself familiar with the theory of pure
and Impure, long and short vowels, as exhibited in 21; with their or-
thography in connexion with the vowel-letters, as exhibited in 24;
and with the theory of the coalescence of the Ehevi, the gutturals,
Resh &c. in the vowels, as exhibited in 23. With the principles in
his mind which are there unfolded, he will be able to understand
without difficulty the following theory of the vowel-changes.
1 1 4
I. Common usage in respect to vowel-changes.
t l . All impur e vowels ar e long and immutable.
This is equally true of those which are called long, and of those
which are more usually short E. g. Qamets, Tseri, Hhireq, Hholem,
and Shureq, having a quiescent or a guttural coalescing with them, are
immutable, whether the quiescent &c.'be written out or not ( 21,
24). In the same manner, Pattahh, Seghol, and Qibbuts, when im-
pure, are equally immutable. Whether a vowel be impure and im-
mutable cannot, in many cases, be discerned merely from its appear-
ance ; because vowels after which the quiescents are omitted in writ-
ing ( 24), or vowels after which a Daghesh forte has fallen out
( 21. 7,8), are of doubtful appearance in these respects. A knowl-
edge of etymology, declension, dialects &c. is often necessary, in order
to decide in respect to the pureness and consequent mutability of vowels.
t2. All pur e vowels ar e mutable.
This is equally true of the long and of the short vowels. Long
vowels when pure may be shortened, and short vowels when pure
may be lengthened, i. e. long vowels when pure may be exchanged for
short ones, and vice versa. Gesenius has laid it down as a rule (large
Gram. 44), that short.vowels before Daghesh forte, i. e. in a mixed
syllable, are immutable. But this is evidently erroneous. E. g.
in pause nnt t ; nn? in pause Fins &c. where the short Pattahh is plain-
ly mutable. The fact most evidently is, that as a general principle
oil vowels unmixed with consonant-sounds, and therefore pure, are in their
nature mutable ; they may therefore be changed, whenever there is oc-
casion for i t This very simple theory appears to have been only
partially developed by the admirable grammarian just mentioned.
II. Particular usage in respect to vowel-changes.
To preserve the form of a particular word is sometimes so impor-
tant, that in order to effect this purpose the common law respecting
the mutability of vowels is transgressed.
3. Wher e ther e is an accidental concur r ence of a qui-
escent and a homogeneous vowel, and a coalescence takes
place in consequence of it, still, if declension r equir e it,
such vowel is mutable.
E. g. 3 pen. masc. K3>0, so written by reason of the N instead of the
regular form ( 55. 3), but 3 pers. fern. where the Qamets
under K is dropped, which shews that it is mutable. So flhp, with
suffix ""fipp i. e. the Hholem of the final syllable is thrown back
and shortened into Qamets Hhateph, although in the ground-form it
quiesced in 8. ( 126. IV. note 8.)
4. Immutable vowels belonging to the same class ar e
sometimes exchanged f or each other , on account of their
r elative length. ( 21. 20.)
() Hholem impur e and Shur eq.
E. g. Niph. 3 pers. sing, O'lpa with Hholem impure, but 2 pers.
niJMpa, 1 pers. Tiinsipa &c. with Shureq. So infinitive absolute
DIE, ->i0; but infinitive construct rm, *1*10 &c. So also many words of
the form 01253 &c. in the suffix-state, plural &c. take forms like "O.Htt,
&c. i. e. they substitute Shureq for Hholem impure.
() Tser i impur e and Hhir eq magnum.
E. g. Infin. abs. in Hiphil or infin. constr. (which is
shorter) So the plural noun in regimen is &c.
NOTE. In both the above cases, the first vowel is relatively longer
thart the second ( 21. 20); and when abridgment of form is required
without throwing away an immutable vowel, a correlate vowel some-
what shorter is chosen.
5. Shur eq in the r egular f utur e of ver bs IP, is ex-
changed in the apocopated f or m f or Hholem pur e. ( 118.
I. d.)
E. g. D*p, future ip?, apocopated form Dp^ which has a pure
Hholem, because with Vav prefixed it reads vay-ya-q&m with
short o. This exchange is made to shorten the form in the apocopat-
ed state; for Hholem pure is shorter than Shureq, although Hholem
impure would be longer than Shureq. (Supra. 4. a, and note.)
The same thing, in substance, takes place in some other cases in re-*
gard to exchange of forms. The reason is, that to mark the particu-
lar form by some peculiar designation, is more important than to ob-
serve the general laws of the change of vowels.
6. Feminine endings in H- ar e changed into in
r egimen. (135. 2.)
This results from the importance of marking the regimen-form:
in order to accomplish which, the common law of the immutability of
an impure vowel (in this case !*T-) is violated.
7. Composite Shevas with their cor r esponding shor t
r owels ar e sometimes exchanged f or each other .
E. g. ob*5 part masculine, hut in the feminine ftfcVag, plural
tnabya. So future with suffix ( 68.3). The A sound
is shorter than the E sound, and when the word receives increase
is not ^infrequently substituted for i t
NOTE. This change does not relate to the commutation of immutabU
vowels for each other, and therefore does not rank under the same
class with no. 4. But as it is similar in Its operation, and is occasioned
by a -similar cause, it is here noticed on account of these resemblances.
8. Besides the par ticular changes alr eady noticed,
ther e ar e other s which ar e occasioned by cer tain laws of
euphony, and by the position of wor ds in sentences; f or
an account of which see 60. In all languages ther e ar e
some anomalies, and in the Hebr ew they ar e occasional-
ly f ound in r espect to the vowels; but this does not pr ove
that gener al r ules r especting vowel-changes ar e not usef ul.
9. General Summary.
() Immutable. Qamets, Tser i, Hhir eq magnum, Hho-
lem, Shur eq, Pattahh, Seghol, Qibbuts, when impure.
() Mutable. Qamets, Tser i, Hholem, Pattahh, Seghol,
Hhir eq par vum, Qamets Hhateph, Qibbuts, when pure.
The student should note, that Hhireq magnum and Shureq are
always impure ; and Hhireq parvum and Qamets Hhateph are always
pure. All the other vowels may be pure or impure, and consequent-
ly mutable or immutable, according to their respective condition in
each particular word.
53. Vowels ; general principles of mutation.
t l . The exchange of the pur e vowels f or each other
is limited, almost exclusively, to the boundar ies of the
classes to which they r espectively belong. ( 21. 22.)
There are a very few apparent exceptions to this principle. E. g.
130, plural t rnfc; plural &c. But even here, it is
perhaps more probable that the derivative forms come from IJa, a*yiB
&c. now obsolete. As to such cases as 2 person Hiph. nbt3j?H from
3 person &c. there is here rather a change of characteristics,
than an exchange of vowels.
1*2. The changes, almost without exception, r espect
the pur e vowels in the f inal and penult syllables of wor ds,
as they exist in the gr ound-f or m.*
54. Vowels ; change of long into short
"f l. Long vowels ar e exchanged f or shor t ones only
in mixed syllables, when the tone is r emoved.
As long vowels can usually stand in mixed syllables only when
they have the tone; so, that tone being removed, it is evident that
the long vowels must be shortened, when the syllable continues to
be a mixed one. ( 37 rules 5,6.)
NOTE. TO shorten a vowel is different from dropping i t Thus in
from the first vowel is dropped, the second is shortened, i. e. ex-
changed for a short vowel. For an account of vowels dropped, see 56.
t2. Long vowels ar e exchanged f or shor t ones when
the tone is moved forward, i. e. towar ds the lef t. This
happens in the f ollowing cases.
(a) When the wor d r eceives any accession beginning
with a consonant.
E. g. ground-form Here the Qamets in "Q goes into
Pattahh, and the first Qamets is dropped ( 56). So ground-form V,
with suffix tjb"r (but sometimes as *j*r); from fr
ylq-tbUkhd from ilr'ia gudh-ld from ^*1.
NOTE 1. The reason why the accession must begin with a consonant
* The ground-form of words is that on which the other or derived forms are
boilt. Io regard to the oblique cases of a OOUQ singular and the nominative
plural, the ground-form is the nominative singular. In regard to the oblique ca-
ses of the plural, it is the nominative plural. In the praeter of verbs, it is the
3 person singular &c.
is, that otherwise the long vowel is thrown into a simple syllable, and
of course must remain unchanged. E. g. 131, with suffix beginning
with a consonant D^i ai , where 13 is changed into 15 because it has
lost the tone by the accession of &3, and a long mixed syllable unaccent-
ed is contrary to usage. But in " ^ l , there is not the same reason for
changing the Qamets, because the accession begins with a vowel, and
necessarily takes away the last letter of the word, in order to form a
regular syllable ( 37 rule 1); consequently it leaves the Qamets of
the ground-form in a simple syllable, where it may stand unaccented,
and where it is the kind of vowel which such a syllable requires.
( 55. I.)
NOTE 2. There are a few cases where the accession to a word be-
gins with a consonant, and yet, although it removes the tone of the
previous syllable, it does not change the previous long vowel. E. g.
^151 dthfrd-rtkka, &c. But here a special expedient is adopted
to preserve the long vowel, viz. the final letter of the word is taken
away and thrown into the same syllable with the accession, and thus
Qamets remains in a simple syllable and needs no change. ( 31.2. b.)
t(6) When a mixed tone-syllable with a long pur e
r owel pr ecedes Maqqeph.
E. g. L^JN-bs kdl from JJS ( 32. 3). The two words thus connect-
ed, are regarded only as one in respect to accent
t(c) Gener ally, when a noun is in r egimen, i. e. bef or e
another noun in the genitive ( 135), and has a long pur e
vowel in a mixed f inal syllable, it exchanges the long vowel
f or a shor t one.
E. g. l i l word, but in regimen Hj5i? 131 the word of Jehovah.
For the ground of this change, see 135. The tonic accent, indeed,
is written in our Hebrew Bibles over such nouns when in regimen. But
this only serves to show, that the primary design of the accents is not
to mark the tone-syllable. At least, analogical reasoning in respect
to the shortening of the vowel in the case before us, would lead us to
believe, that two nouns in regimen are treated as a composite noun, and
so the real tone is removed to the ultimate or penult syllable-of
the second word ( 32. 3). The change which takes place In the
long pure vowel of a final mixed syllable of a noun in regimen, is
generally the same as that which happens in other cases from remov-
ing the tone.
1*3. Long vowels ar e exchanged f or shor t ones when
the tone is moved backwards, i. e. towar ds the r ight
E. g. ground-form *$2; vay-ya^qbrn, ground-form tjjj
yd-qom; tJQttjPa* instead of 0nttp
2 Hos. 2: 9.
t4. In all the cases descr ibed in this section, the long
vowels ar e changed in the f ollowing manner.
Qamets goes into Pattahh.
Tseri Seghol or Hhireq parvum.
Hholem Qamets Hhateph or Qibbuls.
Compare the foregoing examples.
f 5. When a long tone-syllable becomes shor t, by r e-
ceiving an accession which causes Daghesh f or te to be in-
ser ted in its f inal letter , then the change of the long vow-
el is as f ollows.
Qamets goes into Pattahh.
Tseri Hhireq parvum.
Hholem Qibbuts or Qamets Hhateph.
E. g. b*, tW|, ^ ; p n , ngH; fr, 6z-zl
NOTE. If the tone remains, the vowel is not shortened; as
rtTah be. ( 34. 2. h.)
55. Vowels ; change of short into long.
Shor t vowels ar e exchanged f or long ones in the f ol-
lowing cases.
1*1. When f r om any cause a mixed syllable with a
shor t vowel is changed into a simple syllable.
E. g. inbDj5 he killed Aim, ground-form ground-form
ar t ; ground-form
NOTE. In this case, the accession made to the word begins with a
vowel. Consequently ty requires the last letter of the word to be uni-
ted with that vowel, and thus takes it away from the previously mix-
ed syllable, which of course becomes simple. But when long syllables
are shortened, the accession begins with a consonant. (6 54.2. a, note 1.)
t2. When Daghesh f or te is omitted wher e analogy
r equir es it, i. e. in a guttur al, or at the end of a wor d.
(45. )
E. g. for ; ?J12 for ; *J13 for j i a ; b ^ for \>X*
instead of ft$r; DK for att = DK; for from &c.
Pattahh frequently remains before ft and n, but is long. ( 46. 1.)
NOTE ]. The cases in nos. 1 and 2 are in principle the same. All
the difference is, that in no. 2 the concluding guttural of the mixed
syllable coalesces with the vowel, so that the syllable becomes simple,
and long; whereas in no. 1 the concluding consonant is transferred to
another syllable, in which case usage commonly prolongs the vowel
which was short. (Comp. 23. 7.)
NOTE 2. In respect to the case where Daghesh forte is omitted at the
end of a word, the vowel is not uniformly prolonged, but often remains.
E. g. apocopated form for which is written ba^ and ba\
Compare 2Q = 33&, to account for the latter method of writing.
t3. When ther e is a concur r ence of a homogeneous
quiescent letter .
E. g. instead of ; ftb* instead of ftbs. (Comp. 52. 3.)
t4. In gener al (but not always) when a pause accent
f alls on a shor t vowel. ( 60. 7.)
E. g. D^ja instead of C?Q; baft instead of b^| -
But in the futures of Niphal and Hiphil, and occasionally of other
conjugations, the pause-accent falling on final Tseri commonly chan-
ges it into Pattahh ( 60. 7. a (2). 97. 2. 99.1, e.)
5. Ther e ar e a f ew peculiar anomalies.
() Some words (very few) prolong their vowel when they take the
article; as D?, C*ft; 1ft, 1 ftft; I S, I X* ; 16, IDf t ; yifi$, Y")ft &c.
() Seghol with ft quiescent at the end of words, when these words
are placed in regimen, goes into Tseri E. g. ft3|l, in regimen ft51;
a singularity limited to words of this form. ( 137. Dec. IX.)
56. Vowels dropped
t l . When f r om any cause the tone is moved f or war d,
or towar ds the lef t, f r om the syllable which had it in the
gr ound-f or m, an omission of mutable vowels takes place
to cor r espond with it. This omission is r egulated by the
f ollowing pr inciples.
t2. When the tone is moved f or war d one syllable,
the penultimate vowel of the ground-f orm f alls away if it
be mutable.
E. g.
O f T" T I
T **' f l
But when the tone continues on the same syllable as in the ground*
form, the first vowel remains unchanged, although an accession be
made to the word; as toPST, ground-form
NOTE. The above rule is pretty general, in respect to nouns and
adjectives. It applies generally to verbs in the praeter, where the ac-
cent is thrown forward by declension, and also in the various cases where
the verb receives suffixes which change the place of the tone. See
126 and the paradigms in 127, particularly Par. XV.
t3. In many cases, particularly in the f utur e (and
sometimes in the pr aeter ) tense of ver bs and in the pr es-
ent par ticiples, when the tone is moved f or war d one sylla-
ble by declension, or by a f or mative or other suf f ix begin-
ning with a vowel, the ultimate vowel of the ground-f orm
f alls away if it be mutable, and the first vowel of the ver b
E. g. In the praeter of verbs; Vog, feminine In the fu-
ture ; , ^Dp
?; Vt5|>7, with suffix In participles; ^ ' p ,
feminine p; plural
As usage in the verb is variable, sometimes the first and sometimes
the second vowel falling away by a change of tone, practice only can
make the student familiar with the respective cases where the one or
the other principle is to be applied.
NOTE. Nouns of the same form as present participles follow the
same rule. E. g. an enemy, plural ( 137. Dec. VII.)
t4. When the tone is moved f or war d two syllables,
both the vowels of the gr ound-f or m f all away if mutable.
E. g. ^31, ; f pj , DPfspt; where both the vowels of the
ground-form disappear in the suffix-state. But here the suffix must
begin with a vowel; or the word must be plural, and in regimen.
For the manner in which those vowels that fall away are supplied,
see 58.
57. Vowels; transposition*
1. This happens mostly in ver bs with suf f ix pronouns,
wher e the suf f ixes do not take the tone.
E. g. ground-form &3Tg; where Qamets and Sheva are
transposed, and a composite Sheva is substituted for the simple one be-
cause of the guttural.
2. In ver bs Lamedh guttural, instead of a transpose*
tion, ther e is r ather an inser tion of a new vowel.'
E. g. ground-form fax*}?; ground-form
These examples, however, may be better solved by another prin-
ciple, viz. the original vowel in die final syllable of the root is restor-
ed, and prolonged if it be a Pattahh. ( 126. IV. notes 6, 12.)
3* Segholate nouns ( 59. 2) in the plur al, imitate
the tr ansposition in ver bs.
E. g. ^*3, original form or but in plural
Transposition sometimes takes place merely for the sake of eupho-
ny ; as for yny, iuatfns for Hrja.
58. Insertion of new vowels
11. When a vowel f alls away, a Sheva of cour se comes
in its place ( 26. 2); a composite one if the letter be a
guttur al, other wise a simple one. But wher e two vowels
f all away ( 56. 4) and leave the wor d in such a state
that thr ee consonants must come bef or e a vowel, then a
new vowel is inser ted in or der to avoid the impossible syl-
lable which these would make ( 26.1). This new vow-
el is usually Hkireq parvum; but if either of the letter s be
a guttur al, it is then Pattahh or Seghol
E. g. nsn in plur. constr. is instead of ^ S n , both of the
5 8 . NEW VOWELS. 123
vowels having fallen out So instead of from ;
*jena instead of ( 77. 1.)
NOTE. In a few cases the supplied vowel is Pattahh though the
letter be not a guttural; as instead of "'D355, ground-form
two wings.
1*2. If two letter s come bef or e a vowel both having a
Sheva, and the latter is a guttur al r equir ing a composite'
Sheva, the shor t vowel which is contained in the compos-
ite Sheva must also be inser ted under the pr eceding letter .
E. g. instead of i asb (regularly Wb ) ; for
na. (61: 9.)
The r ule may be other wise expr essed. Of two Shevas
before a vowel, if the second be composite, the first is chang-
ed into the short vowel of that composite Sheva.
The older grammarians expressed it still differently. A guttural
points itself and the preceding letter ; i. e. the vowel of the first letter
must be homogeneous with the Sheva of the second.
Thus in the future tenses of verbs Pe guttural, we have a de-
parture from the punctuation which is common where there is no guttu-
ral. E. g. instead of TD5?; nip?* instead of ( 102. 1.)
NOTE 1. In all these cases the guttural is thrown into the succeeding
syllable, instead of remaining in the preceding one, as in the regular
punctuation. E. g. "Ms!?* tftinnddh, but with guttural yd-3><hnodh.
NOTE 2. The preceding rule holds good, though the guttural should
afterwards exchange its composite Sheva for a simple one and be
again united with the preceding syllable, as is not unfrequetftly the
case. E. g. nih-p&kh, with composite Sheva n&rhtphakh,
not and not Two verbs only jake Hhireq
parvum in such cases; viz. fut Niph. J-rrjq; and h*n, f ut
In the fut apoc. Ilaireq parvum often appears; as f ut n i n j ,
apoc. "1)3?; Fnfl, f ut apoc. ^r j \
t3. If r egular ly two Shevas occur in the middle of a
wor d, the f ir st of which is composite, this composite She-
va f alls away, and the shor t vowel in it r emains in its place.
E. g. rtDDfnj instead of iiDDrta; instead oftj^^B; instead
of VW*\ (Comp. nos. 1,2 above.)
59. Insertion offurtive vowels
f l . It is contr ar y to the genius of the Hebr ew lan-
guage to admit two consonants af ter a vowel, in any sylla-
ble except at the end of a wor d, and ver y r ar ely even
ther e.
E. g n*]5Q^ 2 pers. sing. fem. praet. of Kal. So also l i s , and a
few other nouns.
1*2. To avoid the concur r ence of two consonants m
this way, the Hebr ews f or the most par t supplied a vow-
el under the penultimate one, which does not belong to the
essential form of the word, but is a mere expedient for the
sake <f euphony. The vowel thus supplied is commonly
Seghol; under penultimate guttur als, Pattahh ; and under
Yodh f inal, Hhireq parvum. ( 34. 2. a. 41. 3 note 3.)
All nouns, adjectives, and par ticiples, in which these
f ur tive vowels ar e f ound, ar e said to have a Segholate form,
and ar e usually called Segholates.
These furtive vowels are supplied in the following classes of words.
() In all nouns, adjectives, and participles, which end in Seghol,
Pattahh, or short Hhireq.
E. g. instead of or -jbb orig. form.

13^ 1*3
s -
rr>2 m i
- IX-
Fem. nouns r n^ s
Participles (Comp. 60.3.)
() In the apocopated future and imperative of verbs Vrb. ( 123.1, d.)
Fut. Kal. apocopated for which is used.
nyj* i n
Fut Hiph. ^12
Imp. Hiph. n e i n 01:3
n &3
(c) In die 2 pers. sing. fern. praet of verbs Lttmtdh guttural; as
ntf9 jAd-md-MU for !Wg thd^mdst.
NOTE 1. In Arabic, nouqs of the class a have no furtive vowel
written. They write a king; hot pronounce with a furtive
Seghol, like the Hebrews.
NOTE 2. The Pattahh which is inserted in words of the class e, dif-
fers from the Pattahh furtive treated of in 27, in being pronounced
after the guttural under which it stands. It also differs from the fur-
tive vowel in words of the classes a and b above, in being introduced
merely to facilitate the pronunciation of the gutturals (comp. 27.1);
for in the 2 pers. fem. of all other verbs, no furtive vowel is either
written or pronounced.
60. Vowels ; changes from euphony and from the influence
1. A guttur al with Qamets seldom admits the A
sound, i. e. either Pattahh or Qamets, bef or e it; but sub-
stitutes f or them the kindr ed vowel Seghol*
E. g. m.JTT} instead of V*ni* instead of Vn; instead
of rttvo; instead of (61.3. 68.4.)
But Qamets sometimes remains; as i nt t &c. ( 55. 5.)
NOTE 1. Sometimes, though very seldom, the second Qamets goes '
Into Seghol instead of the first; as instead of 191 for
NOTE 2. Seghol sometimes, though very rarely, stands for Qamets
when a guttural does not follow; as " n ' i i instead of Ps. 4:3.
NOTE 3. So also very rarely, before Hhateph Qamets; as
Instead of t r annt t . ( 61.6.)
2. Pattahh in a mixed syllable is not unf r equently
changed into Seghol; and vice ver sa.
E. g. instead of 0 ^ 2 ; instead of Vice versa, as*
)Y instead of 1t constr. state of ( 142. note 5.)
3. The f ur tive Seghol ( 59. 2) at the end of wor ds,
of ten changes the pr eceding vowels Qamets, Pattahh, or
Tser i of the or iginal f or ms, into Seghol.
E. g. instead of ; ns. fyn for nqhi n; for ; -
fut. Hiph. apoc. al s oi | \ l ; imper. Hiph. nnn, apoc-
B-iH, Seghol-form
NOTE. With gutturals the change is into Pattahh; as YTFFC, Seghol-
form n$M.
4. The Segholate f or ms ar e sometimes contr acted,
ami the vowel thr own upon the penult letter of them,
E. g. nf itip instead of nt$ip; nttXb instead of nt$2ta. ( 47.2.)
5. In a similar manner , composite Shevas with their
pr eceding shor t vowels ar e sometimes contr acted, when
they assume a Segholate f or m in the cour se of inf lection.
E. g. WHKn for 1 afWjfy so- written instead of ; wbofitn for
InbDijn, so written instead of (Comp. 47.5. a.)
6. On the other hand, long vowels ar e sometimes (not
of ten) put f or the shor t ones which usually pr ecede the
composite Shevas; and vice ver sa.
E. g. "fi^rn for }Vnn; for ilbifrh for nbstt. Vice versa,
for if cn;'for *JV.
NOTE. The cases in nos. 4, 5, 6, are quite unfrequent, and are ex-
ceptions to the general rule. The contraction in no. 4 is a Syriasm.
f 7. Vowels ar e of ten changed by the pause-accents,
which may be placed either on the ultimate or penult syl-
lable, even though the or iginal tone-syllable is ther eby
r emoved. ( 34. 2. j . )
A wor d or syllable, on which one of these accents ap-
pear s, is said to be in pause.
The changes occasioned by a pause-accent may be di-
vided into two classes.
(a) When it f alls upon the usual tone-syllable. .
( l ) It changes Pattahh into Qamets; as bOJ?.
Seghol (standing for Pattahh) suffers the same change; as ;
and so of all nouns belonging to the A class of Segholates in Dec. VI.
< 137,)
(2) It often changes Tseri in the ultimate syllable of verbs into
Pattahh; as l Ef t , I Bf t ; bfej?,
w i t h
suff. ; in^n*:, in*n\
(6) When it f alls upon a syllable, which is not the
usual tone-syllable.
I. On the penult.
(1) When the last syllable begins with a single consonant, and there
Is a vowel already belonging to the next preceding letter, if that vowel
be Pattahh, it is changed into Qamets; as nna*, ftng; ftrur, ftng: but if it
be a long vowel, it remains unchanged; as "'Djij.
(2) When the last syllable begins with two consonants and of course
with a vocal Sheva, then the pause-accent (being on the penult) occa-
sions a proper vowel to be placed in the room of the Sheva. This
vowel is various, according to the nature of the case.
(a) In verbs, the original vowel of the ground-form is restored;
as ftKV from fin"
; :i3J2t3, from ; future ibbp?
t ;rr
s i t ? r * t . " p '
from 3 pers. i'opp ; from for 132^") &c.
NOTE. In the second and two last examples, the Pattahh of the ground-
form is restored and lengthened into Qamets; which is the usual fact
in all cases of this nature. Even silent Sheva, in some cases, is chang-
ed by the pause-accent, and the preceding vowel removed; as r&nti
with paragogic ft, from in pause tlSfXTD.
(b) In verbs ftb, the Pattahh of the ground-form is not only res-
tored and lengthened, but the Yodh of the root also is restored, in cas-
es where it usually falls out; as :ptD3 from ftD3 = ^03; wa ,
imper. of ft*2 =*
?2. ( 122. 1. 123.1, h.)
(c) In nouns, and other parts of speech, simple Sheva goes into
Seghol; as D^Uj, : composite Sheva goes into the
corresponding vowel; as ""'btjt, ^3K where Pattahh is inserted and length-
ened ; ^ n , "'bh where Hhateph Qamets becomes Qamets Hhateph
and is lengthened into Hholem. No instance of Hhateph Seghol oc-
NOTE. A few anomalies.are found here;
II. On the ultimate.
(3) Here the pause-accent prolongs the vowel, if it be short; as
with Qamets Hhateph in the ultimate, but in pause nb*3 with
8. The ef f ect of pause-accents is not unif or m. In a
gr eat number of cases, no change is occasioned by them.
On the other hand, most of the disjunctive accents, and
even sever al of the conjunctives, not unf r equently pr oduce
the same ef f ect in pr olonging syllables, as the pause-accents.
(o) Disjunctive*. E. g. 5
J|*2, I V
Ps. 5: 12. &c. &C-
( i j l i nr j n, ^rj s- j ?; r r oi j ,
f p o n &c. &c.
*v* *
From the view of the subject here given, it is sufficiently evident
that all the changes wrought upon the vowels by the accents, are mere-
ly euphonic and arbitrary.
61. Vowels j changes in the punctuation of the article, prepo-
sitions, the conjunction Vav, and the interrogative He
I. Article.
1. The ^ of the Hebr ew ar ticle Vn ( 65) being al-
ways assimilated to the f ir st letter of the f ollowing noun
(41. 1.6), and commonly expr essed by a Daghesh f or te in.
that f ir st letter , the usual punctuation of the ar ticle is Pat-
tahh f ollowed by Daghesh forte.
E. g. ttjnan the serpent, instead of uinj ( 63.3.)
2. The Daghesh not being admissible in guttur als, the
ar ticle bef or e them commonly (not always) lengthens its
vowel into Qamets. ( 46. 1.)
E. g. Me man ; pfcrt the eye ; WKhrt the head. So D\"T^K!l
Ex. 22: 7.
Before Si and H, the Pattahh of the article very generally (not aW
ways) remains; as *p$?riH the darkness, who walks. But Pattahh
in such cases is long. ( 46.1.)
3. If the guttur al have a Qamets under it, the ar ti-
cle commonly (not always) takes Seghol instead of Qamets.
1 2 9
E. g* the mountains ; the cloud. ( 60. 1.)
But we have also Vl ^n, a m, an, Ciitn, i n n &c. agreeably
to the common rale in no. 2 above. ( 55.5.)
4. The Daghesh commonly (not always) is omitted be-
f or e a wor d beginning with Mem or Yodh with a sim-
ple Sheva.
E.g. nDDQn (read hd-mekh&a-te) the covering, instead of nDban hdm-
mtkhdse; (read hdryeikdr)the river, instead of nK*n ha^ytutor.
5. In a f ew instances, the ar ticle takes Seghol bef or e
Hhateph Qamets.
E. g. tTttHHS} the months, rna^Ht^ the watte placet. ( 60.1 note 3.)
6. When the pr epositions 3;, 3 , V, ar e pr ef ixed to a
noun which has the ar ticle, the ar ticle commonly (not al-
ways) f alls away; but its yowel and Daghesh ar e attached
to the pr epositions.
' E. g. for for tons; $ for d^. nqb.
The cases where the article and preposition are both retained are
somewhat numerous, particularly in respect to S; as 0i *n3, D*nb,
II. Prtpotiiiont S,
7. The appr opr iate point of these pr epositions is sim-
ple Sheva. ( 157.)
8. Bef or e the ar ticle, they commonly (not always) r e-
move it and take its punctuation. (See no. 6 above.)
In the same manner, they sometimes remove the n of the in
Niphil and Hiphil. (Comp. 88. 3.)
9. Bef or e composite Shevas, they take the cor r es-
ponding shor t vowel; as '['nHS &c.
10. Bef or e a tone-syllable they take Qamets.
() Before monosyllabic or penacuted infinitives, as ntolb
but not when they are in regimen, as * n ^ s .
() Before monosyllabic or penacuted pronouns and suffixes.
(c) Before the tone-syllables of nouns at the end of a proposition,
or when they have a disjunctive accent; as Gen. 1: 6 tr) 'pa-
Deut 17: 8 V?.-
But prepositions before monosyllabic and penacuted dissyllabic
nouns, in cases other than a, 6, c above, generally exhibit the punctu-
ation of noe. 7 and 9. But takes Qamets; though not before
the genitive.
III. Preposition ja.
11. The 1 of the pr eposition *|t3 ( 157) is common-
ly assimilated to the f ir st letter of the f ollowing wor d; so
that the usual punctuation is Hhireq parvum f ollowed by
Daghesh forte ; as instead of ( 63. 3.)
12. Bef or e the guttur als and Resh, the Daghesh
is omitted and the vowel under the Mem commonly
lengthened into Tser i ( 46.1); as
13. Sometimes when the Daghesh is omitted the
Hhir eq is still r etained, but is lengthened into Hhir eq mag-
num* ( 46. 1.)
E. g. Bfitba; perhaps nl - f i a Ruth 1:12.
14. Bef or e Yodh with Sheya, Hhir eq r emains, but is
pr olonged, because Yodh becomes quiescent (47. 1.)
Mem is found with Pattahh 1 Chr. 15:13 nsitDttlaab.
T p f - i
IV. Conjunction 1.
15. The appr opr iate point of the conjunction Vav is
simple She va; as (158.)
16. Bef or e wor ds having simple Sheya under the f ir st
letter , Vav takes Shur eq; as ^37*1.
But when a word begins with \ Vav may take Hhireq, in which
case Yodh becomes quiescent; as Wi , OittH'O, ( 48.2. a.)
When the first radical of the two verbis r r n and f pn would regu-
larly have ( - ) under it, Vav commonly t^kes Hhireq parvum, some-
times Seghol, and the first radical takes simple Sheva; as
r n Gen. 42: 18. rtW Gen. 12:2. (6 102. 3 note.)
A tl' ~ 5*
17. ID like manner , bef or e its cognate letter s the la-
bials ( 2 13 B), the conjunction Vav commonly (not always)
takes Shur eq.
E. g. (See no. 19 below.)
18. Bef or e a guttur al with composite Sheva, Vav
takes the cor r esponding shor t vowel; as
But if other letters hare a composite Sheva, Vav before them takes
Shureq; as
NOTE. When words begin with fit, the contraction to which this let-
ter is subject occasions, in some cases, an anomalous punctuation under
Vav prefixed; as CSTbfitJ instead of CJTbN); instead of
(47. 5. a. )
19. Bef or e a tone-syllable, Vav frequently (not al-
ways) takes Qamets; even in cases like those in no. 17.
(a) When the word with which it is joined has a disjunctive accent;
as tagl Gen. 33: 13. A word with a conjunctive accent, does not ad-
mit Vav with Qamets.
(&) Often (but not uniformly) when words are closely connected
In a kind of couplet or triplet; as 1111 IV* generation and generation;
511 aio good and evil; Di" day and night; ntl tinfcl IJJD fear
and a pit and a snare Is. 24:17.
But here the regular punctuation is sometimes also found; as ttTfit
aj'ifiO Ps. 87:6; uJi l ' W ni3T fornication and wine and new m e
Hos. 4: 11. Ecc. 2:26.
NOTE. For the punctuation of Vav conversive prefixed to the fa-
true tense of verbs, see 93.
V. Interrogative H.
20. The appr opr iate point of P! inter r ogative is Hha-
teph Pattahh.
E. g. Ysp IJDil an de arbore ? man custos?
132 6 1 * VOWELS UNDER HE.
21. Bef or e a simple Sheva it takes Pattahh; as HD^TlDn.
22. Bef or e guttur als it takes Pattahh, and in a f ew in-
stances Qamets.
E. g. shall I go? rtniJIiT an to sit?
23. Bef or e a guttur al with Qamets it takes SeghoL
E. g. EDnn is he wise ?
24. Not unf r equently it takes Daghesh euphonic af ter
it, and thus appear s tike the ar ticle; f r om which it can
be distinguished only by the sense of the passage, or by
its standing before the pr ef ixes of nouns &c. and not next
to the noun itself as does the ar ticle.
E. g. Gen. 17: 17 So 18: 21. 37:32. Nam. 13:19, 20 &c.
* 62. Radical words,
1. The Hebr ew and its cognate languages, in their
pr esent state, exhibit a surprising degr ee of r egular ity and
unif or mity, in the constr uction and sound of the r adical
wor ds. This cir cumstance f or ms a br oad line of distinc-
tion between them and all the wester n languages. Al-
most all radical wor ds, which with f ew exceptions ar e
ver bs, consist of only thr ee letter s usually f or ming two syl-
lables ; as he reigned, the earth. Fr om such tr ilit-
er al r oots ar e der ived the var ious f or ms of nouns and
ver bs, which ar e used to expr ess case, number, gender , pei>
son, tense &c. and the dif f er ent f or ms of nouns, adjectives,
par ticles &c. Fr om this general pr inciple of der ivation
as to nouns &c. which was commonly r epr esented by the
older gr ammar ians as universal, ar e to be excepted, how-
ever , a f ew wor ds, which constitute the names of f amiliar
objects; as 2$ father, mother, *1* hand, &c. A f ew
par ticles and pr imitive pronouns also ar e biliter al in their
r oot, and not der ived f r om any tr iliter al wor d.
2. So extensive in Hebr ew is the pr inciple of inf lec-
1 3 4 6 2 . RADICAL WORDS*
tion gr ounded on der ivation f r om a tr iliter al r oot, that
nouns which ar e pr imitive and biliter al, conf or m to the com-
mon laws in their declension; i. e. they ar e tr eated as
though they wer e der ived f r om tr iliter al r oots. Thus
by inf lection becomes as if der ived f r om
; although Dtt is pr imitive.
3. Fr om some appear ances in the Hebr ew language,
it is pr obable that or iginally it contained a gr eater number
of biliter al r oots, than at pr esent; and that its tr iliter al
f or ms wer e, in many instances, constituted by doubling the
second r adical of the r oot, or adding to it one of the vow-
el-letter s, or the semi-vowel Nun.
E. g. and at o to be good, common root UD.
HD3 mo to blow, ns.
MSn, ttDI to thrust down,
In like manner , ther e ar e a consider able number of
wor ds in the Hebr ew and its cognate dialects, in which two
of the r adicals ar e the same, while the thir d is quite dif -
f er ent, and yet the meaning of all the wor ds r emains the
E. g. The verb to lick Is either asb, 0?V, 5)5^, yyV,
or ; the letters sb being uniform in all.
But if biliter al r oots wer e or iginally mor e numer ous
than at pr eseut, they had conf or med to the common laws
of the language at least as ear ly as the wr itten Hebr ew now
extant; since the wr itten language ever y wher e pr esents the
tr iliter al f or ms, as pr incipally constituting the r adical wor ds.
4. Quadr iliter al and quinqueliter al r oots ar e ver y
r ar e in the Hebr ew; such as afruitful field, CD/IS
to devour, to be quiet. Those which exist, ar e f orm?
ed by the addition or inser tion of a letter or letter s, to
lengthen the tr iliter al r oot; in the same manner as ti>
6 2 . RADICAL WORDS. 1 3 5
liter als ar e f or med f r om biliter als, as descr ibed above in
no. 3.
5. Ther e is no pr oof that the Hebr ew is a language
der ived f r om any other . So f ar as is known, it appear s
to be original. Yet this must not be so under stood, as to
exclude all wor ds of f or eign origin. _In gener al, however ,
whether these wor ds ar e Egyptian, or Per sian, they ar e
r ecognized as f or eign by their nonconf ormity to the com-
mon laws of the Hebr ew.
6. The par ts of speech, as they ar e called, ar e the
same in Hebr ew as in Gr eek and most other wester n lan-
guages. But as Hebr ew nouns and adjectives ar e mostly
der ived f r om ver bs, convenience of ar r angement r equir es
that the latter should pr ecede the f or mer in a gr ammat-
ical tr eatise. The or der adopted in this gr ammar is the
f ollowing; viz. the article, pronouns, verbs including partici-
ples, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, in-
7. The pr opor tional number of r oots in the var ious
par ts of speech in the Hebr ew may be thus ar r anged.
(a) The ver b is altogether most f r equently pr imitive;
and ther e ar e ver y f ew ver bs which ar e not under ived.
( 69. 1. b, c.)
(b) Only a small number of nouns ar e pr imitive; most
of them being der ived f r om ver bs, or f r om other nouns.
(c) The original pronouns, per sonal, demonstr ative,
&c. ar e all pr imitive. These, of cour se, ar e not ver y nu-
mer ous.
(d) Par ticles ar e some of them pr imitive, and some
ar e der ived f r om other par ts of speech. The Hebr ew
has ver y f ew par ticles.
63. Grammatical construction of words.
1. Ther e ar e two ways in which case, number , gen-
der , per son, tense &c. may be expr essed in any language.
First, by the inf lection of the or iginal wor ds or gr ound-
f or ms ; and secondly, by af f ixing other wor ds or par ticles,
which ser ve to expr ess r elation. The Hebr ews made use
of both these methods. Accor ding to the second, they
connected par ticles with their nouns, and to their ver bs
they af f ixed pr onouns or par ts of them, to designate per -
son and gender . In accor dance with the f ir st, they inf lect-
ed nouns, adjectives, and par ticiples, by annexing to them
the f eminine ter mination H_, and the plur al f or ms
r h &c. which, however , cannot be tr aced to any r oot
All the der ivative conjugations of ver bs, and all der iva-
tive nouns &c. also exhibit the f ir st method of inf lection,
and pr ove by their f r equency that it is extensively com-
pr ised in the Hebr ew language.
2. Composite wor ds, i. e. compound ver bs, nouns &c.
which the Gr eek, Latin, and other wester n languages ex-
hibit, ar e not usual in the Hebr ew. Wor ds pr oper ly com-
posite ar e f ound in Hebr ew almost exclusively in pr eper
names ; wher e, however , they f r equently occur .
3. The Hebr ew also dif f er s f r om the languages of
the west in the mode of wr iting many of its par ticles, and
the oblique cases of per sonal pr onouns. These, instead
of standing by themselves, ar e commonly united with the
ver bs, nouns &c. to which they belong or on which they
depend, so as to f or m with them but one wor d.
() Particles are prefixed. E. g. the sun, instead of bn
( 65); n
IJfit"T3j in Vie beginning &c.
() Fragments of pronouns &c. are suffixed. E. g. dnbDJ5 thou hast
kitted them, instead of Oft n~D; DD^D their horse, instead of fin 0*0
&c. ( 126, 136.)
64. Kindred dialects mixed with the Hebrew.
!. The Hebrew being kindred with the Syriac, Chaldee, and Ar-
abic ( 1. 2), contains a multitude of words which are common to all
these languages. It is therefore only when a word is in some re-
spects anomalous as a Hebrew word, but conformed to what is usual in
some one of these dialects, that we call it a Syriasm, Chaldaism, or
2. The later Hebrew, written after the captivity, exhibits a con-
siderable number of Chaldaisms or Syriasms, as in Ezra, Daniel, Chron-
icles &c. It is observed also of the poetical books in general, that their
language approximates to these dialects. But whether this is to be
considered simply as poetic costume, or as the remains of the ancient
Hebrew when it differed little from the Syriac, is difficult to ascertain.
3. Arabisms, properly speaking, occur only in a few words, and
relate merely to the form. This, it is probable, is only the result of
negligent transcription. The Arabic language never exercised any
predominant influence over the Hebrew; as the Jews did not speak
it, until after the Masorites had begun to guard against all innovations
on the sacred text. What has often been named Arabism, viz. the
plural ending in , is also an Aramaelsm; and much more probably
was derived from the Aramaean, than from the Arabic. Still, because
the Hebrew has many roots in common with the Arabic, much light
may be borrowed from this latter dialect to illustrate the former.
Above all, the forms, inflections, and syntax of the Hebrew, receive a
great acccession of light from a good Arabic grammar, such as that
published by De Sacy.
* 65.
1. The Hebr ew has but one ar ticle viz. -It cor -
r esponds in a good degr ee, but not univer sally, with the
def inite ar ticle the in English.
2. The ar ticle is always united with the noun to
which it belongs, and its Lamedh assimilated to the f ir st
letter of that noun and expr essed by a Daghesh f or te in
that letter or by some equivalent.
E. g. the rain, instead of b3; tflfitn the man &c. (41.
1.6. 46. 1.)
For. an account of the manner in which the vowel of the article is
affected by the letter or vowel-point which follows it, or by prefix-
prepositions, see 61. 16.
NOTE. That the original form of the article was brt, seems hardly to
admit of reasonable doubt. The b nowhere appears in Hebrew, being
always assimilated to the letter which follows it (as it also is in the
verb n[5b); but the form corresponds to the Arabic article bit, whose
b is frequently assimilated in the same manner. The only difference
is, that in Hebrew the assimilation or some equivalent for it is uni-
versal ; in Arabic, it is usual only before certain letters.^
66. Personal pronouns
t l . The Hebr ew is r ich in per sonal pr onouns; not only
distinguishing the masculine and f eminine of the second and
thir d per sons when they stand as the subjects of ver bs,
but possessing f or ms appr opr iate to the oblique cases which
f ollow ver bs, nouns, or par ticles.
1*2. The f ollowing table exhibits the nominative case
or gr ound-f or m of all the per sonal pr onouns.
1 The solar letters, viz. d, /, #, s ; and also r sod n. De Sacy, noa. 60,108..
1 per s. com. 'M, . ^303^, 1303, *13.
T R :" "T : *
3. In pause, the pronouns assume the forms r ing, nfi* &c.
( 60. 7). The K in both the third persons singular is paragogic and
in otio. The feminine fitlft is pronounced hi. See no. 6 below.
4. In the first person plural, the form 13 n \ occurs only six times,
and the form 33M only once in Kethib Jer. 42: 6. In the 2 pers. plur.
fem. and in both the third persons plural, the final ft of the right-hand ,
forms is probably paragogic, inasmuch as the tone remains on the
original syllable. ( 34. 2. h. 50. 4.)
5. In the second persons singular and plural, the Daghesh in Tav
is an assimilated Nun; the original words being ftn3$ or nsg, Droit;
as they now are in Syriac and Arabic.
6. The feminine pronoun Kin hi, as it appears in the Pentateuch
of our common Hebrew Bibles, is anomalous. The explanation of the
anomaly is, that the pointing is associated with ftpft, a marginal read-
ing introduced by the Masorites, who appear to have been ignorant
that awn in the Mosaic writings is of the common gender. When it is
feminine, they have written it Nlft Ai, and supplied the appropriate
consonants (iOn) in the margin.
NOTE. There are a few instances of peculiar construction, where
the ground-forms of the pronouns, as here exhibited, stand for oblique
cases ( 184). But in general^hey are used only to designate the
17. The oblique cases of per sonal pronouns In Hebr ew,
ar e r epr esented by f r agments of pr imitive pronouns united
with ver bs, nouns, and par ticles so as to make one wor d, in-
stead of being wr itten separ ately, as in the wester n languages.
For an account of these pronominal suffixes as appended to the
above mentioned classes of words respectively, see for verbs 125,
2 mas. 0n, na*
2 f em. rjM,
3 mas. f cttO,
t o , r an.
:o, 03o.
i t
3 f em. sr n, Kin
1 4 0
6 7 , 6 8 . PRONOUNS.
for noons 136, for adverbs 166, for preposition* 167, and for in-
terjections 169.
67 Demonstrative pronouns
t l . Ther e ar e ver y f ew demonstr ative pronouns in He-
br ew. The usual f or ms f ollow in the f ir st line below;
those in the second line ar e unusual.
Singular. PluraL
Masc. SIT, f em. DHT, com. tVn, this. Com. nVtf these.
- r v - it, it, -
v * *
2. In the fem. sing, the form Ht occurs a few times in the same
meaning as nttT, and also the form once, Ezek. 36: 36.
68. Relative and interrogative pronouns.
I. Relative.
t l . The Hebr ew has but one r elative pronoun, viz.
nrn'a. It is of all gender s and number s, and answer s to
who, which, what, in English.
2. In the later Hebr ew especially, "TO# f r equently
appear s in a contr acted f or m. The K is dr opped ( 42.
1. a); the is assimilated to the f ir st letter of the wor d
which f ollows (41. 1. c); and the vowel under tt) is some-
times changed. Hence it has the f or ms -D, , ED, .
E. g. *33tia who hath not given us up, instead of
Ps. 124: 6 ; 13^^ which we waited for, Lam. 2: 16 ; Judg.
6: 7; nnKQ? Jodg. 6:17; DHttj Ecc. 3:18. In the three last examples
&c. (HOK) sustains the office of a conjunction, like the Greek on and
the Latin quod.
3. The pronouns f it and M, which ar e usually demon-
str atives, ar e in a f ew instances employed also as r elatives.
II. Interrogative.
t4. The Hebr ew has two inter r ogative pronouns viz.
who, JT0 what. The latter also takes the f or ms DID and 1E.
Before Maqqeph ntt becomes i i ( 32.3. 54.2. b), and is joined
by Daghesh euphonic with the* following word; as maJrtekhct
( 29. 8. a). Before gutturals with Q,amets, ntt becomes 51^ for the
sake of euphony. ( 60. 1.)
* 69. General classification.
]. As to origin, ver bs may be divided into thr ee classes.
() Primitive, i. e. under ived f r om any other wor ds.
E. g. toreign^ to sk, and so of most of the Hebrew verbs.
() Derivative, i. e. such as come f r om pr imitives by
the accession of f or mative letter s. Such ar e all the con-
jugations of ver bs ( 71), excepting the f ir st or KaL
(c) Denominative, L e. those which ar e f or med f r om
nouns (de nomine).
E. g. to live in a tent, from a tent.
These divisions concern the origin of verbs, but not the mode of
inflection. A great number of verbs is comprehended in the class b,
while very few belong to the class c.
2. ID r espect to der ivation and inf lection, ver bs ar e
divided into regular and irregular. Regular ver bs ar e
those which ar e unif orm in their inf lections, and pr eser ve
thr ough all their changes their original triliteral r oot
Ver bs ir r egular ar e either plur iliter al, or those which
dr op or assimilate one or mor e of their radical letter s,
or which exhibit peculiar ities in their vowel-points occa-
sioned by the guttur als and quiescents.
$ Literally, he reigned. The infinitive in English it oed in this work, mere-
ly for the take of brevity, in preference to the praeter which would exactly cor-
respond to the Hebrew root.
* 70. Verbs; conjugation#
1. The ter m conjugation, in gr ammar s of the Gr eek,
Latin, and some modern languages, is employed to denote
dif f er ent classes of ver bs, which ar e distinguished f r om
each other by cer tain peculiar char acter istics of f or m or
inf lection, and which ar e ther ef or e said to belong to the
f ir st, second, thir d &c. conjugation. In this sense, the He-
br ew might be said to have sever al conjugations; but this
wor d is not so used by Hebr ew grammarians.
2. In Hebr ew gr ammar the wor d conjugation is ap-
plied to different forms of the same verb, and cor r esponds
in some degr ee with the ter m voice in Gr eek gr ammar , al-
though it is employed in a much mor e extensive sense.
The passive and middle voices in Gr eek exhibit the or ig-
, inal idea of the ver b under cer tain modif ications,-with
some additional shades of meaning. So the pr oper ty of
all the conjugations in Hebr ew is to vary the primary
meaning of the verb, by uniting with it accessor y signif ica-
tions. The Hebr ews wer e thus enabled to expr ess, by
means of their conjugations, all those var ious modif ications
and r elations of ver bs, which in most other languages ar e
expr essed either by composite ver bs or by sever al wor ds.
Thus Kal, the first conjugation in order, exhibits the verb in its
original state and in its simple meaning. The next, Niphal, is formed
from Kal, and gives to the verb a passive sense. Then come Piel and
Paal, formed from Kal, which are active and 'passive to each other,
and usually exhibit the verb in a ccMsatio* sense; and so of all the
other conjugations.
The most convenient arrangement is, to make as many conjuga-
tions as there are forms of verbs, original and derived. These are
presented to view in the following section.
71. Verbs ; table of conjugations*
For a par ticular account of all the conjugations exhibited in this
section, see 7682.
I. Usual
Name. Form. Name. Form.
1. Kal
m #
. .
i t
2. Niphal
3. Piel 4. Pual
5. Hiphil V^Dpn.
6. Hophal Vtip.n.
7. Hithpael ^ j ? n n .
i t #
II. Unusual.
. .
. . .
8. Hothpaal Vapnn.
9. Poel aahft.
10. Poal 33*10.
11. Hithpoel a a i onn.

12. Polel oai p-
13. Polal nai p.
14. Hithpolel cittipnn.

15. Pilel
16. Pulal
17. Hithpalel y?ap_nn.

. . .
18. Pealal
19. Poalal
20. Pilpel 30315. 21. Polpal
3030, j
22. Hithpalpal ^ >a n n . also SMD. )
23. Peoel

24. Tiphel
25. Popaal
III. Pluriliteral verbs.
}ip-, no-, Va-ia, cBtn.
- - w . ^D^itizecLby Google jj
144 72, 7 3, 7 4 . VERBS ; CONJUGATIONS, ETC.
72. Verbs ; number of the conjugations
1. All the conjugations exhibited in the preceding section are ac-
tual forms of verbs found in the Hebrew language; but only the first
seven are of usual occurrence. As no verb in Greek is ever actually
found in all the persons and tenses of the three voices; so in Hebrew,
no verb is ever found in all these conjugations. The instances are
very rare, in which a verb actually exhibits all of the usual conjuga-
tions. But that so many conjugations exist in the language is certain-
ly not improbable, since actual forms in them occur, and the Arabic-
language exhibits at this day nearly an equal number.
2. The student, however, need be under no apprehension of diffi-
culty from the unusual conjugations. He may safely neglect them at
first, and an acquaintance with the usual ones will lead him easily and
imperceptibly to a knowledge of the others.
* 73. Verbs ; arrangement of the conjugation
1. The forms which are passive are arranged in the table ( 71)
opposite to those active forms to which they respectively correspond.
Niphal is commonly represented as the passive of Kal; and so it some-
times is; but it is so frequently the passive of other conjugations, that
it is here arranged as a general passive without any particular rela-
2. By the preceding arrangement of the active and passive forms,
the student must not understand, that all of them are exclusively ac-
tive or passive in the manner designated. Most of them participate,
more or less, both of an active and passive sense. The arrangement
has respect to their predominant meaning.
* 74. Verbs ; names of the conjugations.
1. The names of all the der ived conjugations ar e bor -
r owed f r om the var ious f or ms of the ver b which the
old gr ammar ians used in constr ucting the par adigms; and
ar e mer ely the modes of pr onouncing those
sever al f or ms.
2. The first conjugation is called Kal, i.e. light; because it is not, like
the derived forms, increased by the addition of any letter to the root.
The other names are formed thus; Niph-Val; b?D Pi-Fei, Da-
ghesh forte being excluded by the guttural; Pu&al, Daghesh ex-
cluded ; Hiph-Sil; H&phr$al; b?snn' H&h-p&Vel, Da-
ghesh excluded; and so of the unusual conjugations.
For a full exemplification of the 'names of all the conjugations,
see Appendix F.
* 75. Verb8 ; root of all the conjugations
1. The thir d per son singular of the pr aeter in Kal is r e-
gar ded as the gr ound-f or m or r oot of near ly all ver bs, be-
cause it exhibits the most simple f or m of the r adicals.
In one class ("13?) of ver bs ir r egular ( 117), the inf initive is
r egar ded as the gr ound-f or m, mer ely because it exhibits
thr ee r adicals, while the pr aeter 'has but two. *
2. Many grammarians, however, regard the infinitive mood as the
root in all verbs. It is true that the infinitive is the ground-form of
more parts of the verb, than is the third person praeter. But to de-
cide which existed first, is not in our power. Among the Arabians,
the grammarians of Bassora maintain that the infinitive is the root of
verbs in their language; other grammarians among them generally
give a preference to the praeter. De Sacy Gramm. Arabe, 529.
* 76. Verbs ; conjugation Kal
1. The conjugation Kal is active, but it may be either
transitive or intransitive. These two classes of ver bs in
Kal ar e ver y commonly distinguished by the vowels of the
gr ound-f or m.
E. g. *TJ5B to visit, with final Pattahh, transitive,
to grow old, - Tseri, intransitive.
to be afraid, - - Hholem,
2. Hence ther e ar e thr ee f or ms distinguished by their
f ast vowel, and cor r esponding to tlie thr ee classes of vow-
els, the two latter of which f or ms ar e usually intr ansitive.
To distinguish these ver bs, they may be named verbs final
Pattahh, Tseri> and Hholem.%
NOTE. Verbs final Pattahh are sometimes intransitive; as Vl* and
bl * to be great. Bat verbs final Tseri or Hholem are seldom transitive.
In Arabic, the above distinction of the classes of verbs b y means of
different vowels, prevails more extensively than in Hebrew.
3. Inasmuch as all intr ansitive ver bs appr oach to a
passive sense, so ver bs that ar e intr ansitive in Kal ar e some-
times r ender ed passively.
E. g. to ascend, also to be elevated.
4. In Kal, the same ver b is not unf r equently both tr an-
sitive and intr ansitive or passive.
E. g. yttt to scatter, also to be scattered.
* 77< Vtrbs ; conjugation Niphal.
1. The char acter istic of Niphal is JSm pr ef ixed; as
Kal Niphal
In Arabic the corresponding conjugation has 2fit prefixed; and
this, or at least its equivalent, appears in Hebrew in the infinitive of
Ni phal ; as ; so that an prefixed was probably
the original characteristic of Niphal, though at present it appears
only in the infinitive.
NOTE. The point under the prefix Nun would therefore regularly
be a simple dlieva; but as the first vowel of the ground-form is dropped,
Nun commonly takes Hhireq parvum; before gutturals, it takes
Seghol or Pattahh. ( 58. 1, 2.)
2. Niphal is used in the f ollowing senses.
(a) It ia commonly the passive of Kal, when Kal is
tr ansitive. But when Kal is intr ansitive or not used, then
Niphal is the passive of either Piel, or HiphO, or of both,
pr ovided they ar e tr ansitive.
| Commonly called middle Pattahh Sic. i. e. the middle letter having Pat*
tahh See. Bat the student ii more liable to mistake in this way, than if the de-
nomination is taken from the final vowel, as above.
7 8 . TXRBS ; PIEL AND PUAL. 141
(b) It is Dot unf r equently intr ansitive, and then it may
agr ee in meaning with Kal intr ansitive.
E. g. Kal nbn to be tick, Nlph. inthe same sense.
(c) It is of ten r ef lexive of Kal; as ^23 to watch,
"tf OtDD to watch one's self. It is also r ef lexive of other
active conjugations.
(d) It is used in signif ications like the f ollowing; viz. to
show one's self as per f or ming, an action, as 1353 to show
one's self honorable; to appear to do or suf f er a thing, as
?33 to appear to be smitten ; to per mit an action, as 1W3
to permit one to entreat, i. e. to hearken to him.
(e) It is employed to expr ess r ecipr ocal action which
implies two par ties; as t3&833 to contend, QH^3 to fight &c.
So ^ to decide, Niph. *73^3 to decide by conferring with
( f ) In some cases it implies a dative of per sonal ad-
vantage, like the middle voice in Gr eek; as to ask,
Niph. ^Nt333
to ask for ontfs self. Compar e alrdoftai.
( g) It of ten ser ves to expr ess af f ection and passion,
as r i3$3 to sigh ; being used like deponent ver bs in Latin.
(h) Sometimes it r equir es to be tr anslated by pr ef ix-
ing can, must, may, ought tec. to the cor r esponding ver b in
Eqglish; as Gen. 6: 21. 16: 10. 20: 9.
* 78. Verbs ; conjugations Piel and Puah
1. The char acter istic of Piel and Pual is the doubling
of the middle radical, expr essed by Daghesh f or te in that
letter , or by an equivalent pr olongation of the pr eceding
vowel; as Kal Piel Pual
In Aramaean and Arabic are corresponding conjugations.
& Piel has the f ollowing signif ications.
(a) It is usually causative of Kal.
E. g. "DfiJ to perish, Piel ISfit to cause to perish i. e. to destroy.
(b) It signif ies to let, help, hold, or show a thing to be
thus and so.
E. g. FPtt to Hoe, Fl*n to let one live ; p15t to be just, p*Jit to shorn
to be just, i. e. to justify ; fit&D to be unclean, to pronounce unclean
(c) It is sometimes intensive of KaL
E. g. to ask, to beg ; to break, 15 to dash in piece*.
(d) It has in some ver bs a privative sense, or denotes
action in opposition to that indicated by KaL
E. g. 153 to know, 133 to misapprehend; fiton to sin, to make
expiation for sin.
(e) It of ten has the same meaning as Kal, or has only
a slight shade of dif f er ence, when Kal is transitive. The
intransitive meaning of Kal is ver y seldom tr ansf er r ed to
When the sense of a verb in Kal is figurative, the literal sense of-
ten appears in Piel; as Kal K12 to create, Piel to hew out.
3. Pual is simply the passive of PieL
* 79. Verbs; conjugations Hiphil and HophaU
1. The char acter istic of Hiphil and Hophal is He pr e-
f ixed ; as Kal Hiph. Hoph. or
In Arabic and Aramaean, the characteristic is fit instead of ft.
2. Hiphil has a near r esemblance to Piel in its sig-
nif ications.
(a) It is usually causative of KaL
E. g. to be holy, Hiph. to make holy ; ttjl* to possess,
to cause to possess.
. NOTE. Commonly but one conjugation is used in a causative sense.
79. 8 0 . VERBS : HIPHIL, HOPHAL, ETC. 129
7 9 .
*y '
If Piel have such a meaning, then Hiphil, comrooDly, is not used, or
else is used in a somewhat different sense. The latter case nol un-
frequeotly occurs, in which Hiphil has a slight shade of difference
from Piel; as i n s to be hidden, Piel i n s to conceal, Hiph. TITOI ta
extirpate ; com p. Greek aq>avinv.
(f i) Intr ansitive, as Kal; e. g. and to be
white; tbin and to be silent.
3. Hophal is the passive of Hiphil; but as Hiphil
sometimes imitates Kal in sense, so Hophal imitates Niphal;
and Niphal, we have seen, has sometimes an intr ansitive
meaning. ( 77. % b.) So Hophal; e. g. ^5^, Hoph. Fut.
to be able.
Verbs: Conjugation Hithpael.
1. The char acter istic of Hithpael is Ti l , pr ef ixed to
the Inf initive-f or m of the Conj. Piel. Thus, Piel Inf . b&f i,
Hith. ^Dpnr t.
1 3 0
In Aramaean, n#; in Arabic n, i. e. same as the Hebrew and
Aramaean, save that prosthetic ft or is omitted.
2. The char acter istic Hi"! under goes sever al changes,
in or der to unite with Ver bs. The Hebr ews appear to
have had a dif f iculty in pronouncing D (th) bef or e a sibilant
letter . Hence,
() When a Ver b begun with a Sibilant, they trans-
posed it, and put the D of the char acter istic af ter it
(Comp. 44.)
With 0 Kal blO Hith. ^SPDn instead of VaOnn
o - i n a - "iBnon na a r n
to - aj'a - awt on a a c r n
s - p i s - p"psn pnsnn
In the latter case, (X first radical) the n is not only transposed,
bat changed into its cognate O. Bat this case is very unfrequent
in Hebrew, though common in the cognate languages.
() The n char acter istic in Hithpael is assimilated,
when a Ver b begins with a cognate letter ; i. e. either *T,
13, or D. E. g.
TlttTl instead of n a wn f r om nW
n n t a n n n p n n - n n o
Mn n - r an
This practice appears to have arisen from the difficulty of pro-
nouncing n (th) before its cognate letters. It is general, but not with-
out a few exceptions. (Comp. 41.1. d.)
(c) In some cases, (but f ew,) the pr inciple of assimila-
tion is applied, when Ver bs begin with
3, as instead of
3, as n03H HDSrirt
t, as nn
as a a i v i * .
8 0 . VI EBS; H1TBPAIL. 1 3 1
In all the cognate languages, the same principle of assimilation
exists, in like cases.
3. The meaning of the Conj. Hithpael is,
(a) Passive of Piel, f r om which it bor r ows its f or m,
(sup. 1.); as Piel IgB to number, Hith. to be mm
* bered. This sense is unf r equent.
(b) Ref lexive of Piel; (the usual sense.) As tD
to sanctify, O'TjPri!"! he sanctified himself
So the middle voice m Greek is both passive and reflexive.
(c) The gener al idea conveyed by Hithpael is, to
make or shew one's self , to be or do that, which the
gr ound-f or m of the Ver b indicates; as
flSQnft to show one's self cunning ; from QDft to be wise.
to behave one'* self proudly ; from Via to be great.
to represent one's self as sick ; from Jrjbn to be sick.
And so, with little var iation f r om such senses,
fiSftnn to think one's self wise ; from Q^ft to be wise.
toBJinrt to make one's self to be sought, i. e. to conceal one's self;
from fcJDtl to seek.
fsnnTI to ask favour for one's self properly, to make one gracious;
from "Jitl to be gracious.
(d) The same with neuter Kal; as to mourn,
f | 3Hnn to be angry.
( f ) Like Niphal ( 77. 2. f ) it indicates af ter it a
Dative of advantage; to get rid of
(g) Active, and tr ansitive, as Kal; e. g. 1 3 ^ 0 to
keep, or observe, i. e. laws, statutes, See.
1 3 2
Urtfrequent Conjugations.
1. Hothpaal, f tppTliI or Vt?j?nn) is the passive of
Hithpael, as to f or m; but cannot be distinguished f r om it
in signif ication.
So the passive forms of some of the Arabic Conjugations, (e. g.
Conj. vii.) have an active, passive, and reciprocal meaning.
2. Poel and PoolIn r egular Ver bs, these Conj. ar e
r ar ely f ound. In Ver bs Ayin doubled ( 115.) these Conj.
ar e the usual f or ms, in the r oom of Piel and Pual; though
the latter sometimes co-exist with the f or mer .
(a) The Hholem in and ^plp (Poel, and Poal,)
is impure, and immutable. These f or ms cor r espond with
the active and passive of the thir d Conjugation in Ar abic,
which r eads Vptf p.
(J)) In meaning, Poel and Poal r esemble Piel and Pual;
L e. they ar e causatives of Kal, and sometimes synonymous
with it. But wher e ther e is a Poel and Piel Conjugation
of the same Ver b, ther e is gener ally a distinction in the
sense of them, such as exists between Piel and Hiphil,
when they ar e both f ound under the same Root. ( 79. 2.
a. Note.)
(c) Poal is the passive of Poel.
3. Hithpoel, ( ) stands r elated to Poel and
Poal, as Hithpael to Piel and Pual. ( 80. 1.) It is a r e-
f lexive of Poel; and is subject to all the var ieties of mean-
ing which Hithpael has; also to the same transpositions, &c,
of its f ir st Radical, with the char acter istic DH. ( 80.2. a. b.)
4. (a) Pilel and Pulal ( EEip, Ml p, 117.) ar e f ound
in Ver bs Ayin Vav, ( 117.) and used, commonly, instead of
Piel and Pual, in Ver bs of this class; although the latter
ar e sometimes f ound, together with Pilel, and Pulal. (Vid.
b. supr a.)
(6) Pilel and Pulal (^13 j?, ) ar e quite unf r e-
quent, in r egular Ver bs. They sometimes occur in Ver bs
Lamedh He. ( 123. 6.) Their meaning r esembles that
of Poel and Poal. (Supr a 2. b.)
NOTE. These Conjugations scarcely ever appearing, except in
the forms like Dttip and DEip, the student, unacquainted with He-
brew etymology, and the changes of rowels, might think them im-
properly named. It needs, however, merely to be observed, that
Bip stands for DDip , and OJgip for tJ33]p^, to justify this classifica-
tion. The irregularity of the appearance arises from the nature of
the quiescent 1. The characteristic of these Conjugations consists in
the reduplication of the last radical.
5. Hithpcdelf (VVtD^Tin) stands r elated to Pilel and
Pulal, as the Ref lexives in No. 3, to their cor r esponding
6. Pedal, doubling the two last Radicals,
is an intensitive Conjugation, giving ener gy to the meaning
of the simple Root.
In Verbs and IS only the two permanent Radicals are re-
peated, to form this Conj.; as baba, from bba ; b5>bs, from b*S;
which also have Reflexives, as babarifj, &c.
7. Psoel, (^D'lDp .) Ver y uncommon. It appear s
to be active, and like* Kal. It r esembles, in f or m, the
twelf th Conjugation in Ar abic, which r eads with
Aleph pr osthetic.
8 Tiphel, ( ) active; unf r equent. Mor e com-
mon in Syr iac and Ar abic.
9. For ms, like > i. e. wher e the two f ir st radi-
cals ar e r epeated, ar e f ound, though scar cely ever ; as Ps.
45. 3. So DSDpH f r om | 0n, with the second radical r e-
peated at the end; Exod. xvi. 14.
1 3 4 8 2 . 8 3 . 8 4 . PLURILITERAL VERBS, ETC.
Pluriliteral Verbt.
1. These, which ar e but ver y f ew, ar e all der ived
f r om triliteral ones, by the addition of another letter ; as
f r om CnED. They ar e declined like Pilel and Pulal.
( 81. 4.)
8 3 .
Denominative Verbt.
These dif f er not as to f orm, f lexion, and meaning, in
the sever al Conjugations, f rom the original Ver bs, unless
it be, that in Piel the privative meaning is more f r equent;
as tdliD a root, tDHtD to root up, to tear up by the roots;
JTEH ashes, to take away ashes ; DDV the heart, Dab to
wound the heart, &c.
Verbt: Flexion.
In r espect to Moods and Tenses, the Hebr ew is ver y
limited. Only two Tenses, the Pr aeter and Futur e, ar e
distinguished by def inite and appropriate f or ms; and ther e
ar e only the Indicative, Imper ative, and Inf initive Moods,
with a Par ticiple present and past. All the other tenses
and moods ar e indicated, by the f orms of those already
mentioned used in some peculiar syntactical connexion, or
with some small change of vowel points. In r espect to
designating number, person, and even gender , the Hebr ew
Ver bs ar e suf f iciently copious, in their inf lexions.
8 5 . VERBS : GROUND-FORM. 1 3 5
Verbs: Ground-form*.
In all the Conjugations, the pr incipal gr ound-f or ms of
all the inf lexions may be r educed to two, viz, the thir d
per son singular Pr aeter , and the Inf initive Mood.
Thus in Kal, ^op
is the ground-form of all the persons in the
Praeter; and also ot the present Participle. The Infin. Vop is the
ground-form of the Fut. and lmper. In all the derived Conjugations,
also, the Infin. is the ground-form of the Fut., lmper., and (excepting
Niphal,) of the Participle also. The third person singular Praeter,
is the ground-form of all the persons in the Praeter of the derived
Conjugations; and iu JNiphal, of the Participle also.
Verb*: Flexion of the Praeter. (Vid. Par ad^ 127.)
The gender and per sons of the Pr aeter ar e designated
by f r agments of the Pr imitive Pr onouns, suf f ixed to a
gr ound-f or m.
3 per s. f em. by adding 51 ( i W) f r ag, of she.
2. mas. n Gi n ) nnfct thou, m.
2. f em. n O n ) n a O n a ) / f o w , f .
1. com. i n ( n ) pr obably f r .obs. I.
3. per s. plur . 1 ('p, f cf t) der ivation unknown.
2. mas. fin f r ag, of fin# ye, m.
2. f em. i n ( n a n ) ye, f em.
1. com* *13 j* we.
The forms in parentheses are variations from the comma*
forms, and of very unfrequent occurrence. He paragogie, sometimes,
(though very rarely) is added to the forms of the Praeter, but does
not take the accent; as ttnkVea instead of Uttta?
Verbs: Forms of the Infinitive.
1. The Inf initive, or second gr ound-f or m, is a kind of
Ver bal Noun, and like nouns has two states, the absolute
and construct, ( 135.) with f or ms, in gener al, adapted to
designate them.
See the various uses of Inf. Abs. and CODS, in Syntax, 212,213.
() The In construct is r egar ded as the gr ound-f or m,
being the most simple. Its char acter istics in Kal ar e, She-
va under the f ir st Radical, and Hholem, Pattahh, or Tser i
between the last Radicals; as Vttp, ]r U.
ID the same manner as the Praeter, it has final Pattahh, Tseri,
and Hholem. (Vid. 76. 1.)
() In the der ivative Conjugations, its f inal vowel is
Tser i, Hhir tq, and Pattahh. (See Par ad. 127. Inf in. of
Piel, Hithpael, Hiphil, Pual, and Hophal.)
The irregular Verbs exhibit some variations from the general
rules in a and 6.
(c) The Inf initive, (being a ver bal noun,) sometimes
has a f eminine ending in f l or n.
In regular verbs this is unfrequent, as instead of ; but
in verbs Lamedh He, ( 122.) it is the common form, as rhb* for
instead of the masc. form >):*; also in verbs Pe Nun (& 113.)
* ! | t \3 *
as from which is for > *
verbs Pe Yodh, ( 109.) as
l'rom l b , which is for ntif ; and sometimes, Uk0prbs Lamedh
Aleph, ( 121.) as instead of
2. The Inf initive absolute has Qamets under the f ir st
Radical, and Hholem impur e between the two last, as
It is r egular ly of this f or m in Kal, and tr iliter al in
near ly all the kinds of Ver bs.
In verbs Ayin Far, however, Dip stands, by contraction, for DID.
NOTE. TO distinguish the absolute form of the infinitive from the
construct, in those cases where the construct-form ends with Hholem,
the absolute adopts a Tseri for its final vowel. Thus in Piel the con-
struct-fonn is trii9 or nis?, but the absolute FlJ?.
The feminine termination never appears in the infinitive absolute.
For the various uses of both forms of the infinitive, see 212, 213.
* 88. Verbs ; formation and flexion of the future tense.
1. We have seen ( 86) that the per sons of the pr aeter
ar e f or med, by suffixing the f r agments of pronouns to the
thir d per son singular. As distinguished f r om this, the f utur e
is f or med by prefixing similar f r agments to the infinitive ;
and in some cases, by suf f ixing additional f r agments in or -
der to mark a dif f er ence of gender .
Inf . const gr ound-f or m.
3 mas.
3 fem. T) deriv. uncertain.
2 mas. VtDprj from rtnfij.
2 f ern, ^ t j p n by suf f i and pr . Fl j
1 com. Vop.f it by pr ef ixing K f rom
3 mas. by suf f i and pr . 1 ** deriv.of * uncertain.
3 f em. PIDVcpn - \ B
2 mas. 1 D pref. from
2 f em. n : Vo p n \ n a n
1 com. by pr ef ixing ^ 3 f romVK.
The suffix-forms which stand farthest at the left are occasionally
found, but are not common. Aim paragogic also is often found ap-
pended to those persons of the future which end in 3 or V, as to the
effect of which, see 35. 2. (Comp. 95. 1. a.)
2. The f r agments pr ef ixed ar e called praeformatives.
The appr opr iate vowel-point under them is Sheva; which
appear s in Piel, Pual, and their substitute conjugations, Po-
el, Polel &c. But in Kal, Niphal &c. the Sheva under goes
var ious modif ications, accor ding to the laws of vowel chan-
ges as exhibited in 5460. In Kal of the r egular
ver b the pr aef or matives take Hhireq jmrvum, because the
f ir st vowel of the original ver b is dr opped. ( 58. 1.)
These changes will be described in the notes upon the respective
paradigms of the verbs.
3. The pr aef or matives, in conjugations whose char ac-
ter istic in the inf initive is H, usually expel it, and r eceive
its punctuation in the r oom of that which regularly would
belong to them.
Fut. Niphal instead of from inf.
in verbs 1* Dipi. p"? OipH
Hiphil V*?pi3?
in verbs I* D**p*
Hithpael -Bpn? btspni"P btgpnn
4. Inasmuch as the f utur e is f or med f r om the inf ini-
tive, it exhibits the same vowels that ar e f ound in the in-
f initive ( 87. 2), viz. f inal Hholem, Pattahh, and Tser i;
usually called f utur e O, A, and E. They ar e used as f ol-
(a) The future O is the most common one.
(b) The future A is usually found in the following cases, ( l ) In
.verbs intransitive, whose praeter has final Tseri. (2) In verbs with
a guttural in the final syllable; as JElD, future 3^3?. (3) In verbs
'), &, and many off. ( 110. 120.' 113.)
(c) The future E is found in verbs N& with N] quiescent, a few of
and one of "]D; as "jn\ ( 107. 110. 113.)
NOTE. Verbs Hb have Seghol in the future, as ( 122).
Probably this future is one of the class which would regularly have
final A} as nhi" = ' ' br .
* t - i
* 89. Verbs ; formation and flexion of the imperative.
1. The imper ative is f or med f r om the inf initive; and
like the inf initive and f utur e, it may have f inal Hholem,
Pattahh, or Tser i. The usual vowel is Hholem.
2. The imper ative, like the pr aeter , is wholly f or med
by suf f ixes; but they ar e the same with those which ar e
attached to the same per sons in the f utur e.
In const* VDp gr ound-f or m.
2 per s. mas. VtDJ) same as the inf initive.
2 f em. by adding f r om
2 mas. 1 der ivation uncertain.
2 f em. naf cSj> n; f r om nan.
3. The imper ative has n6 f ir st nor thir d per sons. The
per sons of the f utur e ar e used f or these, when they need
to be expr essed.
The imperative, like the future, is subject to apocope and para-
goge. ( 92.)
* 90. Verbs ; formation and flexion of participles.
1. The conjugation Kal has two par ticiples, which
cor r espond in signif ication with the pr esent and past par -
ticiples in Latin; as DnS scribms, scriptum. The
der ived conjugations have each only one par ticiple.
The pr esent par ticiple of Kal, and the par ticiple of
Niphal, ar e f or med f r om the 3 per s. sing. masc. of the
pr aeter , in the f ollowing manner.
1 6 0
() In ver bs f inal Tser i and Hholem, and in Niphal,
the par ticiple is commonly of the same f or m with the
pr aeter ; except that in Niphal, f inal Pattahh is chang-
ed into Qamets.
E. g. Praeter and participle in verbs final Tseri as
- in verbs final Hholem as i V.
- in verbs as DjJ.
Common form in Niphal, as praeter Vt3j?3, part
The form which is now used only as a verbal noun or adjec-
tive, was probably an old form of the present participle. So the forms
ttVtt and "ia* above, are noted in the lexicons as verbal adjectives.
() In ver bs f inal Pattahh, the pr esent par ticiple of
Kal commonly inser ts Hholem impur e af ter the f ir st radi-
cal, and Tser i pur e under the second.
E. g. boi p or Vpp with Hholem impure, and of course immutable.
The past, or passive participle of Kal, is probably a remnant of an
obsolete passive voice of Kal. It takes Qamets under the first radical,
and Shureq between the two last; as ViDjP.
NOTE. Intransitive verbs usually have no passive participle; but
use the present participle for it. When they do have a passive partici-
ple as to form, it is active in its signification; as memor, ni&s confi-
dent. Some intransitive verbs have no participle, but use a participial
adjective instead of i t; as CDH trite, from CDn. See a above.
2. In all the other conjugations, the par ticiples ar e
f or med f r om the inf initive mood by pr ef ixing ; which
expels the char acter istic f t wher e it occur s, in the same
manner as do the pr aef or mative ( 88. 3). Final Pat-
tahh, wher ever it occur s, is changed into Qamets.
Verbs yy and fc are an exception to the above rule in Hiphil, form-
ing their participles in that conjugation from the praeter.
The appropriate point under the Mem is Sheva, which appears
in Piel, Pual &c. but in other conjugations it undergoes various chang-
es, for which see the paradigms in 127, and the notes which pre-
cede them. It is sometimes also omitted. ( 95. 2. e.)
3. Par ticiples take a f eminine ending in f l - or ri ,
( 131. Comp. 128). They ar e ver y f r equently em-
ployed as adjectives, and under go f r om declension the same
changes as nouns and adjectives.
E. g. Masc. ^p*3, fem. r nt f a from *103; masc. at, fem. fDT from
; masc. ?fb', fem. from ^b; masc. fem. nr t f from 2V
( 59.2. 60.3). So const plur. Can* in the sense of tnaignis.
91. Verbs; paragogic and apocopated future.
t l . As the Hebr ew has no optative, subjunctive, nor
conditional mood, and only two tenses in the indicative, it
must be easily seen that the language needed some expe-
dient, by which the var ious shades of meaning attached to
a ver b and designated by the moods in the question, could
be expr essed. Such an expedient, to a cer tain extent, the
Hebr ews appear to have f ound, in the occasional use of
par agogic and apocopated f or ms of some of the per sons in
the f utur e tense, instead of the ordinary r egular f or ms.
In Syriac and Chaldee, there are no traces of such an usage in re-
spect to the future tense. But in Arabic, it appears in full perfection.
The Arabic has no optative nor subjunctive mood ; but has distinct
forms of the future, which compensate for the want of those moods.
Thus the common future in Arabic would be like the Hebrew bep* ;
the subjunctive form btDj?^; the conditional form bttp?; and the par-
agogic or intensive form ; related to each other in sense some-
what as the English, he will kill, that he may kill, if hemight kill, he will
certainly kill. Between the poverty of the Aramaean on the one side
in respect to forms of tenses, and the richness of the Arabic on the
other, stands the Hebrew ; being neither destitute of all variety, nor
furnished by any means with the copious variety of the Arabic.
The paragogic and apocopated forms of the future in Hebrew, ap-
pear to be in an incipient state. Hence they extend not to all the
persons of the future, nor to all the conjugations of verbs; nor have
they that variety and nice discrimination which the Arabic exhibits;
one variation from the common future serving to express all the shades
of subjunctive, conditional, and optative moods.
1 6 3
I. Paragogic future.
t2. The par agogic f utur e is constituted by adding
and veiy seldom 1_, to the first per sons singular and
plur al.
ID a very few cases, the second and third persons singular take ft_
paragogic; in these cases the same sense is attached to it as in the
first persons singular and plural
All classes of verbs, and all conjugations, admit the paragogic ft- in
the first persons; excepting verbs passive, verbs with suffixes, and
verbs ftb, in all which it is very rarely found.
3. The cases wher e this par agogic f or m is employed,
may be arranged as f ollows.
(a) It is used as an optative, i. e. to expr ess a wish or
desir e, either af f ir matively or negatively.
E. g. ftnWfit let me die ; JTUiSi* Kb let me not be ashamed; com-
mon forms In this case it is often followed by t o ; as
K3-ftDbit let me go now, common form
(b) To expr ess excitement, ur ging, an appeal to one
to r ouse him, str ong assur ance, solemn deter mination.
E. g. !"Db&5 I must go, common form I will exult, for
; Up! my soul, IITA? let me rise up early, for ;
1*5 ftirm I am determined to speak in my distress, for In
the plural roba let us go, for Sic.
(c) It is employed to expr ess conditional par ts of
sentences; and is thus used af ter the conjunctions condi-
tional 1?b!j and 1 signif ying that, so that; as ]?H
rnBDK so that I may declare ; give us food r&DfcOl that
we may eat Sometimes it is used in the same manner af -
ter 1 signif ying because ; and sometimes in conditional sen-
tences, wher e the conditional par ticle is mer ely implied.
(d) Vav conver sive, especially in the later Hebr ew,
of ten connects itself with the par agogic f or m; but no spe-
ciality of meaning is then necessar ily attached to the f or m.
E g. and I said; In earlier Hebrew Ezra 8:
28. Neb. 5: 7*, 8 &c.
//. Apocopated future.
t4. The apocopated f utur e occur s in the second and
thir d per sons sing. masc. and in the 3 per s. sing, f eminine,
when they ar e without suf f ixes. It is constituted by
shor tening somewhat the f inal long vowel of the com-
mon f utur e, and in ver bs by wholly r emoving it.
The first person very rarely admits of apocope. Cases of it in
this person are about as rare, as cases of paragoge in the second and
third persons.
1*5. It does not; like the par agogic f utur e, occur in all
the conjugations of ver bs, but only in those which f ollow.
Reg. verb Hiph. apoc. btaj^ apoc.
Verbs v Kal n w; n wn rifcn.
Hiph. rPtt* r r en nan.
Verbs nb Kal bX] (b^) ban (b$n).
Plel (bv) rfjin i j n &)
Hiph. r ij : ^( Vv; ) JJJQ (isn).
The other conjugations in verbs !"ib may also suffer apocope, and
they follow the same method. ( 123.1, d.)
6. The apocopated f utur e is par ticular ly employed in
the f ollowing cases.
(a) To expr ess command, wish, pr ohibition.
E. g. destroy, common form ke destroy.
-jnon bij hide not, common form *vnOn thou wilt hide.
(b) Af ter *] that, as a conditional conjunction.
E. g. Speak to thine husband that he may tell us.
(c) In dir ect negation, af ter or
E. g. PjOKn t& thou shall not add; bit thou *haU not be pre-
(d) Vav conver sive bef or e the second and thir d per -
sons, (but not bef or e the f ir st,) connects itself with the
apocopated f or m, but without any speciality of meaning
necessar ily attached in this case to the f or m.
E. g- and he divided.
7. The apocopated future differs widely from the future with re-
tracted tone and final long vowel shortened in consequence of it,
( 3d. 4). This latter is merely a matter of accentuation or orthoepy,
and depends on Vav conversive, and a particular form of the ultimate
and penult syllable of a verb; it may happen to any verb, and in any
conjugation where this form concurs with the Vav; and it has no ist-
Jhtence on the meaning of the word. But the apocopated future be-
longs only to certain conjugations; can take place without the Vav as
well as with it; and generally has a meaning appropriate to itself. It
is true, that Vav conversive falling upon those forms from which
an apocopated future is constructed, generally reduces them to that
form. But the mere power of Vav conversive to retract the tone and
shorten the final syllables of the future, is exercised indiscriminately
over forms apocopated and forms not apocopated, in all cases where
it can produce its effect E. g. Niph. IfcB?, with Vav a con-
jugation and tense out of the circle of apocopated futures; so com.
fut Blp*, apoc. Bp*, but with Vav vay-ya-qdm. In a word, Vav
conversive often connects itself with an apocopated form when it does
not retract the tone; it is not therefore as retracting the tone that it is
to be regarded when associated with the forms in question; but the pow-
er of retraction and the changes suffered by the verb in consequence of
it, are things to be separately considered. ( 93.)
8. In poetry, and sometimes in the later Hebrew, the apocopated
future is used as the simple future; so that the distinctions above
made are not of universal application, but only show what is general
in prose, and to what the language was tending.
92. Verbs ; paragogic and apocopated imperative.
J. In respect to paragogic and apocopated forms, the
imperative imitates the future (91). The paragogic
form of the imperative occurs often in Kal and Hiphil, and
is more seldom found in other conjugations.
E. g. Imperative Kal com. form paragogic
Dip, noi p
Piel ^BD, r - nss
2. The apocopated imperative, in some of the con-
jugations of verbs and "|2, is more frequent than the
regular forms.
E. g. Imperative Piel ba instead of nVa ; Hiphil (ba!n) in-
stead of Sllran ; Kal 1: 73 instead of blB.
3. In Hiphil, both the paragogic and apocopated forms
are common, and have almost entirely extruded the reg-
ular form from use.
E. g. Reg. form apoc. Vtipfl, parag.
NOTE. Only the second pers. sing, masculine, or ground-form of the
imperative, is in general susceptible of the paragoge or apocope in
question, as this only ends in a radical letter. If any exception is to
be made from this, it is that a very few forms in the 2 pers. fem. plur.
appear to suffer a kind of apocope; as for Sisyfeaj; ffiHp. for
iisanp Sic.
4. The meaning of the imperative is generally ren-
dered more energetic or intensive, by the paragogic and
apocopated forms.
In some cases however where these forms occur, it is difficult to
point out a definite meaning, distinct from that of the common imper-
The Arabic has an intensive imperative, but it extends to more
persons than that of the Hebrew.
Di gi t i zed bv Google
93. Verbs ; Vav conversive of the future
t l . To expr ess the imper f ect, or past tense of narra-
tion, the Hebr ews used the f utur e tense with Vav pr ef ix-
ed, having a Pattahh under it and f ollowed by Daghesh
f or te; as
But when the prae formative has a Sheva under it, the Daghesh is
omitted; as ( 45. 6). Before the praeformative K, the Pat-
tahh is lengthened (as Htaj^l), because the Daghesh is excluded from
the Aleph. So inbtj)13 the Pattahh is long under the Vav. ( 46. 1.)
NOTE. Because Vav in this connexion usually gives a preterite
meaning to the future tense, it has been named Vav conversive; i. e.
Vav conversive of the future into the past
2. Vav conver sive is commonly (not always) connect-
ed with the apocopated f utur e, wher e such f or m exists.
Even the first person singular is sometimes apocopated with a Vav
conversive; as fiOfiO instead of ; but this is not very com-
mon. (91.4,7.)
3. Vav conver sive commonly (not always) dr aws back
the tone f r om the last to the penult syllable. ( 35.4.)
Retraction of the tone, however, takes place only in those per- .
sons which end with a radical letter, and have a simple penult syl-
lable. (35.4.)
NOTE. Vav conversive is probably a fragment of the verb NIN to
be. The first letter is dropped, as it commonly is in Syriac; then the
final Si in rn is assimilated to the first letter of the verb that fol-
lows it, like i l l s for We have then in a word equiv-
alent to was (that) he killed, or he killed.
The Arabians constantly make their imperfect by writing out in
full the verb of existence. The Syrians make theirs by joining the
present participle to the verb of existence.
9 4 , 9 5 . VERBS ; VAV BEFORE THE PRAETER, ETC. 1 6 ?
94. Verbs j Vav before the praeter.
1. Vav pr ef ixed to the pr aeter is mer ely a conjunc-
tion. It f r equently gives to the praeter the sense of the ftb
ture, because it connects it with some antecedent f utur e
or imper ative, expr essed or implied*
As in other languages the conjunction and (or its equivalent) con-
nects like cases and moods, so here it connects or indicates like tens-
es. The solution of the difficulty lies in this, that the Hebrew tenses
are in themselves real aorists, capable of being modified by circum-
2. As Vav conver sive draws back the tone, so on the
contr aiy Vav bef or e the pr aeter throws it forward*
. g. with Vav But this effect, though usual, is
not uniform. ( 35. 3.)
95. Notes on the paradigms in general.
In general, only the usual forms are exhibited in the paradigms.
Uncommon forms &c. which are peculiar to any conjugation or class
of verbs, will be found in the notes on the respective paradigms. But
there are certain departures from the usual forms in the paradigms,
which are occasionally found in all the conjugations and classes of
verbs, and which are therefore collected and exhibited at one view in
the present section.
1. Par agogic letter s ar e suf f ixed.
(a) Atn paragogic. This is occasionally suffixed to any of the per-
sons in the future which end in n or _; as for
Vpi ' i n for Very rarely is it added to the 3 per. plur. prae-
ter ; as for WJ Deut 8: 3, 16. For the effect of Aim on the
tone, and on verbs frV, see 35. 2. 6 123.1, h.
{b) He paragogic. This is very common in the future and im-
perative (91,92). It is scarcely ever found in the praeter, and
then only in the 3 pers. /eminine; as Niph. ftfitbc:, with parag.
ftnkbea 2 Sam. 1: 26; Hiph. ftJCart?}, with parag. ftnK^nr} Josh.
6: 17. Other instances in the praeter are doubtful. For ft added to
the 2 pers. ting, praeter, see below in no. 3. a.
(c) Aleph paragogic and in otio. The 3 pers. plural sometimes ex-
hibits this; as for Josh. 10:24; f ut MiDS* Jer. 10: 5.
This is an imitation of the Arabic orthography, which in such cases
always employs the paragogic Aleph.
(d) He and Yodh, especially the latter, are frequently added as
paragogic letters to participles, when those participles are in regi-
men. Participles with paragogic He are penacuted; with paragogic
Yodh, the tone is on the last syllable. ( 34. 2. h.)
2. Some f or ms ar e def ectively wr itten.
() Forms ending in in the praeter, future, and imperative, are
occasionally written with Qlbbuts; as praeter for 1 Sam.
13:19; ft*.
)? in Kethib for *50 Deut. 21:7; future "^aTM f
I K. 12: 7; nST") in Kethib for Ezek. 23: 43. The imperative
appears in the same form as the praeter.
NOTE. Whenever such forms occur in Kethib as ft$B$ and ft3^
above, the consonants appropriate to the punctuation are supplied by
the Qeri in the margin. The forms with simple Qibbute, likewise, com-
monly have the usual vowel Shureq suggested by the Qeri. ( 21.18.)
() Forms ending in n: , viz. the 3 and 2 pers. plur. feminine, not
uafrequently omit the ft; as for for ft2^ttni.
(c) The 1 pen. sing, praeter, which ends m*n, is sometimes written
without the Yodh final; as n W for W2 * ; nto* for W w . ( 86.2.)
(d) The preposition 5, prefixed to the infinitive of Niphal,
sometimes expel the n , and stand in ks place; af VDj>a instead of
Vojvfta. The latter form however is not unfrequent (Comp. 88.3.)
(e) Participles to which Mem praeformative belongs, some-
times omit i t E. g. n j for HfclrS 2 K. 2: 10; for
Ezek. 21: 16,16; ttsnpna for Ps, 139: 21.
3. Some f or ms have a peculiar or thogr aphy.
(o) The 2 pers. sing. masc. of the praeter is notunfrequently writ-
ten with final ft; as ftP^a instead of nnaa; f j w v for nap* Sic.
See the table in & 86. 2.
(b) Hi e 2 pen. sing. fan. of the praeter is sometimes written as
for with Yodh tn otto. ( 86. 2.)
(c) In verbs which have ri for their last radical, the second persons
singular and plural of the praeter, whose sufformatives begin with n,
express the former by a Daghesh forte in the latter; as n*ns for
n m s : "Tins for T m s ; r ns a for nmD3; nnu3 for Sinn from
t s * * ' t s -
t * s s
t * t :
ma?; ''nyj for 'nntt? ; 2 pers. plur. for finnan from nra.
{d) In Piel and PoZ, in the forms which have a Sheva under the
middle radical, the Daghesh characteristic of the conjugations is not
tinfrequently omitted; as for nr bl j for
for *nVo &c. ( 45. 4.)
(e) Sometimes this omission of Daghesh is compensated by length-
ening the preceding vowel, as Gj^brp for 1 Chr.23:6; or by a com-
posite Sheva under the Dagesh'd letter, as tTtijpb for nnjpb. ( 45.4 n.3.)
96. Notes on the paradigm
Thus far the observations on verbs have been of a general nature,
applicable with very little exception to all the various kinds of verbs,
regular and irregular. We come now to particulars respecting the
several classes of verbs, so as to show wherein they differ from
each other in the mode of inflection.
The paradigm of the regular verb ( 127) is to be studied in con-
nexion with the following notes. For the anomalous forms and depar-
tures from the paradigms the student must habitually consult the notes.
J. Praeter.
() Verbs final Hholem ( 76.2) retain the Hholem in their inflec-
tion ; as TiVa*; which, when the accent is thrown off, be-
' I
1 1
comes short, as vfya-gh&r-ta. But some of them conform, out of
the third person, to the common model also.
() Verbs final Tseri ( 76. 2) commonly drop the Tseri in flex-
ion, and are declined out of the third person like common regular
verbs, as yen, naTon; but in pause they retain the Tseri in the 3 pers.
ring, and plural; as Several verbs have Pattahh when not in
pause, and Tseri when in i t ; as 'jD'j, in pause When the ac-
cent is thrown forward beyond the radicals, by suffixes &c. the Tseri
of the ground-form is changed into its corresponding short vowels, viz.
Hhireq parvum or Seghol; asiy*}*, bljaj' V; i bj , sprnb?; bfcj,
ar^ba. (Comp. 64.)
NOTE. The tone is on the ultimate syllable of the verb, when the
penult is not marked with the accetat in the paradigm. For the uni-
versal laws respecting the tone, see 34,35; where it may be seen
how many causes operate to change the tone-syllable as exhibited in
the paradigm.
II. Infinitive.
() The infinitive absolute with Hholem impure, either fully or
defectively written, is almost universal; as Vt3j3 or biug. With
Tseri, Via Gen.,26: 13; Ex. 12: 9.
() The infinitive construct exhibits various forms; as Vop, bitsp,
bop; fem. or nbtDj?, nbqp; bop (Chaldaism).
NOTE 1. The Hholem of the inf. const is generally pure. But in
verbs with a guttural for the middle or final letter, it appears to be
impure; as p?T, ?ib &c. where it remains unchanged.
The fem. forms of the infinitive are rather unfrequent
NOTE 2. The final Hholem of the infinitive construct is commonly
written without a Vav; but sometimes with one. Being pure it goea
into Qamets Hbateph, when the tone is removed by Maqqeph &c.
III. Future.
() The prae formative of the 1 pers. sing, being a guttural, takes
Seghol; as b'opit. ( 58. 1. Comp. 88. 2.)
() Forms as b'ttp.?, biBj^ (Hholem pure), bopp. ( 88.4.6). Several
verbs have future O and J3, each having a different meaning; oth-
ers have both forms without any difference of meaning.
(c) Uncommon forms occur, like sib'lOp? 3 pers. plural; ^ t t p n 2
sing, feminine; D^OJ5n 2 sing. masc. with suffix-pronoun, instead of
(d) Also !ibt3pN, l person singular with paragogic. Both
these result from retaining, in some degree, the Hholem sound in the
last syllable of the ground-form; and are imitations of Chaldaic and
Syriac futures, which have the U sound.
For'the changes in the vowels of the future occasioned by pause-
accents, suffixes &c. see 60. 7. 124. IV note 6.
IV. Imperative.
Forms as Jrtop, (Hholem pure), ; with ft parag.
JibtDj?, seldom fibbp. ( 92). Second pers. fern. ^Dp.,
mblrkhH Judg.9:10; 1 Sam. 28:8 with Vav superfluous. Sec-
end pers. plur. masculine ibDp, nVl3J5 seldom; in pause, l-'pj},
V: Participle*.
I. Active, (a) bc i p, Vpp (Hholem impure); very seldom as
i^Oip, l?D^p. With Todh parag. ^Dp, fem. very rarely from
the feminine rtbap. ( 40. 2. 95. 1. d.)
(ib) In verbs final Tseri and Hholem, it has the forms
( 90. l . a. )
NOTE. The final vowels Tseri and Hholem are mutable, and
when the accent is thrown off are shortened into Seghol and Qamets
Hhateph, or are dropped.
For the fem. part see 90.3. 125; and for plural forms, see
Dec. VII of nouns.
II. Patsive. (c) b'lOj?; which however not unfrequently in neuter
verbs, and a few times in transitive ones, is used in an active as well
as passive sense (90. 1. 6, note). This is very common in Syriac.
97. Reg, verbs ; notes on Niphal.
1. The regular praeter has no variety. The infinitive absolute
is, in a very few cases, used for the infinitive construct; vice versa,
more seldom still The inf. abs. has the form to-rca for once
Ezek. 14:3.
2. The final Tseri of the infinitive, future, and imperative, is
shortened into Seghol, when the tone is retracted by a tone-syllable
immediately following the verb ( 35. 6). In some cases this takes
place, without being thus followed by a tone-syllable, as imper. ;
and also with Vav conversive, as
3. Instead ofSeghol, however, Pattahh sometimes appears; as
In cases where the tone is not retracted, bat the fimal syllable
is in pause, Pattahh often appears, as ; especially in the sec-
ond and third persons feminine, as Jiai?an. So wider a syllable with
a guttural, as f t t n^en; or a Resh, as na^nvj ; and sometimes in oth-
er cases where the word is not in pause, nor has a guttural. So that
the second and third persons feminine seldom appear without Pat-
tahh in the tone-syllable. ( 55. 4. 99.1, e.)
4. The future 1 pers. sing, bojjifij is sometimes pointed as
NOTE. For the omission of the characteristic M in the infinitive
after prepositions, see 95. 2. d.
98* Reg* verbs ; notes on Piel and Pual
/. Piel
(a) Praeter bt2p, -)2'9, ITgb. Pattahh often appears before a Maq-
qeph, and sometimes elsewhere, particularly with Resh.
(b) The infinitive absolute in a few cases is distinguished by an'
appropriate form ; as i t P, ND\ In general, it is the same as
the construct form. Once Y\t\. Fem. forms with stiff.
Ezek. 16: 52 ; rr::nb for H35ni Ps. 102:14.
(e) Future for Epi rP 1 Chr. 23: 6. ( 95. 3. d, e.)
(d) Imperative "ITS PS. 68:31.
For the omission of Daghesh forte, see 95. 3. d. e.
NOTE. The Tseri in the infinitive, future, and imperative, is shorts
ened into Seghol when the tone is removed from i t ( 54.)
II. Pual
() Praeter , *7^ Nab. 3:7 with Qamets Hhateph; btglp with
Shureq, which is merely an orthographic mode of the later Hebrew,
in imitation of the Syriac. (21. 19 note.)
() Infinitive absolute 23A Gen. 40:15.
(c) Future once ^{DSri Ezek. 26:31 for with Daghesh
omitted ( 95. 3. d) and a composite Sheva under the praeformative
as if it were a guttural.
{d) Participle and without the praeformative 3D, The
Mem is not unfrequently omitted in the participle. ( 95. 2. e.)
NOTE. The verb bnil in Piel has either VnH orVntt, as if the
middle radical were a guttural; in Pual bnm.
99. Reg. verbs ; notes on Hiphil and HophaU
I. Hiphil.
() The 3 pew. sing, and plur. of the praeter always have
tween the two last radicals Out of the third person, Pattahh appears
there as in Kal.
Forms; 3 pers. as ^0^8$ (Chaldaism). In the
second and first persons, Hhireq parvum sometimes appears between
the two last radicals instead of Pattahh; as qfPnVopft instead of
; but this happens only when the verb has a suffix-pro-
() Infinitive absolute (Chaldaism). The
form with Tseri without Yodh appears to be sometimes shortened
when the tone is removed; as D^ a e i n s t e a d of Some-
times, though rarely, the inf. const, has the same form as the inf. ab-
solute, and vice versa; as construct fsbb for "psbnb Dan. 11:35;
absolute for Josh. 7:7.
Infinitive construct b*Dpn ; with prefix preposition commonly as
; but also expelling the He ( 95. 2. d. 88. 3).
Sometimes as like the praeter; rarely as the infinitive ab-
solute, for which see above.
(c) In the future the apocopated form is (91. 4), with
Tseri pure and mutable. Very rarely the Yodh of the full form is re-
tained ; as Ta n Ex. 19: 3. In pause, this Tseri becomes Pattahh; as
22 ( 60.7uj 2). When the accent is retracted, the Tseri goes into
Seghol; as ( 55.4.)
In the 3 pers. plural, the of the common future sometimes
(though very rarely) is omitted ; as i i Dj y for
(d) Imperative tjp
3 with Tseri mutable, n^Dp
n. The regular
form is not in use; the apocopated or paragogic forms only be-
ing found in the 2 pen* masc. singular; for which reason the apoco-
pated form is given in the paradigm. Suffix-pronouns, however, are
appended only to the regular form. The other persons are formed
from the regular b^Oprt, and are as in the paradigm.
() Participle ; fem. n ^ a , once nt t gna 2Chr.
24: 7 ; plur. ErV*0$, as if from Zech. 3:7.
For the tone-syllable of this conjugation, see 34.2. e
II. Hophal
() Praeter often as Vt3j3!T The same verb sometimes has
both forms.
() Infinitive absolute bt3p,n, Inf. const does not occur.
100. Reg. verbs ; notes on Hithpael and HothpaaL
I. Hithpael.
1. Praeter btsjprin. The praeter, future, and imperative some-
times as which in pause becomes rEjPfiH; as ~Vb1"1N Ps. 5:3.
2. Those persons of the praeter which regularly would have Pat-
tahh between the two last radicals, sometimes take Hhireq parvum
instead of it when the tone is moved forward; as Final
Tseri is pure and mutable.
3. As in Piel and Pual ( 95.3.d), the Daghesh is occasionally omit-
ted, and is sometimes compensated by a long vowel; aslljSBri? Judg.
20:15, for n p e r r .
II. HothpaaL
4. Hothpaal occurs very rarely, especially in regular verbs. The
form 3 for occurs Num. 1:47. 2:33. 26:62.1 K. 20:27.
See no. 3 above.
100 a. Reg. verbs ; notes on Potl,
The conjugation Poel is very rare in regular verbs.' The follow-
ing instances occur, viz. Is. 40: 24, a denominative verb
from radix; in pause Jer. 12:2 from the form with
Pattahh because of the Resh; my judge Job 9: 15, Poel part
from For the manner of declining Poel, see the paradigm of
verbs 99.
NOTE. For the few instances in which the unusual conjugations
PUel, Pulal &c. occur in regular verbs, see 81.6, 11,12 &c.
1 0 1 . IRREGULAR VERBS, ETC. 1 7 5
100 b. J\Jodc of designating irregular verbs
1. In order to mark concisely the different species of irregular
verbs, grammarians have employed, as a kind of technical numerals,
the radical letters of the verb whose forms have also given
names to the several conjugations (74). As D is the first letter of
a verb whose first radical is a guttural,is said to be a verb Peguttural;
and a verb whose first letter is fit, ** &c. is said to be a verb Pe Aleph,
Pe Yodh kc. In the same manner verbs whose second radical is a guttural,
Vav&c. are called verbs Ayin guttural, verbs Ayin Vav kc. because 9
is the second letter of ^56. So verbs whose final radical is tt, ft kc.
are denominated verbs Lamedh Aleph, Lamedh He kc. because b is the
final letter of
NOTE. Verbs 79 are those which have the last two radicals alike,
L e. which repeat the second radical for the third one.
2. In the present grammar, letters which are thus used technically
are indicated by the accent Garshayim, i. e. two strokes placed over the
left hand letter; as ftfe, JiV. These are always to be read by calling
the alphabetic names of each letter; as Pe Aleph, Lamedh He kc.
101. Verbs with gutturals and Resh
1. Under the first class of irregular verbs, I have thought it best to
arrange those verbs which have a guttural for one or more of their
radical letters. They have not usually been thus arranged by Hebrew
grammarians, merely because the old definition of an irregular verb
included only those which
change or drop any one of their three
radicals." As the definition however is arbitrary in regard to its ex-
tent, I have thought it more convenient to extend it so as to include
the verbs with gutturals, and have accordingly ranked them as irreg-
ular; a place to which every student in Hebrew instinctively assigns
them, on account of their numerous irregularities in the vowel-points.
If the vowels at the present day are a necessary part of a verb, why
17 6
should not their departures from regularity give rise to a correspond-
ing classification, as well as those of the consonants ? ( 69. 2.)
2. Verbs which have Resh for one of their radicals may also be rank-
ed in the same class, because in such case Resh, by rejecting Daghesh
forte where it would regularly be inserted, as in Niphal and in the Da-
ghesh'd conjugations, affects the preceding vowel-points in the same
manner as do the gutturals ( 46. 1). In other situations, Resh has no
very peculiar effect on the vowel-points ( 46. 3, 5). As a final rad-
ical, it sometimes takes Pattahh in preference to another vowel, and
sometimes does not
3. When Aleph is the first radical of verbs, it is sometimes a gut-
tural and sometimes quiescent In die former case, the verbs fall un-
der the present class; in the latter, they are treated of in 107. As
the second radical, Aleph is always a guttural; as the third, it is al-
ways quiescent. ( 120.)
4. Under the f ir st class of ir r egular ver bs ar e to be
compr ehended the f ollowing species of ver bs.
ff y
(a) Par t of ver bs D and all of f t?. See no. 3 above.
(b) All ver bs HD and Si?, and those of in which
f inal He has Mappiq.
(c) All which have H or IP f or one of their r adicals.
(d) All ver bs and 12 wher e Resh would r egu-
lar ly r eceive Daghesh f or te. See no. 2 above.
102. Irreg. verbs ; verbs Pe guttural 4rc.
1. When the r egular ver b has simple Sheva under
the f ir st r adical, ver bs Pe guttural usually take a compos-
ite Sheva. ( 46. 2.)
2. Pr aef or matives take the shor t vowel cor r espond-
ing to the composite Sheva which f ollows, instead of the
usual vowels in the r egular f or ms. The same is tr ue of
the letter s char acter istic of the sever al conjugations. ( 58.2.)
E. g. "to*: instead of*i3p.; *jot instead of pjo*\
NOTE. The composite Sheva voder the guttural here, is commpnlj
homogeneous with the vowel-point which stands under the praeform-
ative in regular verbs; i. e. the short vowel of the composite Sheva
is of the same class as the regular vowel of the praeformative. Thus
instead of "RJM we have *138*;; for TnyW, VJ>n; for *rrn
&c. To this rule, however, there are very many exceptions.
3. Simple Sheva silent is not unf r equently f ound her e
under the guttur als when pr eceded by a pr aef or mative,
just as it would be in r egular ver bs. In this case the
pr aef or mative takes the same shor t vowel as it would if
the Sheva had been composite; and the guttur al is united
with it so as to make a mixed syllable, us in r egular ver bs.
( 58. 2 note 2.)
E. g. instead of for ; TJfTjJ for
NOTE. Two verbs, viz. FTH to be and J"Pn to lidty differ here from
all other verbs of the class Pe guttural, by adopting the regular punc-
tuation under the praeformative, while the guttural has simple Sheva
silent; as futures njtt* and FPH?; Niph. The verb r r n is
" not found In Niphal, and in Hiphil it conforms to verbs Pe guttural;
as fPnft ( 58. 2 note 2). A few others, which ire also nb, take
Hhireq in their apocopated form; as
4. When the guttur al has a composite Sheva, and in
the cour se of f lexion the letter which f ollows it comes to
have a simple Sheva, the composite Sheva of the guttu-
ral goes into its corresponding shor t vowel. ( 58. 3.)
E. g. instead of 1 t h e latter being an impossible sylla-
ble. ( 26. l!)
5. In cases wher e the f ir st r adical is r equir ed to be
doubled, as in the inf initive, f utur e, and imper ative of Niphal,
the Daghesh being omitted in the guttur als and Resh, the
pr eceding vowel is ther ef or e pr olonged.
E. g. iQtt-T instead of 1$9rr; Ol ^n instead of Otfnn. This is
the only case in which Resh produces any irregularity as a first radical.
NOTE. Piel, Pual, and Hithpael of this class of verbs are altogeth-
er regular.
103. Irreg. verbs ; notes on verbs Pe guttural.
I. Kal.
() Infinitive construct ins, VDK; with a preposition bbtj ;
also as b'sKij. Fem. forms hj?]n, Jlban Ezek. 16: 6.
() Future O as *i)ay\ Fut A as pm; ; and sometimes fut. O as
Some verbs have both forms.
Future O with Sheva simple ; f ut A b^nv Sometimes the sing,
is like V'arn while the plural is as * b i n \ A peculiar form is ^bnn for
( 60. 6). Plurals pers. fern/nanta?* for r ni byn Dan. 8t 22
a form of the fem. plural which imitates the 3 pers. fem. of the Syri-
ac and Arabic, in preserving the Yodh praeformative.
(c) Imperative in verbs KB, sfOK, TJW. With ft parag. ncot| -
Second pers. fem. "HJtofils. 47: 2 Ruth 3: i 5. Plural 2 masc. ^il^.
(d) The Pattahh sound is somewhat shorter than the Seghol-eound.
When a verb Pe guttural has the Seghol-vowels in its ground-form, and
afterwards receives accession at the end, the Pattahh-vowels are some-
times substituted for the Seghol ones, in order to shorten the sound
of the word.
E. g. Sing. Pj'ox^, plural
with suffix n
plural mon: .
II. Nipkal.
() Praeter Est. 9: 1; -iinys-1 1 Chr. 5: 20;
plur. n i n a Cant. 1:6. The form with Pattahh under Nun character-
istic, as nfctsna Gen. 31: 27, seldom appears in the praeter except
when preceded by the conjunction Vav; and in the participle only when
increased, as fem. plur. D^absa. See above in no. I. d.
() Participle once Dinna Est. 8: 8 from Dnn.
III. Hipkil.
(a) Praeter "V0n?j. A peculiar form is ttb*^ tor !fb*n
Hab. 1: 15 ( 60. 6). Vav prefixed to the praeter changes the Se-
ghoi-class of vowels to the.Pattahh-class (comp. Kal and Niphal); as
^nannn, but with Vav
1 7 9
(6) Infinitive absolute with const, form Josh. 7: 7. Vice
verm, inf. const with abs. form Dent 26: 12.
(c) Future W , '
(d) Imperative plural 2 K. 2:3, 5, from trbn.
(e) Participle *VBn; pyg for pTKXJ Prov. 17 : 4.'
IV. Hophd.
() Praeter n^' n a peculiar form for ttbsin. ( 60.6.)
() Infinitive absolute Ezek. 16: 4.
104. Irreg verbs ; verbs Ayin guttural fyc,
1. The depar tur es f r om the f or ms of the r egular
ver b ar e less f r equent in ver bs whose second radical is a
guttur al or Resh, than in those of the class Pe guttural
The principal var iation is, that in per sons and f or ms wher e
the middle radical of the r egular ver b would have simple
Sheva under it, ver bs Ayin guttural take a composite
Sheva, which is gener ally Hhateph Pattahh. ( 46. 2.)
2. The f inal syllable of the f utur e and imper ative,
having a guttur al in it, usually takes Pattahh ( 46.3), though
in a f ew instances it has Hholem. The inf initive also,
contr ar y to what might be expected, takes Hholem.
NOTE. Inasmuch as Pattahh in the final syllable of verbs Ayin gut"
tural results merely from the influence of the guttural, the future
A in verbs of this kind does not necessarily indicate an intransitive
verb, as is usually the case with the future Pattahh. ( 88.4. 6.)
3. In the same manner, Piel in ver bs of this kind not un-
f r equently takes f inal Pattahh instead of Tser i.
E. g. 3133, DH3. So also the imperative of Hlphil; as In-
stead of prpfn.
4. In the conjugations which r egular ly take Daghesh
f or te in the middle r adical, viz. Piel, Pual, and Hithpael, the
Daghesh is of cour se excluded by the guttur als and Resh,
and the pr eceding vowel pr olonged. ( 46. I.)
E. g. Piel praet. 1J2, f i t t , ; fut ^ ; Pual
bKi, yn'ii with Qibbuts long; Hithpael &c.
() Infinitive fem. as nbJiN; sometimes with Qamets
Hhateph, as rtjPJVn; and as !"ij?3>T for rrjt. ( 60. 6.)
() Future *b~pn2P for pHX? Gen. 21:6; probably an effect of
the pause-accent.
(c) The imperative feminine and plural is formed according to the
rule In 58. 2; as masc. p5t, fem. &c.
II. NiphaL
Infinitive absolute Dhba Judg. 11: 25. In other respects Niphal is
entirely regular, with the exception noted in no. 1 above. It Is there-
fore omitted in the paradigm.
III. Piel and Pual
(a) The praeter in Piel with middle - tt, takes either Tseri or
Hhireq magnum under its first radical, as yt$3; with middle 51
and n, usually Hhireq magnum and sometimes Tseri, as JJT?,
; with middle y, usually Hhireq magnum and very rarely Tseri;
as ^51, Judg. 14:20; with middle -i, Tseri, as -pas. The par-
adigm exhibits forms with both vowels. An anomalous form is
rrarr for with suff. n n b m Ps. 51: 7 from Dm.
* ?{
(4) In the infinitive, future, Imperative and participle of Piel and
Hithpael, middle N and middle ^ usually (not always) require Qamets
before them, as also Num. 14:11; part ; but
middle ii, n, and are very rarely preceded by Qamets. E. g. 233^,
; but sometimes
(c) Infinitive absolute ytja with Hhireq magnum, for the usual yttt-
(d) Future 1 pers. sing Lev. 26: S3 for
() In Pual the gutturals and Resh require, as compensation for
Daghesh omitted, either Hholem or Qibbuts long; s
Vt n &c.
IF. Hithpael.
ID Hithpael we have ^nanri , bnsnn; see Piel in b. In pause, Pat-
tahh under the first radical is changed into Seghol, as Ezek.
5: 13 for ( 60. 1. 80. 2. c.) '
NOTE. Hithpoel appears once in these verbs; viz. participle
in pause Is. 52:5, for ffijSriE from ( 80. 2. c.) *
105. Irreg. verbs ; verbs I^amedh guttural.
1. When in r egular ver bs the f inal letter of the r oot
would have a Sheva under it, ver bs Lamedh guttural ar e
near ly without exception conf or med to the r egular model;
as Kal pr aet 2 per son PIPE &c.
But the 2 pers. fem. takes Pattahh furtive under the guttural; as
IWJW instead of ( 59.2 note 2). A very few forms exist like
15M3 for
2. All the f or ms which end with a guttur al letter ,
have Pattahh either pr oper or f ur tive in the f inal syllable.
(a) Pattahh furtive is inser ted, when the vowel of the
ultimate syllable is V, or ^ . ( 27. 2.)
E. g.
The infinitive construct of Kal has Hholem impure, contrary to
the analogy of other verbs; as
(h) The pr oper vowel Pattahh appear s as a f inal
vowel without exception in the f utur e and imper ative of
Kal. So also in the Segholate f or m of the par ticiple f em-
E. g. Fut ; imper. SHOtt; part fem. nt t t o. ( 59. 2. 60. S
3. When in r egular ver bs the vowel of the f inal syl-
lable would be Tser i, these ver bs either r etain the Tser i
and inser t a Pattahh f ur tive af ter it, as ; or else ex-
change the Tser i f or the pr oper vowel Pattahh, as JttDtD.
The former method is common in the infinitive absolute, and where
a pause-accent falls en the case absolute of participles ( 182. 2. c),
L e. wherever a lengthened form is required; the latter is usual in
the construct state of participles, in the infinitive construct, and in
words with conjunctive accents he. So also in the apooopated forms
of Hiphil; as imperative rfclCH for he.
4. Ver bs Lamedh Resh f r equently take Pattahh in
the f inal syllable, but of ten have other f or ms; as
and na> \ ( 46. 3, 5.)
5. By a kind of apocope the 2 pers. plur. fem. of the imperative
has for once Gen. 4: 23.
106. Verbs with quiescents fyc,
1. Under the second class of irregular verbs are comprehended all
those in which any of the radical letters are dropped, assimilated, com-
muted, or become quiescent
2. These have commonly been divided into verbs imperfect and
quiescent, and that order followed in treating of them which this divis-
ion required. But as all divisions of this nature are merely techni-
cal, I shall adopt that order which seems most simple, and which re-
gards these verbs as irregular in their first, second, or third radical
3. Under the second class of ir r egular ver bs ar e to be
compr ehended the f ollowing species of ver bs.
{) Ver bs ir r egular in the first r adical; viz. ver bs
with Aleph quiescent, all ver bs **&, and most of
(b) Ver bs ir r egular in their second r adical; viz. all
. a a
ver bs 3??, 1?, and ^7.
(c) Ver bs ir r egular in their third r adical; viz. all
ver bs ver bs Jib with He quiescent, and ver bs r f c.
4. Ther e ar e also many ver bs which ar e doubly ir-
r egular , i. e. which ar e ir r egular in two of their radical
107. VERBS PE ALEPH. 183
letter s, usually the f ir st and Ia*t, because two ir r egular let-
ter s veiy r ar ely stand together . Such ar e ver bs which
ar e both MD and r f c, as ; ver bs and f cf o, as ;
ver bs and as HT; ver bs and ai 6W33;
ver bs and r f V* as f ittt. ( 124.)
5. A f ew other ver bs ar e peculiar ly anomalous; aa
art a, 'n f or &c. ( 124.)
I07L Irreg verbs ; verbs Pe Aleph,
1. In the gr eater par t of the class of ver bs f c*D, the
letter Aleph is a guttur al, and the ver bs in which it ap-
pear s in that char acter , ar e to be inf lected simply as ver bs
Pe guttural ( 102, 103). But in a f ew ver bs, Aleph
appear s in the f utur e of Kal as a quiescent, and assumes
the f or ms pr esented in the paradigm and the f ollowing
notes. It is these latter ver bs only, or ver bs Pe Aleph qui-
escent, which ar e tr eated of her e.
2. The class of verbs KB with Aleph quiescent is quite small, com-
prehending only the five following verbs, vix,
ft Bit, which are inflected only as in the paradigm. The verbs
f t #, tnfit and exhibit in the future of Kal the inflections both
of verbs MS quiescent and fits guttural, and belong to both species.
NOTE. Out of the future of Kal, fit is everywhere considered as A
guttural, and the few instances in which it quiesces in other conjuga-
tions are anomalous, and belong as well to verbs KD guttural as tp
verbs quiescent. They are however exhibited in the notes.
The paradigm gives only the future of Kal.
J. KaL
(a) The praeter is entirely like verbs Pe guttural; as are also the in-
finitive, imperative, participles, and all the other conjugations, ex-
cepting the forms noted below.
184 1 0 8 . VERBS PE TODH.
(&) lit the future 1 person, the quiescent fit falls out after the prae-
formative fit; as *"ipK instead of ^Jjfit fit. The ground of this seems to be
to avoid the concurrence of two Alephs.
(c) Forms of the future; *"1*3*0, FH without Aleph.
So i i n n for 1 "intin &c. The common form of verbs Pe guttural co-
exists, in some persons of the verbs THfit and S)0fit, with the quiescent
form; as TJlfit'* and THK*; SJDfiO, S)p% and ^Dfit\ The first person from
35M is four times 3Hfit, once Prov. 8: 17; aU the rest are as in
verbs Pe guttural.
(d) The infinitive has fit quiescent only in the construct form Sttfitlb
for which is a peculiarity of Aleph. ( 47. 5. a.)
(e) Imperative for i BHt by a Syriasm. ( 47. 5. b.)
II. Nipkal.
The only example of quiescence in Niphal is Tlifcta for THWtj.
III. Piel.
Future 2 Sam. 22:40 for where Aleph quiesces and
is dr opped ( 47. 2) . So part i ci pl e ^Bt ya f or *3BMt .
IV. Hiphii
(a) Infinitive Ezek. 21:23 for b^fittl, where * is dropped
after becoming quiescent ( 47. 5. o
(b) Future b^fct for after the analogy of the future of
Kal, supra I. b. bXtt'2 for bx&ji with the tone retracted. ( 55. 3.)
(c) Imperative i VjH in pause for 3 nn from ftnij. The it qui-
esces ( 47. 6. a) and is then dropped. For the Yodh, see 123.1, k.
(d) Participle ]***& for 'ptttQ, Aleph quiescent dropped as in c.
V. HophaL
Future for where Aleph goes into Vav in order to
be more homogeneous with the O sound, and then quiesces in the
sound of the Qamets Hhateph under the praeformative, which is of
course lengthened into Hholem. ( 48. 2. 6.)
108, Irreg verbs ; verbs Pe Yodh
1. Under the gener al appellation of ver bs Pe Yodh,
ar e compr ised f our kinds of ver bs, which dif f er f r om each
other in a few cases, with r espect to the mode of inf leo
108* VERBS PE YODH* 185
tion; while the gr ound-f or ms, and many of the f or ms de-
r ived f r om them, exhibit the same appear ance in all.
2. Most ver bs denominated Pe Yodh appear to have
been or iginally Pe Vav ; the Vav being changed into Yodh,
because the Hebr ews gener ally avoided beginning wor ds
with a Vav.
Thus. appears to have been as it now is in the Arabic.
The Arabians have a considerable number of verbs of this form, which
are quite distinct from verbs Pe Yodh. In Hebrew, the class of
Verbs which originally were t o, disclose this Vav in some parts of
their inflection, as an original moveable letter. Thus 1 ^ , Niph. fut.
imp. &c. Some disclose it also in Hithpael; as Hithpael
STinn. In Hiphil and Hophal it is quiescent j as nb'iFl,
3. A f ew ver bs appear to have been originally
so, and r etain the Yodh radical thr oughout, in all the
f or ms of them which ar e extant
This is not to he understood, however, as excluding the defective
mode of writing when the Yodh is quiescent; as for SB
", &c.
4. A f ew also assimilate their f ir st r adical Yodh to
the letter which f ollows, in the same manner and. in
the same cases as ver bs Pe Nw ( 113); as nT
f utur e
nr ;, Niph. i m
5. Ther e ar e also a f ew ver bs whose f or ms can-
not be exclusively r anked under either of the above clases.
6. Ver bs of all the clases ar e r egular in the pr ae-
ter , inf initive absolute, and par ticiple of Kal, and in the
Daghesh'd conjugations.
This is to be understood with the same latitude as is applied to
common regular verbs; among which, as we have seen, occasional an-
omalies appear.
7. The ir r egular ities, by which they dif f er f r om r eg-
ular ver bs and f r om each other , ar e limited to the f utur e,
inf initive constr uct and imper ative of Kal, and to Niphal,
Hiphil, and Hophal.
186 1 0 9 . VERBS f x YODH ; CLASS 1.
109. Irrcg. verbs ; first class of verbs
]. The f ir st class of ver bs in their origin ar e ID.
The char acter istic of this class is, that in the f utur e the
pr aef or mative expels the radical Yodh, and takes Tser i;
and the f inal syllable, unless it have a guttur al in it, adopts
also the same vowel.
E. g. 5*, fut. 325\ The full future in this class of verbs, as
f ut occurs (as an exception) in two or three instances. With a
guttural in the final syllable, the form is as f ut r v from
2. In the inf initive and imper ative, the radical Yodh
f alls away.
E. g. imper. 52?; inf. ; "lb* inf. feminine IVJ^;
inf. fem. nab.
4. In Niphal pr aeter and par ticiple, Hiphil, and
Hophal, the original Vav of this class of ver bs appear s as
a quiescent.
E. g. n-sZT, Niph. aaita, Hiph. Hoph.
NOTE. The Verbs which belong exclusively to this class are few ;
viz- s v , a.-;, 113:, l b: or n ^ , ttar, rj j ; , 1-3;, a s ; ; in the
whole ten. Others have forms partly according to this class, and part-
ly according to other classes. See general remarks in 112 a.
I. Kal
(a) Praeter T} f
o n c e
Judg. 19:11 (42. 1 note);
for Ps. 23:6.
(b) Future with Yodh retained ; first pers. ftsb^K, which is
very uncommon. With tone retracted, as Sii? With n paragog-
ic, as HJHN.
(c) Infinitive absolute &c. Once lavi) Jer.42:10 with Yodh
dropped. Inf. construct a n, fem. nr *; fem. ni b, ni b, by contraction
r b (41. 3. 6); also as n*l\ With suffix, as "'Pin. It is usual-
ly feminine.
(<*) Imperative *n, rn*\; Ttib, from ? j ^;
with i t - paragogic, from 9JI (92). The paragogic forms are the
ptost common. For the form fO Cant 3:11, see 121.1, e.
Praeter wkh Daghesh euphoric, from *tb\
III. Hiphil.
() Future 1^*3 with tone retracted. With Vav omitted, n ^ i .
Once for Ex. 2: 9. With if characteristic retained,
yTZ>in\ ( 88. 3.)
() 'Imperative in Q,eri for Gen. 8: 17. So
in Qeri Ps. 5: 9. The first radical in these cases is
treated as if the verb were entirely regular, the form being precisely
the same as The KethJb therefore exhibits the true reading.
IV. Hithpatl.
The verb an* has Hithpael yni nn, retaining the original Vav.
110. Irreg. verbs ; second class of verbs *4>.
ff fl
1. The second class of ver bs also ar e ID as to
their origin. The char acter istic of this class is, that they
pr eser ve the r adical Yodh in the inf initive, f utur e, and im-
per ative.
2. The f utur e has Pattahh in the f inal syllable; the
inf initive takes f inal Hholem.
E. g. Future itc. laf. tffiF, &c. See below in I. c.
NOTE 1. The number of verbs txchsvothf belonging to this class is
small; viz. ; , HV, n*; , *2;, ^ I??, ^ *,
^ or "j 125^; in the whole thirteen.
NOTE 2. Out of Kal, the forms of verbs belonging to the first
and second classes are altogether the same. No paradigm, therefore,
of the second class is needed beyond the conjugation Kal.
I. Kal.
(a) The praeter besides final Pattahh has final E and 0, but reg-
ular; as ttap, VD\
1 8 8 1 1 0 . VERBS PE YODH; CLASS II*
(6) Future commonly fully written with Yodh, as ; but also
defectively as 3? > which is merely a mode of orthography. Plural
*fitV defectively; and so often in the plural Pattahh is always
found in the final syllable of the future in this class of verbs, unless they
end in N or ; in which case they conform, as to their final vowel, to
the forms in verbs & and rib.
(c) Infinitive always Hholem, wherever it appears; as fem.'
ni r , fem. ; fin*, fem. t u n * ; From n v 'comes
firi v!> 2 Chr. 26:16 with fit instead of n ( 121. IV), and also ni' Vb.
(d) Imperative #TV, fiiV, *"P, UJ'V which appears in the par-
agogic form . The form Judg. 19:30. Is. 8:10 from is
altogether anomalous.
The imperative does not occur except in verbs with final fit or ft,
or with a guttural in the final syllable.
II. Mphal
() Future Ex. 19:13; Gen. 8: 12. The first per-
son sing, in Niphal has Hhireq parvum under the praeformative, in-
stead of Seghol; as not SJfi$ as in regular verbs.
() Participle plural construct **3, as from a praeter ttM3 from
participle with Tseri, from
III. Piel.
Future for from for from ST1\
So n^2,
IF. HiphU.
Future ITjirP instead of yVjV* from ! W; PjDiJT from the
characteristic of Hiphil being preserved. ( 88. 3.)
V. Hithpael
The verb ttV in Hithpael has r mnr i ; inHithpael hasroi nf r;
both preserving the original. Vav.
VI. PopaaL
The verb rtfi* is found once in Popaal, viz. 2pers. I V' c ^ Ps.45: 3.
111. Irreg. verbs ; third class of verbs
1. The thir d class of ver bs appear originally to
have had Yodh f or their f ir st r adical.
2. In the f utur e of Kal they ar e declined like ver bs of
1 1 1 . TERBS PE YODH ; CLASS III. 189
the second class, r etaining their Yodh, and haying Pattahh
and sometimes Tser i in their f inal syllable.
NOTE. NO instances occur of the infinitive or imperative in Kal of
this class of verbs, so that we have no means of deciding the form of
those moods.
3. The only peculiar char acter istic of this class of
ver bs is, that in Hiphil they r etain their original Yodh.
E. g. pa* Hiph. p^ r t , not p ^ i n as in the preceding classes.
But these forms in Hiphil may be defectively written; as f ut
4. For ms in these ver bs ar e f ound only in Kal and
NOTE. The verbs belonging to the above class are very few J viz.
bb*, p2^, "ittj*, pXTfi, and in respect to most of their forms fjVJ
and 122^; in all seven.
The paradigm exhibits only the conjugation Hiphil.
/. Kal.
There appears to be a future Tseri in some verbs of this class.
Thus *2 from ; y G e n . 50:26. Such futures rank
neither under the first nor second class of verbs "'D, and must be
considered as peculiar to this third class.
II. Hiphil.
(a) Praeter fully written, as *pJq"
n; and defectively, as }
(b) Future fully written, as and defectively, as ; also
Prov. 4:25 with Yodh moveable, as if it were a regular verb.
So also Hos.7:12. Comp. 109. III. b.
NOTE. Some futures *VT generis are constructed from and BB^;
as ^ 2 ? > also b ^ r p ; but it is doubtful whether this latter
form belongs here. See the lexicons in b^"\
(c) Imperative forms of this class with Yodh moveable, as IB***}
in Q,eri Ps. 5:9 ; so in Qeri Gen. 8:17. Comp. 109. III. b.
(l) Participle 1 Chr. 12: 2 with Yodh moveable.
2 5
1 9 0 1 1 2 . VERBS PE YODH ; CLASS IV.
112. Irreg. verbs ; fourth class of verbs ^B.
1. The char acter istic of the f our th class of ver bs *D
is, that wher ever in the pr eceding classes the r adical
Yodh becomes quiescent, in this class it assimilates itself to
the letter which f ollows it, in the same manner as the
Nun does in ver bs Pe Nun ( 113); viz. in the f utur e of
Kal, in Niphal, Hiphil, and Hophal.
2. The f utur e Kal has Pattahh and Hholem, like
ver bs Pe Nun; as 112% f ut. f ut. The other
conjugations ar e also as ver bs Pe JVun. ( 113.)
NOTE. All the forms referred by Gesenius to roots under this
description of verbs, viz. to 03*, ax*, 3 ^ , as belonging exclusively
here; and to "ID*, 10*, ps*, "ND*, as mostly belonging here;
are with better reason ranked by Simonis and Eichhorn under verbs
*}B; for in that case the common laws of the language, as to assimila-
tion, are simply followed. The assimilation of the Yodh is contrary
to the nature of this letter in genera], as it usually quiesces rather
than assimilates. But as the lexicon of Gesenius is constructed upon
a Afferent principle, the grammar is here adapted to i t As to signifi-
cation, it is a matter of indifference whether the student derive these
forms from verbs *JB or *, because the same meaning is attributed to
both roots.
3. The paradigm exhibits only Kal, because in the other conjuga-
tions the forms are precisely like those of verbs in the succeeding
paradigm;as Niphal p$3, Hiphil Hophal pajqt; like |3,
4. The apocopated future p2$*2 1 K. 22: 35 comes from a future
with Tser i Imp. pag 2 K. 4:41 is like verbs f 9. So also the infinitive.
112 a. Vtrbs "*B which do not fall under the foregoing classes.
1. Verbs ^B whose forms cannot be exclusively ranked under either
of the preceding classes, are the following; viz. DIJ*,
vc, ib:, ip.:, e* :> ; fa> u eleven.
2. These, as the student may ascertain from his lexicon, have
forms which would seem to belong to two or more of the foregoing
classes; as Dn^, f ut oil* and D12\ This verb has also3pers.plur. fern*
1 13. VERBS PE NCN. 191
with Yodh praeformative instead of Tav, like the Syriac and
Arabic. So -ip* has f ut and nip"* ; and 3 pers. plur. fem.
with Yodh and Daghesh euphonic, for ( 29. 10). Other
anomalous forms of several of these verbs are noted in the lexicons.
General remarks on all the verbs Pe Yodh.
3. Lexicographers and grammarians differ in the classification of these
verbs, on account of the variety of forms which they present. The
classification, however, is comparatively of little consequence, provid-
ed the student knows how to decline and account for the particular
forms with which he meets. To one or other of the above divis-
ions he will be able to refer all; excepting that here as in regular
verbs, now and then an anomaly occurs, which can be assigned by
analogy to no particular class. E. g. Drr, fut. Dn^ij of class first as to its
first vowel, and of class second as to its second vowel. So also of a
few others; which, however, are mostly noticed in the lexicons.
113. Irreg verbs ; verbs Pe Nun*
1. The ir r egular ity of ver bs consists in this, that
when the yer b r eceives any accession at the beginning, so
that the Nun would r egular ly stand at the end of a syl-
lable and have under it a silent Sheva, it is assimilated to
the letter which f ollows it, and is expr essed by a Daghesh
f or te in that letter .
In the inf initive constr uct and imper ative of Kal,
wher e the Nun would r egular ly have under it a vocal
Sheva, it is in a f ew instances dr opped.
E. g. The verb has f ut A* for UJA3*; Niphal t?A3 for tt)A33;
Hiphil spa?? for UJ-aan; Hophal 23An for or ttjjan; Kal infini-
tive construct feminine n^ji, imperative UJi for 33 kc.
2. Hence the ir r egular ities of these ver bs arising f r om
the Nun, ar e limited to the f utur e of Kal, the pr ae-
ter and par ticiple of Niphal, and the conjugations Hiphil
and Hophal; because in these only would the r adical Nun
r egular ly r eceive a silent Sheva under i t
3. Ver bs ID, which have a guttur al f or their second
1 9 3 1 1 4 . VERBS PE NUN J NOTES.
r adical, ar e inf lected simply as ver bs Ayin guttural, and
have no ir r egular ities arising f r om their Nun; because the
Nun cannot be assimilated to a guttur al and expr essed
in it by a Daghesh.
NOTE. From this observation must be excepted the verbs BnD and
nna ; from which come Niph. Dji3, and fut ni v, Niph. nn3 not nri33.
4. A f ew ver bs which usually take the assimilated
f or ms, admit also the r egular f or ms in a ver y f ew cases.
E. g. PJID, fut. P)1?, onceSpqn Ps. 68:3; 103, f ut -lb*, once KtM?
Jer. 3: 6; nX3, f ut n*X? and five times WX3\ So ?jn3, and pns.
NOTE. The Daghesh which marks the assimilated Nun is some-
times omitted. ( 45. 4 note 1. 95.3. d.)
114. Irreg. verbs ; notes on verbs Pe Nun,
I. Kal.
() In the infinitive construct, the radical Nun is dropped only in
the following feminine forms, viz. n?$, nujJj, nyo, ring, nj^X, nfjip and
for nfijip (47.2) ; once Kito Ps. 89:10; nn for 11515 (
4 1

* )
The regular forms ?A3, 5b3 also occur. The infinitive feminine with
suffix is as intpi.
() The future O is found in about two thirds of the Verbs j c, as
VD* ; future A in about one third, as XDi\ Future E is found only in
fn3, as ^FP. The verb has future nn*, plural in pause Job
21: 13 with Daghesh euphonic in Tav (29. 9). Forms with Nun
retained see in 113. 4. In the future especially, the Daghesh Is
sometimes omitted ( 45.4 note 1). Future O as MB
? with Hholem
pure. (21. 15 note.)
(c) In the imperative, the radical Nun is dropped only in the fol-
lowing forms, viz. *4, and and 9Q, TJD Ezek. 37 : 9, px,
-rtx Is. 8 :17, Kto, bjp, Gen. 27: 26, fri and tt3R Ps. 8:2.
The regular form SX3 also occurs.
II. Niphal
(a) In those verbs where the Nun is assimilated and the conjuga-
tion Piel takes Pattahh or Qamets in its final syllable, Niphal and Piel
have the same form; as 13, Niphal and Piel ; &U)3, Niphal and
Piel fitips. The verb b3 has in Niphal the form bitt3 Gen. 17:26,27.
(1b) The infinitive absolute appears in the following forms, viz.
Ps. 68:3; f i mn Jer. 32:4.
1 1 5 . VERBS A YIN DOUBLED. 1 9 3
(c) Participle with suffix ^jtrja, probably from an obsolete form
rrja. (121. II. c.)
III. Hiphil and Hophal.
(o) The radical Nun very rarely appears; the infinitive construct
^nat t occurs Ezek. 22:20. Apocopated future Tan Ex. 19:3 with
Yodh retained.
(b) In Hophal, Qibbuts is the more common vowel of the first
syllable. But Qamets Hhateph appears; as 3pnan Judg. 20:31.
IV. Notes on the verbs and ]n3.
(a) The verb nj?b imitates verbs by assimilating its Lamedh in
the future of Kal, as ; and by dropping it in the infinitive con-
struct and sometimes in the imperative; as inf. fem. ri ng; imperative
nj? and In the praeter it has once the very anomalous form of
JlJ? for np_b Ezek. 17:5. In Niphal, Pual, and Hithpael, it is regular.
Piel, Hiphil, and Hophal do not occur.
(b) The verb ]na is quite anomalous; f ut f r P; imper. fP, nan
Ps. 8: 2; inf. fem. nn for nj l j (41. 3. a), with suffix **nn, the Da-
ghesh in the final Tav being the assimilated Nun, which appears when
the word receives an accession (41. 3). The final Nun of the verb
is also assimilated when it meets with a suffix beginning with Tav or
Nun; as nna for nana; wna for laana; and so nna, oqna, "jrgna &c.
115. Irreg. verbs ; verbs Ayin doubled
1. The ir r egular ities of ver bs Ayin doubled ar e occa-
sioned by a contr acted mode of speaking and wr iting the
last two r adical letter s. The gener al law of the contr ac-
tion in those f or ms which end with a r adical letter is, to
dr op f r om the r egular f or m the vowel of the f ir st r adical
if it have one, to dr op also the middle r adical, and then to
utter the wor d by the aid of the f inal vowel, and the f ir st
and last r adicals of the gr ound-f or m; as 3D f or MD ; 3D
f or HDD &c.
But when the ver b r eceives any accession, the middle
radical instead of being dr opped is expr essed by a Da-
1 9 4
ghesh f or te in the f inal one, the contr action in other r e-
spects being the same as bef or e ; as HSD f or f QDO ; im-
per ative 130 f or 123D &c.
NOTE 1. The above law of contraction seems to have been gener-
al in the Hebrew language, wherever it could be applied without vio-
lating some more important principle. In some cases the feebler
consonants were even assimilated, in order to effect contraction. Thus
we have for ; ns for ; nb for ; and without assimi-
lation rnVD for (41.3). In words of this kind also, the as-
similated or contracted letter re-appears as Daghesh whenever there is
any accession; as tatt, &c. The reason why Daghesh is omitted
in such forms in these verbs as 2D, 50 &c. is merely because the let-
ter in which it should be written stands at the end of a word. ( 46.3.)
The same contraction is found in nouns derived from this class of
verbs; as an, pn; with suffix ->*13, *J?n; from aj n and pj?n.
NOTE 2. The above rule for the final vowel holds for all those
persons of the verb, where the tone remains on the same syllable as
in the ground-form. But when the tone is moved forward by acces-
sion &c. the long vowels Hholem and Tseri are as usual exchanged
for short ones; as DljifeOtt. ( 65. 4.)
2. Contr action is excluded in the f ollowing cases.
(a) When either the f ir st or second r adical of the
ver b is f ollowed by an immutable vowel
E. g. Infinitive absolute ; participle active ; participle
passive The first vowel, when immutable, cannot be dropped;
the second, when immutable, cannot be transferred to the first radical.
But Hiphil takes Tseri pure instead of *L., in order to admit con-
traction. See below in no. 5.
NOTE. Hence contraction is excluded from all those conjugations
whose characteristic forms contain an immutable vowel, viz. Poel, Poal,
(b) When the middle r adical has Daghesh f or te.
E. g. Piel 5aD; infinitive construct aao. The middle radical
when doubled, cannot of course be united with the final one. Con-
traction is therefore excluded from all the Daghesh'd conjugations.
1 9 5
NOTE. Hence, generally, wherever the characteristic law of' de-
clension in any conjugation would be affected By contraction, the lat-
ter is excluded.
3. Io those per sons of the ver b which take suf f or ma-
tives beginning with a consonant, viz. f l, f ], DP, "jr, ID, H3,
an epenthetic *1 or is inser ted between the suif or ma-
tive and the gr ound-f or m of the ver b.
E.g. Praeter 2 pen. sing. instead of na, regular form
f inf ao instead of DnaO, reg. form Dnaao; imperative instead
of nsso, reg. form WahD.
The epenthetic \ is inserted only before the sufformative
IT3; viz. in the second and third persons plural feminine of the future
and imperative. The epenthetic T is of course confined to the prae-
ter. The insertion of these letters is probably for the sake of eupho-
ny ; and prevails in similar cases in the cognate languages.
4. The pr aef or matives and letter s char acter istic of the
sever al conjugations, wher e they would r egular ly have un-
der them short vowels, take long ones in these ver bs.
These long vowels, however , with the exception of Shur eq,
ar e pur e and of cour se mutable.
E. g. Future Kal a*0^ instead of a*at, for which form see no. 5
below; Hiphil aOH instead of a^DH; Hophal a3fi instead ofaaOrt &c.
NOTE. The long vowel in the first syllable results from the usual
short vowel being thrown into a simple syllable. ( 55. 1.)
5. Many of the or dinal f or ms f r om which the con-
tr acted f or ms of these ver bs appear to be der ived, ar e such
as would be unusual f or ms in r egular ver bs.
E. g. Kal f ut aco from a'aD^ instead of 330\
Niph. praet a3 1503 1503.
f ut a$* nao^ aao\
Hiph. praet aon SaOi-? a
f c
i ^n.
Most of these unusual forms are found in other classes of verbs, or
in the kindred dialects. Sometimes also the contracted forms even here
depart from the usual mode of contraction, and are derived from reg-
uiar original forms; as f ut frm > Niphal bn3 as if f r om
6. ID these ver bs occur the unusual conjugations Poel,
Poal, Hithpoel; and Pilpel, Polpal, Hithpalpal (81. 2, 3,
9, 10). They sometimes occur instead of Piel, Pual and
Hithpael, though these latter ar e the most f r equent;
sometimes both ar e f ound under the same ver b. When
they exist together , their meaning is of ten synonymous,
though not unf r equently dif f er ent.
For further information respecting these conjugations, see the gen-
eral remarks at the close of the next section.
7. In ver bs wher e the doubled letter is a guttur al or
Resh, Daghesh f or te is of cour se excluded, and the pr e-
ceding vowel pr olonged ( 45, 46). See above in no. 1
and notes.
E. g. nnp, 3 pers. masc. nti, 3 pers. fem. STJT3, 1 pen.
So T}30, 3 pers. fem. instead of JTJJg; 1 pers. in-
stead of &c. The number of these verbs is small; and they
occur in very few forms.
NOTE. For the peculiar tone-syllable of verbs Ayin doubled, see
34. 2. / .
116. Irreg. verbs ; notes on verbs Ayin doubled.
Changes of vowels in declension. In Kal future and imperative,
when the tone is thrown off from the final Hholem by accession, this
Hholem shortens into Qjibbuts; as i a ^ , M^aDn. In Hiphil in the
same case, the final Tseri shortens into Hhireq parvum; as at j n,
niaDH. ( 54. 4.)
Qamets and Tseri under the praeformatives and letters character-
istic of the conjugations, throughout this class of verbs, are pure and
mutable ( 115. 4); and are therefore dropped as usual when the
tone is moved forward; as Kal fut. 3SO*, ns ^ On; Hiph.
ni s on j part naOtt. ( 56.)
() In the praeter, verbs final Hholem retain the Hholem in the
contracted forms of the third persons; as i a i contr. for l E1 from
0731, also 173^ from 01; 121 contr. for 1111 from i l l , also 121
from 111 ( 115. 1). For the forms of verbs in which the doubled
letter is a guttural or Resh, see above in 115. 7.
In the praeter and infinitive, the regular forms sometimes co-exist
with the contracted ones; as TTa Ezek. 29: 19 and ta Is. 8: 1. So
iTTa, in pause 1JT2 ; and so usually in pause. The verb is found
only in the third person plural, where it is always regular. SoOE*.D Sic.
The form isart for 13^an, without the epenthetic % occurs Ps. 64:7.
() Infinitive construct 1*0, and regular 110; before Maqqeph
-On, Hholem going into Qamets Hbateph; with suffix ipti, "Van, Hho-
lem going into Qibbuts short
The infinitive sometimes has Pattahh as in regular verbs ( 96. II. 6);
as contr. for ; with suffix Oi l Ecc. 3:18 from i s inf. of
112 ( 55. 1). Occasionally it has Shureq like the infinitive of verbs
4*, as l i a Ecc. 9: 1 from 112 ; see in no. IV. a (l ). It appears also
hi the feminine form, as !fyi from 9$1; sometimes it has a kind of
plural form, as niatf) Ezek. 36: 3 from &&'; ni sn from fan.
NOTE. The Hholem of the infinitive, future, and imperative, is
pure and mutable, and should always be written without Vav; though
that letter is sometimes inserted; as tta for T2 from TT2. ( 21.15 note.)
(c) The future with Hholem sometimes is written with Vav, as
l*ria*; but the Hholem is always pure and mutable, and when the
tone is removed from it, goes either into Qamets Hhateph, as
Ps. 67:2; or into Qibbuts, as Is. 27:11.
The future with Pattahh takes Tseri under the praeformative; as
1EP, on:;
i n: in pause Prov.27:17.
Sometimes the future takes Shureq, like that of verbs 19; as
} W for f l ^ from J31; f I V for f V from f3fc1 Sic. See below in
IV. a (2). For the Chaldee forms, like 10? &c. see below under IV. b.
(d) Imperative once with Pattahh, viz. Mlj? Num. 22:17 with par-
agogic M, for nsijD from 13j?. ( 45. 6 note 1.)
II. JViphal.
(a) In the praeter the usual final vowel is Pattahh, but Tseri and
Hholem are .also found; as n s b : ; lV$3 IS. 34:4. Hence, all the
endings of the praeter in regular verbs are also found here.
The vowel of the first syllable is usually Qamets, but others are
sometimes found; as bn:, 7133. This last is probably a Chaidaism;
comp. below under IV. 6 (2).
Second pers. fern. sing, nbns Ezek. 22: 16 for nt yns; *n2n: Jer.
22:23 f orni sn: .
(6) Infinitive absolute part with Hholem. Infinitive construct
with Pattahh and Tseri; as 2ri, O^n. The verb b^n has inf. const.
(c) Future with Pattahh and Hholem; as from ; th? from
t3Qi. Other peculiarities of the future see below under IV. 6, c.
(d) Imperative with Hholem nann from
(e) Participle as 3C3; from praeter with Tseri as D&3.
III. HiphU and Hophal.
() The Tseri in HiphU is pure throughout, contrary to the
usage in regular verbs, which make their here immutable.
Hence this Tseri is not only mutable, but is not unfrequently exchang-
ed for Pattahh; as p^Sf, bpn, infinitive p n , participle baw.
A guttural or Resh in the last syllable may of course take Pattahh;
() Praeter b"*?!l Lam. 1:6 from bbt, the first syllable being
Chaidaism and the second like verbs 19; see below cnder no. IV. a, b.
Second person singular masculine Prov. 24: 28 instead of
rtfncn. Future with suffix *: 50* Ezek. 47: 2, the Tseri going into
Hhireq parvum; so 2 Sam. 22:43. For other anomalous forms,
aee below under IV. b.
(c) Hophal is not particularly anomalous, excepting that the * la
the first syllable is immutable, and stands instead of Qibbuts long; as
30tin for 2Dn, instead of the regular form axon (115. 4). This
and the corresponding case in Hophal of verbs 19, are instances
nti generis of the exchange ofQibbuts for Shureq.
IV. Particular anomalies in the preceding conjugations.
(A) Exchange of forms for those of verbs TP. From an inspection of
the paradigms of verbs 99 and 1;, it is evident that there are many
points of resemblance between them, and some entire coincidences.
In Hophal for instance, the forms in many cases coincide; and so in
the apocopated futures of Kal and Hiphil.
What happens so frequently in the common course of inflection
in respect to verbs 99 and 19, is by usage of the Hebrew extended
occasionally beyond the common limits, and thus occasions some anom-
(1) Kal infinitive li aV for l i b from l i t ; i. e. the infinitive of 99
Is of the same form as it would be from a root 112 in verbs 19. So
}piri2 Prov. 8:29 for i pn2 from pH.
(2) In the future "pi? for *} V from ]31; f l l * for y i j from y s i ;
for TiT from i l t t j &c.
(3) Hiphil praeter tt from VVt (III. b). Infinitive Is. 33:1
for from can. Future from DJj'sD; with suffix ] n^n*}
for ]nii? from nnn Hab. 2:17. Comp. 45. 6 note 1.
NOTE. The student should particularly mark these anomalies in
respect to verbs 99 borrowing the forms of i s ; for otherwise he may
at times be greatly perplexed in regard to grammatical analysis. See
further on this subject in no. VII below.
(6) Chaldaicforms of verbs 99.
( l ) Instead of the long vowel under the praeformatives as in the
paradigm, the Chaldee has a short vowel followed by Daghesh forte;
as p i v instead of p*t\ This method the Hebrew has imitated in a
considerable number of verbs Ayin doubled; some following both this
method and that of the paradigm;.and some following exclusively the
Chaldee forms. These are exhibited below in the left hand column.
(45.6 note 2.)
Kal fut. instead of 2*0?
inn? l an* future with Pattahh.
- - Qptn fiinn future with Shureq; see a (2).
Niph. praet. Vns bro Hhireq mag. for Dagh. omitted.
part. D
1fi$5 D^IJj: Tseri for Dagh. omitted in fit.
Hiph. praet. "bltl see above in III. b.
fut i bf
- - Vn? bfi? Pattahh long for Dagh. omitted.
i ns? i nr?
Hoph. f ut nDi
Qjfcbuts short for Shureq.
- inf. 0i8?l DUJItt Qamets Hhateph for Shureq.
NOTE 1. In almost all the instances where the Chaldaic praeform-
atives occur in those forms which have an accession at the end, the
Daghesh of the final radical and the final vowel of the ground-form of
the verb, are dropped; as 1 an? in pause instead of the usual form 18*;
i ns? instead of inb?; I TT instead of &c. See below in d.
NOTE 2. In two forms, the Daghesh and preceding vowel remain;
as Hiph. fut. from MD, and Hoph. fut from nns.
The paradigm exhibits the usual form of the Chaldee future.
(2) The Chaldee does not insert the epenthetic i or % before the
sufformatives of verbs Ayin doubled. In imitation of the Chaldee us-
age, die Hebrew sometimes also omits those letters.
E. g. Kal praeter ^33an for 131720; for Niphal
praeter 2 pers. sing. fem. nbns for nibn3; Tnrns for ntens. In
the two last examples the Daghesh also is omitted in the final La-
medh and Nun. See above under II. a.
(c) Syriac forms of verbs $9. In Syriac, the active participle of
verbs Ayin doubled, instead of being regular as in Hebrew, inserts
Aleph in the place of the middle radical; as p8ti instead of In
Hebrew, there are a few verbs which imitate this in various moods
and tenses.
E. g. Kal participle with suffix ^p.bataj Jer. 30: 16 probably for
^"023 ; Niph. future Job 7: 6 instead of DOS?; Hiph. future
1 2K.3: 19 probably instead of na*3Dn; perhaps participle
instead of Vi Ot t , though it is usually and perhaps more prop-
erly referred to the root
((2) A peculiar anomaly is the omission of Daghesh in the final rad-
ical of the verb when there is any accession to the ground-form, and
dropping the vowel that precedes the same radical; compare above
in b ( l ) note 1.
Kal fut. Prb23 for ft Vis with ft paragogic.
? ;it
JlttV* IS?*
- inf. twnb dTanb b prep. 0 suffix-pronoun.
Niph. praet. rD03 ftsb: 2 pers. fem.
fut fta-ns 1 pers. pi. with ft paragogic.
A similar usage obtains also in the Chaldaic forms, for which see
above in b ( l ) notes.
V. Poel, Pool, Hithpoel.
(a) These conjugations are common in verbs sometimes instead
of Piel, Pual, and Hithpael, and sometimes along with them. The
latter often occur alone, and indeed are more frequent than the for-
mer ; see the general remarks below. Departures from the forms in
the paradigm are very rare, and arise chiefly from the practice of
writing the Hholem either fully or defectively; as i rpo or l i b. The
form Til3 occurs Nah. 3:17 with Pattahh, probably on account of the
pause-accent. ( 60. 7. a 2.)
(b) Poal occurs in only three verbs 99 ; viz. bba, Poal part fem.
ttbbnaa Is. 9:3 j *na, Poal part plur. fem. rri -naa IK. 7: 9; b\9,
Poal bte Lam. 1: 12.
(c) Hithpoel is declined after the model of Poel, the r>S"t be-
ing treated as in Hithpael of regular verbs. In verbs with gutturals
and some others, the final vowel is Pattahh; as nnt>, Hithpoel fut
rimn^in for nnt onn ( 80. 2. a). So "rmna Ps. 20: 9.
NOTE. For the names of these conjugations in the lexicons, see be-
low in no. VII. d.
VI. Pilpel, Polpal, Hithpalpal
(a) These sometimes occur in place of the preceding conjugations,
and in a few instances co-exist with them. There are few departures
from the forms in the paradigm. The verb bbj? has bj3 Ecc. 10: 10
with final Pattahh, probably on account of the pause-accent ( 60.7.a 2.)
(b) Polpal occurs in only one verb 92, vi z. , Pilpel 9 w?, Polpal
9V9Z3 from which comes fut 2 per. plur. masc. in pause ns'iiyiun Is.
- -r t * * * -i ri i
66: 12.
(c) Hithpalpal is declined after the model of Pilpel, the ntt being
treated as in Hithpael and Hithpoel. Thus bb* has Hithpalpal 3 pers.
plur. iba^ann; has Hithpalpal future with final Pattahh
on account of the Resh. The participle has final Tseri, as rrart^na
2 Sam. 15:28 from ntt.
* *
NOTE. For the names of these conjugations in the lexicons, see be-
low in no- VII. d.
VII. General remark9 on verbs Ayin doubled.
(a) Inasmuch as the two classes of verbs 99 and "is are subject to
irregularities arising from their middle radical, which in the former is
contracted and in the latter quiescent, they have many resemblan-
ces in their forms and conjugations. Some of these are noted above
in no. IV. a. The conjugations Poel, Poal, and Hithpoel in verbs 99,
are in respect to form precisely similar to Polei, Polal, and Hithpolel
in verbs is. Hence, when there is a root in each class with the same
meaning, it is immaterial to which of them a given form is referred; as
Tito (V. a) may be either in Poel from "M3, or in Polel from "li:; the
meaning of these roots being for the most part synonymous. In this
2 0 2 117. VERBS A YIN VAV.
respect the lexicons differ; and if the student cannot find a given form
under a root 99, he has only to turn to the corresponding root in
verbs 19.
(6) The whole number of verbs, ranked by the best lexicogra-
phers under class 99, is one hundred and twenty four. Of these, twenty
six have one or more of the conjugations Piel, Pual, Hithpael, without
any of the unusual ones; twenty have one or more of the conjugations
Poel, Poal, Hithpoel, without any of Piel &c. eleven have one or more
of both Piel kc. and Poel &c. ten have one or more of the conjuga-
tions Pilpel, Polpal, Hithpalpal, without any of those above mentioned;
two have one or more of these latter conjugations along with Piel
fee. and three have them along with Poel &c. There remain then
fifty two verbs of this class, which are found only in one or more of
the usual conjugations Kal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hophal. Of all these
verbs many are found only once, and few are of frequent occurrence.
(c) There are seven verbs which have ft repeated for their two last
radicals. In two of these verbs, viz. ftftb and ftftJD, final n has Mappiq,
and they are classed with verbs 99; where they are found in Hithpal-
pal only. In the other five the final n is quiescent, and these are class-
ed with verbs ft? quiescent ( 122). The verb bb* is declined only
as a verb Pe Yodh; see 111. II; b note.
(d) The lexicons exhibit great irregularity in the mode of de-
signating the unusual conjugations, both in these verbs and in verbs
Ayin Fov. In some they are all considered as coming under Piel, Pual,
and Hithpael; in others they are marked as Pilel, Pulal, Hithpalel;
and in others still, they have both designations, and very seldom the
proper one. In assigning to such forms their proper appellations, the
student must therefore be guided entirely by their appearance and
characteristic marks, as described in 81.
117. Irreg, verbs; verbs Ayin Fav,
1. The ir r egular ities of ver bs Ayin Vav ar ise f r om
contr action, and ar e occasioned by the peculiar char acter
of the middle radical Vav, which inclines to quiesce in all
possible cases.
Her e, as in ver bs the contr acted f or m is gen-
2 0 3
er ally utter ed by the aid of the f ir st and last r adicals
and the f inal vowel of the gr ound-f or m; in which vowel
Vav becomes quiescent. In or der to e(Fect this quies-
cence in dif f er ent vowels, and in consequence of its r elative
situation in dif f er ent conjugations and tenses, the Vav as-
sumes a var iety of f or ms; and in some cases would seem
to be wholly dr opped.
E. g. D for 0 3 n a for n j a ; H k for from SlK (niit);
D^pa for Dij?3 ; for fee.
In accounting for the anomalies of this species of verbs, the stu-
dent must consider that the final vowel, with which by the preceding
rule the contracted form would properly be uttered, is often hetero-
geneous in respect to the middle radical Vav (23. 2); and therefore
to obtain quiescence^ either Vav must change in order to become ho-
mogeneous with the vowel, or the vowel must change in order to be-
come homogeneous with Vav ( 48.2). Both of these methods are
employed in different forms of this class of verbs.
Thus in the praeter, instead of the regular form dig, the contrac-
ted form D is used, which in theory is equivalent to ; L e. the
Vav in j? being a feeble sound and the tone being wholly on the
last syllable, by the usual tendency of the language to contract the
pronunciation of words, the last vowel came to be uttered as if it
stood under the first radical, and the Vav became quiescent In order
to effect this, it was considered as accommodating itself to the vowel
which was thus made to precede it; which in this example is Pattahh.
Consequently, in theory Vav here becomes Aleph, which however Is
never written, except in one instance; for which see the notes in the
next section. Its influence however remains in changing the vowel
in which it thus quiesces into Qamets, which is hence impure and im-
mutable. See below in no. 7 note 2.
So in na for r na, Vav in theory becomes Yodh ; so that HQ is
equivalent to rpzg; which, however, is never fully written.
The participle active Dj appears to be derived from the obsolete
participial form b&j? ; as Dig, D. (90. 1. a.)
In Niphal we have Otoa instead of the regular fonn &Jpa or Dips;
2 0 4 1 1 7 . VERBS A YIN VAV.
in which case the vowel is accommodated to the Vav, and becomes
homogeneous with i t
In the Hiphil form for the sound of the Vav goes in-
to that of the *- and prolongs it; as appears from its being retained in
flexion out of the third person.
One or the other of these methods of accommodation, enables us
to account for all the phases which verbs assume.
2. Contr action is excluded in the f ollowing cases.
() When the middle r adical Vav has a Daghesh
f or te in it, char acter istic of conjugation.
E. g. Piel l i s from l i s ; -nj? from But even here, Vav
is sometimes changed to Yodh in order to be homogeneous with the
preceding vowel; n instead of ann from aW; D*j5 instead of
Hi j? from D5p.
() When the ver b has He quiescent f or its f inal
r adical, the middle r adical Vav is r egular thr oughout
The reason of this is, that irregularities occasioned by different let-
ters never appear in immediate succession.
NOTE. A few verbs of this class are regular in their inflection;
for which see 118. VI. b.
3. The vowel in which Vav quiesces, is of cour se
impur e and immutable; as Dip, Dip &c.
But the apocopated future and imperative of Kal and Hiphil have
a pure final vowel; as Dp*, dp; Dp^, DJ?H; where Hholem and Tseri are
pure and mutable, as is seen when tone is removed; as Dj?*
2 &c.
This does not result from any change of the immutable Shureq or
Hhireq magnum in the ground-form, but from adopting an appropriate
vowel in the apocopated forms, in order to distinguish them from the
usual ones; Hholem and Tseri pure being shorter than Shureq and
Hhireq magnum. ( 52.6.)
4. In the pr aeter of Niphal and Hiphil, in those per sons
of the ver b which take suf f or matives beginning with a conso-
nant, viz. D, D, DPI, ID, 13, an epenthetic *1 is inser ted be-
1 1 7. VERBS A YIN VAV. 2 0 5
tween the suf f or mative and the ground-f orm of the ver b,
as in ver bs J$yin doubled.
In the f utur e of Kal, an epenthetic is gener ally in-
ser ted bef or e the suf f ix nD, viz. in the second and thir d
per sons plural f eminine.
E. g. Niphal praeter nifalp a forn&Vj?3; Hiph. praet. VTb*pH for
ijaajprt; Kal future n r b i p n for n: i pn &c.
In the future of Kal and praeter of Hiphil, the epenthetic sylla-
bles are in a few instances omitted, for which see the notes in the
following section. The praeter and imperative of Kal, the future of
Niphal and Hiphil, and all the forms of Hophal, never receive the
epenthesis in question.
5. Those f or ms of ver bs 15? whose suf f or matives be-
gin with a consonant, and which yet do not take the
epenthetic *1 or , ar e altogether peculiar and dif f er -
ent f r om most other f or ms in these ver bs.
E. g. nfcfc, 'rjaj? &c. with a short vowel in the contracted form.
Imper. fem. plur. naJDjJ with Hholem pure. Hiphil f ut iiaafcn with
Tseri pure; though sometimes as naa^pn with Hhireq magnum. So al-
so Hophal generally; asj aj j m, suap^tt &c.
NOTE. The above forms exhibit an anomaly for which no gramma-
rian has yet been able to account. In Djjsttfi &c. the Vav of the
original root appears to be wholly thrown out The same anomaly
prevails in Syriac and Arabic. We may perhaps consider Hophal as
borrowing its forms from verbs 99. Comp. 116. III. c.
6. The pr aef or matives and letter s char acter istic of the
sever al conjugations, wher e they would r egular ly have un-
der them short vowels, take long ones in these ver bs, as in
ver bs 23?. These long vowels, however , with the excep-
tion of Shur eq, ar e pur e and of cour se mutable.
E. g. &5ip2 instead of for which form see no. 7 below; Hiph-
il instead of ; Hophal OjHH instead of Oipii &c.
NOTE. The long vowel in the first syllable results from the usual
short vowel being thrown into a simple syllable. ( 55. 1.)
2 0 6
1 1 7 . VERBS A YIN VAV.
7. Her e, as in ver bs 77, many of the or iginal f or ms
f r om which the contr acted f or ms appear to be der ived*
ar e such as would be unusual f or ms in r egular ver bs.
E. g. Kal inf. Dip from instead of D"ip>.
fut. Dip? di p: riip\
part. Dp di p D^p.
Niph. praet Dipa Dipa Dipa.
NOTE 1. It will be seen on slight inspection, that where the
vowel of the contracted form is Hholem impure or Shureq, the Vav
of the root remains (although quiescent), because it is homogeneous
with these vowels, as Dip, Dip &c. But where the verb must be ut-
tered with a heterogeneous vowel, Vav or its equivalent is not writ-
ten, as Dp, D^prj; sometimes it wholly falls out, as &c. See
above in no. 5.
NOTE 2. The contraction of this class of verbs cannot well be ac-
counted for, on the supposition that the Hebrews pronounced the Vav
(as we do) hard like v. But if, like the Arabians, they pronounced it as
, then most of the contractions can easily be accounted for. Thus
Dip qdrwdm goes easily into Dp. qdm ; Dip^ y&q-vum into Dip? yd-
q&m,/ D ^ f t kiq-wim into D^pH hi-qim; Dipn kuq-wdm into Dp ft
hd-qdm &c.
8. In these ver bs alone, occur the unusual conjuga-
tions Polel, Polal, and Hithpolel (81. 4, 5). They ar e
used instead of Piel, Pu&l, and Hithpael; though the latter
sometimes appear in these ver bs, but ar e seldom used in
conjunction with the f or mer . The conjugations Pilpel,
Polpal, and Hithpalpal, ar e also ver y r ar ely f ound.
See the general remarks at the end of the next section.
NOTE. The forms under which verbs 19 are noted in the lexicons,
as &i p, Sltt) &c. are the infinitive construct This is chosen in pref-
erence to the praeter, because it contains the three radicals of the
verb, while the praeter exhibits only two; the latter being always
written as t ap, fee. ( 76.)
s o t
118. Irreg. verbs ; notes on verbs Ayin Vav.
Changes of the vowels in declension. Wherever Shureq occurs in the
course of flexion, it is often written by long Qibbut* ( 21.18); as im-
perative Di p and Op ; future SVJT and SEP; l aittT and i 2UP Sic.
Qamets and Tseri under the praeformatives and letters character-
istic of the conjugations, are pure and mutable in these verbs, as in
verbs 99; and are therefore dropped as usual when the tone is mov-
ed forward; as Kal f ut tt^aipn ; Hiphil , n i a ^ n ;
I. Kal
() Praeter once Dfitg Hos. 10: 14; fem. 2 pers. once Ezek.
46: 17 for ; 2 pers. plur. once Calais Mai. 3:20 for DPOD.
Forms imitating verbs 99 are T? Zech. 4: 10 for TS; HD twice for
fiD, probably on account of the guttural; plur. 3 pers. twice i nv for
Verbs final Tseri are exhibited in the paradigm. The forms nb
>na &c. are by contraction for Sic. for which see 95.
3. c. The 2 pers. fem. sing, and both the second persons plural of
na do not occur.
Verbs final Hholem are sometimes written with Vav; as
3)is; but this is not usual ( 117. 7 note 1). They retain the Hholem
in flexion, as 3 fem. n v i z ; 2 fem. n*J)s; 1 pers. ^nufta; 3 plur.
V2 and WHS; 1 plur. Ilitis &c.
() The infinitive construct has Hholem where the praeter has it;
as "PN, ujis&c. The verb na has both rria and ma . The usual
vowel is Shureq. The infinitive absolute uniformly takes Hholem;
and once has the form SjilN Is. 28: 28 as if from a root \tHK, though
it is joined with the future of s n i . A form like those of verbs *9 is
V| Deut 25: 4.
(c) The future commonly takes Shureq, as in the paradigm. Fu-
ture O occurs in Sic. The form Irian has Tseri under
the praeformative, as if contracted from the regular form
In the second and third persons plufal feminine, the epenthetic \
is sometimes omitted; as nai'&n 1 Sam. 7: 14 or JS&n twice Ezek.
16: 55, where also occurs the full form ftvfygta. These defective
8 0 8 1 1 8 . VERBS AYIN VAV ; NOTES.
forms would seem to come from the apocopated future. Sometimes
the Yodh alone is omitted, as nsrj i an Ezek. 13: 19. ( 46. 6 note 2.)
The apocopated future takes Hhoiem pure, as E3p? (117. 3); and
fe very rarely found as or tDijP. In this latter case, the Vav is
a mere fulcrum, and the Hhoiem remains mutable (21. 15 note).
When the tone is removed, the Hhoiem goes into Qamets Hhateph ; as
^1?/^ i Ks-asjn &c. With a guttural or Resh, the apocopated future
sometimes takes Pattahh when the tone is shifted; as na3, 'iinrn Job
31: 6 for Cftrn : *10* &c.
T- * * T*
(J) The imperative has the forms t ai p, C3J5, n n ; with ft par-
agogic ft*p,. ftSTO, ; apocopated b' Josh. 5:2 with Hhoiem
(e) Participle plural once 2K. 16:7. The formQKtt (like
praeter tSKj?) is used several times in Ezekiel. The verb jsib has
once ft2b Zech. 5:4, and once plural O^ b Neh. 13: 21.
Verbs final Tseri and Hhoiem retain these vowels in the participle;
as nc, c r a i a .
II. Niphal.
() The praeter is once "WII Zech. 2:17. The student will ob-
serve, that out of the third person the vowel in the contracted form
of the verb is Shureq, and not Hhoiem as in the third person. Shureq,
or its equivalent long Qibbuts, is adopted instead of Hhoiem because it
is rather shorter, and therefore serves to abbreviate the word in pro-
nunciation, when the tone is moved forwards ( 52. 4. a). Sometimes
the Hhoiem remains; as 3iviXB3.
() The infinitive construct is formed with Shureq; as si^nft.
(c) Participle plural Ex. 14:3 with Qibbuts for Shureq,
instead of Ea'Oiai) with Hhoiem.
III. Hiphil.
(a) The praeter is sometimes defectively written, as l ?f t Gen.43:
3. The epenthetic i is occasionally omitted and the forms construct-
ed as in Kal; as nof f t Ex. 20:25 instead of i r i c^f t ; ^nbcni Jer.l6:13
instead of *n/iVt3ft; i soft 2 Chr. 29: 19 instead ofi:Vr:?ft. For forms
like t s naf t from n i s , see 95. 3. c.
( l ) A few forms, out of the third person, take Tseri instead of Hhireq
magnum; as rvib'lft Num. 31:28; ni a' Sn Deut 4:39 ; ^sibjift Mic.
5:4 &c. Hhateph Seghol is also found under the characteristic He ;
as ni Vcr r 1K. 8:18 &c.
1 1 8 . VERBS A YIN VAV ; NOTES. 2 0 9
(2) The verb D has the forms and the latter like verbs
99. The verb 9 n also has 9*j?3 and 2"in, the former like verbs 99
and the latter on account of the guttural. The verb niO has Hiphil
n*on and once rPDft Jer. 38:22, which is a Chaldee form ( 45. 6
note 2; comp. 116. IV. 6 1). The same verb has the feminine sin-
gular 1 K. 21: 26 instead of Snn^bn, as if from a root 99.
(3) Verbs 19 which have Ayin for the first radical, in those persons of
the praeter which receive the epenthetic % take the proper vowel
Pattahh under the characteristic He, instead of the usual Hhateph
Pattahh; as from 119, 2 pers. ni Vs n and ill' I9fi instead of nvpyn;
1 pers. ^nrTWn. So from "n9, 1 pers.^niS'Wi. The verbs H9 and
*119 are the only ones, which occur in the cases where the peculiarity
in question would be exhibited.
(b) Infinitive feminine from masc. Sp3tt. Infinitive absolute
"9H Gen. 43:3 on account of the guttural.
\e) Future once 13^? in Qeri Num. 14 : 36, a Chaldaism
( 116. IV. 6 1). Second pers. plur. fem. tt3a*?n Job 20:10; SiS^nn
Mic. 2: 12 for with \ epenthetic as in Kal, or it is perhaps
fut. Kal from a root DTT. (119. 5.)
The form Ecc. 12:5 is in some lexicons referred to the
root yi a, and in others to the root ygs.
The apocopated future takes final Tseri pure, as ; which when
the tone is retracted becomes Seghol, as Of t ni &
With a gut-
tural or Resh the fut. apoc. sometimes takes Pattahh when the tone is
shifted, and thus exhibits occasionally the same forms as the fut. apoc.
in Kal; as 9nr i , ^5**2 &c.
(d) Imperative 2 K. 8: 6.
() Participle with Chaldee form rPD for rPOa; *pjga for pba.
IV. HophaL
Long Qibbuts is sometimes substituted for Shureq; as ma n for
i n a m; for &c. See at the beginning of this section, and
compare 116. III. c.
V. PoUl, Polal, Hithpolel.
() These conjugations occur in these verbs instead of PieJ, Pual,
Hithpael (81. 4,6). There are few (if any) departures from the
forms in the paradigms.
() Polal occurs in only four verbs, viz. bi n, l i s, fill, 313?; and
has only one or two forms in each.
(c) Hithpolel is declined after the model of Polel, the being
2 1 0
$ 1 1 8 . VERBS A YIN VAV ; IFOTW.
treated as in Hithpael of regular verbs. It sometimes takes Pattahh
in its final syllable, which in pause becomes Qamets; as f at enn Is. i :
3 from ' pa ( 119). So future Prov. 24: 3, also ]9^an Num.
21:27 with the second n assimilated. ( 80. 2. b.)
Participle fem. in pause nnj ai pna Job 20:27; pn& Ps.139:21
with Mem omitted, and prefix preposition. ( 95. 2. d, e.)
NOTE. These conjugations are often marked in the lexicons as
PUelf Puled, HithpaleL
V. Pilpel, Polpalf HithpalpaL
These conjugations occur a few times in these verbs, as well as
in verbs 99. ( 116. VI. 127. Par. XI.)
() Pilpel is found in only five verbs, viz. 91T, bits, bi s , *ni ,
ni p. In the latter it takes the form Num. 24:17 on account
of the Resh. So participle ^^9 Is. 22:5.
() Polpal is found only to bl 2, viz. Spers. plur. ibibfc 1 K. 20:27.
(c) Hithpalpal is found only in the verb bi n, Tiz. f ut 2 pers. fem.
bnbnnn Est. 4:4.
NOTE. For the names of these forms in the lexicons, see 116.
VII. d.
VI. General remark* on verba 19,
() Verbs 19 have in some of their forms a close resemblance to
verbs 99, so that the two classes sometimes interchange forms. On
this subject see 116. IV. a. The forms which the former borrow
from the latter have mostly been given above; as in no. I. a &c.
() The whole number of verbs ranked by the best lexicographers
under the class which has Van for the middle radical, is about one hun-
dred and forty. Of these one hundred and twenty two uniformly take the
contracted forms; thirteen are also verbs Mb, and therefore are not
contracted ( 117. 2. b)\ and sit others are not contracted, for
which no special reason can be assigned. These last are the follow-
ing, viz. 911,11H once Is. 29:22; ni9 (once n i 9 Is. 50:4 in anoth-
er meaning); rnat once Is. 42: 11; rn*l; 9itt only in Piel.
(c) Besides some of the verbs Fib and some of the above mention-
ed verbs regularly declined, there vrejbe verbs 19 which have the con-
jugation Piel, viz. dirt found only in Piel 2 pen. plur. masc. Dna*n Dan.
1: 10; 119, Piel 3 pen. plur. 1*119; bi 9, Piel f ut *119,
Piel *149; DID, Piel 0*P. The two last verbs are the only ones in
1 1 9 . VERBS A YIN YODH. 2 1 1
which Pkl and Pole] co-exist The verb "VI9 has the contracted forms
of Kal in one signification, and Piel in another quite different
(d) The verbs Kia, Mia, Kip are not reckoned in the above enn*
me ration. They have forms peculiar to themselves, for which see
124. 4.
119. Irrtg. verbs ; verbs Ay in Yodk.
1. Ther e ar e about twenty ver bs In Hebr ew,
most of whose f or ms in Kal come f r om r oots which have
Yodk f or the middle r adical.
2. The char acter istic of ver bs is their r etaining
the Yodh with a homogeneous vowel, in the inf initive con-
str uct, f utur e, and imper ative of Kal; as "pS, &c.
In other r espects and in all the other conjugations
the f or ms ar e entir ely the same as in ver bs Jlyin Vav.
This arises from the quiescence of the Yodh, and from its being
commuted for Vav wherever the vowels require the exchange.
(117. 1.)
3. The praeter of Kal is declined like verbs 19. Three forms on-
ly are found in which the Yodh is retained, viz. TpVa Dan. 9: 2;
nib*""} Job 33:13; with suffix to UP*? Jer. 16:16. The two first have
also forms like those of the paradigm.
4. The infinitive absolute is sometimes without Vav; as 3").
5. The futures of Kal and Hiphil, whenever both occur, have
the same form and can be distinguished only by their meaning. The
form Mic. 2:12 is for or see 118. III. e.
The apocopated future is like that of Hiphil in verbs 19; as
&c. With a guttural as r r p from n"
~) &c. With the tone retract-
ed, b^ni &c. Compare the forms in 118. III. c.
6. The participle is like that of verbs 19. For nab and ta^a^
see 118.1, e. Two verbs in Kal make the participle regular, and
are found only there; viz. part, often; *9, part hi
Oeri 1 Sam. 18: 9.
7. Four verbs are *9 and fib, viz. TPtt, !"Pn; !Tj5, imper. l
Jer. 25:27; fut. fern, in pause Deut 32:18 for the
apocopated form, like "WJ.
NOTE. For the other conjugations, see the notes on verbs 19 in
118. As a denominative verb, there appears once future Hithpael
in pause Josh. 9: 4 for l ^St n*!. ( 80. 2. a.)
General remarks on verbs **9.
8. There are very few verbs which are exclusively of the form ^9,
even in those parts of Kal which are characteristic of that form.
Most verbs "9 have also forms as from a root 19; as inf. "pi? and p b ;
and OliD &c. This seems to have arisen from the great facility
i*nd consequent frequency with which Yodh and Vav were inter-
9. Most of the verbs which Gesenius has ranked under the class
*9, were by the older grammarians and lexicographers assigned to the
class 19; and their forms which retain the Yodh were considered as
belonging to Hiphil. The form pl> for instance was considered as
the infinitive of Hiphil, by apkaeresis for Hence, if the student
cannot find in his lexicon a given form under a root fc, he will be
likely to meet with it under a root 19, and vice versa.
120. Irreg. verbs ; verbs Lamtdh Aleph.
1. The ir r egular ities of ver bs Lamedh Aleph ar e oc-
casioned by the natur e of the Aleph, which, when it stands
at the end of a ver b, is always quiescent.
Wher ever the f inal vowel would r egular ly be Pat-
tahh, it is lengthened into Qamets ( 55.3). Other vow-
els remain unchanged.
E.g. instead oft t SB; Pual instead of ; Kal inf.
. NOTE. The vowels in which final Aleph thus quiesces remain mu-
table, inasmuch as the quiescence is accidental. Thus fem.
; J6, fem. ; i n g , with suffix &c. ( 52.3.)
2. When the f inal vowel is alr eady r ender ed impur e
by the quiescence of Vav or Yodh, Aleph appear s to be
in otio. ( 23. 6.)
E. g. Kal infinitive absolute a ten; Hiphil fiPXntt.
3. In those per sons of the ver b which take suf f or ma-
tives beginning with a consonant, Aleph continues to qui-
esce in the f ollowing manner .
(a) In the pr aeter of Kal in ver bs or iginally f inal
Pattahh, it quiesces in Qamets ; but in the pr aeter of all
the other conjugations, in Tseri.
. g. 2 pers. Kal flfi&n, plural laijKttn ; Niphal flKajna; Piel
nt f s n; Hiphil nat snn &c.
(b) In the f utur e and imper ative of all the conjugar
tions, it quiesces in SeghoL
E. g. Kal imperative plur. fern, nati on, future iliJOgnp; Piel fu-
ture Si3K3$nn &c.
4. In those per sons which take suf f or matives be-
ginning with a vowel, Aleph is moveable and r egular .
E. g. Second person feminine ttfitSn; imperative fem. *MSn &c.
NOTE. The radical Aleph, when quiescent, is sometimes omitted in
writing; as ' n s n Num. 11: 11; T ^ n Job 32: 18 &c.
121. Irreg verbs ; notes on verbs Lamedh Aleph,
I . Kal.
() In the praeter, verbs final Tseri ( 76. 2) retain the Tseri
through their flexion; as &c. Once Dl^ifV Josh.4:24.
The third person feminine sometimes take the Syriac form with
final n instead of n ; as nf in^ Is. 7:14 instead of &c.
Forms defectively written; as^fikn &c. see in 120. 4 note.
() Infinitive construct with fem. ending ST-, as FJNV, rtfiJDrt,
Ttttno. So with Syriac ending and prefix preposition for
*P.p.i- from Wig. ( 47. 2 note.)
Infinitive const fem. with Segholate form, as nttbn for rittbn *
&c. In Ezek. 17:9 is found the form nteti&n, which is
' 2 8
214 1 2 1 . v e r b s l a m e d h a l e p h ; n o t e s .
the Aramaean infinitive from Mips. Infinitive masculine sometimes de-
fectively written as Gen.20:6 foriOtsn ; with suffix "I'nKOn Ezek.
33:12. like a verb rib. See in no. IV below.
(c) The future A is the only one in this class of verbs; the regu-
lar Pattahh being of course prolonged into Qamets.
(d) Imperative yeru Ps. 34:10 for IN"]"] yir-Nt2; 2 pers. plur.
fem. Ex. 2: 20, by a kind of apocope for rnanj ? ( 92. 3 note).
The form n3
8*X Cant. 3:11 is for from a verb belonging
to the first cias^of verbs ( 109.)
(e) Participle fem. nKSto for n&Xto; defectively written for
Deut. 28:67. With suffix DfcHi Neh. 6: 8 for DapS. ( 47. 2.)
II. Niphal.
(a) The praeter 3 pers. fem. sometimes takes the Syriac form;
as NABC: Ps. 118:23 for JtaVD: &C.
: v :
Forms defectively written as Ont33 Lev. 11:43 &c. Compare
120. 4 note.
(6) infinitive absolute NHp
3 2 Sam. 1: 6.
(c) Participle plural ta'WfcUD Ezek. 20: 30,
Josh.l0:17; probably from obsolete forms &c. ( 139. 3 note 3.)
III. Piel and Hiphil.
(ct) Piel infinitive n a n d See no. IV below.
(b) Praeter of Hiphil sometimes defectively written; as "'Dntl
2 K. 13: 6 for KWi *
(c) Infinitive also
t3nn Jer. 32:35 for
IV. Exchange of forms for those of verbs Tib.
() As to VOWELS ; as Kal 3 Ps. 119:101 for ; partici-
ple Ecc. 7: 26 for NSta. Piel Jer. 51:34 for fcVtf ; Ps.
143: 3 ; 2 K. 2:21; future 8733? Job 39: 24 ; infinitive
2 Chr. 36 : 21; nafog Ex. 31:51. Hiptiil Kbsn Is. 28: 29 for fiTrcn;
3 pers. fem. with n paragogic nnfcznn Josh. 6: 17. Hithpael infini-
tive n'flUsn for N2nn Zech. 13: 4. ( 80. 2. c. 95.3. d, e.)
() As to CONSONANTS, viz. exchange of final N for H; as Kal imper.
H61 Ps. 60: 4 for ; ttO: Ps 4: 7 for 803 = 8il)3. Niphal infini-
T 5 t j ' t ; T j r 1
tive absolute rtEP3 Jer. 49: 10 for frt2n3 ; infinitive construct Jer.
19:11 for Piel future Job 8: 21 for
(c) As to both VOWELS and CONSONANTS ; as Kal 2 pers. fem. n3t
Ruth 2: 9 for Ezek. 28: 16 for li&D, and so 1 Sam.
7 .
6: 10; future Job 5: 18 for 5l3N^n; participle feminine
Ecc. 10: 5 for instead of nttX*; plural with suffix Is. 29: 7
for participle passive Ps. 32: 1 for Kl&S. Nipkal n^aa
Jer. 26:9 for naas ; la^ataa Job 18: 3 for i 3Kao:; 2 pers. fem.
rtnsna Jer. 61: 9 for future HZnl Ps. 73: 10 for 1NX73* ;
Pitifuture nB*V Jer. 8: 11 for INC'V ; Hiphil with suffix Tjrpsar. 2
Sam. 3: 8 for i pn s a n ; participle Ezek. 8: 3 for K^apa. Hith-
pael n^aann 1 Sam. 10:6 for nst sann; infinitive r na: nn l Sam.10:13
for fctaann from fctaa. See also in a.
" I Tf
NOTE 1. The foregoing exchanges seem to arise from the com-
mon tendency of both final Aleph and final He to quiescence; and from
the close resemblance which exists between the two classes of verbs
ttb and Tib on account of this tendency. In some cases there are
corresponding verbs in each class, with an id -ntity of meaning. Thus
Nnj? and H"ij? to meet; ttbs and nbB to be great or wonderful, &c.
In Chaldee and Syriac, verbs ftb and rib fall into one class; and in
Hebrew they would seem to have been tending to a similar result.
NOTE 2. For the forms of the doubly irregular verbs fit'IJA, fitia,
tria, ^p, see 124 and Par. XVII, XIX.
122. Irreg, verbs ; verbs Lamedh He,
1. Under the gener al appellation of ver bs Lamedh He
ar e comprised what wer e originally two distinct classes of
ver bs. Of these, one was numerous and terminated in f i-
nal Yodh, as ^3; the other contained but f ew ver bs and
terminated in f inal Vav, as
* "V
But as the Hebr ews avoided ending a word with
Yodh or Vav as moveable consonants, they substituted
f or them in these ver bs a quiescent H, in all cases wher e
the ver b would end with a radical letter , excepting in the
passive par ticiple. This change led also to a cor r es-
ponding change in the f inal vowels of the ver b.
In this way the two species of verbs, which originally were *b and
l b, were brought to assume the same form, and became so blended to-
gether as to be generally undistinguishable in their inflection. In Ara-
bic, they are sometimes distinctly marked, but in most cases flow togeth-
eras in Hebrew. The only mode of ascertaining, in general, what vert*
were and what were Vb, is by examining the words derived from
them, many of which retain the original final radical; as from
Hj33 = "3; 12^ from rrsj? = &LC. One verb only retains the
radical Vav in its inflection, viz. praet 1 pers.
NOTE. Verbs rib with Mappiq are declined as verbs Lamedk guttu-
ral, the moveable n being the original radical.
2. Thr oughout all the conjugations, f inal H in the sev-
er al tenses and moods quiesces in the f ollowing vowels.
() In the pr aeter it quiesces in Qamets; as Kal
nVa, Niphai nVa.3, Hipha r 6 ) n &c.
() In the f utur e and par ticiple, in Seghol; as Kal
r h v , Niphai r bv &c. Kal par t nH &c.
(C) In the imper ative, in Tseri; as nV*[, nV? &C.
(d) In the inf initive absolute, in Hholem; as r ib5 &c.
() The inf initive constr uct takes the f eminine f or m
! f or r n ; as f or &c. ( 47. 4 note.)
3. Bef or e the suf f or matives beginning with a conso-
nant, viz. r% n, if ], DP, ]r i, ID, H3, the original r adical
Yodh appear s and quiesces in the f ollowing vowels.
(a) In the pr aeter of Kal, it quiesces in Hhdreq
magnum, as ; but in the pr aeter of all the other
conjugations, in Tseri; as Piel &c.
(b) In the f utur e and imper ative of all the conjuga-
tions, it quiesces in Seghol; as &c.
The original Vav is changed into Yodh in order to admit of this
quiescence ( 48. 2. 6); so that the two original classes of verbs are
here ^indistinguishable. See no. 1 above.
The quiescence takes place in order to avoid ending a syllable
with a moveable Vav or Yodh ; as n ^ a instead of P? r*. ( 48.)
4. Bef or e the suf f or matives beginning with a vowel,
viz. *1, *__, the radical Yodh or Vav f alls away.
E. g. *b* for vbs ; ""b* for "^b*. la pause the Yodh Is restored;
as^PbJP f or i ba\ ( 123. L h.)
In the same manner the Yodh, or rather He, with its vowel uni-
formly falls away before suffix-pronouns; as ^b* = Tprtba. ( 126 a.)
NOTE. In the 3 pers. sing.feminine, final n is changed into n before
the sufformative r i - ; as Jibs, rmbi . ( 40. 2.)
5. In all the conjugations the f utur e of ten takes an
apocopated f orm ; and in sever al, the imper ative also.
See in the next section, and compare the Arabic futures, which
uniformly take an apocopated form.
123. Irreg. verbs ; notes on verbs Lamedh He.
I. Kal.
() In the praeter 3 pers. sing. fem. by an Aramaeism the sufform&-
tive is sometimes omitted, as nip? Lev. 25: 21 for (comp.
121.1. a). First person by Syriasm Vj a i n Ezek. 43: 27; so also
plur. 1 pers. Jer. 3:22 for Once with final Vav retained
and moveable, viz. "niirtt) Job 3:26. ( 122. 1.)
The forms are sometimes defectively written; as for TP 3 a.
In pause &c. the Yodh is restored in forms where it commonly falls out;
see below in h.
() The infinitive absolute sometimes has the form ibs ; as
Gen. 26: 28; 13a Is. 30: 19. Twice it takes final n like the construct,
viz. rriroa Is. 22:13; nifiO Is. 42:20 Qeri. Like verbs Kb, as fiW;3
Jer. 23:39.
Infinitive construct S"i2jJ> Prov. 16 16; with suffix Ex. 18: 18.
With feminine form and Vav retained Eck28
17; by Syriasm
n : n Ezek. 21:15 for ^
(c) The future sometimes imitates verbs fcfe; ( l ) in the final v<m-
eh, as 1 pers. rwiifij, 2 pers. fib^n ; (2) in the final consonants, as
&c. Comp. 121. IV.' By Syriasm r nnn, for rqtt'n
CTn for nj t n Jer. 3: 6 &c. For the appearance of the radical Yodh
in pause &c. see below in h.
The 3 pers. plur. fem. is written defectively in t"l2^*n Job 5:12;
with Daghesh euphonic Judg. 5: 29; and also with both Da-
gbesh and Yodh Mic. 7: 10.
(rf) The apocopated future occurs only in those forms which end
with the radical iT. It is made by dropping both the final ft and the
final vowel. The table below exhibits the mode of apocope and the
forms; the first Hebrew column containing the full forms; the second
exhibiting their appearance after the vowel and final rt are drop-
ped ; and the third displaying them as they usually appear, viz. with
a furtive vowel ( 59. 2. 6). There are some other forms in use, with
an anomalous punctuation and without any furtive vowel. These are
also exhibited in (2).
(l) Forms with a furtive vowel.
Singular 3 pers.
B gutt
DC 3
I t *
s s *
I :
t rt*
(2) Forms without a furtive vowel.
Praeter future Jisa* apoc. j an
rrri rrrr
mn n*rr*
^1, Job 27: 8.
~*22, 1^2-
l i b"
"113*2, pause bn * i.
TPS Via, m
*n\ Tn. vm.

r n n
n a b
*r j " !
-l> -A*'
Job 31: 27.
fi<*V", fit mo<to;alsotf*\*l.
: : -

jn Deut. 32:18.
NOTE I . The apocopated forms of I"PN and RRN above, are made
by transferring the vowel of the praeformative to the first radical for
the sake of euphony, and in order that the middle radical Yodh may
quiesce; as for *fT| &c. The form fiWFP Ecc. 11:3 is a Syriasm
for irp the apocopated form of r nn; from rPH = rrrr. Comp. no.
VI. b. 96. 1. c.
NOTE 2. The apocopated forms usually take Vav conversive, but
not always. The Vav is also very rarely found with the full form ;
as n?31 2K. 1: 10; H*13*1 2 K. 6: 23.
For such forms as DV &c. from iit33, see 124. 3. e.
(e) Imperative in pause ^ 2 &c. see below in h.
{ / ) The participle active in a few cases takes a feminine form
like Ft*V^a, as if from a masculine form "Via or^bi a like ( 96.
V. a). E. g. Ps. 128:3; Lam. 1:16; plural rri*ry>K Is.
41:23 from ttnfit &c. Masculine form with suffix in pause Is.
22:11 for nicy; see below in h.
(g) The participle passive of verbs originally "ib sometimes re-
tains final Vav moveable; as plural riiTO: Is. 3: 16; rnvsy 1 Sam. 25:
18. This form appears only in Kethib; the Qeri has rri^no: and
Here belong also the forms vs? Job 41: 25 and IBS Job 15:22;
probably for TIUJ? and TJD2C. Some manuscripts read as in the
{h) Yodh radical restored. In all those forms of Kal which
usually drop the Yodh, the radical Yodh is restored and its preced-
ing vowel restored and prolonged, when a pause-accent falls on the
last syllable that contains a radical, or when a paragogic Nun is added;
as praeter VOH instead of 1DP, original form like
Vt3J5; fu-
ture VbST for for imperative 5 f o r 152;
participle fem. for "Ob Cant. 1: 7. The same rule extends
to the other conjugations.
With the paragogic Nun, the preceding vowel is sometimes not
restored; as pa'-P Deut.3:13; 7^- p Ps.36:9 for &c.( 20.18.)
II. Mphal.
(a) The praeter, out of the third person, sometimes takes Hhireq
instead of Tseri, like Kal; as W^aa 1 Sam. 14:8 &c. Comp. below
in Piel. In pause the radical Yodh is restored; see no. I. h.
{b) Infinitive absolute nibaa 2 Sam. 6: 20 contrary to analogy;
Jer. 49: 10 for risn:. Infinitive construct rri ann and rifitnn
Judg. 13: 21 &c.
(c) The future in its apocopated form merely drops the final He
and final vowel, but suffers no other change; as for fibs*!.
(d) Participle fibfji like verbs Kir, for Comp. 121. IV. a.
III. Piel and Pual.
() The praeter of Piel, out of the third person, sometimes takes
Hhireq instead of Tseri, like Kal and Niphal; as j3 Ps. 40: 2;
n ^ a Is. 57: 8. Third pers. with suffix once ^auja Gen. 41: 51 for^: JM.
() Infinitive construct fis? Ex.22:22 like verbs Kb; see no.V below.
(c) The future sometimes also takes final Tseri instead of Seghol,
like verbs Kb, as nlran Lev. 18: 7; see no. V below. With suffix
wfyi } Hoe. 6: 2 with final Yodh radical.
In the apocopated future, the final He and final vowel fall away
as in the other conjugations; and hence the Daghesh of the middle
radical also falls away, because the middle radical then stands at the
end of a word; as b^ l for ( 45. 3). Sometimes the Pattahh
is prolonged into Qamets; as i r r i 1 Sam. 21: 13. (55.2.)
(d) The apocopated form of the imperative Is like Dft Am. 6: 10
for non. So in Hithpael bnnn 2 Sam. 13:5.
(e) The final Yodh radical Is restored in pause and with paragogic
Nun; see no. I. h. Thus, imperative plural Prov. 26: 7; future
Is. 40: 18; with suffix and pause-accent Ex. 15:5 with
Qibbuts for Shureq ( 21.18). In all these cases, the Daghesh of
the middle radical is omitted ( 95. 3. d). Participle with suffix in
pause Hoe. 2: 16 for ftncn.
IV. Hiphiland HophaL
() Praeter of Hiphil out of the third person with Hhireq, as
2 K. 17:26; n^b^n Ex. 33:1; compare Kal, Niphal, and Piel. The 3
pers. sing. fem. has sometimes the Aramaean termination, as in Kal; as
n s n n Lev. 26:34 for ; n^brj Ezek. 24:12 for iTOKbn from
inKb. So Hophal nbatl Jer. 13:19; comp. in Kal.
The characteristic n sometimes takes Seghol, though not followed
by a guttural; as in nKbn above; and with suffix Mic. 6: 3 ;
i i epri Gen. 41: 28; ilbarj Est. 2: 6. *
Several words take a Syriac ending; as ^bnfi Is, 53:10 for fibnfj;
plural Vqn Josh. 14:8 for *lOn &c.
() The infinitive absolute occurs only in the Syriac form with
Tseii, instead of Hholem, which form is therefore placed in the par-
adigm. The verb !"D"1 has inf. abs. both and na"l2. Infini-
tive construct rrixgfi Lev. 14:43 for ni Xj?n.
(c) The future borrows from verbs Kb by Syriasm (no. V); as
K*HC2 Hos. 13:15 for It takes a Syriac ending like the prae-
t er; as'HO 13 Jer. 18:23 for fifTQn.
(d) The apocopated future drops the final He and final vowel, and
usually assumes a furtive vowel as in Kal ( 59. 2. b). Two forms
only are found without the furtive vowel. The following table exhib-
its the full forms, and the usual apocopated forms.
1 2 3 . YURBS LAMEDH RE ; NOTES. 221
Singular 3 pew. S*l^2 Segfaol for Pattahh. ( 60.3.)
Verbs * gvtt. ns n: arri\i
i gutt. b? \ l like the apoe. form in Kal.
The forms without a furtive vowel are Is. 41:2 from
and n! Gen. 9: 27 from
Few such forms as &] &c. from J1D3, see 124. 3. e.
(e) The imperative has a few apocopated forms with a furtive
vowel, viz. for for nfcnn; bgfj Ex.33:12 for libtti.
V. Exchange of farms for those of verbs ttb.
As verbs Mb borrow many forms from verbs Tib (121. IV), so
the latter often take forms analogous to those of the former.
() As to VOWELS; as Kal fat. Ps. 119: 117 for JTWSiJ &c.
See no. I. e. and the other notes above.
() As to CONSONANTS, viz. exchange of final n for M; as Kal future
M3UT Lam. 4: 1 for tt?.*.; inf. fitos Jer 23: 39 for rfioa. Piel MSp 2
K. 25:29 for nsttj; PucUfut. Ecc. 8:1 &c, See other forms in
the preceding notes.
(c) As'to both VOWELS and CONSONANTS ; as Kal praeter with suffix
OlMbn 2 Sam. 21:12 in Qeri for D^lbn from Slbn. Hivhilfut.
Hog'13:15 for n l D\
Most of these forms have been already noted above. They owe
their origin to the influence of the Syriac dialect, m which the two
classes of verbs Mb and rib flow into one. ( 121. IV note 1.)
NOTE. In Aramaean ( 1. 2. a), the futures and participles of verbs
Mb and Sib commonly end in M_ or % ; which form the Hebrew ha*
sometimes adopted, as is seen in the preceding notes. The same
remark applies to those forms which end in instead of i n. or
the usual terminations.
VI. Pilel and Hithpalel
() Two verbs originally 4b have the conjugation Pilel (81. 6),
formed by doubling the final Vav and then adopting the usual final Tl.
Thus fiM3 = 1M3, Pilel i"nM2 = iim: ; which appears in the contract-
ed form rPM3, plural nM2 Cant 1:10 and part. ftlMa Cant 2: 14 on
account of the Aleph ( 47. 5. a). The other verb is Pilel
part. phir. cepst Gen. 21:16.
() HithpcM occurs only to the verb mr a ; of which all the forms
in use are given in fee para&gm ( 80. 2. a). Future 3 pen. plur.
sometimes inrnp? ( 95. 2. a). Apocopated future iftrpZT, for which
the form innUT is In common use like "TT for *!"P ( 123.1, d, note 1).
Chaldaic infinitive 2 K. 5: 18. For the form Dn^nn,
see 124 b.
NOTE. Verbs NB are irregular only in those persons which take
sufformatives beginning with n ; in which case the final Tav of the
verb is expressed by a Daghesh forte in the Tav of the sufforma-
tives ; as wys for nri ns &c. See examples in 95. 3; c.
124. Irreg, verbs ; verbs doubly anomalous,
1. Ver bs doubly anomalous ar e those which ar e ir-
regular in two of their radical letter s, usually the f ir st and
the last. ( 106. 4.)
E. g. !tn, *ar, r r v, nos &c.
NOTE 1. It is not common that two irregular radical letters
come together. There are, however, a few cases of such a concur-
rence ; as in verbs both 19 and Mb, for which see below in no. 4.
NOTE 2. The verb "H3, which is both "JD and 99, is inflected in
Kal simply like verbs "JS>; as praeter 3 pers. fem. JTIT:; future TP
Nah. 3: 7 with Hholem, and "nrn Gen. 31:40 with Pattahh. In HiphU
the only form which occurs is 3 pers. plur. with suffix
Job 18:18 like verbs 99. In Hophal the only forms are the participle
"tan 2 Sam. 23:6 like verbs 99, and future TP Job 20: 8 like verbs
r 7 - n
fD. The verb 003 occurs only in Poel and Hithpoel, where of
course it exhibits no irregularities. These two are the only verbs
which are both and 99.
In the verbs 1*3 and 913, which are both f D and 19, the Atm is en-
tirely regular.
2. All the ir r egular ities which ar e f ound in the f ir st
and last radicals of ver bs, concur in these ver bs.
In order to find all the forms of a doubly anomalous verb, the stu-
dent has only to consider the anomaly at the beginning as belonging
to the class of verbs irregular D, and the one at the end as belonging
to those irregular ^ , and unite the irregularties of both of these in
the flexion,
3. The f ollowing examples and notes on the par-
adigms just mentioned, exhibit all the f orms of these ver bs
in which the student is likely to meet with any dif f iculty.
(a) Ver bs and 71^. ( 107. 122 &c.)
Hiphil fut apoc. 1 Sam. 14: 24 for
HDtf, imperative JJDJt Ex. 16: 23 by Syrlasmfor ( 47. 5. &.);
future with suffix i ner n 1 Sam. 28: 24 for iJlENhl.
Fl nit, praeter in pause n antt Jer. 3:22; imperative in pause 3 by
Syriasm for PnK ( 47. 5. b. 123. 1. A); future Deut. 33:21 for
Fin# 2, the first N being dropped and final tt put for H ( 123.V. 6) ;
Is. 41:25 for Hiphil imperative in pause for *"nNn.
(b) Ver bs and &&. ( 108 kc. 120 &c.)
inf. fern. nfiM2 for nfi*2$ ( 47. 4); imper. 8 2 ; see 109 &e.
(c) Ver bs and Par . XVI. ( 108 &c. 122 &c.)
!Yl*, not found in Kal; Pielfut. Lam.3:53 for 11^3. Hiphilfut.
with n retained Neh. 11: 17; first person with suffix P.
35: 18, and in pause Ps. 30: 13.
1 pers. plur. with suffix Dr5 Ps. 74: 8.
apoc. Ezek. 31: 7 ; Popaal Ps. 45:3.
r r v , / t 1 pers. with suffix BVa Num. 21: 30. Hiphil f ut with
suff. D-p 2 K. 17:27 ; Ps. 45: 8 &c.
(d) Ver bs f a and f t, Par. XVII. ( 113 &c. 121 &c.)
The paradigm exhibits in Kal and Niphal the forms of ; in
Hiphil those of because the former does not occur in Hiphil.
Infinitive construct nttto for nijip ( 47.4). Future !"l3t$n Ruth
1: 14 without Aleph. Hiphil fut. P
- 55:16 Kethib for fcPar-
(e) Ver bs "JD and Tib, Par . XVIII. ( 113&c. 122 &c.)
The three verbs H73, !"D3 , are all which occur under this
form. The following are all the departures from the forms in the
Kal fut apoc. with Vav 0*1 and ; also 2 K. 9: 33.
Niphal exhibits only the following forms/ viz. from HDD, praet. S
pers. plur. in pause 1^23 Num. 24: 6; fut 3 pers. Zech. 1: 16;
3 pers. plur. 10s? Jer. 6: 4; from SiD:, praet. rtea 2 Sam. 11:15;
l3a Job 30: 8 with N for fi. ( 123. V. b.)
Hiphil future with suffix as 132 2 Sam. 14:6 ; Job 36:18 kc.
Fut apoc. with Vav O' l, ^*1 kc. The imperative also suffers apoc-
ope and takes the forms 0*3, which are of frequent occurrence.
4. Ther e ar e a f ew ver bs of peculiar irregularity.
() The usual forms of the verb fins are exhibited in Par. XIX.
From these there are many departures, resulting from the nature of
the two last radicals. One is, that most of the forms with Hholem or
Hhireq, are written both fully and defectively; as imp. fins and fits fee.
Kal praeter 3 pers. plur. Ififa Jer. 27: 18. The infinitive construct
takes suffixes, as sjjKB, HDfits Gen. 10: 19 kc. and is often thus
used as a sort of adverbial noun. Future with Vav conversive f in 3 *2,
fit's"* n, i 3 n 1 K. 12:12 Kethib. Third pers. plur. fem. twice f ra^bn.
For the forms nnfion, T>K3n, see 124 b.
Hiphil praeter often fiPSiT In the 2 and 1 persons with suffix, an
epenthetic i is sometimes inserted, as lanifipsn, "PniOan &c. So
without suffix anfit'WT First pers. plur. occurs once Num. 32:17, as
in the paradigm. Infinitive K-Sb for ; sometimes with suffixes,
as in Kal. Future 1 pers. "^Sfit.
() The form is the praeter of Kal from a root like verbs
$7. No other form from this root is found in Hebrew.
(e) The verb Mi: is found only in Hiphil, where it is declined
like fins above. Future once Ps. 141:5.
{d) The verb fiOp is also found only in Hiphil, and is declined
like fins.
124 a. Irreg. verbs ; relation to each other.
1. From the similarity of forms and signification in many cases, it
is probable, that all the verbs which have been described above as be-
longing to the second class of irregular verbs, viz. all those which are
irregular in their first, second, or third radical letters, were originally
btiiteral; and were brought to their present form by the addition of fit,
^, 3, and sometimes tt, for a first radical; by inserting 1 or *, or by
doubling the last radical for a middle one; or by annexing one of the
quiescent letters for a final radical. Thus from the biliteral were
formed.^5^, r c i , all having the same meaning. So 32
and 3X5; -VP, and Tn2; finj? and r nf t ; 3iO and 30J fee.
(62.3.) " .
124. VERBS ; MIXED FORMS. 2 2 5
2. Hence, when two irregular verbs of the same signification and
of kindred origin occur, it is often the case that the one is used only
in particular tenses and conjugations, while the other is employed
in the tenses and conjugations where the first is wanting; both roots
thus making out a complete verb. Thus from the biliteral were
formed ^bn and with the same meaning, the former of which is
used in the praeter and participle, as "jbin; while the latter fur-
nishes the infinitive, future, and imperative, as n s j , "lb Sic.
Niphal has from the former. So ai o a verb 19 has a future
as from a verb "MD. In like manner Kal pj5n, but Pual and
Hithpael hjvnnn as from So has future f ^ V and Niphal
y i as from " p i , but Piel &c.
3. This trait in Hebrew verbs is very important, because it affords
an obvious solution for a multitude of supposed anomalies. If in Latin
it be allowable to bring together fero, tuli, latum, as constituent parts
of one verb, although evidently derived from three; and in Greek,
paivto, ftijoa), tpijv, and qptjpco, oiota
rjveyxa &c. which are made up in
a similar manner; why should not the same practice be extended to
tiie Hebrew ? This has been done in a degree by Gesenius in his
Lehrgebaude 112,113; but the principle has not yet been fully
adopted in lexicography.
124 b. Verbs ; mixed forms.
There are a few anomalous forms of verbs in the Hebrew Bible,
which the older grammarians denominated mixed forms, because they
considered them as uniting the characteristics and (as they said) the
meanings of different conjugations. Such are the following.
5p"V Ps. 7:6 which is fut Piel in all but its final vowel, where it
resembles Kal.
Ezek. 9: 8 made from Niphal praeter and Kal 1 pers.
Deut. 33: 16 and VifiCin 1 Sam. 25: 34 for future 3 and 2
pers. sing. fem. NSifl and but with sufformatives like the prae-
ter of verbs rib.
dryifinttiE Ezek. 8: 16 with the sufformative of the 2 pers. plur.
masc. praeter, but evidently standing for the plural participle of Hithpa-
lel as is read in some manuscripts.
Forms like the preceding are generally noted in the lexicons, and
are probably the result of negligent transcription.
124 c. Verbs ; forms of plurilitetal verbs
It Was stated in 82 that pluriliteral verbs were declined like Pi-
lel and Pulal. The following seven forms, however, are all that ap-
pear in the Hebrew Bible.
* 1 pers. with suffix !l"
nfct3Nl3 Is. 14:23.
b2"]5>, participle 1 Chr. 15:27.
CO"^2, future with suffix Ti P
- 80: 14.
toA?, Job 26: 9. fcDuVjob 33: 25. 2 pers. future ST^nnn Jer. 12:5, - participle
Jer. 22: 15.
A few other forms are noted in some of the lexicons, but in othn
ers they are more properly referred to the Pilel form from a triliter-
al root; as Pilel 3 pers. fem. in pause Job 15: 32, Cant 1: 16,
from j3n.
125. Verbs ; notes on the paradigm of participles.
1. The paradigm of participles exhibits the manner in which the
feminine is formed from the masculine, and also the formation of the
masculine and feminine plural. The mode of declining these forms, so
as to designate the relation of case, must be sought among the nouns;
because in all their inflections participles are treated as nouns and un-
dergo the same changes from declension ( 90.3). The declensions to
which the participles respectively belong, are noted in the paradigm.
NOTE. The tone-syllable of participles follows the usage of nouns,
and not of verbs.
2. The Segholate forms of the feminine are mostly limited to those
participles in which the final vowel of the masculine is Qamets or
Tseri pure and mutable. Here they are of frequent occurrence, es-
pecially when the participle is in regimen.
3. The ground of the above limitation is, that the final vowel of
the word which takes a Segholate form, is usually changed by the eu-
phonic power of the furtive vowel ( 60. 3). Hence, when the final
vowel is immutable, the feminine form in H is generally preferre d.
4. Feminine forms in are found, however, in participles, even
where the final vowel of the masculine is Hholem impure: as risca
2 Sam. 18: 8. In feminine nouns and adjectives, it is Dot uncommon
for the furtive Seghol to be preceded by Hholem; as n &v , ns' ns,
rozpria tic.
6. In Hiphil, the Segholate form of the feminine is derived from
the apocopated form of the masculine; as apoc. ~&p.&, fem.
126. Verbs with suffix-pronouns.
/ . General remarks.
1. The ver bal suf f ixes, or accusative cases of pro-
nouns af ter transitive verba, ar e par ts of primitive pro-
nouns united with the ver b so as to f or m with it one
word, instead of being wr itten separ ately a9 in the wes-
tern languages. ( 63. 3. 66. 7.)
. g. QnbDJD thou hast killed them, instead of Dfi-nVbj^ &c.
This is the common mode of speaking and writing the accusative
ef personal pronouns in Hebrew, instead of exhibiting the full form of
the pronoun by itself. A trait very similar appears in the Greek
natxriQ ftov for itanjQ ifiov fee. and in the Latin eccurn for ecce emn be.
2. Most of the ver bal-suf f ixes cause the tone of the
ver b to which they ar e appended to be moved forward,
or towards the lef t Hence a change in the vowel-points
of the ver b is, in most cases, a thing which f ollows of
course ( 5458). In a f ew f or ms, ther e is also a
change of consonants in the sufformatives in order to ad-
mit the suf f ix; see below in no. 12.
This change of vowels in verbs, however, is not altogether con-
formed to the laws which regulate the vowel-changes in nouns. The
peculiarities of it are noted in the explanations which follow.
3. Inasmuch as the f orms of all the conjugations ter m-
mate in the same manner as those of Kal, they also f or the
most part take suf f ixes in pr ecisely the same manner.
But f r om the nature of the case, neuter ver bs and f orms
of ver bs with a passive or refiexivt signif ication do not usually
r eceive suf f ixes, because the suf f ixes ar e almost always in
2 2 8 1 2 6 . VERBS WITH SUr r iX-PRONOONS.
the accusative, and of course f ollow transitive ver bs.
Hence the conjugations Niphal, Pual, Hophal, and Hith-
pael, are ver y rarely f ound with suf f ixes* In the f ew
cases in which they do r eceive them, they ar e to be ta-
ken in an active sense, or else the suf f ix is employed to ex-
, pr ess a dative of advantage.
Piel differs a little from Kal in the mode of receiving suffixes; see
below in IV note 14.
4. For ms of ver bs in the f ir st and second persons, do
not take suf f ixes of the same per sons; because the recip-
rocal meaning which would thus be conveyed is expr essed
by Hithpael &c.
5. The inf initive mood and par ticiples may take suf -
f ixes either like ver bs or like nouns. But in the mf initive,
the noun-suf f ix is the subject, and the verbal-suf f ix the ob-
of the action expr essed by the ver b; as ^jplp my pirn-
ishment, i. e. that which I inf lict; Wpf eV to punish me.
II. Forms of prono/uns used as verbalsuffixu.
6. Most of the ver bal-suf f ixes, or f ragments of primi-
tive pronouns, have at least thr ee dif f er ent f orms, adapted
to the dif f er ent ending or tense of the ver b to which
they are appended.
() The most simple form of the suffixes is that in which they be-
gin with a consonant. In this shape they are appended, through all the
tenses and moods, to forms of verbs which end with a vowel. See note 1.
() To the simple form is prefixed a vowel of the A class, viz.
Qamets or Pattahh. In this shape they are appended to forms of
verbs which end with a consonant, in the praeter only.
(c) To the simple form is prefixed a vowel of the E class, viz.
Tseri or SeghoL In this shape they are appended to forms of verbs
which end with a consonant, in the future and imperative. See also
below in no. 9. c.
NOTE 1. The vowel which is thus prefixed to the suffixes, serves
to connect them more readily with the verb, and is therefore called
the tmion-vvwcL When the verb ends in a vowel, that vowel of
course serves as a union-vowel.
7. Between the suffix and the union-vowel, there is sometimes in-
serted an epenthetic Aun ( 43. 2. 6), which is usually assimilated to
the first letter of the suffix and expressed in it by a Daghesh forte.
In poetry, the Nun is sometimes fully written. This class of suffixes
is limited principally to the singular number of the pronouns, and
to the future tense of verbs.
8. The f ollowing table exhibits the suf f ixes as append-
Sing* Common.
Procter. Future fye.
13- <3l
2m. Sjl
inpanse^J- !J_ 5J&C. n 3 -
2f . *TJ *>3
1 - V ^
3 m. i n l 1 m l "1
i n l *i
3 f . n l

sn- r u
* T
PI. 1. u l
2 m. S3 03
2 f . 'JD
1 V 1?
3 m. & poet.'if i. n_n_> poet.hal
- ' P
3f . "J
K V k
3 f . r u

PL 1 . u l
2 m. S3
2 f . 13
3 m. & poet.'if i.
3 f . 1
FU r u
1 V
D_D-> poettol
Future with epenthetic Nun.
Future c.
s j t c . n 3 -
^ V ^
w l ' I
n l
D_ D_"
. t h a i
2 m. for *| 3- &c
Sing. 3 m. 13- f or inD* also*l3
- 3 f . ns l f or ns l
9. Notes on the table qf suffixes, (a) In a very few instances, the
future has the suffixes **31, 0 . , like the praeter ; and vice versa the
praeter very rarely takes suffixes like the future, viz. ">31 and a few
times ' si.
(6) The original union-vowels would seem to he Qamets and
Tseri, which shorten into Pattahh and Seghol when the tone is re-
moved. Before the epenthetic Nun, the two latter only are found.
So also in ' ol , which in pause becomes "
(c) The 2 per#, sing, fem occurs but seldom ; the more com-
mon form in the praeter is J_, and without the tone as in the
future. The forms with paragogic Yodh occur often in the later
(d) The suffixes 73, never take a union-vowel; nor does the suf-
fix ^ or HD, except in pause. The 3 pers. sing. fem. of the praeter also
takes suffixes without a union-vowel; see below in no. IV note 2. a.
(e) The forms tol, i fcl with a paragogic i , are common in
poetry ( 50. 4. d). The form ^73 is found as a suffix once Ex. 15: 5,
as in Ethiopic j and also the form Deut. 32: 26.
( y) Instead of the feminine suffix 7 of the third person plural, the
masculine D appears after the sufTormative 4, in order that the femin-
ine suffix may not be confounded with the paragogic ] ; as ^2
Ex. 2: 17 for 1 Sam. 6:10, &c.
(g) The suffixes with epenthetic Nun are occasionally found in
the imperative and rarely in the praeter; see a above. In Chaldee,
an epenthetic Nun is always found before the suffixes of the future,
imperative, and infinitive.
{h) Wherever there is a union-vowel, it uniformly takes the tone.
The suffixes and 73 always draw down the tone upon themselves,
removing it two places if necessary, and are on that account denomin-
ated grave suffixes. The others never move the tone more than one
syllable, and are called light suffixes.
The suffix ^ or when appended to verbs ending in a consonant,
usually takes the tone, except in the 2 pers. sing. fem. of the praeter.
See below in no IV note 2. a.
(i) Some of these suffix-forms of pronouns are derived from primi-
tive forms which are still in use; as D, 7, from fin, &c. Others would
seem to come from forms which are now obsolete in Hebrew; as
from fiSK = like ; CD from &3K &c. The form ^ still
appears in Ethiopic as a regular sufTormative in the flexion of verbs.
10. Verbal-suffixes are also united, in all their forms,
with certain adverbs and interjections; in which condition
t he j are in the nominative case. See in 156.
III. Forms of verb* as adapted to styfixes.
11. It should be borne in mind, that all the vowel-
changes which appear in verbs with suffixes, occur solely in
consequence of the removal of the tone-syllable which is
caused by the suffix; and that they are entirely conform-
ed to the laws of vowel-changes given in 5458.
12. In a few of the forms, a change is made in the
sufformative of the verb, in order to admit the suffix.
( ) In the praeter 3 sing. fem. n _ is put for J"U
2 - - T] r. or i fi
2 plur. m. ID DFl
The n of the 3 sing. fem. is changed into n because of the ac-
cession ( 40. 2); and the Qamets is shortened to Pattahh because it
comes to stand in a mixed syllable. ( 54. 2. c.)
NOTE. The 2 plur. fem. does not occur with suffixes.
() In the future and imperative, instead of the fem-
inine sufformative Si3, appears the masculine ending ^ .
13. The following are the forms of the praeter adapt-
ed to receive suffixes.
Forms with suffix. Com. form. With suffix. Com.form.
3 mas. com.
3 fem.
r f a s j ? n b a p
2 mas.
r f r a p n b a p n b b j ? a n b a p
2 fem. Ti Va p n b a p
(not found) j nbaj ?
1 com. Ti Va p
i ^ a p .
Digitized bv
Procter of KaL
NOTE 1. Third person singular masculine with suff 'aSttp, without
suffix bDJ?. The tone being moved forward one syllable by the suffix,
the Qameta of the first syllable is dropped ( 56. 2); and the Pattahh
of the second syllable is lengthened, because it comes to stand in a pure
syllable, the final letter of the verb being united with the suffix
( 55. 1). Before and 73 Pattahh remains, as because the
final radical continues in the same syllable; but before ^ it is thrown
into another syllable and takes a vocal Sheva, as
Verbs final Tseri usually retain the Tseri before the suffix, as
; but sometimes have Qamets, as ifitbJD Esth. *7: 5. Verbs final
Hholem are very rarely found with suffixes. The form fnfcD? occurs
Ps.l3:5, where Hholem is shortened into Qamets Hhateph.( 96.1<a.)
NOTE 2. Third person singular feminine "*30? DP, ?JN5T3J3, without
suffix The removal of the tone causes the first vowel of the
ground-form to be dropped and the second to be revived and lengthen-
ed, as in note 1. For the n see above in no. 12. a. The vowel of the
third syllable is Qamets or Pattahh, according as the n is or is not
united with the suffix, as in note 1.
() It is a peculiarity of this feminine form, that although it ends
with a consonant, it yet takes suffixes beginning with a consonant, when
they make a syllable by themselves. Hence it takes but three with
a union-vowel, viz. 0- , "}
, and these are shortened to D_,
7_, because the tone is always on the last syllable of the verb and
not on the suffix. ( 54. 3. Supra 9.b.)
() This form of the verb is sometimes contracted, or it assimilates
to its final n the initial n of the suffixes i n and n of the 3 person
masculine and feminine. Thus we have both the full form i r t n j a i
Prov. 31: 12, and contracted i nSa* 1 Sam. 1:24 &c. With the fem-
inine suffix the contraction always takes place; as nnTtitt Jer.49:24 for
- The final !"j in this last example would seem to be par-
agogic, as if the suffix were Jitt.
NOTE 3. Second person singular masculine "SNLROP, without
suffix . The first vowel is dropped as in note 1; the second is
not affected. The Qamets of the sufformative serves as a union-vowel;
though it is sometimes dropped and the suffixes and i of the first
and third person singular appended to the form rfctap.
NOTE 4. Second person singular feminine ^h! : Dp, withotrt
1 2 6 . VERBS WITH SUPFlX-PrfONOtmS. 233
suffix n^Dp or The vowels of the two first syllables are as in
note 3. This form changes its sufformative in order to admit suffixes
(see above in no. 12. a); and the Hhireq which it takes serves as
a union-vowel. This is sometimes defectively written, as "'arviiP Jer.
15: 10 &c. In a few instances the suffixes and w 1 of the 1 pers.
singular and plural, are appended to the form as Jer. 2: 27.
Josh. 2:17. Cant. 5:9.
NOTE 5. The remaining forms of the praeter, when adapted to re-
ceive suffixes (no. 13), all end in a vowel, and of course take suffixes
without a union-vowel. The changes of their vowels are the same as
those of the preceding forms, which are explained above.
Infinitive of KaL
NOTE 6. The infinitive form (bop
) is treated as a Segholate
noun in respect to suffixes, taking them somewhat after the analogy
of the form in Dec. VI. q. Thus, ground-form Voj5, with suffix
&c. The final vowel of the ground-form is for the most part thrown
back to the first radical ( 57), and is in all cases shortened into eith-
er Qibbuts or Qamets Hhateph, because the tone is removed from it
by the suffix. Before d^, 73, and sometimes *|, the vowel remains in
the final syllable, although it is shortened; as BDbDM Gen. 3:5 &c. But
in these latter cases also, the vowel is sometimes thrown back; as
&V)39 Deut. 27:4; 0 ^ * ^ . and Lev. 23: 22.
NOTE 7. Verbs Ayin guttural take a composite Sheva ( ) under
the guttural when the vowel of tfie ground-form is thrown back, in-
stead of the usual simple Sheva, as Sns, my choosing Ezek. 20:
5; 3*5iK, d3fiK their love Hos. 9: 10. Before S3 and they take
the corresponding short vowel, viz. Qamets Hhateph, as D30JM3 Is.
30:12; and so DSS'lj} Deut 20:2 with Resh.
The forms dDKXto Gen. 32:20 and d^Otfjia Am. 5:11 are anoma-
lous, and stand for and ddpitis.
NOTE 8. The infinitive with Pattahh (btjp) retains its form before
03 and 73, but before other suffixes it takes the form btsj? and some-
times bcjd; as fan, d^: : n Is. 30: 18 &c. 9a, d*j>a Am. 1: 13 &c.
Ezek. 25: 6 &c.
N. B. The feminine forms of the infinitive with a furtive vowel,
are treated as feminine Segholates of Dec. XIII; as rrcn, &c.
Future of Kal.
NOTE 9. In futures with Hkolem and Tseri, all those persons which
end in a consonant drop the final vowel of the verb (like nouns in
Dec. VII), and receive suffixes with a union-vowel (no. 6. c); as
with suffix "3$t3j^; also Splrp, DCTiri^ Josh. 23:5 &c. Before
4|, fi^, and 1^, however, final Hholem and final Tseii are shortened
into Qamets Hhateph and Seghol, and in that shape retained; as
Is. 42: 6; Jer. 38:16 and often.
Verbs with future Pattahh retain the Pattahh in the preceding
cases, and prolong it into Qamets before those suffixes which have a
union-vowel; because the final consonant of the verb is then thrown
into another syllable; as Dosb? &c. ( 55. 1.) So also the futures of
verbs afe. (121.1, c.)
NOTE 10. All the persons that end in a vowel, viz. In 1 or V (includ-
ing the 2 and 3 pers. plur. fem. as stated above in no. 12. 6), receive
suffixes of course without a union-vowel (no. 6. a) ; as
irtbSNn Lev. 7: 24, where the Shureq is defectively written by Qjib-
( 21. 18.)
The 3 pers. plur. masc. sometimes takes the suffixes after a para-
gogic Nun ( 95. 1. a), but without a union-vowel; as Prov.
1:28 ( 21. 18); ISWi aP Jer. 5: 22. With twice Is.
60: 7, 10.
Imperative o/Kal.
NOTE 11. The 2 pers. sing. masc. with Hholem (B*C3J?) imitates the
. infinitive. The other forms "^op., ibop. and fem. iVtsp (no. 12. b \
remain unchanged and take suffixes beginning with a consonant.
NOTE 12. Imperatives with Pattahh, like the future, retain die
Pattahh and prolong it before those suffixes which have a union-vow-
el ; as *33*7311? hear me. So plural 73113 hear ye me ; ask ye
me Is. 45:11. See note 9 above, and compare note 2.
NOTE 13. All the participles imitate nouns in their mode of re-
ceiving suffixes, and the declensions to which they respectively belong
are noted in Par. XX.
NOTE 14. The final Tseri of Piel falls away before suffixes with a
union-vowel, as in the future of Kal. Before b^, it is general-
ly (not always) shortened into Seghol or Hhireq parvum; as praeter
Deut 30: 3 ; infinitive D ^ r n Is. 30: 18; Is. 1: 14; fu-
ture Ezek. 28: 16; Job 16: 5; also Gen. 31:
27. Sometimes the Tseri under Resh is changed into Pattahh, as
^ 2 Deut. 2: 7 &c.
Whenever Pattahh is adopted in the final syllable on account of a
guttural, it remains before the suffixes sj &c. as Deut. 13: 18.
NOTE. 15. Poel, PoleL, and Pilel imitate Piel, their first vowel be-
ing immutable, and their final one the same as that of Piel. The same
is true of all forms which have the same final vowels in the same cir-
NOTE 16. In the future and imperative, the suffixes are appended
to the regular forms, and not to those which are apocopated.
A few fornts seem to come from the apocopated future; viz.
1 Sam. 17:25, Ps. 65: 10 for 1 3 ^ ^ - Job
2 0 :
26 for
( 60. 5); Is. 35: 4 for DD5
ih\ ' This is perhaps
the effect of Syriasm.
126 a. Verbs fib with suffixes.
1. In all the forms of verbs rib which end in n, this letter and the
preceding vowel fall away before suffixes. The verb thus. apoco-
pated takes or omits a union-vowel before th$ suffix according to its
termination, as in regular verbs.
2. In the 3 person sing. fem. the suffixes are attached to the n of
the verb, after the analogy of regular verbs ( 126. IV note 2).
The tone also remains upon the final syllable of the verb. For the
form irrip* with suffix of the 3 pers. masculine, see 126. IV note 2.6.
3. The sufformative 1 of the 3 pers. plural, before the suffix =in, is
very often defectively written; as ( 21. 18.)
4. In the forms ?pniaa Ezek. 16:31 and Ezek. 6: 8,
which are infinitives of Kal andNlphal with noun-suffixes, the suffixes
are those of plural nouns, which have probably been appended by
5. In these verbs, Yodh is sometimes inserted between the suffix
and the union-vowel Tseri or Seghol; as Piel imper. nfJ
*n Hab. 3:2 ;
fat. PS. 140: 10; Hiphil imper. 1 K.20: 35; future
Deut. 32: 26 from itfijs. This would seem rather to be a
restoration of the original radical Yodh, as in pause. ( 123.1, h.)
NOTE. The paradigm (XXII) exhibits only some of those forms
which are of the ,most frequent occurrence. It is, however, suffi-
ciently copious to guide the learner, and enable him to reduce to
the same general principles any other forms which may occur.
2 3 6 1 $ 7 * PAR. I . Regular verbs. ( 9 6 1 0 0 . )
Kal. Kal. Kal. Niphal.
Pr aet . 3 m. 1 3 3
bt i f cj
3 f. 1 3 3
r 6 u p 3
2 m. FH3 3
* - *
n b a p q
2 f. P 1 3 3
r f c l r
J - T
! *
PI. 3. VI M
2 m. nn-j Dj ? a m s s
DF&3' '
v ; TJ
Df l bbpo
2 IFIVDP jn.133 I NT O* I R T A P S
1 V f J
I S VS ' '
I v f
Inf. abs.
Tl 3 3
VBM. Vn pn
const. V d
P ;
1 3 3
F u t 3 m. Vtap; 133
3 f. Ve p n i s s n
2 m. Vo p n I 3 3 n Vo p n
2 f. " ^ B P N ^ i s p n
1. VbpK *T33K
PI . 3 m. i Vup; ;
3 f. N ^ ' O P R I n n a b n
2 m. ^ u p n n s s r j iVt3j?n
2 r u Vo p n n s i a a n
n j Va j m
1. VopD 1333
Fut. apoc.
Imp. m. Voj? 1 3 3
^ . P / l
PL m. top 1133
f. R O V S P 0 3 1 3 3
j ~ J
n At j g r i
Par t , a c t
Vu' tp " D3
f 127. PA*. I. Regular vtrbt. ({ 96TOO.) 33 7
Piel. Pual. Htphil. Hophal. HithpaeL
5B Fapn !?apn Veg?nn
n^toj> rf;B n ^ q ^ ' n r t e p n nVo' j yi n
FjVt5j> pbE5_ r i b u p n . s w p n V8>j ?pn
R&BJJ r b u p n fljsjpn r ^ a p n n
r i ^j j n f e a pn "nrf j&pn TiVap.nn
I ^DJ> , ^ B J > I ^ U P N ' FEAPN I VAJ J NN
api.Vttp D$t?j Dr f ?Dpn DnVopn ap.Vtopr in
jn^ojp l ^ V a p n "| $j opn i n ^ a p n n
n&ap 'ttf epf c ^Vapn n^. p
n ^Vapnn
Vtap_ | bp
^ a p n S o p . n
^bj> ^ a p ' y t a p n '_* __f r a j ? r m
^Bp* Va p ^ ^ o j Vap^ bBp. r' *
Va p n . Vaprt ^opr i Vtgpn Voj>nn
bqpr i Vapjn ^tjj?r r Vop'r j Vapnn
^ e j j r r ' ^ o p n " ^ a p n ^ B g n n
^Dp.tfr bj >k Vr a p * i j a p x ^ a p . f i *
i b a p * n*>B^ *V&p;: i bqp^ iVBjjn?
3^f j "3^^
s &j y?v <&BjHn i ^ b p n t' Vop.n- i ^ p . n n
m^ u p . n n i V&p n roV&jjn w V u p n n j Vi a p n n
^Bp_ VB^ ^a'p? ^pp3 Vap.n:
i*aj jr
Vapr t
r tf i apn
Vapnr t
n^ap.r in
n a pnn
b a p a Jnagn- V a p a Va p a Vaj j . no
8li '* '
* ' '
gal. Niphal. Hiphil. Hophal.
Pr aet.3 m. TO
l a y s T a y n
HJ *

f |T
n i a y j
m r b y n n i a y n
^ V T
2 m. d t o
"" nr
n n b y a n n a y n m a y n
" T; ^
m a y
J "f
n r a y a
; * v# *
n * n n
n a y n
"rj f
w a y
ma y s
: ' nv
T i i a y n v n a y n
? r; ^
PL 3. m a y n a y a i T a y n
# M
n a y n
2 m. n m a y a n T a y a c n n a y n c r n a y n
v *|
- [ pna y
i n n a j j ]n*7Byn i n S a y n
1. l a ^ a y
* c
i a *f a ya l o n a y n
? ?:
m a y n
rj t
Inf . abs. T i a y
T a y n n a y n
const. n a y
w n T ' a ^ n
Fut 3 m.
f a r p i r n TO*

* r a r
3 j a y n p r n n
"1 - * v
T a y n
T a y n TBy n
2 m. T a y n p m n T a y n

T' By n n a y n
*f.* t
2 n a y n ^ m n i T a y n
^ T a y n
t V
1. f a y * p t r o i
r: *. - v
9 |
T B y
r *
PI. 3 m.
n a r i p Ti r ^ TO*
i T a y
n a y
f t
3 r. n n & n r a p m n n ^ r w n r t b * n
* *1 " ' "?} V f } I " * "T! f
2 m. i T a y n i p Tn n i T a y n i T & y n
IT -
i i a y n
2 naTi ayn n a p t n n n a n a y n n a i b y n n a i f c y n
f a y? pTno
i aya
Ti a y ?
Fut. apoe.
Imp. m. *ray p m T a y n n a y n
| -
-ray i p m >T2yn
"Ti ayn
^ I -
PI. m. m a y i p m i T a y n
i T a y n
n a Ta y n a p m n a n a y n n a i a y n
T "I * 1 * ? -
Par t. i n i y n a y s
T B y B
Hiphil. Hophal.
T B y n . TQJTT
n T a y r i m a y n
n n a y n p * i a y n
n Ta y r i r H a y n
ma yo Tna y n
: " V ? r:
i T a y n n a y n
r* v : r T
T B y n TBy n
- - ~rr
w n nayn
T B y n l a i n
*Tayn 'r ayn
T B y T w a
i T s r n a y
#- - f t
v v ;it f t
2 f. w r i j y n n a p ' mn n s i a y n r m S w n raifcyn
t 1 *M-r? v *> *-! *? : *
i . TWO s t n a i a ? j T^ a y j n a
T r - r r " -r" ' T !
/ f a. a/c. ngsp
imp. m. n a y p t n T a y n T a y n
f .
TBy ipm 'naVn ^Tay'n
pi . m. n a y i p m i T a y n i T a y n
j f r* * "
f. n : n &> n a p m n a n a y n n : " i h ? n
T ; -I T :
Par t . n a i y i a ? j T a y a T a y a
TVIV *1 - *R.
127. PAR. III. Verbs Ayin guttural* ( 104.) 839
Kal. Piel. Piel. PnaL Hithpael.
Pr a e t 3 m. p?T V w ^ 3 ^ 1 3 n n
3 L n p ? t r f c m n s - i a n a - f c n a i a n r i
' ;IT * * * i * * JN . .
2 m. p p h P V T O r o n a p a n s p a n a n n
2 L p p y j p' Vr o M n a p a n s p a n a n r i
i . v i p y ? T &r w ' n a n a ' p a n s T o n a n n
pi . 3. i ? 7 T ' i Vn s l a n a i a - f c l a - i a n n
' "T t : s IT s
2 m. c p p
? t o p V w b p . 3 1 5 BPSi l a o p a n a n n
2 f. i p p j T " j p ^ n j i p a n a j p a - i a j f l s n a n r i
i . 13PJT i s Vr n i s a n a w a n s i s a n a n n
' - 8 - ' " M
Inf. aba.
conet p y t j>ro ^ a y f t t [ - i a n n
F u t 3 m. p ? r ^nr
v y
n * v w i
3 f. pyj t n Vr o n ^ n a r i sj-ibn ^ n a n n
2 m. p? TP Vn3R ' n a p ^ i b p ^ a n n
2 'mtp "Vn3ri "onap o-iin oianp
- T : r | * t t JIT }
1. p?T Vn.3* T P * -<p_iu T i a n *
p l 3 m. i p j T? s a w <d - p l a - i a n :
3 1 r u p n p n & n w i r u a n a p r o a n i p n s a n a n p
2 m. w m i ^ n s p l a n a p l a - f t p l a - i a n p
f it : ?w : ? : :*r
2 t n a p y t n n a ^ n a n n a s n a n n a a n i n n a a n a n n
t; - * J t * : * : * : ~ t * ,
+*t "! * j t * : * : * ~ * T ,
i . p y ?n,3.3 r p a s ^ - 6 3 * p a p 3
' - -
Fut. apoc. has no distinct form here.
I mp. m. P ? t Vn.3 ^ | i a
f. i p y t " b n : o i a
PL m. i p? T i Vn s i a - i a
f . ropy* n & r n r o a n a
^ - i a n n
o-iar ir i
l a n a n r i
r uanar in
Par t . p y l t >n, 3. a i j n a t i . . T *
* p a n n
340 $ 127. PAIU IV. Ftfbt Lnmedk %uttatal+ ( 1M. )
Kat flfiphak
Pcaet 3 ql-
H W tf D3
y a
3 f . WB O
n y a o
2 m. n y b

JJPDOJ n y f e n
T *
p y a p p y a r o s
p y a .
p y a o
p y a d
PL 3. i y n i
i y a o j
w a a '
2 m.
fipyaaj QFi ya o
v : ~
2 j Fi yao i p y a o a j n y a o
1. w h o a i a y |
Inabs. yr ao
const* y ?i
y a . o n
r a n
Pat 3 a.
yf f s j r
- t *
y a m
* * s
3 y a w n y a n
a n
2 m. y a o n war y
- 5
y a s n
<yawv l y a i r v
J IT *

y a a u t y a m s y a o t t
PL 3 m.
wa "

* /
i wa b * -
r :
f f '
n w b f n
n a y a o n
2 m.
i j a m
J IT *
w a a n
2 reywv n a ^ i b e n
T ** ^
n w a n n
" y a ms 1.
y - 1 #
y a ^ i
n w a n n
" y a ms
Fut. apoc.
Inpe BW
y J Hj y a o r r
j ur a t .
>yaon v s a
a i& i y a
IT *
w a s a
v s a
n b
T -T
f i a y a a
Par t, act y n o y a s s
y a a f l
pass. y i a o

y a a f l
PAR. I V. Verb* guttural. PAJUV. Verbs ( .107.) 241
Hiphil. Hithpael. || Kal. Kal.
r a j j n y a j i a n
n r a a n n y a n a n
p y n o n r y g n a n
n y b a n r y a i i a n
T w a i n * n y | n a r i
l y f c s i n l y a p t i n
a n y a a n n n y a n i n
j n y a n n j p y a n a n
w h a n v y a r i a n
Vs s i a
~ V "" T
(as verbs Pt gutturalJ
y n j o ' n y a n a n
y i a o
y a n c r
- : '
y e a n y a n a n
y ^ a a n y a n a n
^ a i n " y a n i r i
r a p * y a p p *
l y a a ; l y a n a
n w a a r i n j y a p p n
n y a a n l y a p p p
royaa'n n a y a p p p
r a p ? y a p p q
byv nasi
Vqa' n n a s n
5?3' N - I BSFN
S ? > *i a >
n a i r
roVSitn n n a a i p
, i - * : *
i ^ o wn n a ' n
n b p n n a w n
I S S I S - I BK' J
y a a n y a p p n
" yr ba n " y a n a n
l y a a f i l y a n a n
n w a a n n j y a p p n
(as Pe guttural)
y a a a y a n a a 1
" " 32i ' '
iii 127. PAR. VI. Fait *6. Chat I. ( 109.) |
PAR. VII. ">D.
CI N. ( 110. )
Kal. Niphal. Hiphil. Hophal.
Pf aet
3 L
2 m.
2 f ,
PL 3*
2 m.
2 f <
ni rh
. a a ' u
naaf t

paa'f l
r iaaii
Vl SB' l J
l aaf t a
e r p a i :
j n i a ' i :
' mb ' I J
n a ^ n
p a ef t n
p a s f t n
v p c f t n
l a n p h n
o p a a f t n
j par ai n
i s a BS n
a wn
n a d i n
r o a m
p a a i n
>na a i n
l a s i n
j Fi api n
u a a i n
Inf . abs. a'lf ip
const. r D a n s n n a ^ a i n n c n n
Fut aa*
3 f. 3 b p
t l
2 m. a d n
2 f. *13011
i . a a a

PI. 3 m. l a d? ,
3 f. n s s o n
* "
2 ttl. 1 3 3 P

2 f. n s a a p
i . a d :
? l ?
a a i ' n
a d i p
q d i p
a a i *
: ?
n M B i p
l a B I P
: IT
n : a a i p
a' l a' i P

l a i j j i n
a ^ K
w a V
nsaat a
W a i n
n s a o i n
*R *
a- i oi a
a d i i
a p i F i
3 d i P
3 B1 *
i s d i
1 1
n s s a i p
* "
l a d i p
n n i n
3 0 1 3
Fitt. apoc.
Imp. m. Dp
f . qa
PL m. *Q
f . nsna
M y t
oaj n
^at b' ^n
: *
n a a a i n
a a i n

q- ' a' i n
l a ^ a h n
n a a o ' i n
P a r t a a i i aa' i D a - ' d i a a a i a

a a ^
B 3 T )
i o a i p
l a a i i
n 3 B3 Tl
n a d a v i
a i ^
d a ^
C/ . HI. (6 111. ) CLiv.(112.)
I PAR. X. VerbsJFC. ( J 113, 114. ) 2 4 3
Hiphil. Kal.
Kal. Niphal. Hiphil. Hophal.
a ^ n
P * !
V w a s s a ^ a n a a n
n a ' w n (regular)
n a a a
n a ^ a n n a a n
T J %
n a i r n
n p a a n a a n n a a n
n a p ^ n
n p a a n a a n n a a n
T i p a a T i p a n T i p a n
l a ^ t r t j
t a a a l a ^ a n l a a n
a n a p T i
1 *
a n p a a a n p a n a n p a n
J N P A / N
j ri paa i r i p a n
^ n p a n
i s a t r n
1 3 3 3 3 i a a a n u a a n
t " \
^ h s :
a a a n
a ' an a a n
a ^ n r i g s
6 3 a ' an
p' ; r
a ^ n p2Fl V s n
> a ' ' a n a a n
a u r n p'SFl Vs n t r a n a a n
l a i t j n p
T5 n
i p t j n i p a n
, ,

VE a^ast s a a
WE T * i V r ;
i a a ;
n3ap; <n
n a p s n
n ^ Vs n
n a p a n n a a a n
* I *U
I pSPl n Ve n l a ^ a n l a a n
n s a c p n
n a p s n r u V s n n a p a n n : p a n
s n a r a
' ' m
V B :
B"a? a a p
- 1
ps ' . l
^ 4 !
a p T i
a a n
o ^ n (regular) (regular) (regular)
i p ^ a r i
l a ^ n l a ' ^ a n
n j a b T i
n a a a n
a ^ n
V S I A E 3 3
u n a a a p
Diqitized bv Google
44 $ 117. PiJL XI. Verimlh. (}$ 116, 116.)
Kal. Niphal. Hipfail.
Pr aet 3 m.
2 m.
2 i
PL 3.
2 m.
2 f .
n a b
r T a o
* ^ 3 0
o n i a o
j n^ao
i s ' f a o
n a b :
T - T
t v f a w
r i ' i aoi
vi ' TaM
i a o j
a n l a w
j nt ooi
l i i a e i
a o n
n a b n
M a o n
n t a o n
' XiTaon
i a b n
ozVi aDn
i n ' i a o n
i t f ' a o n
I nil abs.
Fut 3 m.
3 f .
2 m.
2 f .
PL 3 m.
3 f .
2 m.
2 f .
a t o p
a o
a b n
a o n
a' oj j
w a c n
V % |
i aon
n ^ a c n
a ba
Child. a'DI
a o n
a' sr i
a b a
n a a S h
i a o n
na a o' n
a e ;
a o n
a o n
a o
i a %;
n a ^ a o n
* *
l a s n
w i a n
* V
a s :
a o n
S D ;
a o n

1 1
i s o ;
r v
i a b n
. waon
*r v J
Fvt. converitoe.
Imp. m.
f .
PL qa.
n a * a o
a o n
* a o n
i aon
r w4&n
a o n
, |
i a bn
n a i &n
Par t. a a b 303 30tt
187. PAH. XI. Perk is. ( 116,116.) #48
Hophal. Poel. Poal. Pllpel. Polpal.
a o i n as i o aai o aoao a&ao
n a c n n nr ni o naai o
t ;
n i l e m naai o naai o naoao napao
ni s pi n nr isio
naai o r apaq naoao
^ n i a c i n TiaaiD vi aai o Wabao
i api n
l aai o la'pap l apao
Dni api n Dnaaio
V i
or taaio nnapap nnapao
i ni api n jr aaio jnaaio ipapap inapao
ui aoi n i333io i sasi o
S -
uapap 133030
3 pm aai o aai o apap 3030
? 'v
30V a a i c

aai o; 3030? apao
s pi n aai on aaier i

apspr i apapn
3pi n aai on

aai on

apapn ao3on
obi n "aaion cal on "3030FJ 'apapn
aoi a aaioj( aai o* 3030M
: - !
lapi* l a a i c l aa' w

l aoBC 13030*-
nr aoi n

r uaai on
t -
j : - t
r tsabaon
? : S S
+ Z ~ Z'u t
l abi n i aai on


u o s o n i303n
nr aoi n r waaion nsaai on nsaoaon
, J

33103 " ap3p3 * aoiaw
3310 3030
i abap

s o w 3 3 i o a a s h e n s o s o a a o a o s
: * : : ~ : * i \ J
M6 (, 127. Put. XII. Perk V. ( III, 118.)
Kal. Kal. Nlphal. HiphiL
Pr aet 3 m.
0j> r a Dip;
o - Rn
3 f .

nai p: n a ^ n
2 m. =.P-
nnf c
r i hi pj ni a^pn
r f
Mp_ vm
j -
ni ai pj
ni a^pn
Tiap. TIB n i a i p j T i a ^ n
PL 3.
1 0 g i nb
i ai pj i B ^ n
2 m. or iBp ana BniBipj Dn'ia-'pn
2 f .
W -
i nn
i ni ai pj l ni a-' pn
1. 13 p- u n a laiaips uia^pr t
Inf . aba
ai p
ni p Bipn D^pn
Fut 3 m.
nip; D
^ D^p:
3 I Bipn Bipn B-pn
2 m.
Bi pn Bipn
2 f . Bipn "Bipn e^pn
1. Dip* Dip*
B i
PI. 3 m. i ai p; i ai p; w p ;
3 f .
nr ai pn n:apn natr pn
2 m. iBipn i r i pn iB^pn
2 f . nr bi pn njajpn r wr pn
' = > ? ?
FtU. apoc. 6p
Imp m.
Dip Bipn
f .
i ai p 'Bipn ^ p n
PI. m. i ai p iBipn w p n
f . wnp nja^n njapn
Par t
op. na
Blpj D^B
187. PAS. XN. VtRB FR ( 117, 118. ) | 847
HophaL Polel. Polal. Kal.
a p i n OBi p OBhp
n a p i r t HBBi p naa' i p r u a

na pi n r n b i p paa *ip p)33
r m p w PBB'lp naa'ip DD3
:: -
r T i n a ' t p intjahp
i B p i n I BBI p l a a h p

anapjin n r i BBi p Qnaa'ip DFIJ3 -
\nap_in I f l . aa' i p ' JPBB' lp
v a p i n w a b i p
l 3BB
l p 133
a p j i n QB'lp
Dj JV aa'ip'; aa'ip';
r *
api n
DB' lpFj a a ' i p r i
npin aa'ipn aaipr i
i Bp n n ^ BBl pr i -aaipr i
D p i * a a i p * oaSp T*
1Bpl" I BBi p^ '
l a e ' i p i
r uB^in nsabSpp nsaai pn
n r l ' o n
l a p w i B B i p n i Bai pn
n r a p i n n j B B i p n njablpr i
n D ^ r a n
t v }
* o p i 3 * OBi pJ * a a i p j
i ? :
QBi p
" BBl p
v a

w a
n j a a i p -
BJ31B DBi p a DB' l pB
R '
24# } 127. P . XIV. Verhfo. ( 120,121.)
KaL Nlphal. Plel.
Pr aet. 3 m. MS B J MS B
r iMxa
2 m.
na s a
T f
n i a
r a s a
nttsai n s a
1. Y I MS B
* V f
PL 3.
1 MXB3 1 MS B
2 m.
i i i a
I N 2 B 5
l i a i a j
1 3 K S B

In abs.
ttl sa
Mxan MS B
Fut 3 in. MSB-<
3 f .
" J
2 m.
Msan H2BFI

ittsan wsa.n
PI. 3 m.
i t *
1 MS B*
wa x a n r uKsan
' J
2 m* m a n

t r
V " f
I t
niMsan f i3Msan
1 .
" MS XH ' M S B J * MS B 3
Fut. apoc.
I mp. m.
* J
PI. m.
1 MS B iMsan 1 MS B
f .
. 1 3 MS B
| V #
| 1
TOKSBn nsMia
j &r t
* w a
1ST Put. XIV. Vtrbt &. ( | 0, t i l . ; I 49
Puat. Hiphil. Hophal. riithpael.
ar s an Msan Kxann
n* s o
r w- s an

t ?
naxap' n
naxa nMsan

^ *#
nt t s ann
nttsa nr ctan r wxan naxann
- n*s a - pa s a n Yiakar i - paxann
i xa w" i a n mxar i i'*xar in

ont t sa
Dnt aan
Bnt t sar n
1PM3B I ndi a n
] p*xan jPKxar in
i 3 sa l i x s a n

niMsan i j axann
" - T
x a n
Msa M-san ttsan
* 5 *
Msa** t r xai MSB' xan-
m a n K-xan ttsan ttSBPFI

Msan tt-san

T \ {
i *i s an
> *sar i
nt xann
ttsati M*>sa MXBN MSBPTT
* "S
: s j
i n a i <mxa-
j v
I K X B P ; ;
5 *%
n wx a n
i s a n

i t r xan
t ~
m a n
1 K X B P P
D3MkaF) r oeoan nattsan nsKkapn
r v *
* T t t
* V F S .
* V " !
- i -
a xa n axann

w x a n
"ssar in
i ar son
V -
* v - , .
t t saa
* :
a- xaa * x a a Msana
260 187. Pm. XV. rrbt f l V ($ 182,183.)
Kal. NlphaL Pl el Po*L
P r a e t 3 m. rfjM nV3
3 a n S a nni i aa n n Va n r & i
JIT : : * ? * RS
2 m. r r a t v ? a a i r ^ a r v ^ a
2 1 j vVa n ^ a a r i ^ a n ^ a
t s
i . " r yt f a r y ^ a a v y ^ a v r j p a
PI. 3. ' iVa iVaa i Va Vi a
2 m. n n ^ a a n s a ' s B n ^ a Bi r Va
2 i i vVa' i n ^ M i n ^ a
I . i r V' a l a ^ a a l a ^ ' a i r V a
t * :* " ' " *.
i nf. abs. a Va r f t a a a'Va r f t a
cons t ni ba* r f r a n n'Va riVa
' !i
T u t 3 m. n V r aV>a? nVa
n Va
3 n Va n a Va n a Va n n Va n
2 m. a ^ a ' n a a n aVar i n ^ a n
2 *an 4 a n ^ a n "Van
i . a Va * n ^ a a Va aVast
V V V V V "
Pi . 3 m. ska* iVa-> i Va
* t
3 a a - t f a n n a ^ ' a n w V a n w V a n
* v s * . * * T v ~ : * :
a m. i Van i ^ a n aVan i Van
: * - i t
2 a a ^ a n a a ^ a n a a ^ a n a r f a m
* V T V * * V - J V {
l nba a n b a a a f e a aVaa
Fut. apoc- by
Imp. m. a b a a Va a nVa.
$ <gn ^a
PL m. <fca w r j nVa
n a ^ a ' a r f f a a a r f f a
P a r t a c t a i a a>aa a | a n a ^ a a
127. PAR. XV. Ferfcrib. ( 122,123.) 261
HiphiL Hophal. Hithpael. HithpaleL
n n Va n
: i
r r S a n
i b a n
Bn * Wn
j r i ^ a n
l a^an
r 6 a n n Va n n
n n S a n n n Va r i n
* ^ f J
i r a n ^ a n n
i v Va n n ^ a r i n
v ^ a n
i Va n Ha r i r i
a i r ma n Bi y>Sann
v H f i n i n ^ a r i n
w S a n i r ^ a n n
m n n a n
<r -J -
r m n n a n
* -i - j
n^nn' n
n r ^ n o n
o n ^ n F i i i n
V -I -
n Va n n b a n r f t a n n
rfsan riSan r f t a n n
m n n o n
I - !
n Va n
n f a r i
" San
w *
' t~
r u^an
r v
i b a n
n r S a n
n V v n Va / p
n Va n n Va n n
rfjan nV) _nn
$an %n n
r k a a n ^ a n *
tec i Van*
* - :
n a ^ a n w ^ a n n
,V J t v J
an i Va n n
w n r V a n n
^ t t V
nba a nVa na
n j i wr a j ?
n j n n o n
n i n n o n
v - i - i
n i n n s ' M
V *3 - S V
n n n o n
-J -
s i i n n o a
V "! -f
n Va n
w S a n
* V ? "
r &aa nban
r f o nn
i Wi n
n a f a n n
n Va n a
" l n n o n
i i n n a n
n i n n r i a
iR9 & \9H \
Put. XvlL Verbs
a t 187- ( U4J.C.) femul v ( m . 3.
Kal. Hiphll. Kal. Niphal.
Pr aet.
V f
Mi33 K-pn
nn- i -
nnTi n
: IT
* |
w a n

2 m. r v V
T 9
i r nl n

r f Nsn
2 r pT
i r ni n

n*i33 n x s n
1. Tin
-r ynin
-ntttM -n f en
PL 3. I T i Ti n
1KB3 IMBf l
2 in.
Bn m
Bnetf n
v r i i
}na3 jnsttan
l i n i n 13X33 i 3 i n
Inf . abs.
r iT Vf f l3
tt'f f lsn
const. n i T
r ni n
Fut. try* n*r n i 40B-
a r r yn r ni n

2 m. nTn nni n

2 i Tn

n i n
- aon
1. !TT* n-n
*r V
PI. 3 m.
3 n r TD nr nHn
2 m. i r n n i n
w e n IK-BPI
2 nr Tm r enin
f V
n wa n
I. HT3 n^u
i t opoc.
Imp. m. r n* r ni n


nin ^i s
PL DL I T Wi n
i r i s

n r V
f V J
r e^'in
-r V
Pf cr t act n r r
nni a Mf 3
" Ms t o
1 5 # XVHL Vtrbi PAR. XIX* ^ 253
- } IP ami tii. ( 124. S. e.) Verb ttii. ($ 184. 4.) \
Kal. Hiphit. Kal. HiphU. Hopbal. ||
Pr aet. ntjD n a n
MS t r a n

3 i n
3 f. n n w n n a n n l
nST371 n a a n
2 m.
(as ri)?)
n^t an

n a
n a n n n a a n
T \
2 f. n ^ a n r t N3
1. T ^ t a n T 3 n e o n
PL 3.
i 3
w a n i 3i n
2 m. o r r t s n
DPN3 o n a a n
If *1
2 jn-' Bn

1 . n r e n
133 l i a - o n
- 1
Inf . abs. n b s
n h a n
t t ' 3^' 13 a*nr t
Tut. nta*
n a * i a * an*
3 f . n e n n a n a i a n t r a n
2 m. n a n n a n Khan i r a n
2 f . lapj
1. n o * n a
PL 3 m. IB* IB*
IK' ia
W 3 i
n xa i "
3 n s ^ a n
t V
n r a n
T V *
n s a a n n s ^ a n
2 m. 1DP
i * a n w a n
2 n r a n
w a n
f V
* *
1. riD3 "S3

4, ,
Fut. apoc. o :
Imp. m. HD3

n a n
t r t s r a n

(asri i )
" a n
Ni i
w a n
PL m. *i an
I K' S
w a n

n r n r ?
t 4
1 1
Par t act nD3 n a a M3 t T3 B
pas IS. ""
Ver bs f inal Pattahh act
Fem. Segh.
Vwg nViap
Tseri act "=i
r ao-
Hholem act
nf t- ma'
9 gutt.
npr i r ip?;
5 gutt. act yaa nyaa
n ? f &
act <=P. nap
act nVh nVSandr r Vi
r w a

regular nVapa r tap.a
b gutt.
jaw nnaya nnay'a
99 303 naoa
b Dip; naipa
nbapa regular ^sp.a nbapa nVapja
^- oa ni na a nanaa
V V *
ft n^aa
* ? IT
POEL o f 9 9 aai'ea naal ea naal ea
*r *
Fem. Fem. Segh.
nVoj ?
r n i -
r f etand
n- i ba
f r r a y j
r egular
POEL of 99
r egular
^ j ? a n b a p a
n n a y a
v vy*v
Ti aa ni r i aa nanaa
' -r : T : IT V v *
n Va a n ^ a a
aai oa naal ea naal ea
r egular
& gutt.
i y
^ a p a n ^ a p a
f r f a s a
D-SB n o - p a
i - aya
ni a y a
r egular
Va p a n b a p a
r egular
Vapna r iVaj?na
127. PAR. XX. Participles. ( 125.) 2B5

Plur. masc. Plur. fem. Masc. Fem.
B^Bj? niVaj? Dec. VII. 6. Dec.X. XIII.
niVibj? in. c. x.
b W r toa* v. . xi. xiii.
r v n i r i n . c. x .
nipsj nipy't vi l x. xiii.
cyan r hyaa vil. X. xiii.
a^aj? nia^ i. x.
a^> nto ix. a. x.
o ^ i Va n ' n V a III. C. x .
n^Dj?3 n. xi. xiii.
B^aeo ntaco VIII. X.
B^pi nha'ipi III. . X.
b^bjjb ni^tsp_a vn.c. x. xiii.
B*aWaa rrtanaa vil. x. xiil
a^Vaa ni^aa ix. x.
caatea. ntaatea vii.6. x. xiii.
cVaf ja niVapa 11. xlxiii.
b^bjjb rrt^apa i. x. xiil
b^ttwb nhnnwa l x. xiil
tr aoa ntaoa vill. X.
ar a^a ma^a ill. x.
B^epjna n^a^na VII. e. x. xni.
256 127. PAR. XXI. Verbt with nffix-prokcmt. (6 126.)
Suffixes, Sing. 1. 2 mas. 2 fern. 3 mas. 3 fern.
K a L
$ *oVap riVcap "l-ap
Pr aetf " ' ' * i nVopj "
r ?
3 f- VriVR W t y V g t y
- ill - - **
m - - 4 $ ^
i . ?pp$Bj > sprfcop. v n ^ a p t r n b a p
pi. 3. qf tap "^Bf > i ni ^ap n ^ u p
2 m. "oin^ap i mr ^ap r nn^ap
i . ' J p ^ a p . ^paJ>op n n i ^ a p n i j ^ a p
Inf .
' top
3 nt with
PI. 3.
tf pBp? ^bap-
"^ap? w^opi n^ap-
3 nt with
PI. 3.
i \ ^ P
al ht f
o' f aj p; : ! j ^Bp. ' !

^ o p . 1 i nf t ap-
n^a pi
\=?&P, -
Pul > #Bp ,r jbap
^ a p ^Bj? nVap
H v A - f u t ^ a p ^ - q p - i j ^ B p : w V - o p ; n ^ a p -
127. PAR. XXI. Verbs with strfix-pronouns. ( 126.) 257
Phr. 1. 2 mas. 2 fern. 3 mas. 3 fern.
v i t o f l j
i:n?ap \
OTf cap.
r ^o p ,
. isTVap
ar nbap-
jSTlVap DVtJj>
. mnbap
pr f cpp
^ B p
o: ap;
l ^ E k y t
) ns^Dp
v t *:
ir iVap
; oyiVap?
- 5 %
i t f ap nabap
^ i >
o^ns p; o^ap
CM 1*7. PAIL XXI I . Vai, FFT wiA njfixa. ((, 186 A.)
Suffixes. Sing. 1. 2 mas. 3 mas. Plur. 3 mas.
Kal P r a e t
3 I
2 m.
PL 3.
h f . Ti t o? a n i n y H S i ? ! o n' o y
-S ' i ' I N ? ) * '*
F u t 3 m. " a t f r a t o y . J Sj j v I n t e y
lnT,\ 5 -
i . r t t ey* i n o ? o ' a y a
I v V v; v r ; v
PI. 3 m. 1310*1 s j i ' OR i n i o r D i ' o r
I M P M.
. . . - I

i n ? *
F UT 3 M.
3 m. with )
epenth. a $
a t e :
i n i s

i n h i


w x

Oi l '
- t
Hiph. Pr a e t " n r j s H m a n Ds n
" I ^ 3 "l
"3tBJ ?|TW
on"?) __
^r vf a? >
t j i f pt e: ?
oi i os s p' oy
i n? DC7
* t * *
i no? or t w
" * - f T
SrrtD* >
, -
k V
i ^ > DJTTDP
i r nvw > *
w t o )
r n r i n
n 1

i n i S ? o t t o ?
1 3 8 , 1 2 9 . NOUNS ; GENERAL CLASSIFICATION, ETC. 9 5 9
* 128. General remarks
1. Most nouns in Hebr ew ar e der ived f r om ver bs;
and in gener al have f or their ground-f orms the inf initive
mood or par ticiples. Ther e is a compar atively small
number of nouns which ar e pr imitive, but they conf orm in
their f lexion to the usual laws which r egulate those de-
r ived f r om ver bs.
2. Declension in Hebr ew nouns dif f er s much f r om de-
clension in Gr eek and Latin. The plural and dual num-
ber s ar e, indeed, distinguished by appr opr iate endings add-
ed to the gr ound-f or ms; but case, pr oper ly consider ed, is
not marked by any peculiar ity of inf lection in the noun it-
self . For the most par t, it is designated by pr epositions
and the construct state of the pr eceding noun ( 135).
The plural and dual endings, however , the suf f ixes, and
in shor t, whatever incr eases the original ground-f orm of
the noun and shif ts the place of its tone, occasion a var ie-
ty of changes in the vowel-points and in the f or ms of
liouns, which may not unaptly be called declensions.
} 129. Nouns ; general classification
t Nouns, like ver bs ( 69), ar e either primitive or deriv
eUtve, Those of the latter class ar e divided into verbals,
or those der ived f rom ver bs; and denominatives, or those
der ived f r om nouns. Thr ee classes of nouns may there*
f or e be r eckoned.
/ . Nouns primitive.
11. Nouns primitive ar e principally those which desig-
nate animals, plants, metals, numbers, member s of the hu-
man and animal body, and some of the gr eat objects of the
natural wor ld. But among the names of all these, ar e
some of ver bal der ivation.
t2. In r espect to the form of pr imitive nouns, it is not
distinguished f r om that of ver bals ( 62. 2). They ar e
tr eated, in their inf lections, in the same manner as if they
wer e derived. Only a knowledge of etymology, ther ef or e,
can enable the student to deter mine whether a noun is
pr imitive or der ivative; and in some cases, it may be doubt-
f ul to the best etymologist, whether a noun belongs to the
f ir st, second, or thir d class above specif ied.
II. Nouns derived from verbt.
f 3. This is altogether the mo6t numerous class of
nouns. Ver y many of them appear to be der ived either
f rom par ticiples, or f rom the inf initive mood. The f or m-
er most commonly denote the subject or object of action
or passion (nomen agentis vel patientisy, the latter denote
action or passion (nomen actioms vel passionis). The f ir st
class ar e concretes, being used to designate some being or
thing; the second ar e abstracts, denoting simply action or
Such is the general division of meaning in verbal noons, which re-
sults from their origin, or the manner in which they are derived. But
usage has introduced many exceptions to this general rule, so that the
meaning of the two classes of verbals in question is in some instances
confounded; participial nouns often taking the signification of nouns de-
rived from the infinitive; and vice versa.
4 The usual f orms of the inf initive and par ticiple ar e
ver y seldom r etained in the nouns der ived f r om them; but
f or the sake of var iety and distinction, f orms dif f ering f rom
the usual inf initive and par ticiple ar e employed as the
f or ms of nouns and adjectives, in or der that the two spe-
cies of words may be r eadily distinguished f rom each other .
ID respect to the derivation of verbal nouns, as coming from the in-
finitive and participle, which theory was adopted and exhibited in the
former edition of this grammar, see appendix D.
III. Nouns denominative.
1*5. By these ar e meant nouns der ived f r om other
nouns either primitive or ver bal
E. g. t n h a vine-dresser from the primitive a vineyard;
eastern from the verbal j) the east.
1*6. Denominatives ar e gener ally analogous to ver bals
as above descr ibed in their f orms, and also in r egar d to
the signif ications connected with those f orms.
The f ollowing ar e some of the modes of f orming them
f r om other nouns.
(a) By adding to ver bals the masculine and f eminine
terminations and in*- .
This is the usual mode of forming the following species of nouns;
viz. ordinals, as sir, sixth ; patronymics and national denomina-
tions, as a Moabite, from an Israelite from
&c. Several adjectives also are formed in this manner; as fem.
strange, from ^ 3 a stranger ; first, from &c.
NOTE. The addition of Yodh commonly occasions some change be-
sides that which results from shifting the place of the tone. E. g.
from three j *373^ from "p?3^ the right hand. To the fem-
inine n~ and plurals D"
_ and ni it is sometimes added without a
change, and sometimes with one; as Vjaya a Naamathite;
D^ina, a man of Bahurim ; 1111125, VihSP a man of Ana-
thoth ; ^rnDfif an Ephrathite, from Composite patronymics are
commonly divided, and the article inserted before the second noun; as
Benjamiie, from ; or the first noun is dropped, a*
a Benjamite.
2 6 3
(6) By adding the termination , which is usually
of the f eminine gender .
E. g. princeps, n'W&^principium. Words of this form are
sometimes defectively written, as nirat for FPipX.
(c) Rar ely by adding the terminations f t-., 5T
E. g. a lion from fire-offering from a
deceiver from ; ^tia a treasury from t
* 130. Nouns composite and proper.
1. Composite nouns ace ver y r ar ely f ound in Hebr ew,
except in proper names. A f ew however occur, which
ar e made up of two nouns, or of a noun and a par ticle.
E. g. rnlbVtt *= nV3 ^2fc shade qf death ; worthless from
not and profit.
2. Pr oper names in their f ormation f ollow the gener al
analogy of ver bals as above given. Veiy many of them
are composite, and consist usually of two nouns, or of a
noun and a ^rerb.
E. g. 32} Benjamin, or o of my right hand ; tTp^lrF Jehoiaktm,
or Jehovah will exalt.
NOTE. TO the first word in composite proper names a Yodh is
usually added, as Gabriel or man of God, from and bfij; *
sometimes a Van, as Samuel or name qf God, from Ott and Vtt.
The name of God, either bfij or rrin^, forms the beginning or the
termination of a great multitude of Hebrew proper names.
131. Nouns ; gender '
tThe Hebr ew has only two gender s, viz. the mascu-
line and f eminine. These ar e distinguished sometimes by
the f orm, and sometimes by the signif ication of wor ds.
1 3 1 , NOUNS; GENDER* 263
I. Gender distinguished by form.
1*1. In gener al, nouns ar e masculine which end in one
of the original radical letter s of the wor d.
t2. The feminine is distinguished by adding to the
masculine the f ollowing terminations.
(a) H- ; as ^ 0 a king, f em. a queen.
(b) H simply, in wor ds ending with a vowel or quies-
cent letter . This f or m is unf r equent
E. g. a tart, fem. nat an; ' w , fem. ; toVe, fem. ntb>
Q &c.
(cj I V
o r
f t-* i
words ending with a moveable con-
sonant The latter f orm occurs af ter guttur als.
E. g. "nDjs, fem. rntSpj; yniD, fem. nsni n &c.
NOTE. The endings in b and c are in theory the same, because the
vowels in the latter are furtive, and are inserted merely to facilitate
the pronunciation of two successive consonants. ( 59. 2. a.)
3. The following are uncommon feminine terminations.
() K- ; as 3$, by an Aramaeism for natp.
() n . ; as poetic for FHJ3t.
(c) ri-s with the proper vowel Pattahh, and with the tone on the
Ultimate ; as 8 ^ 3 emerald.
II. Gender distinguished by signification.
t4. Nouns which designate objects like the f ollowing,
ar e masculine, though they have a f eminine termination.
() Names of men; as Judah.
() Offices of men; as a governor.
(c) Nations; as ft'Hi'P the nation of Judah.
(d) Rivers; as SfS&ftt Jhnana.
t5. Nouns which designate objects like the f ollowing,
$xe feminine, though they have a masculine termination.
() Names of women; as Vlj'n Rachel.
() Office or relations of women; as mother.
(c) Countries; as Assyria.
{d) Towns; as "3*2Tyre.
2 0 4
1 3 1 . NOUNS; GENDER.
() Female beasts; as ^nfit a*he-at.
( f ) Members of the body by nature double ; as the ear.
NOTE 1. The same word may be masculine in one meaning, and
feminine in another; as Judah or the Jema, masculine; but
VJ*n? the country of Judea, feminine.
NOTE 2. There are some nouns which are feminine, although des-
titute of any distinctive sign of this gender, either in form or significa-
tion ; as 1 fits a well; a talent &c. These can be learned only
from practice.
III. Nouns qf common gender.
t6. A consider able number of nouns are of common
gender . Such ar e gener ally the names of beasts, birds,
metals &c.
These nouns are mostly masculine as to farm. Some of them are
more commonly employed as masculine nouns;others more frequent-
ly as feminine. These can be learned only from practice.
NOTE. What is of the neuter gender in the western languages, is
generally designated in Hebrew by the feminine; as daugh-
ter qf Tyre, L e. city of Tyre.
7. Nouns of the dual number ar e univer sally of com-
mon gender .
IV. Gender qf the pUtral.
t8. In the plural, the appearance of nouns as to gen-
der is in many cases dubious. A considerable number of
masculine nouns f orm their plural as if they wer e f emi-
nine ; while many f eminine nouns have plurals of the mas*
culine f orm. ( 133. 4 )
E. g. masc. 3K a father, plural ntefit. Fem. wheat, plural
6nan kc.
NOTE. The gender of the plural, let the form be as it may, is with
few exceptions the same as that of the singular. Some words exhibit
both the masculine and feminine forms of the plural; but the gender
of both forms is the same, viz. it is the same as that of the singular.
132* Nouns ; formation of feminine nouns
The addition of the feminine terminations ( 131.2) to the masculine
forms, usually occasions some change in the vowels of the masculine,
because these terminations affect the tone-syllable of the ground-form.
/. Changes occasioned by the feminine ending 51-.
1. The masculine suf f er s the same changes when it r e-
ceives the f eminine ending PI_, as when it takes a light
suf f ix beginning with a vowel ( 136. 4. a.); because in
both cases the tone is moved one place f orward. These
changes ar e as f ollows.
() Generally the penultimate vowel of the ground-
f or m, if it be mutable, is dr opped; as f em.
() Sometimes the ultimate vowel, if it be mutable, is
dr opped, especially in nouns and par ticiples of Dec. VII;
as njhlD, f em. f ttpto. ( 56. 3.)
(c) In nouns of Dec. VIII, the ultimate long vowel is
usually exchanged f or a shor t one; as DH, f em. S123H;
p a f em. npjl &c. ( 54. 5.)
2. In nouns of Dec. VI, the f eminine ending H is ap-
pended to the original f orm of the masculine, and not to
the usual Segholate f or m. ( 143.)
E. g. Masc. original form fem. naVtt; fem,
fem. &c. In this case also the .original vow-
el of the ground-form is usually shortened.
NOTE. A few nouns of Dec. V form their feminine as if they be-
longed to Dec. VI; as fem. as if from a form
fem. fem. nsajT&c.
3* In nouns of Dec. IX, the f eminine termination Pl_ is
1% *
substituted f or the masculine ending f i-; as HEP, f em. f t&V
NOTE. In a few nouns of Dec. Ill, Hholem impure is exchanged in
the feminine for Shureq; as plfljo, fem. fem.
&c. (6 62. 4.)
4. The f ollowing table exhibits the usual f or mation of
f eminines in SI
Hue. Fem. Muc. Fan.

ptr i
Tinnn nahnnn
r f ci*
n r s
i>iTS h^ns-
n- i >
nr nf c
nj?ina IjJ.'lB nijsia
nai s?
f |
n n

" "
v .

1?. H3S
- T -
VI. $ B

- V
' r waa U
r m
IBK nna*
/S m o
n!> IX.
* : t
n nn
' ! *
II. Changes occasioned 6y the feminine endings n, r i i , n
5. The f eminine ending f t appended to wor ds ending
with a vowel or quiescent letter , pr oduces no change in
the vowels of the gr ound-f or m.
E. g. man, fern. nt an; fem. &c.
The above masculine forms may perhaps be considered as having
originally terminated in a moveable and
, as fittaft, ; in which
case the original form of the Segholate feminines would be ngs&n and
Sec below.
6. The f eminine endings n__ and (like !l_) usually
cause the penultimate r owel of the ground-f orm to f all
away, if it be mutable, although they do not shif t the
place of the tone. The f ollowing changes take place al-
so in the final vowel
(a) With n -
f inal Qamets and Tser i, if mutable, ar e
commonly changed into Seghol, through the inf luence of
the f ur tive vowel ( 60. 3). Final Tser i, however , not
unf requently remains.
E. g. 109, fem. n ^ 9 ; bqip, fem. ft&ip; n, fern, .
(6) With r i-. af ter a guttural, the change is into Pat*
tahh. ( 60. 3 note.)
E. g. fem. ?%, fem. n ? i .
(c) If the f inal vowel of the ground-f orm be impure,
it is commonly exchanged f or the corresponding pure and
mutable vowel.
E. g. fem. ; * ^ 4 , fem. n ^ l ; fem.
Segholate rfigna. In the impure i remains.
NOTE. In such cases as fem. ; imsnns, Segholate he.
the immutable vowels \ and } are exchanged for others which are pure
and mutable, in order to bring the words within the appropriate forms
of feminine Segholates, which usually require the final vowel of the
ground-form to be mutable. See on this subject 62. 4,5, and 117.3.
7. The Segholate f orm of the f eminine appears most
f requently in the construct state; while the ending H is
more common in the absolute state.
In feminine infinitives and participles, the endings n ^ and r u are
altogether the most frequent.
NOTE 1. The Segholate forms of the feminine are, for the most
part, attached only to masculines of the second, fifth, and seventh de-
clensions. A very few are fonned from nouns of the first, third, fourth,
and eighth; bat none iroin the sixth and ninth, because their forms are
such, that the terminations and n _ cannot be attached to them.
NOTE 2. Those Seghoiates which come from Dec. VHI are formed
by dropping the reduplication of the final vowel; as fem.
nxjixnit, but plural ; so also ttW fix, Segholate rrvy). So
patronymics, as/Dlftta a Moabite, fem. Segholate rTOftto. See no. 6
NOTE 3. Some feminine Seghoiates ending in a quiescent letter,
imitate the Syiiac form of Seghoiates (Dec. VI), and throw the vowel
upon the final syllable; as nitto instead of cto instead of
&c. ( 60. 4.)
The reverse of this is the Arabic form of the Segholate, which
drops the furtive vowel. Some Hebrew feminine participles imitate
this; as rH^
, &c. unless these may rather be referred to the
2 peis. sing. fem. praeter of a Poel form of these verbs. ( 100 a.)
183. Nouns ; formation of the plural
f The Hebr ew, like the Gr eek, has thr ee numbers, viz.
the singular, dual, and plural The dual, however , is much
less f r equent than in Gr eek.
The plurals of masculine and f eminine nouns ar e usually*
but not always, distinguished by appr opr iate f orms. For
the vowel-changes which occur in the f ormation of the
plural, see 136. 4. a.
I. Plural masculine.
t l . The plural of masculine nouns is usually f or med by
annexing to the singular the f ollowing terminations.
(a) f c\_; as MD, plur. B W.
(b) D simply, in some wor ds ending in 'L.; as ^53,
plur. E'HSJJ: but sometimes D'
_.; as plur. D^. -
NOTE. . The plural ending is sometimes written defectively, as
63^n for ($
- 2.)
2. In poetry, and in the later Hebrew, the plural is occasionally
formed with the following terminations; viz. (a) "p-; as plur.
Prov. 31:3 &c. (6) ; as plur. Jer.22:14; and per-
baps (e) ; as ft, plur. n q Ps. 46: 9 for D
iq. The two first forms,
*iz. in a and b
are Aramaean.
II. Pluralfemmint,
1*3. The plural of f eminine nouns is f or med in the f ol-
lowing manner.
(a) By changing the terminations t"U, , H- of the
f eminine singular into r f i.
E. g. riyn, plur. rri-tfn; n ^ \ , plur. ; ngfcq, plur^
nt oi t j .
NOTE. The n of the feminine ending singular is, In a few cases,
retained in the plural, as if it were a radical; as masc. fem. r \ \ \ ,
fem. plur. rrinir'i.
(b) By annexing r h to those f eminines which, in the
singular, have a masculine f or m ( 131. 5 note 2); as
-) 3, piur. ninaa.
(c) By changing r T- into f ih*-, and f ll into
as r v w , piur. nT- p*; r v o V a , plur. r r t *$Va.
NOTE 1. The plurals in the case c, appear to be derived from
obsolete forms of the singular in iT*-. and . Nouns of these classes
sometimes also form their plural after the usual manner; as n ^ n ,
plur. DTj':n and n i n n n ; n wt, plur. o^maT.
NOTE 2. The plural ending of the feminine form also, is sometimes
written defectively; as rfrp for ni ^p &c.
III. Peculiar forms qfthe plural
t4. A ver y consider able number of masculine nouns f orm
their {Jural in n'l; while vice versa, many f eminine nouns
f orm their s in D\ - ; but in either case the gender of the
plural is the same-as that of the singular. ( 131. 8.)
E. g. 3* father, plur. ,/bffor* ; fem. plur. fem.
Nouns of this description can be distinguished only by practice. The
present dubious appearance of these words may probably have been
occasioned by the fact, that in the early stage of the Hebrew many
words were used both in the masculine and feminine sense, without any
variation qf form; like ^93 in the Pentateuch, which is employed to
express both puer and pueUa, as Gen. 37:2 &c. Gen. 24:14, 16 &c. in
which latter cases the Qeri gives See Gesenius' Lehigeb. 124.4.
1*5. Some nouns, especially those of common gender ,
exhibit two plurals as to f orm, viz. D"
-- and n't; but the
gender of both is the same as that of the singular. ( 131.
8 note.)
E. g. 513 a year, pkir. CSS? and rriStt? &c.
t6. Some nouns are f ound only with a plural f orm, al-
though their meaning is of ten the same as if they wer e in
the singular.
E. g. Q':o the facej Cft* days, also a year, or time generally.
f 7. Many nouns have a collective or plural sense, though
their f orm is that of the singular number.
E. g. f\tefowl; P|0 children ; flock* &c.
In Arabic very many nouns are collectives, or nouns of multitude,
with the form of the singular. They commonly belong to the phralis
8. In a f ew words, the plural ending D
*-. is superadd-
ed to the plural ending P
E. g. high-place, plur. rnJDB ancl dTpaa, construct .
The Arabic has also a phralis pluralism, or plural formed from a
plural in. a similar manner.
134. Nouns ; formation of the dual.
f 1. The dual is usually f or med by adding the termina-
tion to the f or ms of the singular in the f ollowing man-
ner .
() To masculines without change ; as DV*, dual -
() To f eminines in af ter changing the f inal H into
n (40. 2> as nST, dual
} 13 4 . NOUNS ; FORMATION o f THE DUAL. 2 7 1
NOTE 1. In the case of Segholate noons of Dec. VI, the dual
ending is appended to the original form of the singular; as orig-
inal form dual Compare 132. 2.
NOTE 2. The following are unusual and probably antiquated forms
of the dual; viz. (a) ^ and *}_ ; as and a proper name
Gen. 37:17. 2 K. 6: 13; (6) - ; as Ezek. 13:18 by apocope for
; (c) 63-; as SnS'v Ezek. 46:19 Kethibh, by contraction for
00 -s >
1 Chr. 6:68 a proper name, which is
also written tbs^-and C3 *
Most of these forms occur only in proper names; and the proof that
they are actually duals rests partly on the variety of orthography,
(which is sometimes plainly dual, as 633*, 633*?, t3*V? above), and
partly on comparison with duals of the kindred languages.
NOTE 3. The vowel changes which occur in the formation of the
dual, are the same is in the plural; for which see 136.4. a.
t2. The dual in Hebr ew is used principally to designate
uch objects as ar e double either by nature or by custom.
E. g. 63? ^ ^ hands; 63*J?*3 a pair of shoes &c.
NOTE. The names of members of the human body, which by na-
ture are double, have also a plural as well as dual form; but the dual
is generally taken in a literal, and the plural in a Jigurative sense ; as
hands, rttas handles,
| 3. In a f ew instances, the dual f orm stands instead of
the plural f or a gr eater number than two.
E. g. 63*^359 272? six wings ; ID? three teeth.
It hardly needs to be remarked, that the dual is of course essen-
tially plural, requiring a plural verb, a4jective &c. In some cases, it
is difficult to show the reason of the dual form; as 63^H2Z mid-day &c.
Perhaps it is intensive.
NOTE. The words 63?L$ heavens and waters, though appar-
ently dual, are really plural. They are formed most probably like
Chaldee plurals from singulars in N. ; as Chaldee #, plur.
So probably in Hebrew, sing. plur. 63?fel; sing. N72, plwr.
They are declined like duals of Dec. II; see 161.
t4. The dual is of common gender and is f ound only
among nouns, and not among adjectives nor par ticiples.
5. The dual ending is sometimes annexed to the plural.
E.g. rrijain walls, dual EPnfc'n two walls fee. Compare 6 133. 8.
135* Nouns ; construct and suffix states.
J. Construct state.
t l . The Hebr ew has no cases, iir thef ense in which
we speak of cases in Latin and Gr eek. But when two
nouns come together , the second of which is to be trans-
lated as a genitive, this r elation is indicated, contrary to
the usual custom of other languages, by some change in
the first noun (if it be susceptible of change) instead of the
second. The f ir st noun sp situated, is said to be in regi-
men, or in the construct state ; while any noun not thus placed
bef or e a genitive is said to be in the absolute state.
Two noons in such a relation are supposed to be ottered nearly as
If they were one word; for which reason the first noon is usually con-
tracted in the utterance (if it be capable of contraction), so that the
stress of voice may be transferred to the second. ( 54. 2. c.)
t2. The f ollowing chaf es ar e pr oduced by the con-
str uct state in the consonants of the ground-f orm or abso-
lute state. For the vouw^-changes, see 136
() In all the classes of masculine nouns singular, the
construct is like the absolute f or m as to its consonants.
() Feminines singular in H change this ending into
( 40. 2); as h k t , const n t . Other f eminines
singular suf f er no change of their consonants.
(c) The plural ending CL. and the dual D
)- become
as 0*010, const - 0n0; D"JT, const .
(d) Plur als in HI suf f er no change of their consonants
in the constr uct state.
2 7 3
For the manner of annexing paragogic 'letters to the absolute and
construct state of nouns, see 60.
II. Suffix state.
, t3. The suffix state is that f or m of nouns to which
ar e appended or suf f ixed f r agments of pronouns, equivalent
in signif ication to our pronominal adjectives in English.
E. g. D4D a hone, with suffix 1D3D his hone itc. So is equiva-
lent to the Latin vox ejus.
Pronouns, or fragments of pronouns, thus suffixed, may be consid-
ered as equivalent, in general, to nouns in the genitive case, andafrput-
ting the noun to which they are suffixed into a kind of regimen, or
construct state (l supra). Frequently the suffix-state requires the
same vowel-changes as the construct state, but not always; as may
be seen by consulting the paradigms of nouns, where both states are
exhibited. Of course it is proper to treat of these states separately,
and to employ different names to designate them.
4* Most of these suf f ixes, like those of ver bs ( 126.
2), cause the tone of the wor d to which they ar e append-
ed to be moved f or war d, and of cour se produce a change
in the vowel-points. For such changes, see 136 and the
notes on the sever al paradigms.
5. Noun-suf f ixes, like those of ver bs ( 126. 6), have
gener ally thr ee dif f er ent f or ms, adapted to the ending or
number of the word to which they ar e appended.
() The most simple form of the suffixes is that in which they be-
gin with a consonant, and are appended to nouns sistgular ending with
a vowel.
() *To the simple form of some of the suffixes, is prefixed a union-
vowel ( 126. 6 note), in which shape they are appended to nouns *-
gular ending with a consonant.
(c) The third form of the suffixes is peculiar to nouns plural
Here all the suffixes take a union-vowel, and all of them, except that
of the first person singular, insert a Yodh between the union-vowel and-
the suffix.
2 7 4 $ 1 3 5 . NOUNS I SUFFIX STATE.
6. The f ollowing table exhibits the suf f ixes as append-
ed to the various f orms of nouns; the f ir st column con-
taining those which ar e attached to nouns singular ending
with a vowel;the second, those which ar e attached to
nouns singular ending with a consonant;and the thir d,
exhibiting the suf f ixes as they ar e attached to nouns plural.
Sever al unusual f orms of suf f ixes ar e subjoined.
Sing. Simple form. With un. vowel fee. Suffi. to nouns plural.
1. my \
2 m. thy pause
2f. % ^
I t .
1?-- ^
3 m. his 1 i n l
"I n m l
v _ i _ poetin
3 t w n l

n_ n l
t V
n C
P1.1. our
v l
2m.your DD a r -
2f. your
3m. their OH poet, o n v poet, hai l
3f. their -jri
i-.;- n v .
(a) Unusual suffixes to nouns singular.
Singular 2 masc. Ps. 139: 5; J"D- Ps. 10: 14. 2 fem. ?p-
Ezek. 6:12; Ezek. 23: 28. 3 fem. H- without Mappiq Num. 15;
28 j Ezek. 36: 5 for ri- .
r T
Plural % person wL Ruth 3: 2. Job 22 : 20. 2 fem. Ezek.
23: 48. 3 masc. W3 J 2 Sam. 23: 6. 3 fem. 1 K. 7: 37.
-A* : *
(b) Unusual suffixes to nouns plural
Singular 2 masc. 5"P- Nah. 2: 14. 3 masc. Vrf Ps. 116: 12 Chal*-
dak. 3 fem. Ezek. 41: 15 for .
Plural 2 fem. Ezek. 13: 20. 3 masc. Slttrp- Ezek. 40:16.
3 fem. rt3n% Ezek. 1: 11.
1 3 5 . NOUNS ; SUFFIX STATE* 2 7 5
7. Notes on the table of suffixes, (a) When the suffix \ - of the 1
pers. sing, is appended to a noun singular ending with Yodh, one Yodh
is dropped; as with suffix "pa Zeph. 2: 9 instead of . This
suffix draws down the tone upon itself, except in cases where the next
word is either a monosyllable, or is MUel; as nj* Gen. 12: 13;
nng 'inbs Josh. 14: 11 &c. ( 35. 6.)
(6) The Yodh which is inserted in the suffixes of nouns plural (no.
5. c) is sometimes omitted; as Josh. 1: 8 he. for thy
ways / Job 42: 10 &c. for his friends ; Gen. 10: 6
for their nations ; frtsbfi Gen. 4: 4 for the fat qf them.
The form 1- for IV is quite common, both having the same sound.
( 23. 6. A)*
(c) The forms iftl. and of the 3 masc. and fem. are generally
attached to nouns of Dec. IX, and are more seldom found with other
nouns. The forms n , 173% are peculiar to poetry.
(<2) As a union-vowel, Tseri predominates; and as in verbal suffix-
es ( 126. 9. d), so here 0^, 73, and also D!"T ffj, do not take a
union-vowel, except with nouns plural. The suffix ^ likewise takes no
union-vowel except in pause, and with nouns plural.
(e) Wherever there is a union-vowel, it uniformly takes the tone,
except in the grave suffixes ( 126. 9. h). These, among the noun
suffixes, are , D?T|, , which always have the tone, whether
preceded by a union-vowel or not. See 136. 4. 6, note 3.
The suffix ^ without a union-vowel takes the tone only when ap*
pended to words ending in a consonant; as TpSn. ( 34. 2. *.)
( f ) The same form of suffixes is common to plural nouns of both
the masculine and feminine gender or form. But in respect to plurals
in n% not only the epenthetic Yodh of the suffix (no. 5. c) is sometimes
omitted (supra 6), but the suffix itself is exchanged for that of nounft
singular. Thus we have tn'rg my testimonies Ps. 132: 12 for "'IVT*;
thy stripes Deut. 28:59 for Tpnbtt; thy sisters Ezek. 16:
52 for ; Dntatt their fathers Ex. 4: 5 &c. &c.
(g) On the contrary, the suffixes to the feminine singular some-
times assume the epenthetic Yodh (no. 5. c), or rather the feminine
singular takes the suffixes of nouns plural. Thus we have
thy praise Ps. 9: 15 for &c. So the infinitives *phi3a thy build-
ing Ezek. 16: 31 and Ezek. 6: 8; see 126 a. 4.'
NOTE. The anomalies in &,/, g, are probably the result of error in
276 135 HOUHS; s u r n x STATE, ETC.
8. Feminines m in or der to r eceive suf f ixes, change
the f inal H into f t. ( 40.2. Comp. 126. 12.)
9. Nouns dual take the 6uf f ixe& of nouns plur al
10. The plural and dual absolute in or der to r eceive
suf f ixes, dr op their appr opr iate endings and take the suf -
f ixes In their place.
E. g. naf, plural with suffix spni*? &c. SJ5, dual
with suffix &c. ( 137. 3.)
11. PAR. 1 exhibits nouns as connected with all the various suf-
fixes which are tmtally employed. The object of the paradigm is
merely to show the manner in which the suffixes are attached to mas-
culine and feminine nouns, without regard to the vowel-changes which
usually occur. For this reason, nouns with Immutable vowels (except-
ing lafit) have been selected for the paradigm.
12. No. I exhibits the usual suffixes in connection with a masculine
noun ending with a consonant A feminine noun with a similar termina-
tion would receive suffixes in the same way.
13. No. II exhibits the manner in which suffixes are attached to
nouns ending with a vowel or quiescent letter. The noun att m its aV
solute state ends, indeed, in a consonant, but it is in this respect irreg-
ular. The construct state and all its other forms have Yodh, as if from
a form "AM ending with a quiescent The suffixes are of course of
the simple form, without a union-vowel. For the form with the
suffix of the first person, see above in no. 7. a. For the forms
fee. see 136.4. b.
The plural of this noun is nfctt, which takes suffixes like the
plural of r n in; or, rather, like the plural of Dec. XL
14. No. Ill exhibits the suffixes In connection with a feminine noun.
The suffixes of the 3 pers. fem. singular and of the 2 and 3 pers. fem.
plural are omitted in the paradigm for want of room; but the forms of
the noun in these cases are precisely the same as those with masculine
aiffixes of the same persons.
For feminines in and with suffixes &c. see 160 and Dec.
XIII in the paradigm.
136* Nouns ; vowel-changes in declension*
1. It has already been remarked ( 128.2) that, speaking after the
analogy of the western languages, Hebrew nouns are not declined.
But Inasmuch as the construct state, the suffixes, the plural, and also
the dual, generally occasioA changes In the mutable Towels of the
ground-form, the exhibition of these changes may not improperly be
termed declension.
t2. The changes of the vowels, almost without excep-
tion, r espect the ultimate and penult syllable. ( 53. 2.)
Of the consonants of nouns, only the final one is ever affected by
declension, and this not generally. See 135. 2, 8, 10.
3. The theor y of the vowel-changes in declension is, of
cour se, essentially connected with the shif ting of the tone-
syllable ; and all the changes ar e in accordance with the
laws developed in 5358.
t4. The f ollowing recapitulation and statement exhibits
three classes of changes, which ar e dependent on the r e-
moval of the tone and on the nature of the additions made
to nouns. It includes per haps all the general r ules which
can be given.
(a) When the tone is moved f orward one place by an
accession beginning with a vowel, and f orming a syllable, or
two syllables with the tone on the penult; the penult vow-
el of the ground-f orm, if mutable, gener ally f alls away.
Here belong the following species of additions, viz.
(1) The plural and dual endings D\., D^, rrt; as na*?, &c.
(2) The following light suffixes of nouns singular, viz. ?j-,
n_, wl, D_, 1-; as W, wS*?, d W &c.
' f' t ' t f' t j" r t t ;
(3) The light suffixes of nouns plural, viz. %, V,
; as w , r - m, nrnm &c.
- I TT
TT s' ** |
NOTE 1. In a few cases, especially in nouns of the seventh declen-
sion, the ultimate vowel is dropped; as &c.
2 7 8
NOTE 2. Noons of the sixth declension take the doal ending, the
soffixes &c. upon the original ground-form of the word; as *^52,
&c. The plural takes a different form. See 143.
(6) When the tone is moved f orward one place by an
accession beginning with a consonant and f orming a sylla-
ble, or when the construct state is employed ( 135. 1),
not only does the penult vowel if it be mutable f all away,
but gener ally also the ultimate vowel is shor tened.
This role inclodes the following additions and forms.
(1) The grave suffixes of nouns singular, viz. D}, ]3, Drj, as
m *
(2) The suffix which takes the tone when appended to nouns
ending in a consonant. This is constructed variously in respect to the
final syllable, sometimes shortening the ultimate vowel and some-
times not; as o, Sf2? j ( 64. 2. a, note 2. Compare
126. 9. A.)
(3) The constroct state of nouns singular; as O* word, trn
word of God, where the tone is thrown forward upon the second word.
See particularly 54. 2. c.
NOTE 1. In the constroct state of the sixth and seventh declensions,
the final vowel usually remains unchanged; but b the latter it is
sometimes shortened. In Dec. IX, final Seghol is changed to Tseri
( 55. 5. b.)
NOTE 2. From the above statement it appears that the suffix-state
may have two forms, according as the suffix is light or grave. These
are called the light suffix-state, and the grave suffix-state.
NOTE 3. It will be seen that the grave suffixes D^, of nouns
singular, never move the tone-syllable in nouns more than one
place, while in verbs they often move it two places. The reason of
this lies in the original position of the tone, which in verbs is often on
the penult; and therefore, in order to rest on the grave suffix, must
move forward two places; as ^nbbf?, with soff. D^nbt3; while in
nouns, the tone is on the final syllable, and therefore these suffixes can
move it but one place; as . In nouns of the sixth and
thirteenth declensions, where the tone appears to be on the penult, the
final vowels being merely furtive disappear in declension, and leave
the suffixes to constitute the syllable next following the real tone-eyl-
lable, as in other nouns.
The grave suffixes of nouns plural, being themselves composed of
two syllables, of course move the tone forward two places.
(c) Wh e n t he tone is moved f or war d two places, bot h
t he ultimate and penult vowels of t he ground-form, if mu-
table, generally fall away.
This rule includes the following additions and forms.
(1) The grave suffixes of nouns plural, viz. ED\-,
i t - ; ^ w , t j t ' s h
(2) The construct state of nouns plural; as 151, D y n .
For the mode in which the vowels that fall away are supplied,
see 59.
t 5. Femi ni ne nouns suffer much less change by declen-
sion t han masculines; because, by t he formation of t he fem-
inine, most of t he changes f r om t he ground-form have al-
r eady t aken place ( 132). A f ew ot her changes ar e
her e noted.
() Feminines, which have a masculine form, are of course declin-
ed like masculines.
() Feminines in !"L_, after changing the ii into n( 135. 8), either
retain the final Qamets, or shorten it into Pattahh according as the n is
or is not joined to the suffix ( 126. IV note 2). The construct uni-
formly has final Pattahh.
(c) Feminine Segholates in n_ or n_ follow the analogy of Dec.
VI. For a particular account of their vowel-changes, see 150 and
Dec. XIII in the paradigm.
(ti) Plurals in ni follow the general rules in no. 4 above, as to
their mutable vowels. The final Hholem, being impure, is of course
never dropped.
t 6. Th e following general rules for t he suffixes of t he
plural ar e deri ved f r om t he foregoing principles.
( a ) In plurals of t he masculine form, light suffixes ar e
Di qi t i zed by Google
attached to the absolute state,-grave suf f ixes to the con-
struct state.
(b) In plurals of the f eminine f or m, all the suf f ixes ar e
attached to the construct state.
137. Nouns ; arrangement of the declensions.
1. The general principles of declension in Hebrew nouns have been
developed in (be preceding section. But such is the great variety of
changes which occur in the course of flexion, arising from the nature
of the vowels In the ground-forms considered as immutable, mutable,
furtive fee. that it has been found most convenient to arrange the nouns
into thirteen distinct classes or declensions; of which the first nine com-
prehend nouns of the masculine form, while the your last include nouns
of the feminine form. These declensions are exhibited in 154 PAR. II;
and the intermediate sections are designed to aford a particular ac-
count of eaoh. A paradigm of nouns dual (III) is also subjoined.
Jote. It must not be supposed that all the nouns in the Hebrew
Bible can be definitely assigned to some one of these declensions.
Very many nouns occur only in one or two forms, and may therefore
not exhibit the characteristic marks df any declension. In such cases
all the actual forms are commonly noted in the lexicons.
2. The object of the paradigms is to exhibit nouns, both singular
and plural, in all their four states; viz. the absolute, construct, light
suffix-state, and grave suffix-s&te. These are arranged across the
pages, in the manner best adapted to assist the memory of the learner.
All suffixes, of whatever kind, are attached to nouns in the same way as
those Of a similar nature exhibited t the paradigms.
3. In the notes on the several declensions, contained in the follow-
ing sections, a particular account is given of the vowel-changes in each
declension. These, of course, are merely the applications of the prin-
ciples stated in 6 136.
138* Nouns ; first declension
t l . The f ir st declension of nouns compr ehends all,
whether monosyllabic or polysyllabic, whose vowels are all
immutable,, whatever those vowels may be.
E. g. v*, bj?, ans, yvyt, n &c.
The single circumstance that the vowels are immutable, marks this
declension; not the kind of vowels, nor the number of syllables.
2. In many cases it is easy to decide whether the vowels are im-
mutable, in others not. Thus in Vip, ttnab Sic. the vowels are obvi-
ously immutable; but the vowels in ttj^D &c. can be known to
be immutable only from a lexicon or from a knowledge of etymology.
NOTE 1. All the vowels of the ground-form being immutable, all
the additions, as suffixes &c. are in general attached to the ground-
form without change.
NOTE 2. A very few nouns whose vowels are generally immutable,
sometimes suffer a change; as Hi'}, const an Ezek. 26: 10; J**?,
const 111 Ps. 68:6; const Ex. 28:11. Is. 44:12,13; "IKJX,
const Jer. 28: 10, 11, 12, 14. Such words may be said to be-
long, by usage of the punctaton, both to the first and second declen-
NOTE 3. A few nouns whose vowels are immutable in the singu-
lar, appear in the plural as if their vowels were mutable. Thus
has the plural ; but it is more probably derived from an obso-
lete Segholate form with a pure vowel ($ 132. 6. c). So the
plural construct form which is usually assigned to the ground-
form probably comes from a form
NOTE 4. Nouns of the form c in the paradigm, sometimes exchange
the impure Hholem for Shureq, as being rather shorter. ( 52. 4. a.
Compare 118. II. a.)
NOTE 5. In the case d the final guttural, being thrown into the
same syllable with the suffix ( 36 rule 6), loses of course its furtive
Pattahh, and takes the vowel of the suffix if there be one, or other-
wise a composite Sheva. ( 46. 2.)
{139. Nouns ; second declension.
1*1. The second declension includes nouns with final
Qamets or Pattahh pure and mutable, whether monosylla-
bles, or polysyllables with their pr eceding r owels immu-
Only a few nouns with final Pattahh are declined after the mod*
el of this declension. See note 2 below.
2. In the construct state singular, bef or e the gr ave suf -
f ixes, and sometimes bef or e tj, f inal Qamets goes into Pat-
tahh ( 136. 4. by In the plural, the f inal vowel f alls
away in the construct state and bef or e the gr ave suf f ixes.
( 136. 4. c.)
The penult vowel, being immutable, is of course not affected by
the rules in 136. 4.
3. In many nouns of this declension, especially in those derived
from irregular verbs, the final vowel is of doubtful appearance; and
the mutability of it can be determined only by the lexicon or etymol-
ogy. In monosyllables, the final Qamets and Pattahh appear like the
similar forms in Dec. VIII; and it is only by the form of the suffix
state, by the plural, or by etymology, that the student can distinguish
in some nouns, whether they belong to the second declension or to the
eighth. Thus tn, plural IHM is of Dec. II; but IP, plur.
Dec. VIII.
NOTE 1. In the case a in the paradigm, 0323would by analogy
be 03233; but such is the form in Gen. 9: 6, probably from a ground-
form Ul. So *P the hand before a suffix beginning with a consonant,
has both D3* and ( 136. 4. b.)
NOTE 2. Cases like c and d occur very seldom, and are to be re-
cognized as belonging to this declension only by their forms in the
suffix state and plural.
NOTE 3. Participles in Niphal of the form BTTJPA fall regularly un-
der this declension; but several of them form their plurals as if they
were of Dec. VII; as plur. &c. Such plurals are
probably derived from forms iike ttQCa. See 121. II. c.
140. Nouns; third declension,
f l . The thir d declension compr ises all nouns which haye
an immutable vowel in the f inal syllable, and Qamets or
Tseri pure and mutable in the penult
It makes no difference whether a word be dissyllabic, as T*p.D ; or
polysyllabic, as &c.
2. Out of the ground-f orm or absolute state, the mu-
table vowel of the penult f alls away. ( 136. 4.)
The final vowel, being immutable, is not in general affected by the
rules in 136. 4.
3. In many nouns of this declension also, it requires the aid of the
lexicon or of etymology to determine the mutability of the penult vow-
els. Thus rp-ja would seem to belong here, while it really belongs to
Dec. I; because it stands for n
)5, and the Qamets is therefore im-
pure and immutable. ( 23. 7.)
NOTE 1. The examples in a, &, c, give the usual forms of this de-
clension. In the cases d and e also, the penult and final vowels con-
form to the rule in no. 2 above. But in another respect, nouns of these
forms undergo a change which is sui generis, viz. the Daghesh forte of
the ground-form is dropped in declension; as const. instead of
&c. ( 45. 4 note 2.) -
Some nouns, of the above form, beginning with a guttural, after
dropping the Daghesh as above, assume Seghol under the guttural in-
stead of Hhireq parvum; as IVtn, const. Job 33: 15;
plur. Lev. 14: 10 &c. This change probably arises from the
influence of the guttural ( 58.1); though other words of similar
form neglect it; as const. 1^X9 Sic.
NOTE 2. Some nouns of the form/, especially those derived from
verbs 19, exchange the impure Hholem for Shureq out of the absolute
state. Compare 6 118. II. o, and 6 138 note 4.
2 8 4
NOTE 3. In example g, the Tseri of the penolt under the initial
Aleph, is by custom immutable in the singular; the orthography being
modelled after the Syriac pronunciation ( 47. 5. b). The plural con-
forms to the general rule in no. 2 above.
NOTE 4. In example A, the construct form with Qamets Hhateph
occurs only before a Maqqeph and is very unfreqoent, being against
the general anal ogy of the declension and of the language. The fol-
lowing are probably all the instances of this form which occur viz.
Ps. 145: 8. Nah. 1: 3 Qeri; - 3 ) E x . 21: 11; - nno Job
17: 9. Prov. 22: 11 j Ex. 30: 23. So with a pure suffix
DDWiir Ezek. 5: 7. Compare 145, and Dec. VIII in the paradigm.
NOTE 5. The word has the plural form with Vav
moveable, like nouns of Dec. VI. ( 143. note 18.)
NOTE 6. In some words, particularly those with a guttural or Resh
for the penult consonant, the punctuation is inconsistent with Itself; the
penult vowel being treated sometimes as mutable and sometimes as
immutable. E. g. O^nD, const D^D as of Dec. Ill; plur. CO^O as
of Dec. I; plur. const and as of both declensions. This
probably arose from uncertainty, whether or not the vowel was pro-
longed and rendered immutable before the guttural or Resh. ( 24.7.)
141. Nouns ; fourth declension.
t 1* The f our th declension includes all dissyllabic nouns
with Qamets pure in the ultimate, and Qamets or Tseri pure
in the penult
2. The vowels of both syllables of the ground-f orm
being mutable, the r ules f or the r owel-changes in 136.4
apply to nouns of this declension in their f ull extent
() Out of the ground-f orm, the penult r owel always
f alls away.
() In the construct smgular, bef or e the grave suf f ixes,
and sometimes bef or e 5| , the final Qamets shortens into
Pattahh. ( 136. 4. b.)
(c) In the plural construct and bef or e the plural
gr ar e suf f ixes, both the r owels of the ground-f orm f all
away ( 136. 4. c); and then a new vowel, viz. Hhir eq
or Pattahh, is inser ted. ( 58. 1.)
3. The same difficulty occurs here, as in the preceding declen-
sions, in respect to determining what vowels are really mutable. See
138. 2. 139. 3.
NOTE 1. The examples a, 6, exhibit the regular forms of this de-
clension. In the plural construct and grave suffix state of c, the ini-
tial letter being a guttural takes Pattahh instead of Hhireq ( 58. 1).
In the same parts of <2, the penult guttural takes a composite Sheva,
and of course determines the vowel of the preceding letter ( 58. 2).
A few nouns with gutturals, however, assume Hhireq in these cases,
like nouns without gutturals. One of these is exhibited in e.
NOTE 2. In a few nouns also without gutturals, the supplied vow-
el in the plural construct and grave suffix state is Pattahh; as (|3d,
plur. const 'MMIj &c. ( 58. 1 note.)
NOTE 3. In nouns derived from verbs th, the final Qamets fa treat-
ed as if rendered immutable by the accidental concurrence of the ft
( 52. 3); as MIX, const fee. This happens in the singular and
in the plural in Q\-; but has likewise a plural in ni ( 133. 5)
in which the Qamets is mutable; as plur. nifiOJE, const rrifiOX, with
su ontanac &c.
NOTE 4. A very few nouns, like those in A, t, exhibit in the con-
struct and part of the suffix state singular a Segholate form, like nouns
of Dec. VI. In other respects they conform to the model of Dec. IV,
142. Nouns ; fifth declension.
t l . The f if th declension compr ehends dissyllabic nouns
with Tseri pure in the ultimate, and Qamets pure in the
2. The vowel-changes arising f r om declension ar e in
gener al the same her e as in Dec. IV ( 141. 2), with
tte f ollowing exception; viz. that in the construct singular,
bef or e the gr ave suf f ixes, and sometimes bef or e tj, the
f inal Tser i is exchanged f or Pattahh. (136. 4. 6.)
This exchange of Tseri for Pattahh instead of its usual correspond*
ing short vowel Seghol, is what distinguishes nouns of this declension
from those of Dec. IV.
3. Nouns of doubtful appearance occur here, of course, as well as
in the preceding declensions.
NOTE 1. The example in a gives the regular forms of the declen-
sion; that in b exhibits forms with a guttural.
NOTE 2. The examples c, d, present cases of a Segholate form of
the construct singular; the latter having also a regular form. All the
other forms of these nouns, and of the few others which resemble
them in the construct, are conformed to the usual laws of this declen-
sion. Compare 141 note 4.
NOTE 3. As in Dec. IV ( 141 note 3), so here; the final vowel of
nouns derived from verbs Kb is treated as immutable on account of the
final 8. An example of this kind is given in e. Such are
N'V &c. A few other nouns also form their construct state singular
in the same manner, viz. fV, const Ps. 69: 3; fit*, const
Ps. 27: 12; foe, const SJTjn. These last are not found with suf-
fixes, nor in the plural.
NOTE 4. In a few words whose final Tseri, from their derivation,
would appear to be pure, this vowel is nevertheless retained in de-
clension as if it were impure. Thus in example f , J*, plur.
&c. So fDH, HDID, and JlQto which has the plur. const
Ps. 3 5 : 26,'and PATOI S. 2 4 : 7. *
NOTE 5. The noun retains the final Tseri, except in the con-
struct plural. Here the regular form is like ; but it is twice
written with Daghesh euphonic ( 29. 10) *{9 Gen. 49: 17. Judg.
5: 22. So Is. 58: 3 if derived from 32*; but Gesenius in hi!
lexicon derives it from a form
143. Nouns} sixth declension,
t l . The sixth declension compr ises dissyllabic nouns
which have the tone on the penult and a furtive vowel in
the f in?] syllable.
In other words, this declension includes all Segholate noons of two
syllables; excepting a few nouns and infinitives with the feminine end-
ings n-j, n_, which belong to Dec. XIII. The furtive vowel of the
final syllable is Seghol, Pattahh, or Hhireq parvum. ( 59. 2.)
NOTE. All Segholate forms are factitious and merely euphonic
( 59. 2). They appear only in the absolute and construct states of
the singular; for all nouns of this species, when they receive any ac-
cession, neglect the furtive vowel and develope their original state,
which is a monosyllable ending with two consonants; as
with suff. &C.
2. The f ollowing ar e the r ules f or the vowel-changes
ike. in declension.
(a) The construct singular is gener ally the same as
the absolute.
The construct state retains in general the ftortive vowel, for the
same reason that it is inserted in the absolute, viz. to avoid the se-
quence of two final consonants without a vowel. ( 59. 1, 2.)
(f i) The suf f ixes of the singular ar e usually appended
to the original f orm of the noun; see note under no. 1.
(c) The plural absolute assumes a f orm like that of
nouns of Dec. IV.
(d) In the plural construct and bef or e the gr ave suf f ixes,
the penult vowel of the plural absolute is dr opped, and
the original vowel of the ground-f orm is r estor ed.
NOTE. The plural absolute of this declension is quite anomalous,
qnd cannot be derived from either the original or factitious forms of
the singular, by any of the usual laws of declension.
3. Nouns of this declension are mostly derived from verbs ; and of
course exhibit the radical letters of the verbs from which they spring.
Hence, they may be divided into regular and irregular, Segholates; the
former comprehending all those which have their three consonants
moveable, as be; the latter including those in which
one of the radicals becomes quiescent, either in the absolute state or in
the course of declension, as njb, const, nt a; rp\, const n' t &c.
Segholates of this latter class are limited to those derived from verbs
w or and rib; see V below.
4. The original vowel of the monosyllabic ground-forms is pore
in all cases and sometimes short, and is either of the A, E, or O class; as
nop or ^5, pbri, p'lp, &c. In the factitious forms, the origin-
al vowel is often changed to Seghol by the influence of the furtive
yowel ( 60. 3), or if short it is lengthened.
5. Segholate nouns may be divided into thr ee classes,
according to the original vowels of their gr ound-f or ms; and
may be called Segholates of the A, E, or O class.
/. Regular Segholates of the A class.
NOTE 1. The example a presents a genuine Segholate of the A
class with all its forms throughout. The penultimate Seghol stands
uniformly for Pattahh (4 supra), and is commonly changed to Qamets
by the influence of pause accents ( 60. 7. a). For the omission of
Daghesh lene in &c. see 29.15. a.
NOTE 2. The examples in b, c, give the usual forms when the pe-
nult or final radical is a guttural, and where the furtive vowel is of
course Pattahh ( 59. 2). A few nouns with gutturals, however, con-
form to the model in a ; as firi, DTV}, &c. The noun yi h with the
article is always ( 55. 5. a); and Uie names of several letters
of the Hebrew alphabet also have a like form; as 5)^1$, nb^J &c.
NOTE 3. In the construct state of c is exhibited the form 9*NT,
which a few nouns of the A class assume; compare the construct of
Dec. V. So "HH, const,
NOTE 4. A very few words of this class occur in their original mon-
osyllabic state; as **18* a proper name.
//. Regular Segholates of the E close.
NOTE 5. The examples d, , give the regular forms of the E class;
and those in/*, g, give the usual forms with an initial guttural. A few
nouns with gutturals, conform to the model in d; as p*?.* &c-
The noun makes 2 Sam. 22 : 36 and sjytp* ^
8 5 :
NOTE 6 . The example h exhibits the forms with a final guttural,
and also another form of the construct which 9 few nouns of this class
adopt, viz. Sic. Compare note 3 above.
NOTE 7. In cases like e and g, the Segholate forms of this class re-
semble those of the A class; as ^bfe kc. The suffix state,
however, at once exhibits the distinction between them, by present-
2 8 9
Ing the original vowels of the monosyllabic forms; as
a)rn &c.
NOTE 8. A very few words of this class occur in their original
state; as aon, V-i: &c.
* *
NOTE 9. Nouru qf both the A and E classes. A very few nonns adopt
in some cases the forms both of the A class and of the E class. Thus
l i n (note 3) makes in the suffix state singular i l i n, but with n_
paragogic and in the construct plural it is and So 1)^
and ^n. In like manner has the fem. and
/ / / . Regular Segholates of the O class.
NOTE 10. The example i presents the usual regular forms of the
O class. A few nouns, as in j, have Qibbuts in the suffix state instead
of Qamets Hhateph.
NOTE 11. The forms with a guttural are given in Jfc. A Syriac
form is also exhibited which sometimes occurs in the suffix state of
these nouns, viz. instead of ( 60. 6). The suffix form
is common in this kind of nouns, instead of or rather SB
by 58. 3. This form is even found in some nouns without a guttu-
ral; as^Dj?&c.
NOTE 12. The example I exhibits a composite Sheva, viz. Hhateph
Qamets, under the first letter of the plural absolute. This is follow-
ed only by the nouns and Ynfcfc, all others plurals having simple
Sheva. See the next note.
NOTE 13. Several anomalies occur in nouns of this class.
() In the vowel-points; as plur. shb-rd-shim ;
plur. q&-dhdrshim and plur.
by Syriasm for &c. ( 47. 5. 6); but plur. const ^bsntee &c.
() In formation; as frta, plur. nis'tta ; nisrias ; n?*3,
rrifba. These plurals probably come from forms like ria3, nb3.
The noun C3U?p Prov. 22:21 exhibits the original form of this class*
IV. Syriac Segholates.
NOTE 14. The original form of the Hebrew Segholates, as above
stated, is , ICO, 1JP2 &c. As distinguished from this form, Se-
gholates in Syriac throw the vowel between the two last letters of the
word; as &c. These forms are imitated in the following
Hebrew words; viz. ajyi, in pause D^jB, all the known forms
of which are given in m and n; and "13* once Ps. 18 : 26.
The nouns and IfiJB have forms like words of this class in-
the construct plural, viz. but all their other forms are
of Dec. I. For see note 22 below.
NOTE 15. All infinitives construct in Kal, except those with a fem-
inine ending in some classes of irregular verbs, have the forms of Syr-
iac Segholates, and receive suffixes in the same manner. These have
been fully described and exhibited in 126. IV notes 68, and 127
Par. XXI.
V. Irregular Segholates.
These may be arranged according to the kinds of irregular verbs
from which they are derived, like regular Segholates, they exhibit
the forms of the j3, E, and O classes.
(a) Segholatet from verbs 19 and ^9.
NOTE 16. Segholates of the A class from verbs 19 and "*9 assume
two forms.
(1) They exhibit a moveable Fav as their middle radical, which
out of the absolute state becomes quiescent in Shureq or Hholem, and
presents the forms in o and p of the paradigm. Out of the absolute
state, therefore, these nouns belong to the first declension. The only
exception is b}3?, which has the Vav moveable throughout, and is de-
clined like
(2) They exhibit a moveable Yodh as their middle radical, which
out of the absolute state becomes quiescent in Tseri or Hhireq mag*
num, and presents the forms in q and r of the paradigm. Hence,
these nouns also, out of the absolute state, belong to Dec. I. The only
exception is, that a few of them have a regular plural with Vav move-
able, as in r. These are b?n, yg a fountain, niav; *^9 a
young ass, JFV9.
NOTE 17. In the E class, these nouns are like f a for and
for 1*;\, having the radical Yodh quiescent in the absolute state,
and therefore belonging wholly to Dec. I.
NOTE 18. In the O class, the radical Vav is quiescent in the abso-
lute state and throughout the singular; as for lyi, and lit!) for
Of course the singular of all nouns of this description belongs
to Dec. I. The plural also, in some nouns, has the Vav quiescent,
and belongs to Dec. I; while in others it has the Vav moveable and
takes a regular form, as in s and t.
(6) Segholates from verbs fib.
NOTE 19. The Segholates from verbs RIB are of course of the form
b or 4b ( 122. 1). In consequence of having a quiescent for their
final letter, they do not take the genuine Segholate form with a fur-
tive vowel; but either throw forward the vowel of the ground-form
between the two last radicals and conform it to the final quiescent, as
instead of "JIB or ; or else conform the furtive vowel to the
final quiescent, as 3STB instead of 1^2 ( 48. 2. a.). It is onl y in the
suffix state and plural that nouns of the former kind OlD) develope
themselves to be of the sixth declension instead of the Jirst; while
those of the latter form are not found in the Hebrew Bible out
of the absolute state.
NOTE 20. The example u belongs probably to the A class, and pre-
sents the usual forms and also the form of the absolute in pause. Light
suffixes beginning with a vowel are commonly preceded by Hhireq
under the first radical; while before *|, Seghol is usual. These forms
are all anomalous. The examples v, w, exhibit the forms of the E
and O classes.
NOTE 21. Few of the Segholates from verbs lib have plurals. Of
those which have them, the usual form is given in x; and in y is exhibited
the double form of the plural which four or five nouns of this sort as-
sume, by exchanging Yodh for Aleph. ( 39. 2. c.)
VI. Segholates with anomalous plurals.
NOTE 22. Several Segholate nouns, in the plural absolute, drop the
appropriate vowels of that form and take the usual vowels of the con-
struct ; as plur. instead of ; *5^, Cttn; *&n,
D'JTCJn; *to, D^bte; for ; Ynttifit &c. Prov.
25: 11; ; tT30a; which five last come from ground-
forms which do not now occur; TO. 1 # , W>'*, Bpjj, 1?ri, re's.
NOTE 23. In the plural construct several forms occur with Daghesh
forte euphonic; as pbn, for ^jJbn; nips, rria* for rriatf*.
So also ibat> for ibao; n^njyp with a composite Sheva without the
Daghesh, for rrtrijPUj'. ( 2 9 . 1 0 . )
NOTE 24. The paragogic H. when appended to Segholates, is at-
tached to the original form of the word, like light suffixes; as y "&
btl, nb; | ; &:?, &c. But the tone uni-
formly remains on the penult syllable. ((> 34.2. h.)
Those nouns denominative also, which are derived from Segholates,
are formed by attaching their formative endings, viz. rn,
to the original monosyllabic form of the Segholate. These endings
always take the tone.
144. Nouns ; seventh declension.
t l . The seventh declension compr ises those nouns with
f inal Tseri pure which ar e either monosyllabic, or have the
pr eceding vowels immutable.
This declension includes most of the present participles masculine
of regular verbs; see the paradigm of participles, 127 Par. XX.
2. The f ollowing ar e the changes f rom declensioa
() The construct singular is gener ally like the abso-
lute ; in a f ew cases it exchanges f inal Tser i f or Pattahh.
() Out of the absolute state f inal Tser i gener ally f alls
away, except in the plural absolute of monosyllables.
(c) Bef or e suf f ixes beginning with a consonant, wher e
the f inal letter of the noun takes a vocal Sheva, a new
vowel arises, viz. Hhir eq, Pattahh, or Seghol. ( 58. 1.)
3. In this declension, also, many nouns occur whose vowels are of
doubtful appearance ; and which can be distinguished as belonging
here, only by the suffix or plural forms.
NOTE 1. The example in a presents the usual forms of mdnosylla- '
ties; final Tseri before Maqqeph being sometimes shortened to Seghol.
Those in b and c exhibit the usual mode of declining all participles of
regular verbs which fall into this declension. The participles of
verbs with a final guttural make their construct state in Pattahh, like
d and e.
NOTE 2. The example in d has final Pattahh in the construct
Several other nouns, even without gutturals, take the same form; as
"JBDJg, const neDft; &c. A few others, besides the
Pattahh in the construct, exhibit in the first syllable an exchange of
Pattahh for Hhireq parvum; viz.
These are found only in the absolute and construct singular.
NOTE 3. In E is an example of nouns, which before 3 , &C. adopt
Seghol instead of Hhireq parvum (2 supra); as 33^, &c. The
noun D23N has with Tseii; and MD3 makes and
dropping the Daghesh forte and neglecting the vowel. ( 45. 4 note 2.
Compare 140 note 1.)
NOTE 4. The forms i n/ are those of some monosyllables which re-
tain Tseri throughout, except in the construct and grave suffix state of
the plural. Some polysyllables also imitate monosyllables in retain-
ing the final Tseri in the plural absolute; viz. D
?sn, ntofci,
D^nao, fi-OVjB, DHDaaK. The monosyllable an retains
Tseri throughout, and therefore falls under Dec. I. So (from
?) has the const plur. but with grave suffix Ezek.
7: 19.
Anomalous form*.
NOTE 6. (o) The noun n? ton, with Pattahh in the absolute state,
has once "H2 Prov. 3 1 : 2, as of this declension. So JT, plur. D*2T;
and trntt men from the obsolete n.
(6) Several nouns with final Hholem assume the forms of nouns
of this declension; viz. VS'ijfiJ, plur. n'pnj?, and
ntoa, B
nas, ; see 133. 8.
145. Notms / eighth declension.
f l . The eighth declension includes all nouns which in-
ser t Daghesh f or te in the f inal letter of their ground-
f orms, when they r eceive accession.
The nouns of this declension exhibit different final vowels, and they
all have Daghesh forte implied in the final letter of the absolute state,
although it is never written; as tT for BP = D232; SJN for b*t from
KC. ( 45. 3). Hence, it is only the suffix or plural form that
distinguishes words as belonging here; because in case of any addi-
tion the Daghesh is developed; as o*, plur. ; s|k, with suff. *ib<$.
2. The f ollowing ar e the changes f rom declension,
(a) The construct state is gener ally the same as the
absolute; but bef or e Maqqeph the ultimate vowels Qa-
mets, Tser i, and Hholem, ar e usually shor tened to Pat-
tahh, Seghol, and Qamets Hhateph. ( 54. 4.)
(6) Out of the ground-f orm and construct singular, the
Daghesh f or te of the f inal letter appear s ; and f inal Qa-
mets, Tser i, and Hholem, ar e usually shor tened to Pat-
tahh, Hir eq parvum, and Qibbuts. ( 54. 5.)
(c) Penultimate vowels, if mutable, conf orm to the
r ules in 136. 4.
3. The following classes of words fall under this declension.
() 'Nouns derived from verbs 99; as p'n, is &c. ( 115.1 note 1);
and also the participles of those verbs in Niphal, Hiphil, and Hophal.
() Other words in which the penult letter is dropped or assimi-
lated to the final one ; as zb for 33b; infinitive nn for risfr &c.
(c) Some words which are either primitive or derived from a
Pilel form of verbs; as bBS, &c.
NOTE 1. The examples in a, 6, c, present the usual forms of
monosyllables with Qamets or Pattahh. The construct 0? is found
only in the proper name P)30 D* ; while 0^ occurs in ni \ 3 Num.
34: 11; comp. 2 K. 25: 13 &c. The noun A3 always has the con-
struct aa. A few nouns have both Qamets and Pattahh in the abso-
lute state; as 05 or &?, 51 or 51 he. and all these have Pattahh in
the construct The exchange in c of Pattahh for Hhireq parvum is
quite anomalous, and is found in the following words, viz. P)D, nD, Ts,
which are all declined like
NOTE 2. The forms in d are the usual ones of monosyllables frith
Tseri. The construct here (as also in e and f ) has two forms, accord-
ing as it is or is not followed by Maqqeph ; see above in no. 2. a. In
the suffix state he. a few nouns of this sort anomalously exchange
Tseri for Pattahh; as 1$, ; ng, with suffix **89, but with M para-
gogic tiny &c. Nouns with final Seghol shorten it into Hhireq parvum;
- t l ? )
NOTE 3. The examples in e and f give the forms of nouns with
Hholem pure. The noun f? in f varies as to its forms; having them
sometimes with Qamets Hhateph as in the paradigm, and sometimes
with Qibbuts; as DSt* &c. Once WtV Ps. 81 : 2 with Shureq
for Qibbuts.
NOTE 4. In g and h are examples of nouns with pennlt vowels;
of which that of the former is pure, and that of the latter impure. In i
the construct is always *n before the word but is
n before
other nouns, probably for the sake of distinction; as 519") D *<n Gen. 42:
15. So also *<3, const "H. A few other nouns ending with Yodh have
the plural like that of'n; as "olb, d li?; &c. ( 133. 1. b.)
NOTE 5. When the final letter which would by analogy be doub-
led is a guttural or Resh, the Daghesh is of course excluded and the
preceding vowel lengthened ( 46. 1). Hence, nouns which would
otherwise belong here assume forms which cause them to fall under
other declensions; as nig, with suff. derived from -HiC, but hav-
ing forms like those of Dec. II. So n"b, plur. tPHo like Dec. I &c.
NOTE 6. A few nouns have forms partly of this declension and
partly of others; as nfij a ploughshare, plur. > but also
tPn$ of Dec. I. See also in the lexicons and
also the plurals of nouns ending in Yodh. See note 4 above, and
133. 1. b.
146. Nouns ; ninth declension.
*f l. The ninth declension compr ises all those wor ds
ending in which ar e der ived f rom ver bs f lV-
2. The f ollowing ar e the changes f rom declension.
() In the construct singular, f inal Seghol is chaf ed
to TserL ^
() With suf f ixes See. the ending H-. is dr opped.
(c) Penultimate vowels, if mutate, conf orm to the
r ules in 136. 4.
NOTE. In the construct, Seghol remains in a few cases; as
1 K. 4 : 5; so Jer. 17: 18. The usual change to Tseri is quite
anomalous ( 65. 6. b). With suffixes, these nouns imitate the verb*
from which they are derived. (6 126 a.)
147. Nouns j tenth declension
1*1. The tenth declension includes all nouns with the
f eminine ending H- , which have the pr eceding vowels
2. In the constr uct state H- becomes D- ; bef or e
suf f ixes it becomes IV or D-- ( 136. 5. by The plural
is usually in IY1.
NOTE. When it is said above, that nouns which belong here have
their vowels immutable, the remark applies to the vowels in thefemi-
inine forme of nouns simply, and not as compared with the vowels of
masculine ground-forms. Thus NBIIA, TOP), NJPH &c. exhibit no
change of penult vowels in the course of inflection, and are therefore
assigned to this declension; but a change has already taken place
in deriving these feminines from the masculine forms Mia, En, p'rt.
( 132.)
148. Nouns ; eleventh declension*
t l . The eleventh declension compr ehends all nouns
with the f eminine ending H-, which have a mutable Qar
mets or Tseri in the penult.
The same remarks on the vowels apply here, as in the preced-
ing section. ( 147. 2 note.)
2. The changes f r om declension ar e the same as in
Dec. X ; except that her e, the mutable vowel of the pe-
nult f alls away in the constr uct state and bef or e suf f ixes.
( 136. 5.)
3. There is a considerable number of nouns apparently belonging
to this declension, and which from their derivation would seem to have
their penult vowels mutable, but which do not suffer any change in
those vowels from inflection. Such are &c. and
so nbts, iVbh, niDia &c. all of which belong to Dec. I. Indeed, of
nouns of this sort with penult Tseri, the greater number have it im-
mutable in all their forms.
NOTE 1. The examples in a and b give the usual forms. Those
in c, d, e, exhibit forms where a new vowel arises, according to the
rules in 68. 1.
NOTE 2. There is a considerable number of nouns which, out of the
absolute state, do not exhibit the usual forms of this declension, but
substitute for them the Segholate forms of Dec. XIII. Thus in the
example in f the forms fee. are used instead of
roiraa, &c. So ftnettto, const nijBttMq &c. Nouns of this
description are mostly noted in the lexicons.
NOTE 3. A few nouns are treated in declension as if they belong-
ed partly here, and partly to Dec. X; as const ntn, but with
ufF. const r^$3, but with suiT. ; so
149. Nouns ; twelfth declension*
t 1. The twelf th declension includes only thr ee f emi-
nine nouns in tl_ which ar e der ived f rom Segholates of
Dec. VI.
The feminine ending is attached to the original form of the Seg-
holate ; as fern. nsVn &c. so that these nouns have the appear-
ance of belonging to Dec. X.
2. Nouns of this declension ar e declined pr ecisely like
those of Dec. X, except in the plural absolute; which,
in all but the termination ni, is f or med like the plural of
Dec. VI.
E. g. Masc. fem. rteVfc ; masc. plur. fem.plur. rnDbJO.
Hence, it is only the plural absolute which serves to distinguish
these nouns. Thus rnxtt from its form might seem to belong here;
but it has the plural rmxfc, which shews it to be of Dec. X.
NOTE 1. The example in a is derived from a noun of the A class
( 143. 4); those in b and c from nouns of the E class; and that |n d
from a noun of the O class. The forms in e are those of a noun with
a penultimate guttural.
NOTE 2. In two nouns which have Vav moveable in the penult of
1 5 0 . no uns ; t h i r t e e n t h decl ens i on*
the singular, the V&t quiesces in the plural; as masc. fem.
nil?, fem.plur. and sing, with n parag. Hnb ; so i-Tlb, const
n^b, plur. ni^ib.
150. Nouns ; thirteenth dtcknsion.
t l . The thir teenth declension includes all f eminine
Segholates in r u" and n _ L e. all those which have
the tone on the penult and a f ur tive vowel in the f inal
The furtive vowel here is Seghol or Pattahh. The Segholate forms,
like those of Dec. VI, are factitious and appear only in the absolute
and construct state; compare 143. 1 note. The final vowels of the
original state of these feminines, being always of the A, E, or O
class, and generally pure ( 132. 6. c% are often changed by the
influence of the furtive vowel ( 60. 3); but they always reappear,
as in Dec. VI, whenever the word receives any accession. *
NOTE. All feminine infinitives and participles in n., or n_ fall un-
der this declension.
2. The singular number is declined as in Dec. VI.
The plural absolute is quite anomalous, sometimes drop-
ping the original f inal vowel of the ground-f orm, and some-
times retaining it
E. g. niaDJq, plur.abs. rni*053&c. but nirns, plur. abs. ninnis
Sic. The lexicon must be consulted for each noon; as the appear-
ance of the singular will not determine the mode of forming the plural.
NOTE 1. These nouns, of course, have the forms of the A class, as
in o; of the class, as in 6, c; and of the O class, as in d, e. Nouns
of the O class take Qamets Hhateph before suffixes &c. when they
come from an original masculine form with Hholem; as masc. urtr,
fem. n$a, with suff. TOta; but those which come from a masculine
with Shureq, take Qibbuts before suffixes &c. as masc. fem.
with raff. Sic.
NOTE 2. In f and g are examples of feminine infinitives in n_ &c.
These all belong to the E class of Segholates.
1 5 1 , 1 5 2 . NOUNS; DUAL AND IRREGULAR FORMS. 9 9 9
NOTE 3. A few nouns which are properly of the E class some-
times take Pattahh before suffixes &c. as nj^
P from with suff.
n ; inf. has once Ps. 23: 6. So n ^ .
151. Nouns ; paradigm of nouns dual*
t l . Nouns dual of the sever al declensions, ar e exhibited
in their absolute and construct states in Par . III.
2. The construct state of the dual, is the same as that of plurals in
tT_ . Of course, the grave suffixes of nouns plural are attached to
the dual in the same manner as to the plural. ( 135.9,10. 136.4.a.)
3. Dual nouns are not frequent, and none are found in the ninth
declension. Of those which do occur, some have no singular and oth-
ers are not found in the construct; see the paradigm.
NOTE. The plural nouns and D*|N are declined like dual
nouns of Dec. II. ( 134. 3 note.)
152. Nouns irregular in form and declension*
t l . The Hebr ew exhibits quite a number of nouns which
ar e irregular, either in consequence of some change in
their radical letter s, or of borrowing their oblique f orms
f r om some other r oot.
Such are fit* brother, nlnfij sitter, "iPN man, JTO' N woman,
son, ns daughter &c. &c. all the forms of which are noted in the
lexicons. To them, therefore, the learner is referred.
2. The Hebr ew numerals also present a var iety of
anomalous f orms. In the wester n languages, this species
of words usually have an adjective signif ication; but in He-
br ew, they ar e mostly primitive nouns. Their usual f orms
are exhibited in Par . Ill and in the f ollowing explanations
and notes.
I. Cardinal numbers.
3. Fr om one to ten the f orms of cardinal numbers have
the distinction of gender , and gener ally also that of the
absolute and construct states. Fr om three to ten, how-
ever , the primitive f orms ar e of the Jetmnine gender ;
while the der ivative f orms ending in 51- and ri ar e of
the masculine gender .
The forms of int| are used as adjectives; all the others are nouns,
and are sometimes put in the construct, and sometimes In apposition or
adverbially with the nouns to which they relate. ( 177.)
3. Fr om eleven to nineteen, the cardinal numbers ar e of
a compound f or m; viz. they ar e made up by joining to
f orms of the nine units the wor ds "ItD? in the masculine
and r niS? in the f eminine, without an intervening con-
junction. ' The numerals thus f or med have no construct
state, but ar e put in apposition or adver bially with other
nouns. ( 177.)
The words and are found only in the above connex-
ions and are evidently derived from ten ; somewhat like the ter-
mination teen for ten in thirteen, fourteen &c. /
4. Fr om twenty to ninety, the cardinal numbers which
expr ess the tens, ar e the plural f orms of the cor r espond-
ing units; except that the f orm f or twenty is the plural
of the f orm f or ten. These f orms ar e of common gen-
der , and have no construct state.
When intermediate units are to be expressed, they may either pre-
cede or follow the tens; as B'ya = 93yh = 77. ( 177.)
4. Hundreds are expr essed by the f orms of the word
pr eceded by the nine units; thousands, by the f orms
of with the same units; ten thousands in a similar
manner by the f orms of HM"), 12H, or
In expressing a sum of hundreds with intervening tens and units,
the smaller numbers may either precede or follow the hundreds; as
rtsig SINE
) D*Ptt = 162 years Gen. 5: 18 ; or rnfita
= 372, Ezra 2: 4. The latter mode prevails in the
later Hebrew.
In expressing thousand* with intervening smaller numbers, the for-
mer are placed first; as DTjbp* *3rn nabtt s 8580,
Num. 4: 48. *
U. Ordinal numbers.
5. The ordinal numbers extend only f r om two to ten.
Beyond this number, and sometimes also below it, the car*
dinal numbers ar e used as ordinals.
The ordinals are derived from the cardinals by annexing to them
the termination ( 129. 6. a). Most of them likewise Insert % In
the final syllable of the ground-form. The form *9^^ fourth loses
the prosthetic ft of the ground-form. The ordinal for five has two
forms, viz. and
* * * **
NOTE. The ordinals have a feminine form In rp-., and sometimes
in rp- . In this shape they are commonly employed to denote part;
as rV"Vit)9 the tenth part.
NOTE 1. No. I exhibits the usual forms of the cardinals from one
to ten. The feminine nHN is for ITjnwt ( 41. 3. &). The Aramaean
form *13 for occurs Ezek. 33 : 30. The form Is the dual
of the absolute ; the feminine for D^ro is also dual from an
obsolete root S13U).
NOTE 2. There Is a dual form of these cardinals, which is used ad-
verbially; as D^nJWM? sevenfold Gen. 4: 16,24 &c. four-
fold 2 Sam. 12:67' '
NOTE 3. The plurals of some of these forms likewise appear; as
Gen. 27: 44; rri-lto* tens Ex. 18: 21, 25 &c.
NOTE 4. A few of these cardinals are also found with suffixes; as
both ofm; ye three he.
NOTE 5. No. II presents the forms of cardinals from eleven to nine-
teen. Those for eleven and twelve have two forms. The word
in the former is derived by Simonis from rug* to think, but with
no satisfactory explanation why it should be employed as a numeral.
In the latter, the forms C2U} and coincide with the Ara-
maean dual ( 134. 1 note 2, dj. The form n:bvj for eighteen
occurs once Jpdg. 20: 25.
4 0
3 0 2 153. ADJECTIVES) ETC.
Method of notation.
NOTE 6. The Hebrews made use of the letters of the alphabet to
denote numbers, like the Greeks, they divided the letters (including
the final ones) into three classes; of which the first denoted unite;
the second, tens ; and the third, hundreds. To express thousands and
higher numbers they began the alphabet anew, placing two dots over
each letter. When more than one letter was employed, the accent
called Garshayim or Double Geresh was sometimes used to mark them
as numerals. These modes of representing numbers are all exhibited
in the paradigm.
Fifteen is denoted by = 9+6 = 15; never by ST*, because this
last is the contraction for the word Fn!T\
In designating composite numbers in this way, the letters which
represent the larger numbers are placed first; as D3fi = 429; riF)%
= 4898; 1823.
153. Nouns ; forms of adjective nouns.
t l . Hebr ew adjectives have DO peculiar and appropri-
ate f or ms, but only such as ar e common to nouns. The
f eminine f or m of the adjective is der ived f r om the mas-
culine in the same manner as the f eminine nouns ( 132).
The dual number does not occur . ( 134.4.)
Whatever has been said of the forms of nouns in the preceding sec-
tions, applies also to adjectives; so that the latter do not need to be
treated of separately.
2. Comparison is formed with adjectives by a periphrasis, for which
see 175, 176. The construct state of adjectives appears most fre-
quently when they are used as nouns, or with a noun understood; as
the upright of heart Ps. 6: 11.
164. PAR. I . AOWM with taffixa. ( 135. ) 3 0 3
Suffixes. Noon dug. Noun plural.
J. Nom TMUculitte aiding with a consonant.
Sing. DID a horse. Q^OID horses.
1. ''DID my horse. "WO my horses.
2. m. JJD1D thy !p010 thy
2. I ^DID thy ^016 thy
3. m. 1010 his V&1D his
3. f . R&10 her f TD/lD her
PL 1. 13D1D our our
2. m. DDD^D your your
2. f . IpD^O your "jp^CnD your
3. m. Dt^D their OJTWD their
3. f . "[DID their jWOVO their
II. Noun masculine ending with a quiescent.
Sing. father. M father.
D my father. PI. 1. our father.
2 m. thy 2 m. DD/'SN your
2 f .. thy 2 f .
| 3'Q your
3 m. i ms * , V3 his 3 m. aJTO* their
3 f . r P3* her 3 in'O* their
T T % - #
III. Noun feminine.
Sing. STVin a law. n'n'lFl laws.
1. TinhFl my law. TIlT'in my laws.
2 m. sjr ni n % spn'n'iFi %
2 f . 'qivr tn thy ^ni i ' i n %
3 m. hr n'in his v i r ni n his
PL 1. IMTYiFI our ir K'n'in our
2 m. Bin/Yin your B5VlWlR your
3 m. nr i-l'lft their Br PJl'n'in their
f IM. Pm.IL Ad^i
Coast. Ugf ct ^ Grave
DB. L '-..hiii ( i *)
(f t)
nisa Ki t e *
(<) BiEO ClSO t f s o nr qHcp
(<f Ri^K prsV vr f c* Bar r f c*
Dmc. IL Sdscui . ( 139.)
() nr ; eaa-*
(f t)
( 0 *313 7Ti3
(-0 TD *TD
Dec. UL Sf sccLUL (6 140.)
aaTf sB
(f t)
f - ^a
T * *
r s^r i Bar ^o
() S* P.
f yojj aaViap,
V"! f n3T o'haT BaaVttT
(/ ) *\3V o v a oi i a Batnia
oha* ens* t f l a* 830^3*
Vr o Vn3,-Vr a ^Vo

a a ^i a
De c . IV. SUSOUE. (6 141. )
w aa-ian
(f t)

aa$ -aa;
( 0 Ban
W *
as n
Baaar i
v -
wwt f
( 0
<r ~1
m m

* 5
* r
v - z
v t
154. PAE.IL tkclennoiu qfnouni. 305
Plural aba. light 8uf f .
Const Grave suf T.
Dec. I. PunuL.
& 'DID a r e i o
a nt e s
niaj nhaa

a-> qiDo
iQIBtt) ttr aci a a / we o
Dec. II. Pl ural .
w B 5 W
oate *aata a^apt o
a v a i s va t a

Vlf f l *1X0 B^i

Dsc. III. PunuL.
Tf i
tr api rrbv r r t yj aar r bB
a^i aj j ' aa^iap"

TFI-DT ar s i i ai
n w m
(as Dec. X.)
V z *
i&iDa tD'on
B^a a *Bia*

v J
V -1
a n a i
" T
a ^ a n
- J
a n? o
n p o
1 -
M #
| " *; -
a ^a y
CS33 1&33 *>033
n ^ a s

(at Dec. XI.)

306 154. PAIL II. Declension* qf noun*.
Sing. abs. Const Light sofT. Grave soft
i p s . i a ?
( 0
j ^ s
v Vs
DEC. V. SINGULAR. ( 142. )
0 0
- i s n
"i sn nan
0 3 i s n
( 0
t i r e
*s>re &3&r e
0 9
133, 133
( 0

i 66a

i* * *
( / )
DEC. VI . SINGULAR. JI c&ut. ( 6 143. )
oi>a B33^B
i ?3

( 0 JIT n i , n t
>y-|T B3*-| T
v s J -
E das*.
(<9 1B& "iBb .
>1B0 D31B0
( 0
(/> P B H
P ^ . -tin
B3 ^n
(*) i & NI J N ^ n
B3 ^n
v : v
n s j N * 3
>nxa 83033
O clan.
( 0
" 0 "TP*
? ! ? a
( i )
Y #
i xag B3xag-
(*) J>?S
V? I D
V J *
( 0
^ " P .
154. PAR. II. Declensions of nouns. 30 7
Plur. abfl. Light suit * Const Grave stiff.
mm l a w w o w
- r -j : - v : -
b i y v s r & s m v f r *
?E! rijjt
a - n s n n s n n s n s a n m
"I - - 1
V : -
niDnS (as Dec. XI.)
b " h 3 3 >133 *133 b 3
1 2 3
c v a "wipa * s 6 a s y s t v a
q ,
391 \
DEC. VI . PLURAL. A class.
D"oba *oVa -oVa a a ^ a
t "T # V
c t o n ? 3 "-i53 a a - n y j
- : - i - v
m WT WT f iW
-r; - -r. v : -
bi - l bo " ' i bb b 3 i " l b d
- -R %
a - n a p - n a p n a p . b a n a p
b ^ n ^ > n . a a ^ v n .
b n v n (tc.
* + 1
b ^ n s a ras v m b a t i x :
- : * 5 :
o ctaw.
a n p a "npa njja B3np
b ^ s a j ? ">sbf> t m j j b a ^ s a ^
b ^ j b ^ 5 b "^s b 3 ^ y d
" f i
^ " i
908 164. PA*. II. tkcUnsitn* qf noINU.
Sing. abs.
Syriae Segholates.
Sing. abs. Coast
Light sufll Phml ate.

0 0
nam s a p tBa'o
Irregular Stgholatm fran ntrit IS and ' 5.
(o) nm
V *
ni B (m Dec. I.)
r j hn ( Dec. I.)
(at Dec. L)
(') -p? (Sing, as Dec. I.) fiiT?
t 1
111 (Sing, as Dec. I.)
0 )
-I'lO (Sing, ai Dec. I.) d n i o
Dec. VIL Singular. (6 144.)
Sing. abe. Const Ught suff. Grave suff.
0 0
0 3 d o , " d o
i a o
d d d o
(A) a^
OI'IN oaa^K
( 0
Vapa tyop_B Ba$Bj?B
nana r aws TISTB Dar iar o
v -i -
() Vpa bpn "^pB. aabp.B
( / )
V - V -
12? tias?
Dec. VIII. Singular. (6 145.)
0 0
v r
m \*
tM sac*
pn P'n ,yn
( / ) t>
V* *

na B
( 0
DEC. I X. SINGULAR. ( 6 146. )
0 0
nth nth 'th
m' o
V t
V *lT
154. PAR. II. Ihciensionf if nouns.
3 0 9
n e )
4 * *
2 Ti n
f cn)
r tn
r% "

Light auff. Grave suff.
m e TO}
> a n n e f
t i n
i ^ n
Plural abs.
o s
Plural tlx.
1t 1b0
b ^ i *
Light auff.
i n i b p
r i n s t o
n ^ n
j j vj y
'if inaia
(as Dec. XIII.)
r r t a o
^ a p _ a
nhnar a
b - ^ n
a wi a
0 ^ 2 2 )
b v o i f
Grave snff-
a a ^ t i b i p
n a - q ' n a
b a ^ e j y a
d s i n ' i n a t a
d i e x
a n a
b i j j b
a i n
i e *
* t o
-r ^aV
t t i a ^
i p n
l as a
b v h
a n t e
n ' o n ' o
b a r s ?
da' i b
n a n a
bavr t a! ?
V *
a a ^ a a
ban^i b
154. Par. II. Declension* qf nmtiu.
Sing. abs. Const Light suff.
DEC. X. SINGULAR. ( 147. )
r ni n
nnin ir nto
(*) r &ina
r f r ina vi Vva
DEC. XI . SINGULAR. (& 148. )
() r us
(*) N S O n:a
? - i *
^ *2
0 )
WW 4
( f )
ir obaa
nr jBoa
nnl oa
. TirjBf f lB
DEC. XI I . |



naVa naVa voVa
( I )
r f r aV
(<) r m
t j v
ne m T B m
t *
t *
() r r w
t - j -
r r w
" T O
DEC. XI I I . SRAETILAB. ( 160. )
nnaqa nn| qa ip-ra&a
r nss r naa
( 0
net* inns
v *%
nsina 1P3P3
0 ) n o m r o h a ippnj
(/) N
? I
r a o naa i p a a
154. PAR. II. Declensions of nouns. 311
Grave fluff. Plural abs. Const Suffix.
oami n
nTr tn
Banana nt ona ni^ina n^na
rrtaai niaqj ivon
r r tpw n'ipis
aanaan niaan r r taan "nhaarj
nf ta* rrtVw
i n^jy
(as Dec. XIII.)
(as Dec. XIII.)
rrtaVa r r taba nha^a
aanWa rrtVato niVato nvf caf o
i ntem
- : v
aana-in nhain r f iann
v e i n
v : --i-
T T;
r r tlM
v : r :
r f i-iaoa
: :

rjnwN, jjnotj.
t; V
r f ana
pri ons

Slf 154. Par. III. IMumm% qf mwi ekaL ( 151.)
Sing. abs. Dual abs. D.conat
i .
t r h j n
i l
o *
a ^ h ^ n
i v .
c e c d
- T 5
a ^ n r s vn
v l
B?$n ^Jn
b r h a c n a
t w n a " wi s
b">$t3 ^ 7 3
b a n
i r i i
a- nns
Stag. aba. Dual abs. D.consL
T& Q^V?. T ?
v\b o^nV
: - * :
v i i .
a s t e r n o n t o

v i i i .
t | 3 b ^ b s ^ 3
1 9 b ^ f f l ' 33
x .
n b m b ' o t b k
* * "
x i .
ntto BTf ito
t * * *
j l k b fffw
x i i .
n 3 t b n i s t
n a p . i a y i b j p
x i i i .
nans Bir iom
v S J
"t l bj o
t k b
; "
v i 3 t
154. PAH. IV. JVmural nouns be. ( 152.) SIS
I. Cardinals fa .from 1 to 10.
No. Signs. Masc. abs. Const. Fem. aba. Const. Ordinate.
1 M ^rot n m n n
2 S Bi n s

3 A nf t B n a S a BVB
s Vs
4 i n w i *
f T
?3_1 M-I*
# 1
n ns a r r
n s a n
V -5
Ba n
6 i h b b
n s s

a s
w o o
n j a p m b ; s n i yi aa
n n a bs

n a b s
n a b s
V 1
sj i Bp
9 D n ? a n
mm n
y o n

? o n
nn' oy n^ i w liBJ
II. Cardinals from 11 to 19.
Masculine. Feminine.
n -itoy i m miDy n n
# V - -
-I's* Ta j ?
* t
12 zS "lis? c a s n-ito? DTi s
itoy *>3 i nnt w n n i
I' B? n s Vo
* Y
n-ito? n&fi
n t o w a n *
* * T t -
nntoV m*ij*
ft lioy nt san
* * T
mt oy aa'n
# . v - j
V n o ? n a s
t * f
m o ? b b
* .

i t s? n b m o ? m b '
* * * .
itoy naba
T f T
nnte? n a b s
19 CP i ' s y n*Bn
* * * !
m o ? j o' n

314 154. PAE. 1V. Mmural noims. ( 152. )
III. Cardinals from 20 to 90.
20 d b f i p l 60 0
30 b BipVo 70 y a^ap'
* *
40 a cyan* so b a^ap"
so j Qian 90 s niyon
. . -j . . .
IF. Hundreds.
100 p
200 1 d w
soo e ntea t f t o
400 ri ni*a ya-i
500 pn(^) n wa o a n
600 - i n (b) n'lkboo
700 on C1) nt eayap
oo r in (C|) ntea najbp"
900 pnn (y) n"i*a ypn
V. Thousands.
1,000 m p| b*
2,000 a
3,ooo 5 c b V k naf to
"r*5 V
4,000 i' b^bV* riya-is<
5,000 r i b*b^>k noar t
t I V -I
6,ooo i' B"Va na o
' <r I V
7,000 if b*>b^m nyao
10,000 naai, ta-i, Ktan
* t
20,000 n'la-i *>np
30, 000 n'la-i oVa'
* 2
40, 000 M'la-i yan*
(120,000 tai n i p y n^na
^or 12 times 10,000
6oe,ooo pf e* ntea op
155, 156* PARTICLES, ETC. 3 1 5
155. General remarks
tl . Under the gener al appellation of particles, ar e com-
pr ehended adver bs, prepositions, conjunctions, and inter-
t2. Like nouns, some of these ar e primitive, but most
of them derivative. Of the der ivatives, some have an
ending appropriated solely to the f orm of par ticles, as
03X5# truly f r om truth ; while most r etain the f or m
of ver bs, nouns, or pronouns.
3. Composition of words is more frequent among particles than in
the leading parts of speech. Apocope is also more common; all the
prepositions &c. which consist of only one letter, being doubtless apoc-
opated words; as b for for "JE &c.
4. The older grammarians have, for the most part, considered all
the particles as derivative nouns; but this is not probable, as primitives
are found in all the other parts of speech. It is, however, very difficult
to draw the exact line between the primitive and derivative forms,
as the etymology is often much obscured by the changes which the
particles have undergone.
156. Adverbs.
1. Pr imitive adver bs ar e the f ollowing.
YK then ; where ? 'pfc, Cpktt) whence ? whither ? DM an,
nonne ? rfo, H3, H33 thus ; not; VlB when ? He, IB, MB here ; DID
Also the interrogative prefix an, nonne ? for the punctuation of
which see 61. 20.
2. Some der ivative adver bs have appropriate adverbial
endings, viz.
() In d- ; as tKOtt truly from truth.
() In D-; as DfctnD suddenly, instead of D?n from the wink
of an eye.
(c) In "U; as from TK then.
3 1 6 157. PREPOSITIONS*
3. Many der ivative adver bs have the f or ms of other
par ts of speech, viz.
() Of nouns with a preposition; as before, upwards, Sic.
() Of nouns in the accusative; as sing. nttjj, securely; plur.
uprightly. Some of these forms are no longer used as noons; as not.
(e) Of adjectives; as masc. at a well; fern. quickly,
twice; plural rrtfioia fearfully. These are used in a neuter sense,
like multum, noXXa tic. ( 162.)
(d) Of the infinitive absolute, especially in Hiphil; as again,
literally redeundo ; much, lit. rmdtiplicando ; 05HBH early. Some-
times with a preposition; as ^ilb abundantly.
() Of pronouns; as fit here ; ita how, &c.
4. Some adver bs ar e compounded of other wor ds.
() Of prepositions and adverbs; as T3~b? wherefore; how
long? ' " ~
() Of two adverbs; as ilCiJ where, from ^ and rib Sic.
5. Sever al adver bs r eceive af ter them verbal suffixes
( 6& 7. 126); in which connexion the suf f ixes ar e gen-
er ally in the nominative case.
E. g. I am yet, he is yet; he is not; 1*8 where is
he? Gen. 3: 9 nS'N for *T where art thou? The suffixes are
usually those with an epenthetic Nun which belong to the future tense.
NOTE. The forms "NIB, TALB &c. have a noun-suffix, and are thus
used as nouns, signifying J alone &c~. literally in my being alone Sic. So
f pya Ps. 104 : 33. 146 : 2, lit during my continuance Sic.
I $7. Prepositions.
1. Pr imitive prepositions ar e the f ollowing.
3 in ; 5) as ; b, b$ to, for ; from ; nij with, in suffix state ;
nK the sign of the accusative case, with suit
The prepositions s, 53, b, are always prefixed to the words which
they govern; as rTOttHa in the beginning. So also 173 is generally
prefixed and its final Nun assimilated. For the punctuation of all these,
see 61. 714.
The prefix S often has the sense of a conjunction.
2. Many der ivative pr epositions have the f or ms of oth-
er par ts of speech, viz.
() Of nouns singular in the accusative or construct state; as
causd, on account qf ; before ; nnr j under, &c.
() Of nouns plural in the construct state; as bif, to, for, po-
etic ; fq, &c. Several prepositions take suffixes upon dual or
plural forms; as nnrj, ^nnn, l^nn, but also onnn &c. So V? upon,
plur. const poetic, with suff. DD"
^ ; see no. 3 below.
(c) Of nouns in the construct state with prefix prepositions; as
*P by; ^2tb before, &c.
(d) Of adverbs with prefix prepositions; as JVJB, Tjbsb without;
*K30 since &c.
(e) Of adverbs followed by a preposition, so as to denote but one
Idea; as b MO around; b above; "J30 y^n without, &x.
( f ) Of a double preposition; as D37J3 from with ; ]^2|J9 between ;
nnn bt under; like the French cPaupres, de chez &c.
(g) Of a paragogic letter or suffix, viz. H_ towards, to ; as
towards- Sodom ; to the ground &c. So also H., and are, in
a very few instances, appended to words with a similar meaning; as
WHO to Syene Ezek. 29: 10; to Nob 1 Sam. 21: 2.
3. Sever al pr epositions which have the f or m of nouns,
r eceive af ter them noimrsttffixes ( 66.7. 135. 6); in which
connexion the suf f ixes ar e usually in the genitive case.
Inasmuch as prepositions have the forms of nouns both in the sin-
gular and plural, they also receive suffixes both as singular and plural
nouns; as ^ 2 between me and thee ; between us. See.
above in no. 2. b.
NOTE. The following instances occur of prepositions with verbal
suffixes, viz. ^rnn 2 Sam. 22: 37, 40, 48; Jisnnn Gen. 2:21;2*1^3
Ps. 139: 11.
4. Most of the primitive pr epositions ar e quite ir r egu-
lar in their mode of r eceiving suf f ixes, and ar e ther ef or e
f ully exhibited her e.
(a) The pr ef ix 3 takes the f ollowing f or ms.
Sing, "*a; Sja, in pause ?JX; fem. ta; MS. Plural D^B;
31 8 1 5 7 . PREPOSITIONS.
NOTE. The prefix b takes suffixes precisely tike a, with the addi-
tion of the 2 plur. fern, ilibb, and 3 plur. masc. poetic tab. Once 2
pers. dog. nsb Gen. 27 : 37.
(6) The pr ef ix S usually takes the par agqgic tD bef or e
suf f ixes. The f ollowing ar e its f or ms.
Sing, spfea; S^S. Plural ia:D; D^S, seldom
Drjs, Dna, seldom
NOTE. The prepositions a, b, a, sometimes take the paragogic fa
in order to render them independent words; as Ps. 11: 2
for b$&a. See Ges. Lex. under ^za.
(c) The pr eposition ]!0 bef or e many of the suf f ixes
takes the f or m pr obably signif ying a parte, de la part
de &c. The f or ms ar e as f ollows*
Sing. poetic and ; *|73, in pause j ko; ?|5?;
poetic ^ina^and Plural qs^JD; D$; 73a; DJya, po-
etic ansa; fna.
(d) The pr eposition n&, when it is the sign of the
accusative, becomes n'ltt bef or e suf f ixes, as f ollows.
Sing. Yii, in pause and ; fem. -ynfi*; iKfit;
ftrfo. Plural ttnfit; Dsn, ; on, fflnnfcj, Drjnte; n:irifit,
(e) The pr eposition DM with sometimes takes suf f ixes
like the pr eceding, especially in the later Hebr ew; but
its appr opr iate f or ms ar e the f ollowing.
Sing, -nit; sjna, in pause fem. ?jnK, *jn; in#; nn.
Plural 13n; DDFifit; Dnfit.
( f \ The f or ms of t39 with ar e the f ollowing.
Sing. ">735; ^739, in pause fem. n. Plural
; D^jd* ; drjay, ozay. The form also occurs, but only with
the suffix of the fii*t person singular; see Ges. Lex. under 09.
NOTE. The pronouns and JT1J3 sometimes take prepositions
before them without change; as Jlttna Ex. 36: 1; Gen. 41:
19,- Ecc. 12: 12, toe. toe.
158. Conjunctions.
1. Pr imitive conjunctions ar e the f ollowing.
b3M but; lit or; -JM only ; bfc that not; 5]fi$ also ; DM i f ; *b \f ;
lest; iWJ expletive, now, then.
Also the copulative prefix "J and; for the punctuation of which,
see 61. 15 fee.
2. Sever al der ivative conjunctions have the f orms of
other parts of speech, viz.
() Of pronouns; as ^ M (-^) because, that; like on, quod &c.
() Of pronouns preceded by prepositions; as because ;
until, be.
(c) Of a double conjunction; as ^ OS although; DM **2) but, unless.
159. Interjections.
1. Inter jections, being simple exclamations occasioned
by joy or sor r ow, ar e mostly primitive. Such ar e the
f ollowing wor ds.
JIM, nSIM, Mr* alas! *M, MM, S"P1M, *DM, ^)?M wo ! nMft aha,
euge! fil, nsfl to, ecce! M3 quaeso. So M|tf ah, quaeso! from Hi$
or Wjm and M3.
2. A f ew der ivative interjections have the f orms of
other parts of speech, viz.
() Of verbs in the imperative, both of the singular and plural
fofms; as nan age! plur. ten, from 3TV; on hush, be still/ plur.
*D!1, in Piel f r im non; idov, ecce !
() Of nouns; as ""71^ O the blessedness qf! Ps. 1: 1 &c.
far be it from, God forbid / hear I enough, hold!
3. The interjection nsn takes after it verbal suffixes in the nomin-
ative case; as "^sn, *s\sn ecce ego! flan ecce tu! &c.
160. Order of Syntax.
In the etymological part of the preceding pages, it was thought
proper to foHow the natural order of the Hebrew language, and con-
sider, first, the pronouns whose ground-forms are all primitives; sec-
ondly, the verbs, which for the most part are primitive; and thirdly,
nouns and other parts of speech, which are mostly derivative. But
in the syntax, as the subject of a sentence, or nominative case, natu-
rally comes first in order, it seems more proper, first, to consider the
noun, pronoun &c. and then, the verb and other constituent parts of a
16!. Nouns used in the place of adjectives
The adjectives of the Hebrew, when compared with those of the
occidental languages, are very few in number. In consequence of
this, substantives are very frequently employed in the place of ad-
t l . When two nouns come together , the f ir st of which
is in the constr uct state, and the second of cour se in the
genitive, one of them is ver y of ten to be taken as an ad-
(a) Commonly the second noun qualif ies the f ir st.
E. g. *^5) vessels qf siker L e. silver vessels; DVte pos-
session of eternity L e. everlasting possession; Is. 24: 10
city of desolation i. e. desolate city ; Gen. 34: 30 ->D0E men qf
number i e. which can be numbered, or which are few.
NOTE. This construction is a very common one in all languages;
and the Hebrew, as well as others, not unfrequently adopts it when
adjectives might be employed; as ]n's priest of the head i. e.
high priest, instead of Even adjectives themselves are
sometimes constructed as nouns in the genitive, following the noun
which they qualify; as *1 a woman qf evil I e. an evil woman,
instead of nan ^ waters of fullness L e. full streams, in*
stead of tT. See the next section.
(6) Sometimes the -f irst noun qualif ies the second.
E. g. WW rift'tp the tallness of his cedars i. e. his tall cedars;
the fatness qf his flesh i. e. his fat flesh; D^ttn-bs the
whole of men L e. all men.
NOTE. Instances of nouns used as adjectives before the genitive are
rather unfrequent, except in respect to bs, which is usually found in
this construction.
2. When two nouns ar e in apposition, one of them is
not unf requently to be taken as an adjective. ( 168. 2.)
Here, too, sometimes the first noun is to be construed as an a f f e c -
tive, as Is. 45: 23 righteousness sentence L e. righteous
sentence ; but more commonly the second, as Prov. 22: 21 rtiJK
words truth L e. true words; bN^to*, Israel the whole qf him i. e.
all Israel. Compare Ps. 71:7, &c.
t3. When two or more nouns ar e connected by the
ver b of existence (tlNl) expr essed or understood, those
which designate quality ar e usually employed as adjec-
E. g. Gen. 1: 2 the earth *rin was desolation and emp-
tiness L e. desolate and empty. Ps. 10: & highness
are thy statutes L e. they are high, out of sight Job 8: 9 bfon
HrifN yesterday are we i e. of yesterday, hesterni sumus.
4. Nouns with pr epositions pr ef ixed ar e sometimes
used as adjectives.
E. g. Ps. 77: 14 in holiness is thy way i. e. thy way
is holy; 1 Chr. 2 6 : 1 4 a counsellor with wisdom L e. a wise
counsellor; Ps. 17:9 3 ^ 2 my enemies in respect to life L e. my
deadly enemies.
5. Of two nouns connected by a conjunction, one is
sometimes employed as an adjective.
E. g. Gen. 4: 4 iattat of the firstlings of his
flock and of the fat qf them i e. of the fat firstlings &c. Gen. 3: 16
thy pain and thy conception L e. thy painful conception.
Perhaps Ps. 119 : 168.
NOTE. This construction is called Hendiadys, i. e. tv did SvoTv.
6. The .Hebr ews sometimes used a circumlocution to
expr ess qualities, which in other languages ar e usually de-
signated by adjectives.
For this purpose they employed the following nouns in the con-
struct state before other nouns.
(a) ttTfit man; as a man qf word* L e. an eloquent
man ; a man qf piety L e. a pious man.
(b) DVlfc men ; as YjJO men of hunger L e. hungry men.
(c) b?? lord, possessor ; as "Vto possessor qf hair L e. hairy;
na possessors of a covenant i. e. bound together by covenant
(d) 73 son and na daughter ; as son of strength L e. a hero;
rn>3-]$ son of death L e. condemned, worthy of death; 73 son
qf a year L e. a yearling. So rfl3a the daughters of song L e.
the singing birds, Ecc. 12: 4.
The word 73 son is not always employed with the like significan-
cy, but sometimes loses its appropriate meaning. Thus, ton* of the
poor means
the poor'; sons of foreigners means
foreigners'; son qf
man means
man'; son of nobles means
a nobleman.
So in Homer,
vltt 'Ajamv is the same as \A%au)L The nature of the passage,
therefore, must determine the manner in which the term son is to be
NOTE. The first noun in constructions of this kind is sometimes omit-
ted, and can be supplied only from the sense of the passage; as Job
31: 32 rn& way for n*3$ son of the way Le.a traveller ; Prov.
17: 4 *1^ falsehood for a man'qf falsehood L e. a liar. So Gen. 16:
2 pip 731 for son of Damascus Le.a native of Damascus.
162, 163. NOUNS; INSERTION o r THE ARTICLE, ETC. 3 2 3
162. Adjectives used as nouns
tThe Hebr ew, like other languages, of ten supplies the
place of nouns by adjectives taken in an abstract or neu-
ter sense.
E. g. Joe. 24: 14 tftan integrity, lit upright, innocent; Job 20:
22 trouble, lit troublesome &c. Ps. 10: 10. Compare 161. 1.
a, note. So in Greek, TO xaAov, TO ooqnv, &c.
NOTE. In this way some adjectives are constantly used as epithets
of persons or things; as "VOM strong for ' God'; Vafit strong for ' bull,
; nan hot for' the sun'; naaij white for
the moon
fee. So
for God we say in English the Almighty, the Omnipotent kc. in French,
VEtemel fee. This is called the epitheton ornans.
163. Nouns ; insertion of the article
f l . In gener al, the Hebr ew ar ticle ( 65), like the in
English, is used in speaking of a def inite, bef ore-mentioned,
well known, or monadic object.
E. g. the king; Gen. 2: 7 tHttn the man before mentioned;
the sun ; y^ n the earth, &c.
NOTE. In poetry, definite objects are often designated without the
article; as Ps. 48 : 3 the city ^ of the great king ; Ps. 72:1. In
a similar manner the earlier Greek poets, particularly Homer, omit
the article where the Attic prose writers insert it
1*2. The ar ticle is commonly, but not always, used in
constructions like the f ollowing, viz.
() Bef or e the genitiye.
E.g. y^t t n the kings of the land ; n&fiban the men of
war i. e. the warriors. (6 161. 1. a.)
() Bef or e a noun of multitude in the singular.
E. g. arcnn the wicked ; p*ian the righteous ; W5>n the Co-
(c) Bef or e gener ic nouns, when used with a particular,
individual signif ication.
E. g. the river L e. the Euphrates; the desert i c.
the Arabian desert; "JOteil the adversary L e. Satan, duzftokoe.
(d) Bef or e the vocative.
E. g. Deut. 32: 1 D-JgtBn O heavens! Ps. 114: 5 Dn O sea! &c.
t3. The ar ticle is sometimes used as a pronoun, either
demonstrative or r elative.
E. g. this day ; this night ; this time. So also
Jos. 10: 24 the warriors infit Kisbnf} who accompanied him; Judg.
13: 8 the child which is born, &c.
4. The Hebr ews sometimes employed the ar ticle with
an indefinite signif ication, like tlie English cr or an.
E. g. 1 Sam. 17: 34 a lion ; Num. 11: 27 a youth Ac.
So in Is. 7: 14, may, in conformity with this rule, be render-
ed a virgin, and not the virgin, as Gesenius and others have translated
it In cases of this kind, however, the article is usually omitted; as
Job 1: 1 there was 3PK a man ; Ex. 2:15.
NOTE. The indefinite article a or an is sometimes expressed by
108$ one; as 1 Sam. 1: 1 there was tfvt a man, &c. This con-
struction is the usual one in Chaidee and Syriac. So in Greek, Matt
21: 19 ovxij ftia a fig-tree; Mark 14 : 61 eTg tig vtaviaxog a young
man &c.
164. Nouns; omission of the article
The article is commonly omitted in the f ollowing con-
structions, viz.
1. Bef or e proper names, especially those of persona,
countries, r iver s, mountains, and plaees.
To this principle, however, there are so many exceptions, that it
can by no means be regarded as a general rule In the language. Thus
we find n^O Euphrates always without the article, and ^ *^
dan almost always with it So ^3*0 Sinai, Sion &c. always
without; but Lebanon, Carmel tic. often with the article.
2. Bef or e a noun in the construct state f allowed by a
E. g. rrtfi* "Ol the word of Jehovah, instead of &c. But
there are exceptions enough here to show that usage is variable Thus,
when the following genitive is a proper name which excludes the ar-
ticle, the first noun may take it; as Gen. 31: 13 Vttn the God
qf Bethel; Gen. 24:67 H^ip tnbnfcH to the tent qf Sarah So where two
genitives come together; as Ezek. 45: 16 ywn bb all the peo-
ple of the land ( 172.3.6). In afew other cases, it is also used by way
of emphasis &c.
3. Bef or e a noun which has a suf f ix pronoun.
But here also the article is sometimes used, especially with a gen-
itive or for the sake of emphasis &c. as Josh. 7: 21 ^bnan ?pna m
the midst of my tent, &c. The reason of the usual omission in this case
and the preceding one is, that the genitive or suffix pronoun gives suf-
ficient de/initeness to the meaning of the preceding noun, without the
use of the definite article.
4. Bef or e the pr edicate of a sentence.
E. g. Ps. 10: 5 Spp.B1p loftiness are thy statutes ; Ps. 36: 6
their way is darkness. So in the Greek. Compare
165. SLb.
165. Article before adjectives.
1*1. In gener al, wher e a noun has the ar ticle, the adjec-
tive or pronoun agr eeing with it must also have the ar-
E. g. Gen. 10: 12 the great city; Num. 11:34
tnnft tampan this place.
NOTE. In a few cases the noun has an article and the adjective
omits it; as Gen. 29: 2 Sibil* the great stone.
2. The ar ticle is usually omitted bef or e adjectives in
the f ollowing constructions, viz.
(a) When the noun to which the adjective belongs
omits the ar ticle.
E. g. Jer. 11: 19 a tame lamb, &c.
NOTE 1. When the noun omits an article required by the sense,
merely through the influence of a suffix pronoun or genitive which
3 2 6 166, 167. NOUNS ; NEUTER GENDER, ETC*
follows it ( 164. 2, 3), the adjective which belongs to it may still
take the article; as 2 Chr. 6: 32 sjjoflj thy great name ; Dent
11: 7 bVl|!3 the great work qf Jehovah.
NOTE 2. The adjective sometimes has an article when the sense
of the noon does not require it, as 1 Sam. 19: 22 "na the great
cittern; Jer. 27: 3. 38:14 &c. In these cases, however, the article
may perhaps be regarded as a relative ( 163. 3), and we may trans-
late, cistern which is great.
(6) When the adjective is the pr edicate of a sentence.
E. g. at e God is good ; nji-r 0!3 blessed be the
name of Jehovah. Compare 164. 4.
166. Nouns ; mode of expressing the neuter gender fyc,
tThe Hebr ew having no neuter gender , commonly
employs the f eminine to expr ess it, but sometimes the
masculine. ( 131. 6 note.)
E. g. Ps. 27 : 4 / have asked n)3$ one thing ; Ps. 12: 4 rriH*M great
things ; Gen. 42: 30 ni&j? hard things, &c. Less often the masculine;
as Prov. 8: 6 D"
*p33 noble things.
NOTE. The feminine is also sometimes used in a collective sense
for objects which are properly masculine; as Mic. 1: 11,12 rnUJV*
inhabitress L e. inhabitants; Mic. 7: 8, 10 for enemies. So ytfi a
tree, a grove of trees, &c. So in Arabic the phratisfractus, which
is used as a collective, very often has a feminine form.
* 167. Nouns of multitude andpluralis excellentiae
1. The Hebr ews of ten employ nouns of the singular
f or m in a collective sense, especially national denominations.
( 133. 7.)
E. g. the Canaanite i. e. the inhabitants of Canaan, &c.
2. For the sake of emphasis, the Hebr ews commonly
employed most of the wor ds which signif y Lord, God, &c*
in the plur al f or m, but with the sense of the singular .
This is called the pluralis excellentiae, and is f ound in the
f ollowing words*
() Lord in all the forms of the plural, except my mas-
ten ; but the form is always used with the sense of the singular
for God. (6) God in all the forms of the plural, (c) by a lord
in all its forms, (d) the most Holy One Hos. 12: 1. Prov9:
10. 30: 3. Jos. 24: 19. (e) the Almighty is probably of the plu-
ral form ( 133. 2. b). ( f ) D^D^n household god as singular 1 Sam.
19: 13,16. (g) Occasionally in a few other words; as Job 35: 10
y maker \ Ecc. 12: 1 thy Creator. See also Is. 22:
11. 42: 5. Ps. 149: 2; and
anomalies in the concord of verbs.
3. The plural, especially in poetr y, is not unf requent-
ly used instead of the singular.
E. g. Job 6: 5 the sand of the seas i. e. the sea. Even in ca-
ses where only one can possibly be meant, is this the case; as Judg.
12: 7 he was buried ^ ^ a in the towns of Gilead i. e. in a town; Gen.
8: 4 the ark rested on the mountains of Ararat L e. on a moun-
tain. Job 21: 32 rrtiaat the graves i. e. the grave.
168* Nouns ; apposition
t l . In Hebr ew, as in other languages, two nouns desig-
nating the same thing ar e placed in apposition.
2. In Hebr ew, nouns ar e not unf requently put in ap-
position, in cases wher e the second noun in other langua-
ges would be a genitive. (161. 2.)
E. g. Prov. 22: 21 n&tt tPn&N words which are truth i. e. words
' T 1
of truth; Zach. 1:13 D**ttri3 ITnai words which are consolations L e.
words of consolation; Ex. 24:5 tPnaT offerings which are
3. Nouns ar e usually put in apposition which designate
weights, measures, time &c.
E. g. 2 K. 7 : 1 nbb MitD a seah of fine meal; 2 K. 5: 23
two talents of silver ; Gen. 41: 1 two years of time;
1 K. 7: 42 D'-HD "TO two rows o( pomegranates ; Ezek. 22: 18
anq dross of silver. Compare 176. 6.
None. These last instances may be explained, also, by suppotfrur
169. wocvs; Riprrrnoji.
the Utter noon to be in the accusative and used adverbially, as it fe hi
Arabic; or which amounts to the same thing, we may say that the
latter noon is in an oblique case and governed by a preposition under-
stood ; as two talents in silver tic.
4. Sometimes nouns ar e put in apposition wher e the lat-
ter noun designates a whole or genus, of which the f or mer
designates only a part or species.
E. g. Judg. 5:13 09 the nobles of or among the people.
5* Some examples occur of apparent apposition, in
which ther e probably is an ellipsis of a noun.
E. g. [^nbfit] njn^ Jehovah God of hosts. So probably Is.
30: 20 f ig] D*5g water water of trouble; iBK [nan] nan the glow
the glow of his anger. The Hebrew noun, which probably is omitted
in these phrases, Is supplied in the brackets.
* 169. JVotm# / repetition
1. The Hebr ews f r equently employed a r epetition of
nouns without the copula *] f or the f ollowing purposes, viz.
() To denote multitude.
E. g. Gen. 14: 10 ^ati pits of bitumen L e.
many pits, &c.
() To denote distribution.
E. g. Gen. 32:171^5-, flock flock by itself i. e. each flock
by itself.
(c) To denote all, every.
E. g. Deut 14: 22 nsti nattf year yearL e. every year. Some-
times also with a copula; as Deut 32: 7 THI generation and
generation i. e. all generations; see no. 2 below.
(d) To denote intensity.
E. g. Ecc. 7: 24 pfc* pfe* deep deep i e. very deep. So earnest-
ness in warning or threatening, in grief, joy &c. is usually expressed
by repetition.
NOTE. In order to denote intensity, it is not always necessary that
the same word should be repeated: but a synonymous word, or a word
of similar sound and signification, is often substituted with the same
effect, as Ps. 40: 3 clay mire i. e. the miry clay; Job .30: 3
ruti wasting and destruction L e. great wasting &c. ( 178.2.)
2 Repetition with the copula usually denotes diversity.
E. g. Deut. 26: 13 *t
ne an
stone e
* different stones
or weights; Ps. 12: 3 i b] with a heart and a heart L e. different
hearts, with deceit
170. Nouns; mode of expressing the genitive case.
Although the cases of nouns in Hebrew are not distinguished by
appropriate forms ( 128. 2. 135.1), yet they are properly designat-
ed, as in the English and French languages, by the relations which
nouns sustain in a sentence. Thus, a noun which is the subject of a
sentence is always in the nominative case;a noun which expresses
the relation of property, possession Sac. is in the genitive case;
while those nouns which mark the object of any relation, may be said
generally to be in the objective case; or specifically to be in the geni-
tive, dative, accusative, or ablative, according to the species of relation
of which they are the objects.
t l . Most commonly the genitive case is made by a
noun pr eceding it in the constr uct state ( 135). The
noun itself in the genitive under goes no change.
2. The genitive is of ten expr essed also by cir cumlocu-
tion, viz.
() By b which belongs or is to.
E. g. 1 Sam. 21:8 the overseer of the herdsmen bW'ijb which be-
longed to Saul i. e. of the herdsmen of Saul; Ezek. 41: 9 the breadth
qf the wall $bizb which belonged to the side L e. of the aide-wall.
This kind of circumlocution is more frequent in the later Hebrew, and
is common, with little variation, in all the kindred dialects.
NOTE. This mode of expressing the genitive is most commonly
used, when two or more genitives follow each other in succession;
as Cant. 1.1.
() By b simply.
E. g. 13 the son qf Jesse ; lrpiD the shrub qf the earth
This occurs particularly in the designation of time; as Gen. 7:11
3 3 0
t* the siaXh hundreth year n5"*^nb qf the life qf Noah. Also In desig-
nating an author; as TH*? ITTaTQ a p$akn of David. Or in describing
the materials of a thing; as Ezra 1:11 0^3 vessels of gold.
Instances like those in 6 are common in the kindred dialects, and
, not unfrequent in Hebrew. All of them may be resolved into the
case a, excepting that there is in & an ellipsis of the relative pronoun
as [rrn the son which is to Jesse; so lYiD
ynctb the shrub which belongs to the earth ; the 600th year which be-
longed to the life of Noah, &c.
(c) By *[53 denoting origin.
E. g. Job 6:26 the reproof from you L e. your reproof!
This is unfrequent
NOTE. The genitive in regimen is generally placed immediately
after the noun &c. which causes it to be put in the genitive; but in a
few cases, some word closely connected with the clause is inserted
between the genitive and its antecedent Thus, Gen. 7: 6 rPrt ^353
D* a flood of waters was, Heb. a flood was of waters; Hos. 14:3
b2 thou wilt forgive all transgression, Heb. all thou-wilt-for-
give transgression; Is. 40:12. Job 15:10. One can scarcely refrain
from believing that such cases, so contrary to the common usage of
the Hebrews, must have originated from error in transcribing.
171. Nouns ; use of the genitive case,
1. The genitive marks a gr eat var iety of r elations and
dependencies in Hebr ew, which can be better exhibited
by examples, than taught by r ule.
E. g. Judg. 9 : 24 bga'V *22 DftH the violence qf [towards] the sons
qf Jervbbaal. Prov. 20:2 n72*% the terror qf the king L e. which he
causes. Prov. 1: 7 Hilrp the fear of Jehovah i. e. reverence to-
wards him. 1 Sam. 14: 15 Cnbi* the terror of God L e. that
which God hath sent. Is. 26: 11 D9"TJN3p_ jealousy qf [for] the people.
Lev. 26: 45 rP^a covenant of [with] the elders. Ps. 35:16
31923 mockers of [for] dainties i. e. to obtain them. 1 Sam. 16: 20 "fan
D]V. the ass of bread L e. which carries bread. Ezek. 35:5 r &r
the sin of the end i. e. which brings consummation. Is. 34: 5 o?
the people of my curse i. e. whom I have cursed. Is. 54:9 fib *23 the
waters qf Noah i. e. of the time of Noah.
In short, the connexion and nature of the case must decide the
shade of meaning which the genitive designates; as is evident from
the above examples. Instances of this nature might easily be multi-
2. In Hebr ew, the genitive f r equently stands wher e
we might naturally expect apposition.
E. g. rHB "tH3 the river qf Euphrates i. e. the river Euphrates;
1 K.10*.l& the men of the merchants i. e. the merchantmen.
3. The genitive sometimes f ollows adjectives which
expr ess qualities belonging to the genitive noun.
E. g. 2 Sam. 4: 4 fQS lame of feet L e. in his feet; Ps.
24: 4 ^p.3 pure qf hand* L e. of pure hands; Prov. 6: 32
deficient of [in] understanding. So in Latin, integer vitae, scelerisque pw
rus &c.
4. Sometimes the genitive f ollowing an adjective is
used as a noun of multitude, and the adjective then de-
notes a part of this multitude.
E. g. Prov. 15: 20. 21:20 ^05) the foolish of men L e. fool-
ish men. 1 Sam. 17:40 Jive d**3att smooth of stone* i. e. smooth
stones; Job 41: 7 D'Utt die strong of shields i e. strong shields.
172. Nouns ; construct state vaithout a genitive, <c.
The reason why the vowels of a word in the construct state are
shortened, is the close connexion in which such word stands with the
genitive that usually follows it ( 135.1). But as close a connexion may
exist in some other forms of expression, and of course produce the
same effect upon the vowels of the former noun. Some of these
forms are exhibited below.
t l . The form of the construct state is sometimes f ound
wher e ther e is no regimen, i. e. no word dir ectly govern-
ed by it; as in the f ollowing constructions, viz.
() Before s; as Is. 9: 2 nn^tp the joy in [of] harvest; Is.
0: 11 "Ipsa who rise early in the morning.
() Before b; as Is. 66: 10 Dttb lovers of shsmber.
339 $ 173. mo m; comt kdct st at e.
(e) Before V5; U 14: SO T; i ' gig <i" to
tke stones of the pit
(J) Before Fi*; as Jer. 33: 22 ike Levites ^n'tt tsho serv-
ed me.
(e) Before *po; as Jer. 23: 23 ^1^30 a God near at hand.
( / ) Before b?; as Judg. 6: 10 ^f j f b? "^bin who go on the way.
(g) Before ; as Lev. 4: 24 Oipn the place which. So
also even if is only implied, as Is. 21: 1 *m ttsn n-")p. the city
[where David dwelt, n^-Jp being in the construct form.
{h) Before "] copulative; as Is. 33: 6 MHI n!QDn wisdom and
knowledge. So even where 1 is omitted, as Is. 28: 16.
(t) Sometimes before adjectives; as 2 K. 12: 10 one
cqfer ( 161.1. a, note); Is. 17: 10 *903 pleasant plants.
2. In a veiy f ew cases, the constr uct f orm seems to
stand f or the absolute; or r ather ther e is an ellipsis of
the second noun.
E. g. 2 K. 9: 17 I see n?Dtj a multitude L e. the multitude of Je-
hu, as the preceding part of the verse shows. Ps. 74: 19 give not
n^nb to the beasts i. e. to the beasts of the forest (n9*n), or to the
wild beast So in Ps. 16: 3, k probably for f
supplied from the preceding part of the verse.
Vice versa, for the use of the absolute instead of the construct see
168. 2, 5.
t3. The constr uct state has r ef er ence solely to the
r elation of two nouns to each other , and not at all to the
case of the former of those nouns ( 135. 1.) Hence the
noun in the construct state may be in the nominative,
genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, or ablative case, just
as the other part of the sentence demands.
() In the nominative; as 1 K. 12: 22 DYfbNn ^5"* the word qf
God came to Shemaiah.
() In the genitive; as Job 12: 24 the heart
of the princes qf the people qf the land, where is in the genitive
fai regard to 5b, and in the construct as it respects 09 ; while 09 fc in
the genitive in regard to TON*!, and in the construct as it respects
n n .
(c) In the dative; as Job 3 : 20 to those who are grieved
in spirit, where the former word is in the construct state and also in
the dative.
{d) In the accusative; as 1 Sam. 9: 27 that / may show thee
Clnbit the word of God, where is in the construct state and also
in the accusative.
(e) In the vocative; as 2 K. 1: 13 O man of God.
( / ) In the ablative ; as Ps. 17 : 4 by the word of thy
lips, where the first noun is in the construct state and also in the ablative.
173. Nouns ; mode of designating other oblique cases.
1. The dative is marked by b signif ying to or for.
NOTE. In a few cases ^ stands before the nominative; as 1 Chr.
3:2 the third was Absalom. Sometimes before the accusa-
tive ; as Ezra 8: 16 / sent Eliezer &c. The latter case is
f 2. Tiie accusative is sometimes designated by DM; oth-
er wise it is without any distinctive sign.
NOTE 1. The use of nit with the accusative is limited (a) to nouns
with the article; (6) to nouns having a genitive or suffix after them;
(c) to proper names. Consequently it is used only in cases where a
definite idea fe conveyed by the noun. The particle DfiJ is much more
frequent in prose than in poetry.'
NOTE 2. But nft is sometimes used before the nominative, as 2 K.
6: 5 bjna-ruil and the iron fell into the water ; especially before the
nominative of passive verbs, as Gen. 17: 5 thy name shaU no
more be called Abram. Sometimes before the nominative of neuter
verbs; as 2 Sam. 11: 25 let not this matter displease
thee ; Ezek. 35: 10 the two nations are mine.
It is most probable, that originally nij was a pronoun signifying this,
the, the same. So the Rabbinic Hebrew uses it, as irriita on the
same day; see Ges. Lehrgeb. p. 684. Allowing it to be a pronoun, we
may account for its being placed before the nominative &c.
3. The vocative gener ally has the ar ticle.
4. The ablative takes *j!D from, out of; 2 in, by ; 03?
with &c.
334 174,175. NOUNS ; USE or THE ACCUSATIVE, ETC.
174. Nouns ; use of the accusative case
t l . The accusative commonly, as in other languages,
denotes the object of a transitive ver b.
t2. The accusative, in a gr eat number of cases, f or ms
adverbial designations of time, place, measure &c. and is
also used in all those cases wher e the Gr eeks understand
*crra, and the Latins, secundum, quoad f r c.
Hence circumstances like the following are usually put In the ac-
cusative case.
() Place whither; as 2 Chr. 20 : 36 tZTttnp to goto Tar-
() Place where; as Gen. 18:1 bnk?l~nn$ at the door qf the tent.
(c) Time when and how long; as tn the evening ; in the
morning. So Gen. 27: 44 during certain day*.
(d) Measure; as Gen. 1: 20 the water* rose fifteen nK cubit*.
(e) The material of which any thing Is made; as Gen. 2:7 Godform-
ed man qf dust from the earth. See 197. ,
( f ) Cases where Hard would be implied in Greek; as 1 K. 16:23
lame as to hi* feet ; Ps. 3: 8 thou hast smitten ail thine en-
emies as to [on] the cheek bone.
(g) Cases where a noun is taken in an adverbial signification; as
Deut 23: 24 n2*J2 voluntarily ; Ezek. 11:19 THfiJ 2b unanimously ;
Ex. 24: 3 b^p unanimously, &c.
3. The accusative is sometimes put af ter ver bal nouns
of an active signif ication, and is gover ned by them.
E. g. 2 K. 4: 1 rhn^-n^ K*V fearing Jehovah ; Is. 111 9 n^J
nHn^~nt$ the knowledge of Jehovah, lit the state of knowing Jehovah.
175. Nouns ; cast absolute
tl* By case absolute is meant the case of a noun which
stands in the beginning of a sentence, without any ver b or
pr edicate dir ectly belonging to it
2. The case absolute is commonly the nominative;
and it is sometimes connected with the r est of a sentence
in the f ollowing manner.
() By Vav copulative; as Job 36 : 26 Kb] Y*3 as to
the number of his years, surely there is no computation (f it.
() Tbe nominative absolute is often found where the sense
requires an oblique case, and then the oblique case is most commonly
made by a pronoun, viz. for the genitive, as Ps. 18:31 ISHU Cttn btttt
as to Oodf perfect is his way, instead of
the way of God is perfect'; for
the accusative, as Ps. 74:17 fin* as to summer and
winter, thou hast made them. So Jer. 6:19 H3 'nnin as to my
law, they have abhorred it.
(c) Sometimes a participle is joined with the nominative, which
makes it like the English case absolute; as 1 Sam. 2:13 H3T iB-it-blD
any man offering a sacrifice, the servant of the priest came, &c.
NOTE. Pronouns are found in the case absolute, as well as nouns.
3. The case absolute is sometimes made by the oblique
() By the accusative ; as Gen. 47 : 21 as to the people,
he led them from one town to another.
() By the dative; as Ps. 16:3 D-ttrtlpb. as to the saints who are in the
land, all my delight is in them.
(c) By the ablative; as Gen. 2:17 Site ns^rr fajTj as to the
tree of knowledge <f good and evil, thou shaM not eat qf it, &c. '
176. Nouns ; construction of numerals fyc.
1. The cardinal numbers f rom two to ten, ar e common-*
1y constr ucted with plural nouns in the f ollowing manner ;
the gender being usually the same as that of the noun.
(a) In the construct state with nouns to which they
r elate. _
(b) In apposition, or per haps adverbially, with the
nouns to which they r elate, and either bef or e or af ter
E. g. three sons; flrtbtt) rn32 three daughters.
The method of putting the cardinal after the noun Is less com-
mon, and belongs rather to the later Hebrew.
NOTE, The forms of one are commonly adjectives. ( 6 162 3*)
2. The cardinal numbers f rom eleven to nineteen ar e put
in apposition, or r ather adverbially, with nouns either sin-
gular or plural, and commonly stand bef or e the noun, but
sometimes af ter it The gender is usually the same as
that of the noun.
E g. Num. 1: 44 VVti twehe men; 2 Sam. 9: 10 iTBSTt
D^:i ntor fifteen sons, be.
3. The tens, or cardinal numbers f r om twenty to ninety,
ar e of common gender ; ar e put in apposition with nouns
either singular or plural ; and may stand either bef or e or
af ter the noun.
E. g. Judg. 11: 33 V* twenty cities ; Gen. 32: 15
ta^toy twenty rams.
4. Number s composed of tens and units, such as 26,
34, 48 &c when standing bef or e the noun, r equir e it to be
in the singular ; but when the noun pr ecedes, it is in the
(Jur al In both cases, the gender of the smaller numeral
is the same as that of the noun.
E. g. Dent. 2:14 ftsu} njintth thirty and eight yean / Joe.
19: 30 &*"!* cities twenty and two, &c*
5. The numerals Htttl hundred and thousand may
be put in either the absolute or construct state with
nouns either singular or plural, and may stand either be-
f or e or af ter the noun.
E. g. Gen. 17:17 a hundred yean; 25: 7, 17 ntfD
a hundred of yean; 2 Chr. 3: 16 100 pomegranates; Is. 7:
23 a thousand of vines ; Ezra 8: 27 D^b-jn 1000 Darics.
NOTE. Numbers composed of thousands and smaller numbers fol-
low the same rule as composite numerals in no. 4 above.
6* In many cases, the numerals ar e used alone to de-
signate weights and measur es in common use, the noun
being omitted. (211.)
E. g. Gen. 20: 16 a thousand shekels of siher ; Ruth 3:
15 0^9 to six measures qf barley ; 1 Sam. 10: 4 two
loaves of bread. The word naK cubit commonly takes the preposition
s after the numeral; as Ex. 27: 18 rnaNl SINE one hundred in cubits
i. e. 100 cubits.
7. The cardinal numbers beyond ten ar e also used as
ordinals ; and ar e either put before the noun and in ap-
position with it, or ar e put in the genitive after the noun.
E. g. Gen. 7:11 Qi'
-ito? d* seventeenth day; 1 K. 16 :
10 *5^1 njipa in the year of twenty seven L e. the twenty sev-
enth year.
NOTE. For the ordinal numbers below ten, see 152. I I .
8. The cardinal numbers below ten ar e also used as or-
dinals in designating year s and days of the month.
E. g. 2 K. 18:10 ttfti n3 the sixth year; Gen. 8: 5 nna
on the first day of the month ; Lev. 23 :32 ttJMpna on the ninth
qf the month, &c.
9. The cardinal number s ar e used distributively by r e-
peating them without a copula.
E. g. Gen. 7: 8 two and two, or two by two; 7:3 JVili
iTJpip seven and seven, or by sevens
10. The answer to the question how often? is made
by a cardinal number joined with step, time, either
expr essed or under stood.
E. g. Jos. 6: 3, 11, 14 nn$ &9D once ; Ex. 34 : 23 D*SD*&
three times ; 2 K. 6: 10 nnf tt once ; Gen. 4: 24 seventy
seven times.
11. Fr actions of number s ar e expr essed by T part
joined with cardinal number s.
E. g. 2 K. 11: 7 two third-parts = | ; Gen. 47: 24
r n*Vf l four fifth-park ~ tic. In Zech. 13: 8 two thirds are
expressed by The denominator of the fraction Is usually to
be gathered from the context
3 3 8 17 7 , 1 7 8 . ADJECTIVES; COMPARISON.
177* Adjectives / comparative degree.
f l - The compar ative degr ee in adjectives is made by
using It) prce, in comparison of, af ter the adjective and be-
f or e the noun with which the comparison is made.
E. g. Judg. 14: 18 pt as sweeter than honey ; Ps. 19: 11.
t2. In the same manner also, *Jt3 is used to make a
comparison af ter nouns or ver bs signif ying condition or
E. g. Is. 52: 14 hit visage ntTCJTa was marred more than amy
man's ; Gen. 41:40 ^ 8 / will be greater than thou.
3. The par ticle of comparison *|23, when used bef or e
the inf initive mood, implies a negative, and may be tr ans-
lated so that not, or than that, according as the sentence is
E. g. Gen. 4 : 13 fclitoitt "*2*15 my iniquity is great so that it
cannot be pardoned, or greater than that it can be pardoned.
NOTE 1. Sometimes the adjective necessary to make out the compar-
ison is omitted; as Is. 10: 10 their gods were more powerful
than those of Jerusalem.
NOTE 2. In the Rabbinic, comparison is made by more. In
Arabic it is made by prefixing t, both for the comparative and super-
lative degrees. In the New Testament the positive degree not unfre-
quently is used for both the others, in imitation of the Hebrew.
178. Adjective* ; superlative degree.
t l . The Hebr ew has no appropriate f or m nor con-
struction to mark the super lative degr ee of adjectives j
but expr esses it by various circumlocutions in the f ollowing
(a) By the article prefixed to an adjective of the positive degree;
as 1 Sam. 17: 14 David was *}Dj^n the smallest. The Arabian makes
his superlative by prefixing the article to the comparative form.
(6) By a genitive or suffix following the adjective; as 2 Chr. 21:
17 v: a the smallest of his sons ; Mic. 7: 4 the best of them.
(c) A superlative of intensity is formed, when a word is repeated
and put in the genitive plural; as CSHjDH d'lp holy of holies i. e. most
holy place; Ecc. 1: 1 D^an Vatt vanity qf vanities i. e. exceedingly
vain. So 1 K. 8: 27 heaven if heavens L e. the highest heaven; Gen.
9: .25 servant of servants L e. a most abject servant; Deut 10:17 God
qf gods L e. the supreme God &c.
(d) The comparative degree sometimes necessarily expresses the
sense of the superlative; as Gen. 3: 1 now the serpent was baa WW*
nn cunning above all the beasts qf the field i. e. the most cunning
of all."
(e) Some nouns necessarily imply a superlative; viz. (l) ttfiH
heady as Ps. 137: 6 Yin&ip TCfiO the'head of my joy L e. my highest
joy; (2) "lisa first born, as Is. 14 : 30 0*^1 -"1132 first born qf the
varetchedi. e. most wretched; Job 18: 13 nj a the first born qf
death L e. the most terrible death.
2. Besides the above modes of expr essing a superla-
tive, the Hebr ew exhibits a var iety of methods by which
intensity of meaning is denoted.
() By very or "16M3 very very ; as Gen. 7: 19 the waters
increased Ttttt IKS very exceedingly &c.
() By repeating the same word; see 169.
(c) By two synonymous words see 169. d, note.
{d) By repeating the same word and putting it in the genitive
when repeated; as Hos. 10: 15 the evil of your evil i. e.
your base wickedness. Sometimes a synonyme is used in the genitive
instead of the same word being repeated.
(e) The name of God placed after a noun is intensive; as Jonah
3: 3 a great city DTlb&6 before God i. e. really or truly very great;
Gen. 10: 9 Nimrod was a mighty hunter ttjrp before Jehovah i. e.
exceedingly expert in. hunting. So Acts 7 : 20 Moses was dare tog n?
Stop fair to God L e. very fair; Luke 1: 6 righteous ivamov tov
Beov before God i. e. really or eminently pious.
179. Adjectives qualifying nouns
t l . Adjectives used as epithets, or simply qualif ying
nouns, generally agr ee with the noun in gender and number .
What is said here respecting the adjective, is applicable almost
universally to participles and pronominal adjectives when they modify
NOTE. For the use of the article with adjectives, see 165. For
the use of adjectives before a genitive, see 171. 3.
2. The pluralis excellentiae commonly, but not always,
takes an adjective singular. ( 167. 2.)
E.g. Is. 19: 4
hard master; but also Jos. 24: 19
D^Bf tp
a holy God.
3. Nouns of multitude in the singular commonly, but-
not always, require a plural adjective.*
E. g. Jer. 50: 6 niTS# ffite a wanderingJlock.
4. Dual nouns take plural adjectives.
E. g. Is. 35: 3 0*T weak hands.
5. Nouns of common gender , having more than one
adjective, admit both the masculine and f eminine f orms in
the adjectives.
E. g. 1 K. 19: 11 pTTVj ftbilt a great and strong wind.
t6. Adjectives qualif ying nouns are usually put after the
nouns which they qualif y.
The number of apparent exceptions to this rule is so very small,
and some of them so equivocal, that it appears dubious whether real
exceptions are to be admitted. See however Ps. 89: 51
D"MC? all the numerous peoples; also Is. 53: 11. Jer. 3: 7, 10. 16: 16.
NOTE. The pronominal adjective this not unfrequently precedes
the noun with which it agrees.
7. When an adjective ser ves to qualif y two or more
Notb. When the concord it directed by the sense, as in nos. % 3, rather
(ban by the grammatical form of the noun, it is called conttrvctio ad sensum.
nouns, it is usually put af ter them; and the gender of it
may be either masculine as the more wor thy, or the same
as the gender of the last noun.
E. g. Neh. 9:13 rhx&i good laws and statutes; Ezek,
1: 11 ninno dn."*: their faces and wings were separated.
Here niT^B a participial adjective is feminine, as is the noun also
which next precedes it
180. Adjectives as predicates
t l . When an adjective is the pr edicate of a sentence,
and the ver b of existence is omitted, the adjective
stands regularly bef or e the noun and is usually without the
ar ticle.
E. g. Gen. 4: 13 Vila great is my iniquity.
In a very few cases it stands after the noun; as in Gen. 19 : 20.
1 Sam. 12:17.
t2. When an adjective is the pr edicate of a sentence,
it gener ally agr ees in number and gender with the noun
to which it r elates.
The exceptions to this genera] rule are quite numerous in He-
brew ; but they may probably all be explained on the principle, that
when adjectives are used as predicates, they are often to be taken in
an abstract sense as nouns of the neuter gender. Thus Ps. 73: 28
O^nVi* approach to God id to me delightful i. e. a pleasant or
delightful thing; the noun being in the feminine and the adjective in
the masculine standing as a neuter noun ( 162). So Gen. 27:29
VT"!^ the cursers of thee are cursed i. e. an accursed thing; the
noun being in the masculine plural and the adjective in the masculine
singular for the neuter.
So Virgil Aen. iv. 569 varium et mutabUe semper femina ; Statius
Theb. n. 399 btandum potestas; Achill. Tat. novrjQQv piv yuvi?. So
TO NF, VD napxu the universe, rational or material.
3. When it is necessary to use the ar ticle bef or e an
adjective employed as a pr edicate, the ver b of existence
( mn) or its equivalent the pronoun is usually insert-
ed.' '( 183.)
4 5
E. g. 1 Sam. 17: 14 11*? David was the smaUest L e. the
youngest. In cases of this kind, the adjective is placed after the noun
to which it relates.
4. In like manner, par ticiples used f or the pr esent tense
of ver bs, sometimes stand as pr edicates af ter the noun,
and take the ar ticle. ( 203.)
E. g. Deut. 3: 21 *JT?
tfline see
181. Pronouns ; concord with nouns.
t l . In gener al, pronouns agr ee with the noun f or which
they stand, in number, gender , and per son.
2. From this general rule there are several exceptions of not unfre-
quent occurrence, which may be arranged in the following order, viz.
() As to number; as Deut. 21: 10 when thou goest forth against
thine ENEMIES and God ISNA gives HIM into thine hand; Deut
28: 48. Jos. 2 : 4 and the woman took the two MEN and secreted HIM,
&c. See the note below.
() As to gender; as Ezek. 13: 20 onfig and Ruth 1: 22 iTTBt} re-
ferring to women; Ex. 1: 21 and God made Dnb for them i. e. the
midwives; Judg. 19: 24. 21 : 22. Is. 3: 16. So vice versa Deut 5:
24. Ezek. 28:14 and 2 Sam. 4:6. Jer. 60:6 fiSH referring to men.
(c) As to both number and gender; as Job 39: 14 iTWi
SHE leaveth HER eggs, where the antecedent is 0^33^ in the plural mas-
culine ; Is. 3b: 1 in the dwelling CSF) of the jackals and rT213'l in HER
couching place, where is plural and masculine; Job 6:20. 14:19.
NOTE. In cases like the above, the pronoun is to be regarded as
teed sometimes in either a collective or distributive sense ( 167. 1.
188. 4), and sometimes in an abstract neuter sense ( 180. 2).
These anomalies are common in Arabic, and were probably intro-
duced into written language from the expressions of common life.
182. Pronouns ; use of the primitives
t l . The pr imitive personal pronouns ar e usually, but
not always, in the nominative case. ( 66.)
2. When a pronoun of any f orm is to be r epeated f or
the sake of emphasis ( 178. 2), it is done by using the
pr imitive f or m; which may then be in any case r equir ed
by the nature of the sentence.
() In the nominative; as Ps. 9: 7 ISfit the memory qf
them of them has perished L e. the very memory of them &c.
() In the genitive ; a s l K. 21: \9 the dogs shall lick
D the blood of thee even of thee.
(c) In the dative; as Hag. 1: 4 0!dV rtiT is it time for you
yourselves ?
(d) In the accusative; as Gen. 27 : 34 *: Ett 'srnj bless me even
(e) In the ablative ; as 1 Sam. 25: 4 ^38 with me even me
be this evil.
NOTE. The primitive pronoun is sometimes placed first; as Gen.
49: 8 Jttdah *pJJ$ Hni* thee even thee shall thy brethren praise.
3. The pronoun is sometimes used by way of empha-
sis, instead of r epeating a noun. ( 169.)
E. g. Gen. 4: 27 TjC DJ and to Seth even to him was
born a son.
NOTE. The construction described in this section is very common
in Arabic; although in Hebrew it has been in a great measure over-
looked, until the publication of Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar.
* 183. Pronouns used for the verb of existence.
1. When a personal pronoun is the subject of a sen-
tence, it implies the ver b of existence between it and
the pr edicate. The ver b itself is usually omitted. (211.)
E. g. Gen. 42: 11 righteous are we ; Gen. 29: 4
Dn whence are ye? Gen. 3: 10 naked am /.
2. Personal pronouns of the third person sometimes
stand simply in the place of the ver b of existence.
E. g. Gen. 9: 3 every thing which moves "*n fit i n which is alive ;
Ps. 16 : 3 the saints who are in the land; Zech. 1:
9 iron ilB what are these ?
344 184. PRONOUNS ; use or THE surrix PRONOUNS.
NOTE. This sense of the pronoun of the third person is still more
plainly exhibited when the subject of the proposition is in the first or
second person; as Zeph. 2 : 12 ye Cushites, victims of. my sword Dntf
Sran are ye! 2 Sam. 7:28 D^rfbNH anirnntf thou art God; Ezra 6:
11 the servants of God iran are we, these words being Chaldaic
and answering to the Hebrew Man In Syriac and Arabic, this
use of the personal pronoun is very common. /
184. Pronouns ; use of the suffix pronouns.
t l . In gener al, the pronouns suf f ixed to ver bs ar e in
the accusative case ( 126.1), while those suf f ixed to nouns
ar e in the genitive case. ( 135. 3.)
2. Ver bal suf f ixes ar e sometimes used in the f ollowing
constr uctions, viz.
() In the dative; as Jos. 15: 19 thou hast given TO me;
Zech. 7 : 5 "
23N7325TR have ye footed FOE me FOR me i. e. on my ac-
count ( 182. 2. c); Job 10: 14 if I sin then ikon watchest it
FOR me i. e. on my account; Prov. 13: 20 nO'lfc i^rr-Zi he seeks FOR
him correction; Ps. 94: 20 is it bound TO thee ?
() To denote relations which are usually expressed by particles;
as Is. 65: 5 I am more holy THAN thou; 1 K. 21: 10
and caused them to testify AGAINST him ; Ps. 42: 5 D^S* I mowed along
WITH them, &c. This usage is more frequent in Arabic.
3. The suf f ixes of nouns ar e sometimes used in the f ol-
lowing constr uctions, viz.
() In the dative ; as Ps. 116: 7 D! 3 " * 3 > t h e y have hands
they have feet, for 3^b hands are to them, &c.
() Instead of the preposition b?; as Ex. 15:7 those who
rise up AGAINST thee, instead of 'spV* S"V3|2. So Ps. 53: 6
t4. The suf f ixes of nouns may have either an active or
a passive sense.
() Active; as ''CCll my violence L e. that which I do; tny
book i. e. that which I possess. This sense of the suffixes is the com-
mon one.
() Passive; as Jer. 51 : 35 my violence i. e. done upon me;
Ex, 20: 20 in&JV his fear i. e. which he inspires; Is. 56: 7 'nbBn my
prayer I. e. offered to me; Ps. 66: 13 thy vows i. e. made to
thee; Is. 21: 2 ftnnsM her sighing i. e. a sighing over her. Compare
NOTE. For the pleonasm and ellipsis of personal pronouns, see -
185. Pronouns ; place of the suffix pronouns
t l . When a noun in the genitive is used mer ely to
qualif y a pr eceding noun ( 161.1. a), the suf f ix pronoun,
which as to the sense belongs to the first noun, is usually
placed af ter the second.
E. g. Dan. 9: 24 "i** thy holy city, lit the city of thy holi-
ness ; Is. 2: 20 "IBDD his silver idols, lit the idols of his silver;
Zeph. 3:11 proud exuUers, lit the exulters of thy
pride, &c.
NOTE. In a few cases the suffix is attached to the first noun; as
Ps. 71: 7 fyiDnq my strong refuge, lit my refuge of strength.
2. Suf f ix pronouns ar e usually placed in a sentence
after the noun f or which they stand; but sometimes this
noun is not mentioned until af ter the pronoun, either im-
mediately or per haps at the distance of sever al senten-
ces ; and sometimes it is to be supplied only f r om the
gener al sense of the passage.
E. g. Ps. 87:1 "'Vina its foundation U on the holy moun-
tain L e. Zion's, as appears from v. 2; Is. 8: 21 ns 129 he passes
through it L e. the land, see v. 22; Ps. 9:13 when he taketh vengeance
for blood "OT Dnitt he remembereth them i. e. the afflicted, as in the
second part crfF the parallelism; Ps. 65: 10. 68: 15. 18: 15 D3piJ* he
discomfited them i. e. the enemies, as in v. 18. So Job 37: 4 after it
[lightning] roars the thunder 03) 5?^ nor he suffer THEM to delay
when his voice is heard, where THEM must mean the row, hail &c. which
follow thunder. See also the book of Nahum, which is wholly an or-
acle against Nineveh, although that city is first mentioned in c. 2: 9;
unless the inscription of the book is to be taken as part of the prophe-
cy. In Is. 45: 13 is a prophecy respecting Cyrus, as appears from v.
11 compared with c. 44: 28. 48: 14, 15.
3 4 6
NOTE. Sometimes, although the pronoun is immediately preceded by
a noun, it does not refer to that noon, but to one which most be sap-
plied from the sense; as Ps. 44: 3 by thy hand thou didst drive out the
nation* and didst plant THEM i. e. the Israelites, as appears from
v. 2. So Ps. 81: 16 comp. v. 14. Ps. 105 : 37. Gen. 10: 12, where
probably refers to Nineveh in v. 11.
* 186. Pronoun* ; ttte of noun* in place of personal pronouns
1. ID addressing a super ior , the Hebr ews commonly
avoided using the pronouns of the f ir st and second per -
sons, and employed f or the f ir st the words SpD? thy ser-
vant, thy handmaid &c. and f or the second, the wor d
*21*18 my lord, &c.
E. g. Gen. 44: 16 what shall we say to my lord ? God hath discov*
ed the guilt of thy servants ; lo, we are servants to my lord. Verse 19
my lord asked his servants &c. i. e. thou didst enquire of as.
2. The place of the personal pronouns, especially
when the sentence is r ef lexive, is of ten supplied by the
most distinguished and essential par ts of either the exter -
nal or internal man, as f ollows.
() By soul most frequently; as Job 9: 21 *$? *3$ rib /
know not myself; Ps. 7: 3 lest like a lion h* rend me ; Ps.
3: 3 "Wab to me; Ps. 11: 1. 16:10. 36: 3. Amos 1: 8 Jehovah
hath sworn iUHDSB by himself.
() By D^aB person ; as Prov. 7: 15 to seek thee ; Ezek.
6 : 9 WTOM 3&3p3 they abhor themselves, kc.
(c) By heart; as Ex. 9: 14 thyself i Ps 16: 9 /
myself, &c.
(d) Occasionally by several other words; as life; Ps. 7:6.
16: 9 -riSS heart, soul; Is. 26: 9 ttn spirit; Ps. 6: 8 eye; Ps.
16: 9 flesh; Ps. 17: 14 belly; Ps. 6: 3 D3 bone,'be.
NOTE. The same usage prevails very extensively in Aramaean and
* 187. Pronouns; use of the relative.
1. T h e r el at i ve pronoun is used wi t h ant ece-
dent s of all persons, number s, and genders. ( 68. )
NOTE. When the pr onouns FIT and =1T ar e used as r elatives ( 68. 3) ,
they imitate "HDSt in being of alt per sons, number s, and gender s; as
Job 19: 19 "'nsnf ij }-IN and THOSE WHOM I have loved.
2. T h e r el at i ve "TON is of t en used wi t h ot her words,
mer el y to give t he m a relative sense.
() With nouns and pr onouns; as Gen. 13:16 IttJSt which
dust; ib to whom; ir itt whom; Deut. 28: 49 iSWb IIBK
whose language; Ps. 1 : 4 which the wind scatters, &c.
() With adver bs; as DUi where ; D1ZJ23 "nUiiSt whence, &c.
NOTE 1. The wor d HpN is commonly, but not always, separ ated
f r om the wor d which it qualif ies, by another wor d.
NOTE 2. The wor d which "V#** ser ves to qualif y is of ten omitted;
as Ezek. 21: 35 in the place [5a] where thou wast crea-
ted; Ex. 32: 34 [Oip ] to what place; Is. 43: 4 [n] IttNJD
from what time, &c.
For the ellipsis of 111)8*, see 211.
188. Verbs ; concord with nouns.
In this section ar e exhibited those gener al r ules of concor d, which
the Hebr ew has in common with most other languages. For anoma-
lies in concor d peculiar to the Hebr ew, see the next section.
t l . In general , a ve r b agr ees wi t h its nomi nati ve case
in number , gender , and person.
t 2 . Nouns of mul t i t ude in t he singular of t en t ake a
ver b in t he plural.
E. g. Gen. 33: 13 then all the flock will die. See
179. 3 note*.
NOTE. Sometimes none but ver bs in the singular ar e employed af ter
nouns of multitude ; in other cases a sentence begins with a ver b sin-
gular and pr oceeds with plur al ver bs; as Ex. 1: 20. 33 : 4. Is. 2:
20. Ps. 14: 1, &c.
Di gi t i zed bv
3. When sever al nominatives, either all masculine or
of dif f er ent gender s, ar e connected, they usually take a
ver b in the plural masculine.
E. g. Ex. 17: 10 and Moses and Aaron and Hur 3^9 ascended ; Pa.
85: 11
d truth are met together ; Gen. 8:
22, &c.
For exceptions to the above general rule, see 189.9.
4. When the subject and pr edicate of a sentence ar e
connect ed by the ver b of existence (r W), the ver b of ten
agr ees with the latter .
E. g. Gen. 27 : 39 "Satifc rich countries shall
be thine abode ; 31 : 8. Lev. 25:33. Ezek. 35: 15, &c.
5. Dual nouns take ver bs like nouns plural.-
189. Verbs ; anomalies in concord
I. As to number.
t l . The pluralis excellentiac commonly, but not always,
takes a ver b in the singular. ( 167. 2.)
E. g. Gen. 1: 1 God created; Ex. 21: 29 nV
his owner shall be put to death.
NOTE. The pluralis excellentiae, In a very few cases, takes a verb
in the plural, viz. Gen. 20: 13. 31: 53. 35: 7. Ex. 32: 4, 8. 2 Sam.
7: 23.
2. Plural nominatives of the f eminine gender , which r e-
late to beasts or things and not to persons, f r equently take
a ver b singular, whether it pr ecede or f ollow them.*
E. g. Ezek. 26: 2 rrtr&T broken is [are] the gates ; Joel
1: 20 any?3 niaj^a the bouts cry ; Gen. 49 : 22. Jer. 4 : 14. 48 : 41
51:29, 56. Ps. 119: 98. Job 27 : 20, &c.
NOTE. The 3 pen. fern, plural of the future seems to be used, in
some cases, for the 3 pen. fem. singular of the same; as Ex. 1: 10
when there shall happen war; Judg. 5: 26. Job
* NOTE. This construction of the feminine plural with a verb singular is
technically called the pluralis inhvmanu. Compare in Greek the neater pin*
rals joiued with verba singular.
3. When a nominative plural is used in a distributive
sense, viz. to denote each or every one of the subjects in
question, it of ten takes a ver b in the singular.
E. g. Ex. 31 : 14 nttO SvlrbJifc every one who profanes it [the sab-
bath] shall be put to death, lit. they who profane it; Prov. 27: 16.
28: 1, &c.
4. When the ver b pr ecedes a plur al nominative, it is
not unf r equently put in the singular .
E. g. 1 Sam. 1: 2 h33s)b and there was to Peninnah
children i. e. Peninnah had children; Is. 13: 22 tP'tt !132> the jackals
shall howl; Deut. 5: 7. Judg. 13: 12. 2 Sam. 21: 6. Ps. 124 : 5. In
all such cases, the verb is used in a kind of impersonal way, like the
French il vient des hommes, there comes some men.
NOTE 1. Sentences often begin in this manner with a verb angu-
lar, and proceed with a verb plural; as Gen. 1: 14 rrilJta TP let
there be lights in the firmament and let them be for signs &c. Num.
9: 6. Ezek. 14:1. Esth. 9 : 23. *'
NOTE 2. In analogy with the above rule, when the verb follows
a plural nominative, it is in a very few cases put in the singular ; as
Ecc. 2: 7 r r n 'as there were slaves to me i. e. I had slaves;
Gen. 46: 22 these were the sons of Rachel which [there was]
were born to Jacob ; Gen. 35 : 26. Dan. 9 : 24. Is. 64 : 10.
II. As to gender.
5. Feminine nominatives, either singular or plur al, some-
times take a ver b masculine, whether it pr ecedes or f ol-
lows them.
E. g. 1 Sam. 25: 27 SjnnDtp thine handmaid brought; 1 Chr.
2: 48 the concubine bore ; Judg. 21: 21 niaa DK if
the. daughters go out; Ruth 1: 8 the Lord shew kindness unto you even as
YE [Ruth and Orpah] DIJ'W have done to the dead ; Is. 57: 8
and thou hast made for thyself a covenant, where the subject of the
verb is feminine as the context plainly shews. So Lev. 2:8. 11: 32.
1 K. 22: 36. Ecc. 7:7. 12: 5. Jer. 3: 5. Cant 3:5. 5:8. 8 :
4, &c.
6. In a ver y f ew cases, a masculine nominative is f ol-
lowed by a ver b f eminine.
E. g. Ecc. 7: 27 rf^'p saith the preacher, where the verb
follows the grammatical form of the nominative, rather than the sense
of it; Judg. 11: 39 pH'Tini and it became a custom in Israel, where
pn may be perhaps of common gender.
7. Nouns of common gender take either a mascu-
line or f eminine ver b, and sometimes both in the same
constr uctioa
E. g. Is. 33: 9 nbbttN biN the land mourns and is withered;
14:7. 2 Sam. 22: 8 Qerl * Job 20 : 26. Jer. 2: 24.
NOTE. There are many more nouns of the common gender in He-
brew, than has been generally supposed (Ges. Lehrgeb. p. 472);
which accounts for many supposed anomalies of gender.
8. Nouns of multitude f r equently take a ver b f eminine,
and in some cases admit no other .
E. g. Ex. 5: 16 nttttn thy people have sinned. The names of
nations often take a feminine verb; as Ps. 114: 2. This construction
resembles that of the pluralis fractus in Arabic, which often takes a
verb feminine, whatever the sense of the noun may be.
9. When sever al nominatives of dif f er ent gender s ar e
connected, the ver b sometimes agr ees with a masculine
noun as the most wor thy, and sometimes conf orms to the
noun which stands near est to it.
() With a masculine noun; as Prov. 27 : 9 lab nato*
ointment and perfume make glad the heart; Hos. 9: 2, &c.
() With the nearest noun j as Num. 12: 1
then spake Miriam and Aaron ; Num. 20: 11 rtttjni and
the assembly and their cattle drank; Gen. 7: 7. 1 K. 17: 15. Esth. 9 :
29, &c.
For the general rule respecting composite nominatives, see 188.3.
NOTE. Where there are several nominatives connected, and the
sentence begins with a verb singular, it commonly proceeds with a
verb plural; as Gen. 21: 32. 24:61. 31: 14.33: 7. (Supra 4 note 1.)
III. As to both number and gender.
10. Feminine nouns of multitude in the singular of ten
take a ver b in the plural masculine.
E. g. 1 Sam. 2: 33 all rpaltt the increase of thy house shall
die ; Jer. 44 : 12 rp'HiS'ij the remainder of Jtidah who Wuj set their fa-
ces ; Zeph. 2: 9. Gen. 48: 6. This is the constructio ad sensum.
( 179. 3 note * )
11. Plur al nominatives of the f eminine gender some-
times take a ver b in the singular masculine, whether
they pr ecede or f ollow the ver b.
E. g. Job 42: 15 Dips Mb there were not found women
so beautiful; Jer. 48 : 15 Jlbi? 'pi* her towns ascended in the flames;
Ex. 13 : 7. 1 K. 11 : 3. Is. 17 : 6. *Mic. 2: 6. Hab. 3: 17. Ps. 57 : 2.
Job 22: 9. Compare no. 4 above.
12. When the subject of a ver b is a noun in the. con-
str uct state f ollowed by a genitive, the ver b sometimes
agr ees with the second noun, or genitive.
E. g. 2 Sam. 10: 9 and Joab saw that rWftbE the front
of the battle was against him, where the verb agrees with nnfibjq; Is.
22: 7 ittbtt the choice part of thy vallies i. e. thy choice
vallies shall be fiUed, where the verb agrees with So Job 29:
10.38:21. Is. 2:11. Jer. 10: 21, &c.
190. Verbs impersonal and with indefinite subjects
t l . Imper sonal ver bs ar e made in Hebr ew by the
thir d per son masculine or f eminine of either the pr aetcr
or f utur e tense.
E. g.
d & happened ; ^ it is bitter to me ; ^ ft =13^ I am
quiet, lit. it is quiet to me; ^b I3t or ib 1^*2 it was grievous to him ;
1 Sam. 30: 6 THb 12$rQ and it was grievous to David ; Job 4: 5 and
now ttian it comes upon thee.
In Gen. 4: 26 the passive form is used impersonally; viz. then
blW7 it was begun to call upon the name of Jehovah, for men began fa.
NOTE. Impersonal verbs commonly take after them a dative case
with the preposition b. If we translate them as personal verbs, the
subject of the verb is to be made by rendering this dative case as t
nominative; as ^b lit / am grieved, lit it is grievous to me.
t2. Id Hebr ew many ver bs of ten belong to indef inite
nominatives, such as tPK, &c. which ar e sometimes
expr essed, but ar e mor e f r equently omitted.
This construction answers to the use of on, taut le monde &c. in
French, or to the Greek fo'yovot &c. and is quite common in Hebrew.
The following are examples.
E. g. Gen. 11:9 one called ; Gen. 48: 1 "^ri^l and one told /
1 Sam. 26 : 20 at one pursues a partridge ; 16 : 23. Is. 9: 5. 64 :
3 from everlasting rib they have not heard ; 47 : 1 rib
they shall not call thee 4*c. Dan. 1:12. Hosea 2: 9.
NOTE 1. When a nominative is expressed, it is sometimes tt'W &c.
and sometimes the active participle of the verb is employed; as Is.
16: 10 ^ treader shall tread i. e. one shall tread; Is.
28: 4 the seer sees i. e. one sees; 2 Sam. 17: 9. Deut.
22: 8. So in the plural; as Jer. 31 : 5 the planters shall
plant L e. one shall plant; Nab. 2: 3.
NOTE 2. The 3 pers. plural is often to be rendered passively in
such cases, in order to represent the meaning in English; as Job 34:
20 "PSN *"^02 d*
6 m
** removed, lit. they remove the mighty
one; Prov. 9:11 for by me V are increased [lit they increase]
thy days, and years are added [lit they add] to thee; Job 4: 19.
7 : 3. 17 : 12. 19 : 26. 32 : 15.
Sometimes, perhaps, the 3 pers. singular may also be rendered
passively; as Is. 28: 2. Job 38: 11.
The idiom described in note 2 is not unfrequent in the New Tes-
tament ; as Luke 12: 20 Ttjv \\svyr\v GOV uixat,TOVOIV thy soul shall they
require, i. e. thy soul shall be required; 16 : 9 that, when ye die, tur-
ret* ye may be received [lit. they may receive you] into everlasting habi-
tations, &LC.
3. Occasionally the second per son of the ver b is em-
ployed, instead of the thir d per son with an indef inite nom-
E. g. Is. 7: 25 rtasj Minn rib one shall not come there, lit thou shait
not come; Job 18: 4. Lev.2: 4. Also in the common phrase with
the infinitive until thou earnest, i. e. till one comes. ( 124.4. a.)
1 9 1 , 1 9 2 , VERBS; USE OF THE PRAETER, ETC. 3 5 3
* 191. General use of the tenses,
1. As the Hebrew has but two distinct forms of tense, and as it
must, no doubt, have expressed all those shades of tense which are
common to other languages ; it is obvious that the two tenses in ques-
tion must have had a diverse, various, and extended use.
2. The pr aeter and f utur e tenses, as they ar e called,
can be used in a gr eat many cases indif f er ently to expr ess
the same idea. Both of them ar e made aorists by the
use of Vav conversive ( 93) and some other par ticles pla-
ced bef or e them; so that with this Vav pr ef ixed, they
expr ess the same time a that which is designated by the
leading ver b or par ticiple in the sentence.
Still, the predominant use of the pr aeter is to expr ess
past time of some shade or other ; and the predominant
use of the f utur e is to designate some shade of f utur e time.
192. Verbs ; use of the praeter tense.
The pr aeter tense of ver bs is used in the f ollowing sig-
nif ications, viz.
1. For the per f ect tense. This is its appr opr iate use.
E g. Gen. 3: 13 what is this which rrip* thou hast done ? 3: 11
who "Pan has told thee ? 3: 14, 17, 22.
.2. For the pluper f ect tense.
E. g. Gen. 2: 2 God finished the work which he had made;
2: 5 Jehovah & had not caused it to rain.
3. For the past tense of narration or histor ic tense.
E. g. Gen. 1: 1 God created; 1: 2 the earth was desola-
tion ; 29 : 17 Rachel *M$'rr~nD^ nn?n was beautiful.
NOTE. It is common, when this historic tense is used, to place the
nominative before the verb; but this usage is not without many ex-
ceptions, as in Gen. 1:1,2. To make variety, the future with Vav
conversive ( 93) commonly follows the praeter in the same sentence
or in a succeeding one. This usage saves the necessity of repeating
the praeter. Compare Gen. 4: 25. 1 Sam. 7: 15, 16.
4. For the pr esent tense in cases* like the f ollowing, vi z.
() In verbs signifying quality or condition j as b"iS he is great ;
OSH he is wise, &C.
() When the object of the verb is rather to express a st at e of
acting, than to assert any one particular action; as Ps. 119: 28 my
soul weeps for trouble ; 119: 30 the way of truth "'n^na I choose ;
Is. 1: 15 your hands Ifijbtt are full of blood.
(c) In general propositions, where the object of the verb Is not
to designate any particular time of action, but action at any time ; as
Ps. 1: 1 blessed is the man who Mb walketh nottfl
! treadcth
notS3T ^ sitteth not.
5. For the f utur e tense in cases like the f ollowing, vi z.
{a) In prophecies, protestations, and assurances; as Is. 9: 1 the
people who have walked in darkness IK*} shall see a great light ; Is. 2: 2
and it shall come to pass ; 2: 3, 4, 11, 17, 19.
(6) When a future tense (with a future meaning) precedes the
praeter, in the same construction; as Is. 1: 30, 31 ye 9Tin shall be as
an oaife-fon^ and the mighty man shall be $c. 3: 25, 28 thy
men *bi>? shall fall by the swordand her gates ^b^JO WJO shall mourn
and lament. -
NOTE. In cases like these, the conjunction Vav ( 94) is prefixed
either to the verb itself, or to the nominative of it, when tins nomina-
tive precedes the verb. See above for the former case; for the lat-
ter which is very frequent; see Job 19: 27 I shall see wn and
my eyes shall behold L e. 1 shall behold, where siO is made future by
the Vav before its nominative. There are a few cases in which there
Is an ellipsis of the Vav, or where poetic license drops it; the sense of
the praeter remaining the same as if the Vav were expressed.
(c) When any word expressive of future time stands at the begin-
ning of any construction, it requires the praeter that follows it and has
a Vav prefixed to be rendered as the future; as 1 Sam. 2: 31 behold
the days are coming, 'W'nai when I will cut off fyc.
So the praeter is made future, when it follows an infinitive con-
struct having a future sense; as Deut. 4: 30 *jb 1S3 when thou shall
be troubled and these things shall overtake thee ; Gen. 2: Jo. So
also Ex. 17 : 4 D9& yet a little time ^bj^D^ and they will stone me ;
Ex. 16:6 at evening ye shall know.
6. For the imper ative mood in cases like the f ollowing.
() When an imperative precedes, and the praeter is connected
with it by Vav; as Gen. 6: 21 take for thyself PDDiO and coir
lect. Compare above in no. 5. b.
() Sometimes when Vav is prefixed without the preceding im-
perative ; as Gen. 33: 10 if I have found favour in thine eye$,
then take fa. Ruth 3: 9. Gen. 47: 23. Deut 29: 7, 8.
7. For the subjunctive mood in all its tenses; especial-
ly when a f uture tense with a subjunctive meaning pr e-
cedes in the same construction. ( 193. 5. b.)
() For the present; as Gen. 3: 22 lest he put forth hit
hand, nj^bl and [lest he] take, bSfiO and [lest he] eat fa. where the
first verb is in the future and the others in the praeter, but all have
a subjunctive sense.
() For the imperfect; as Is. 1: 9 we should be as Sodom,
5)2^731 we should be like Gomorrha ; Gen. 33: 13 should
one hurry them, then they would die; Ruth 1: 12. Judg. 8 : 19.
(c) For the pluperfect; as Is. 1: 9 unless Jehovah had Irft
us a remnant fa. 2 K. 13 : 19 then tVOft thou wouldest have smitten the
Syrians. Job 10: 19. Num. 22: 33.
(d) For the futurum exactum or future perfect, as It Is named; as
Ruth 2: 21 17 until they shall have finished; 3: 18. Is. 4: 4.
Gen. 24:19.
193. Verbs ; use of the future tense
The peculiar forms which the future tense sometimes assumes In
order to mark diversity of meaning, are treated of in 9193. It re-
mains in the syntax to describe the various senses which the future
form conveys, in cases where peculiarity of structure is not concerned.
The f utur e tense of ver bs is used in the f ollowing sig-
nif ications, viz.
1. To indicate f utur e time. This is its appr opr iate use.
2. For the pr esent tense.
E. g. ynit Kb I know not; bSIK fcib / cannot; "pita whence
earnest thou ? tfjaanHa what seekest thou f This sense of the future kt
very common, and agrees with the common use of it In Arabic.
3 5 6
NOTE. The future is often used for the present in general proposi-
tions, where there is no precise limitation of time; as Pro v. I d : SO a
wise son riTgto? makes glad his father, i e. it is a general fact t hat he
does so at all times. ( 192. 4. c.)
3. To designate past time.
(a) When preceded by particles that indicate time past ( l ) By
TFIT then; as Jos. 10: 12 TN then spake he. (2) By D^ O not yet ;
as Gen. 2: 6 was not yet, or before it was. But sometimes a
future sense is attached to a future form after both of these particles ;
as Ex. 12:48. Job 10: 21.
(b) Sometimes, though not very frequently, it indicates the pas t
time of narration or the historic tense ; Gen. 2 : 6 and a mist went
up 4c. 2: 10 and thence it was divided fyc. 2 : 25 TOttJisrp
^ I ! Z
and they were not ashamed.
NOTE. With Vav conversive, the future forms a common historic
tense ( 93). But in the simple form, as above, it is specially employ-
ed to denote habitual or continued action; as 1 K. 5: 25 thus much Sol-
omon ]r)? gave to Hiram yearly ; Job 1: 5 thus nip3?^ did Job continu-
ally ; 2 Sam. 12: 31. 2 Chr. 25: 14.
4. For the imper ative in cases like the f ollowing, viz-
() Always where the first or third person of the imperative is
needed ( 89.3); as Gen. 1: 26 tni$ let us make man ; 1: 3
let there be light, &c.
NOTE. Where excitement, determination, urging, pressing entrea-
ty &c. is to be expressed, the future, and for the most part the para-
gogic future ( 91), is employed; as let me rejoice now ; SlJMpW
let me arise now.
() In prohibitions; because the Hebrew imperative is not used
with negatives; as Ex. 20: 15 S'-an steal not, lit. thou shalt not
5. To expr ess all the various meanings of the optative
and subjunctive moods.
(a) For the optative, especially when the par ticle
is subjoined.
E. g. Ps. 7: 10 O that it might come to at\ end ! Cant. 7:
9 tW-W O may they be! 1 K. 17: 21. Is. 19: 12. 47: 13.
For the optative use of the paragogic and apocopated future, see
( 6) F o r t he subj unct i ve, especi ally af t er part i cl es sig-
nifying that, so that, in order that, &c.
The following are the particles which usually precede the future
in its subjunctive sense, ( l ) that; as Gen. 11: 7 lyf cliT tih "VON
that they may not understand, &c. (2) 11 that; as Gen. 27: 4 ^1553
"des that my soul may bless thee. (3) "1 that; as r 73^ that he
may die. (4) that ; as Gen. 38 : 16 what wilt thou give me f cOSn **3
that thou may est come in unto me ? (5) b that ; 1 K. 6 : 19 f nr ib that thou
mayest place. (6) "ittN in order that; as Ezek. 20 : 26 nigSt
in order that they may know. (7) that not; as tt'Vn be not
ttfraid?or that thou be not afraid. (8) b? that not; as Ps. 10: 18 bs
IIS that one may no more continue, &c. (6) "JSS that not; as Lev.
10: 7 1 Wan 1*2 that ye may not die.
NOTE. The f utur e of ten f ollows par ticles like the above, even
when the subjunctive sense is not r equir ed.
(c) Fo r desi gnati ng all t hose shades of meani ng, whi ch
we expr ess in Engl i sh by t he auxiliaries may, can, must,
might, could, should, would, &c.
E. g. Gen. 3 : 2 we may eat ; 30 : 31 what shall
[must] / give thee ? Judg. 14 : 16 my parents have I not told f it tjbl
and should I tell thee? Pr ov. 20 : 9 who can [will] say? So
also Job 10: 18 S13Nt I should have died; Gen. 31 : 37 that /
might take my leave of thee ; 29 : 8 until that all IBDfrO shall have been
gathered, comp. 192. 7. d.
6. Wh e n t he f ut ur e wi t h Vav conversi ve, whi ch com-
monly indicates past t i me ( 93) , is used as a pr oper f ut ur e,
t he Va v must be r egar ded mer el y as a conjunction.
E. g. Is. 9 : 5 to us a son shall be given, and the government "nrn
shall be upon his shoulder fa. Is. 9 : 10, 13, 15, 17. 51 : 12, 13.
NOTE 1. In like manner , the f utur e with Vav is sometimes f ound
in the f ollowing senses, viz.
() For the pr esent indicative; as 2 Sam. 19: 2 be fto Id the king
weeps and mourns.
() For the pr esent subjunctive ; as Jos. 9 : 21 let them live
ttnd let them be fa. or may they be fa. Job 14 : 10.
Di qi t i zed by Google
3 5 8 1 9 4 , 1 9 5 . VERBS ; USE OF THE IMPERATIVE, ETC.
NOTE 2. The very small number of instances in which the above
use of the future with Vav is found, would almost lead one to suppose,
that the punctuation of Vav copulative has been exchanged by mistake
for that of Vav conversive.
194. Verba ; use of the imperative mood*
The imperative mood and the future tense are evidently very
nearly related to each other, and in many sentences are used almost
indiscriminately. For the use of the future in an- imperative sense,
see 89.3. 193. 4. The imperative, besides its proper sense, is em-
ployed for the future in the following constructions.
1. When two imper atives immediately succeed each
other , the latter of ten has a f utur e sense, and the f or mer
a conditional one.
E. g. Gen. 42: 18 do this and live i. e. on condition ye
do this, ye shall live; Prov. 3: 3, 4, 7. 4:4. 7:2. 9:6. 1b. JB : 9.
36: 16. 45: 22. 55: 2.
2. When an imper ative is connected with a f utur e in
the same construction, it of ten has a f uture meaning.
() Sometimes when it stands before the future; as Is. 45: 11
^2 LB IT WILL ye enquire of meand will ye prescribe to me frc.
6: 9.''
() When it stands after the future; as Gen. 45: 18 and J
will give you the best of the land of Egypt ibSMi and ye shall eat the
fat of the land ; 20: 7. Is. 54: 14. Ruth 1:9.'
195. Verbs ; construction of finite verbs with cases.
t l . The Hebr ew has no ver bs f or med, as in Gr eek
and Latin, by prefixing pr epositions to them, so as to
make composite ver bs. But it possesses an equivalent
mode of varying the sense of ver bs, by inserting a pr e-
position between them and the noun with which they ar e
constr ucted.
Different prepositions, of course, will give different shades to the
meaning of the same verb; and in this way a great variety of forms of
verbs are made in Hebrew, Aramaean, and Arabic, which may be
called composite; almost exactly as we may say in English, put, put
by, put up, put in, put down, put aside, put away, &c.
E. g. bt>3 to Jail; b? b3 to fall over to, to fall away ; to
leave, to depart from ; "^Bb b3 to fall down before any one.
to call; a to call <o, to invoke ; b to name.
bs$U> to ask, with an accusative of person; b**tB to demand, with an
accusative of the thing demanded; a btttt to consult any one.
The f ollowing ar e some of the principal cases in which
ver bs ar e constr ucted with prepositions bef or e their nouns.
2. The preposition 3 is of ten put af ter ver bs of the
f ollowing classes, viz.
Generally, verbs signifying to be angry, to trust, to hold, to sin against,
to reprove, &c. More particularly, verbs signifying to pray to or in-
voke, to worship, to testify against, and verbs of sense, viz. those which
signify to look upon, to hear or listen to, to smell, to touch, &c.
3. The pr eposition b is of ten put af ter ver bs of the
f ollowing classes, viz.
Verbs signifying to make, to attain to, or to become any thing; as
2 Sam. 7 : 1 4 / will be to him 2Mb for a father [a father] and he shall
be to me ]AB./br a son [a SOD] ; 1 Sam. 4: 9 D^FIJLB be ye for men
i. e. be men, act courageously; Gen. 2: 22 and Jehovah made the rib
SUBfitb/or a woman i. e. a woman. The later Hebrew often inserts
in cases where, in the older books, the verb is directly followed by an
accusative; as Jon. 4: 6, comp. Ex. 12: 27, fee.
4. The pr epositions 3, ^3, *723,
&c. ar e also of ten put af ter ver bs, and ser ve to modif y
the simple meaning of the r oot
NOTE. It is of great importance to study diligently the peculiari-
ties of verbs, as thus constructed with prepositions; since the knowl-
edge of these is essential to an accurate and critical acquaintance with
the Hebrew language. Practice, however, and" a constant use of the
lexicon* are the only meant of acquiring such knowledge.
196* Vtrbs governing the accusative,
f l . Active tr ansitive ver bs gover n the accusative case.
t2. Many ver bs ar e both transitive and intr ansitive; and
consequently ar e used either with or without an accus-
ative af ter them.
E. g. rids to weep and to bemoan ; to go and to pats through
Gen. 2: 14; dwell and to inhabit Ps. 22: 4; nxft to ting and to
celebrate with praise ; so JS*^, ^*^3, &c.
3. In Hebr ew, many ver bs gover n an accusative di-
r ectly, without any intervening pr eposition, which we can
tr anslate only by inserting a pr eposition bef or e the noun.
E. g. to bring good tidings TO any one ; !"H73 to be refractory
AGAINST any one ; an* to give a pledge FOR any one, &c.
In this way some whole classes of verbs (with occasional excep-
tions) take the accusative directly, where in our language we must
generally supply a preposition.
() Verbs of putting off and on, of ornamenting ; as to clothe
PS. 6 5 : 1 4 ; to unclothe ; ntK to gird on ; to adorn WITH HOS.
2 : 1 5 ; NTT* to wrap up one's self WITH PS. 1 0 4 : 2 , &C.
() Verbs of plenty and want; as to be full Ex. 1: 7;
to be abundant; to satiate with drink; yne to overflow ; nCH to
lack Gen. 18 : 28; to bereave 27: 45, &ci
(c) Verbs of dwelling in or among ; as aDttj to inhabit Ps. 57: 5 ;
m to dwell 120: 5; IrDT to dwell Gen. 30: 20; to sit or dwell Ps.
80: 2. 107: 10, &c.
(d) Verbs of going out and coming in, coming UPON, happening TO ;
as Mia to come Ps. 44: 18; MX& to befall Jos. 2: 23, &c.
(e) Verbs of overflowing, overspreading &c. take the accusative of
the thing with which they overflow &c. as Ex. 3 : 8 a land which
3bn naj overflows with milk and honey; Joel 4: 18. Jer. 9: 17.
Lam. 3: 48.
4. Neuter ver bs sometimes take an accusative case.
E. g. an to celebrate a feast; iTVn l l t t to propose an enigma^
&c. Such cases resemble the English phrases to run a race, to fight a
fight, f ee.
NOTE. This construction is in common use, when other words are
added which are designed to give intensity to the expression; as Gen.
27: 34 rntt*
and bitter cry
L e. he wept aloud and bitterly; Neh. 2: 10. Ps. 25: 19. Jer. 16: 4.
1 Sam. 20:17.
197. Verbs governing two accusatives.
f l . In gener al, all ver bs which have a causative mean-
ing may gover n two accusatives, the one usually of a per-
son and the other of a thing.
E. g: Ezek. 8:17 OW ynKtt-rHJ they filed [caused to be
full] the earth with violence ; Gen. 41: 42 ttjSJ-'Haa irii* and
he clothed him with [caused him to put on] garments qffine linen, &c.
2. As the conjugations Piel and Hiphil usually have
a causative meaning ( 78, 79), so they of ten gover n
two accusatives, especially in ver bs of the f ollowing clas-
ses, viz.
Verbs signifying to put on or o f f , to cover, to adorn, to JiU, to give
or bestow, to take away or deprive, to teach, to shew, kc.
3. Many ver bs in Kal of ten have a causative meaning
or one kindred to it, and may ther ef or e gover n two accu-
satives, especially ver bs of the f ollowing classes, viz.
All those verba mentioned under no. 2 above; also verbs signify-
ing to anoint, to sow, to plant, to stone i e. cover with stones, to nourish,
to furnish, to rob, to do good or evil to any one, to call or name, to com-
mand, to convert one thing into another ; as Job 28: 2 ntBina pIX?
stone he fuses into brass ; Ex. 30 : 35 Pink thou shall make
it incense, or thou shalt make with it [of it] incense. So Gen. 2: 7 God
made man nffWtn 'J30109 with dust [out of dust] ,/rom the earth, where
is the accusative of the material, as grammarians speak. ( 174.
NOTE. The intervention of appropriate prepositions, s, V, J&, V?, &c.
before the latter noun in cases like the above, is not unfirequent; so
that the Hebrew often exhibits both methods of constructing a sen*
tence, viz. either with or without an intervening preposition before
the latter noun, when a verb is followed by two accusatives.
198* Vtrbs ; construction of passive verbs with cases,
1. With ver bs of a passive sense, the agent or subject
of the ver b is commonly designated by b pr ef ixed.
E. g. Ex. 12:16 this only must be prepared DDb by you ; Prov. 14 *
20 he is hated even by his associates.
Sometimes JO is used instead ofb ; as Cant 3: 10. Ecc. 12: 11.
2. The passive f or ms of ver bs which gover n two ac-
cusatives, r etain but one of them; the other being usual-
ly made a nominative.
E. g. Ps. 80: 11 the mountains were covered with
the shadow of it; In the active voice it would be, it covered the moun-
tains with the shadow of it. Ex. 25: 40. 28: 11.
NOTE. The same rule holds true when one of the cases of the ac-
tive verb is a dative or other oblique case; as Gen. 2: 23 fitnj?*] ntftb
tVSt* [Dig] the name woman shall be given to her, the word rn&tt being
in apposition with D33 understood; comp. v. 20 where the same words
are employed in the active construction.
3. Sometimes ver bs of a passive f or m have an active
sense; and in this case they may gover n an accusative
like active ver bs.
E. g. Job 7: 3 *nbr33il I have inherited months of vanity, where the
verb is in Hophal; Ex. 20: 5. Deut 13:3.
199. Verbs ; use of the infinitive absolute
t l . The inf initive absolute in Hebr ew answer s to the
Latin gerund in do of the ablative case.
E. g. 1 Sam. 24: 21 regnando regnabis i. e. thou wilt
SURELY be king. It is probably to be taken, in most cases, like the Lat-
in ablative of manner.
t2. The inf initive absolute is usually put bef or e a f inite
tense of the same ver b, and ser ves to qualif y its meaning
in the f ollowing manner, viz.
(a) It marks intensity of various degrees; as 1 Sam. 23 : 22 fi'l*
it 3ft very subtUely will he deal; 20: 6 bn\p3 bfctllfa he has urgently
requested ; Amos 9 : 8 "P&SJit tkb / will not utterly destroy fa.
Gen.31: 30. 43 : 3, 7 JH3 could we indeed know ? 37 : 8 ?jbJ3!l
shalt thou indeed reign ? 19: 9 D1D3) D| and now he would
fain act even as a judge among us.
(b) It denotes assurance, certainty; as Gen. 2: 17 nwn nta thou
shalt surely die ; 3 : 4. 37 : 33 PJlfa 5pt3 he is surely torn in pieces;
Judg. 15: 2 infct surely I thought, or said.
(c) It marks continuance of action; as Is. 30: 19 tib tea
thou shalt not always weep; Ex. 34: 7. Jer. 23: 17. Especially is con-
tinuance denoted, where two infinitives absolute are used; as 2 Sam.
15: 30 rib? they went up continually weeping; Gen. 8: 7
and it continued going and returning ; Jer. 7:13. 11:7. 25:
3. 26: 5. In such cases, a participle is sometimes used for the sec-
ond infinitive, as in 2 Sam. 16:5; or a noun, as Is. 29: 14.
{d) In general, it gives intensity, energy, animation, vivacity, or
some coloring of this nature, to the expression; although it is difficult
always to express it in an English version. In a similar manner, the
intensive particles of the Greek, German &c. cannot be well express-
ed in any translation.
NOTE 1. In regard to the choice of conjugations from which the
infinitive absolute is taken, it may be remarked, that commonly it is of
the same conjugation as the finite verb, with which it is joined. Some-
times however it is of a different conjugation; as Job 6: 1 btt$? b^ptf
where the infinitive absolute is in Kal, but the finite verb in Niphal;
Ezek. 16: 4 rib brjffli where the infinitive is in Hophal and
the finite verb in Poai.
NOTE 2. The infinitive absolute is not always derived from the
same root as the form of the finite verb with which it is coupled. It
is sufficient if the meaning be synonymous; as Is. 28: 28
he will thoroughly thresh him, where the verbs are derived from
and ttm, both signifying to thresh.
NOTE 3 . In Arabic, the infinitive absolute Is put after the finite
verb; in Syriac, before it; but in Hebrew, before or after, though most
commonly before. Between the infinitive and the finite verb there is
sometimes placed'a particle of negation, as Mb; or some affirmative
or expletive particle, as D|; or even a preposition, as Ezek. 7:14
rfpn* <w.
3. The inf initive absolute is sometimes used instead of
an adver b. ( 156. 3. d)
E. g. ye*
#! bene faciendo for bene ; 1 Sam. 3: 12 Vntn tn-
cipiendo et finiendo L e. from beginning to end, utterly.
Note. In a few cases, instead of the infinitive absolute, the infini-
tive construct seems to be employed; either adverbially, as Is. 60 : 14
ttinijj incurvando for nifi ; Hab. 2: 10 niSp
for ttXj?or with a fi-
nite verb, as Num. 23 : 25 ^ thou shah not curse at all, for
aia; Ruth 2: 16 for ; Ps. 50: 21 for
&c. In Is. 22: 13 the infinitive absolute may perhaps be used
for the infinitive construct.
4. The inf initive absolute is sometimes f ound in the
place of a f inite ver b. In this case, ther e is probably an
ellipsis of the f inite ver b, with which the inf initive would
be coupled. ( 211. 9.)
E. g. Deut. 5:12 fbr the full form Deut. 6 :
17 ; Ex. 20: 8 IT ST for -&TIJ -QT Deut 7: 18;' Job 40: 2 2hrr an
contendendo ? for ^ Sh!l Judg. 1U 25.
The following are examples of this use of the infinitive absolute.
() For the praeter, when the praeter precedes; as Dan. 9: 5
*1^01 me have rebelled and apostatized ; Est. 9 : 6. Jer. 14: 5.
Gen.' 41: 43. Judg. 7: 19. Ecc. 8; 9. 9: 11.
So without a preceding praeter; as Ezek. 1: 14 the living cre
tares NiX*} ran and returned ; Ecc. 4: 2.
() For the future, when the future precedes; as Jer. 32: 44 fields
shall they buy S'irDI and they shaU write bills of sale, Olnni and
they shall seal them!and take witnesses $c. Num. 15: 35. Deut 14:
21. Is. 5 ; 5.
So without a preceding future; as Ezek. 11:7 you APXin will I
bring out 4>c. 1 K. 22: 30. 2 Chr. 18: 29.
(c) For the imperative ; as Deut 5: 12 keep; 1: 16. Jer.
2: 2 go ; 13: 1, &c. Num. 25: 17. See the first examples above.
NOTE. The infinitive absolute is, in some cases, to be translated in
a passive sense ; as Prov. 12: 7 the wicked are to be destroyed.
This is elliptical; the full phrase would be -jicn. So in
Prov. 15:22.
For the construction of the infinitive absolute with cases, see 6 202%
* 200. Verbs ; use of the infinitive construct.
The inf initive constr uct, being- a sor t of ver bal noun ( 87. 4), is
used in all the cases like a noun, so f ar as the constr uction, position,
gover nment, and even f or m of the wor d is concer ned; only it has,
f r om the natur e of the case, no plur al. The f ollowing ar e examples
of its use in the sever al cases.
1. In t he nomi nat i ve case.
E. g. Gen. 2 : 18 DlNn the being (inf . of of the man
alone is not good; 29: 19 Tin my giving (inf . of ]nD) is good; 11:6.
30 : 15.
2. In t he geni t i ve case.
E. g. Gen. 29 : 7 n? the time of collecting ; 2 : 4 nvU3> D1
in the day of making fa. Num. 9:15. Ps. 128 : 2, et passim.
3. In t he dat i ve case.
E. g-. Num. 7 : 5 "i3J"b spr p and let them be for serving i. e. let
them ser ve, 8: 11; Ezek. 30: i6 ?j&2nb it shall be for pierc-
ing through i. e. it shall be pier ced thr ough; comp. 201. 1.
4. In t he accusat i ve case.
E. g. 1 K. 3 : 7 / knew not NliT the going out or coming in ;
Jer . 5 : 3. Gen. 21: 6.
NOTE. The accusative her e commonly has b bef or e it; as Gen.
11:8. Ex. 2: 15. Comp. 201. 1.
5. In t he abl at i ve case.
E. g. Ps. 39: 2 / will guard my way 81 Write from sinning, &.C.
6. T h e infinitive const ruct , like nouns, t akes preposi -
tions bef or e it and suffixes af t er it.
In tr anslating the inf initive in this constr uction, we must f or the
most par t give it a finite sense, as in the f ollowing examples.
(a) With 2; as Gen. 2: 4 OJOSf r a when they were created, lit. in
the being cr eated of them ; Ex. 16 : 7 because he heard; Is. 1: 15.
(b) With 3 ; as Gen. 44 : 30 ""{OS when I come ; 39:18 "*73
when I lifted up.
(c) With b ; Gen. 2:3 tniD^b when he made it; Is. 7:15 ininb un-
til he know ; 1 K. 16 : 7 to provoke him by his doings RPTTB in that he
was fa.
Di gi t i zed bv
(d) With ; Deut. 7: 8 *3 because Jehovah
laoes you, Ut. because of the loving of Jehovah you. The preposition
]23 hat often a negative sense in such cases; as Gen. 27: 1 kit eyes
were dim so that he could not see, lit from seeing; 16: 2. Ex.
14: 5. For )S3 before the infinitive in comparisons, see 177. 3.
(e) With 19; Judg. 6: 18 1? until thou retumest; 3: 26.
( y) With V?; Jer. 2: 35 because thou sayest / Job 10: 7.
(g) With J$5gb ? as Gen. 37 : 22 that he might save ;
Ezek. 21: 15.
(A) With nt i n; as Is. 60: 15 W]n because that thou
wast forsaken SfC,
(t) With ^na, &c. as Gen. 50: 14 i"D ^TNt after he
was buried.
NOTE. In a very few cases, the infinitive construct h used for the
infinitive absolute; see 199. 3 note.
201. Verbs ; idiomatic use of the infinitive construct with b.
t l . The inf initive construct with the pr ef ix !?, in ver y
many cases, answers pr ecisely to the English inf initive pr e-
ceded by the par ticle to,
E. g. Gen. 2: 5 and there was no man *fes?b to till the ground ; v.
10 and a river went out from Eden nipttnb to water the ground; 11:6
all which they may purpose nitons to do, &c.
NOTE. When the negative "nba comes before an infinitive, the
preposition b is put before the former; as Gen. 3:11 which I com-
manded thee bSN Tbsb not to eat.
t i
2. The inf initive construct with the pr ef ix b and with
the ver b of existence expr essed or implied, consti-
tutes a periphrasis expr essing the meaning of sever al f orms
of the f inite ver b, viz.
(a) Of the praeter; as 2 Chr. 26: 5 DTfbK TP} and he
sought God, lit. and he was in seeking God; Gen. 15: 12 and the sun
fctfab Wl was about to go down, lit. was in going down; 2 Chr. 11:
22. Ezra 3: 12.
(b) Of the present; as Is. 44: 14 ib~rri-Db he hews down
for himself cedars, lit. [he is] in hewing down &c. Prov. 19: 8 he that
is wise ai o fiOt&b findeth prosperity, lit. is in finding; Is. 21: 1.
(c) Of the fature ;' as Is. 38 : 20 ":Jpipinb [ n v r ] r.^rn Jehovah
will deliver me, lit will be for the delivering of me; Ps. 25: 14 Jeho-
vah ttsnnin!? [!"t*Jl?] will teach them, lit. will be for the teaching of
t h e m4 9 : 15. 62: 10. Ecc. 3: 14.
(d) Of the passive; as Jos. 2 : 5 and it came to pass SiDb
when the gate was to be shut, lit. in the shutting of the gate; Deut. 31:
17 and they shall be devoured, lit. and it shall be f or de-
vour ing them; Is. 6: 13.
(e) Of the Latin par ticiple in dus, or the English auxiliar ies shall,
can, must, &c. as 2 K. 4 : 13 nVL'yb [r Pn] HH what is to be done for
thee? 2 Chr . 19: 2 ST?b [r T~] y'2j"jbn should one help the wicked?
Judg. 1 : 19 tf pninb [r pn] f if e he could not dispossess them; Hos. 9:
13. Amos 6 : 10. 2 *Chr.
20 : 6.
* 202. Verbs ; construction of the infinitive with cases,
1. T h e infinitive const ruct gover ns nouns in t he ob-
li que cases, li ke finite verbs. ( 195198. )
The accusative, of cour se, occur s the most f r equently in this con-
str uction. Her e also belong the cases in which the inf initive constr uct
takes ver bal suf f ixes. ( 126. 1, 5.)
NOTE. The inf initive absolute also, in a ver y f ew cases, takes an
accusative af ter it; as Is. 22: 13 1U)a VbiO f tti: ^j5a Jhn cae-
dendo boves et jugulando (rots et edendo camera 8,'C.
2. T h e subject of t he infinitive const ruct , correspondi ng
to t he nomi nat i ve case of finite ver bs, is usually put in t he
geni t i ve case af t er t he ver b.
E. g. Judg. 13: 20 asYbn nibsa in the lighting tip of the flame i. e.
when the f lame lighted up; 1 Sam. 23: 6 n"123 in the flying
of Abiathar i. e. when Abiathar f led; Ps. 66: 10.
Her e belong the cases in which the inf initive constr uct takes noun-
suf f ixes. ( 126. 5. 135. 3.)
NOTE 1. The inf initive constr uct of ten takes the cases of both the
subject and object in the same sentence; as Gen. 2:4 rrit!JJ> 01^2
the day of Jehovah's making the earth and the heavens i.e.
Di gi t i zed by
3 6 8 J 2 0 3 * VERBS ; USE OF PARTI CI PLES.
in the da j when Jehovah made fee. 1 K. 13: 4 5731233
tj^tt when the king heard the word of the man fa. b. 58 : 6 a day r r ii?
toD3 OHM when a man will afflict his soul, &c.
So with the subject and two accusatives; as Gen. 41: 39
IliiT~b3~nfi$ fi^rrbfi* since God?* shewing you all this L e.
since God hath shewn &c.
NOTE 2. The genitive usually stands next to the verb, but in a
very few cases the accusative is put first; as Is. 6: 24 "p&b 2j b3K?
as the flame of fire devours the stubble ; 20: 1. Gen. 4:15.
* 203. Verbs ; use of participles
Active par ticiples ar e of ten used in the place of f inite
ver bs, viz.
1. For the pr esent tense.
E. g. Ecc. 1 : 4 one generation ^bh passeth away and another gen-
eration M3 cometh ; 1: 7, 8. Ps. 1 : 6. 3: 2. 4: 7. Is. 1: 7.
NOTE. In this manner, participles are used with pronouns of any
person, instead of verbs, in order to express the present tense ; as JfV
3iK I fear ; ttnK thoufearest; WHaa we fear, &c. In in-
transitive verbs this use is very common.
2. For the past tense in all its gradations.
E. g. Gen. 2: 10 and a river NIP issued from Eden ; Deut. 4 : 3
your eyes nifiHri have seen; Gen. 41 : 17, 18, 19.
3. For the f utur e tense in all its var ieties.
E.g. Gen. 17: 19 Sarah shaU bear a eon fyc* 19: 13 we
tFrpnlitt are about to destroy the city ; 6 : 17 behold I will cause
to come a flood ; 48 : 4. Ex. 9:18. 1 K. 11 : 31. 14: 10.
NOTE 1. Participles, when used as verbs, are subject to all the ano-
malies of concord which are found in verbs ( 189). Thus Gen. 4:10
SpHit bip the voice of thy brothers blood cries; where the
participle agrees with the second noun, &c. ( 189. 12.)
NOTE 2. The two Hebrew participles, active and passive, often
have the sense of the Latin participles in rus and dus; as Gen. 19:14
rn!-T rPnp)D Jehovah is about to destroy the city ; Ps. 76 : 8
metuendus ; Ps. 18 : 4 bb^E laudandus, &c.
4. When the ver b of existence (u^n) is added to the
par ticiple, an imper f ect tense descr iptive of continued ac-
tion or condition is designated.
E. g. Job 1: 14 the cattle nittJin nTl were ploughing ; Neh. 1 : 4
bbsnJOl D TIKI I was fasting and praying ; 2 : 13, 15. 2 Chr. 24 :
14. 36 : 16. Gen. 4: 17. Deut 9: 22, 24.
5. T h e adver bi al wor ds CT there is and "pfct there is not,
ei t her wi t h or wi t hout suffixes, ar e of t en connect ed wi t h
part i ci pl es, and t hus f or m a peri phrasi s f or t he pr esent
t ense of t he finite ver b.
E. g. Judg. 6 : 36 if Jpajifc thou savest; Gen. 24: 49. 43: 5
if nV'-j'? thou dost not send away ; Ex. 5: 16 straw "jna "ptl is not
given ; Lev. 26: 6.
204. Verbs ; construction of participles with cases
t l . Act i ve part i ci pl es may gover n t he same cases as
t hei r verbs. ( 195197. )
f 2 . It is a more common construction, t o put t he act i ve
part i ci pl e in regi men wi t h t he noun t hat follows it. ( 135. 1. )
E. g. Ps. 84 : 5 inhabiters of thy house ; Ps. 28:1
112 the descenders [those who go down] into the pit; 5: 12 *>5^^
the lovers of thy name ; 19 : 8. Pr ov. 2 : 19.
NOTE. The genitive af ter the active par ticiple, constr ucted in the
manner just descr ibed, is capable of all the var ieties of r ender ing
which belong to the genitive af ter nouns ( 171); and sometimes also
pr epositions kc. inter vene between the par ticiple and genitive, as in
the case of nouns. ( 172.)
3. T h e part i ci pl e passive is const ruct ed wi t h cases in
t he following manner, viz.
() With an accusative; as Ezek. 9 : 2 clothed [with]
linen garments ; 1 Sam. 2: 18 "JiBK Haf t girded [with] an ephod. So
in Gr eek dvacdeitjv imiifti'vog II. a. 149.
() With the genitive; as Ezek. 9:11 TDIlb clothed [with, of ]
linen garments; Joel 1 : 8 girded [with, of ] sackcloth; Ps.
32: 1 pardoned [of , f r om] sin 4rc.
NOTE. When ther e is but one f orm of the par ticiple, as f r om
ma to die, this f or m is capable of all the meanings and constr uctions
of both the active and passive par ticiples.
Di ai t i zed bv
3 7 0 I 2 0 5 . VERBS USED AS ADVERBS.
205. Verbs used a* adverb#
1. It is a f r equent case in Hebr ew, that when two
r er bs immediately f ollow each other , either with or with-
out the copula between them, the f ir st of them ser ves
mer ely to qualif y the second, and must be r ender ed ad-
E. g. 1 Sam. 2: 3 'HJHn bi$ do not make much and speak
i. e. do not say much; Job 19:3 *2521} fitb ye are not asha-
med ye stun me I. e. In a shameless manner ye Stan me; den. 26: 18
Swpi 2ttj*1 and he returned and dug i. e. he again dug; 19:22. 27:20.
30 : 31. 31: 28. Hos. 1: 6. Ps. 51: 4. 71: 20.
The verbs most commonly used thus, are the following, viz.
to do well used for well, skilfully, Ps. 33: 3.
IpDin to add again, once more, Gen. 4:2. 8: 12.
nbS) to end adjinem, entirely, Gen. 24: 15.
to hasten hastily, quickly, Gen. 27: 20. Ex. 2: 18.
iTTS'lil to increase much, qften, 2 K. 21: 6. Ps. 61: 4.
23U3 to return agatn, 1K.19-.6. Job 7: 7.
Other verbs are-also occasionally found, which may be rendered
adverbially; as Gen. 37: 7 aao ; 31: 27 wherefore n'-Db nfiWna hast
thou fled secretly ? Compare in Greek the adverbial use of the verbs
lav&avto, xvy%avtn, q&avo), with participles.
NOTE. In some cases the second verb Is In the Infinitive; as Gen.
27 : 20. Ex. 2 . 18, &c.
2. The manner In which the Hebrews express the idea of
suddenly, unexpectedly, in a manner unforeseen or unprovided for, is pe-
culiar. They say 3>V Jib he knew not, or they knew not; or
they use other equivalent expressions. Thus Job 9: 5 he removes the
mountains tkb they know it not i. e. suddenly; Ps. 35: 8 destruction
comes upon him 5YJ ^ unexpectedly ; Prov. 5: 6. Cant. 6: 12. Job 4:
20 "^2*3 no one considering i e. suddenly, tmexpectedly.
2 0 6 . ADVERBS.
3 7 1
206* Adwrbs
1. Adver bs in Hebr ew ar e of ten used in the place of
nouns, and ar e t hen const ruct ed in t he following manner.
(a) In apposition with the nouns which they qualif y ; as Gen. 18 :
4 a little water; Neh. 2: 12 t3J3 few persona; Is.
30 : 33 f i sni l much wood, &c.
(b) In the genitive af ter nouns; as 1 K. 2: 31 D50 innocent
blood; Ezek. 30: 16
12 daily persecutors; Deut. 26: 5 "'nTa
Uy33 _/**> men, &c.
2. Adver bs standi ng in pl ace of nouns somet i mes t ake
preposi ti ons bef or e t hem.
E. g. Ezek. 6 :10 Dsn bi* gratis ; 2Chr . 29 :36 DNnB2 suddenly ;
1 K. 22: 20 HD3 so lit. in the so; Esth. 4: 16 ]22 so; Neh. 9: 19
ttf li-a daily.
3. T h e repet i t i on of adver bs mar ks intensity.
E. g. Gen. 7: 19 "JN73 very much; Deut. 28: 43 !"tea
higher and higher, TftiD SIB ft deeper and deeper ; 1 K. 20: 40 J"!3n
r tani hither and hither L e. her e and ther e, all around.
4. Th e r e is in He b r e w no a dve r b of affirmation, cor-
respondi ng t o our yes. It s pl ace is suppli ed as follows, viz.
() By a per sonal pr onoun; as Gen. 27 : 24 art thou my son Esau ?
and he said, ''Si* / am, that is, yes.
() By a per iphr asis f or the per sonal pr onoun ; as 2 Sam. 9: 6
ar t thou Mephibosheth ? and he said ^",25 ni n behold thy servant!
( J 86. I . )
5. T wo negat i ves in He b r e w ser ve t o st r engt hen t he
negati on.
E. g. 1 K. 10: 21 29T13 f iib S)S2 *pNt silver was not at all regarded.
In the par allel ver se 2 Chir. 9: 20 Kb is omitted. Ex. 14 : 11 ^b.2 n
"pN because there were no graves fa. Zeph. 2 : 2, &c.
NOTE. A negative par ticle is sometimes jobed with nouns and ad-
jectives to qualif y the sense of them ; as Deut. 32: 6 D3n f iib not wise
i. e. f oolish; Ps. 43: 1 VOTI tfy mmerciful; Job 30: 8 Dip dis-
Di qi t i aed bv
3 7 2 2 0 7 , 2 0 8 . PREPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS.
graced; Deut 32: 21 not God, not a nation i . e. not
worthy of this appellation ; Is. 31: 8 TblK'ttV not a mortal; lO : 15
yy-N'b no wood at all, kc.
6. A negative is f r equently implied in an inter r ogative
sentence, as in English.
In this way interrogative particles often come to imply a nega-
tive sense, viz.
(a) ft: as 2 Sam. 7: 5 wilt thou build me an house ? i. e.
^ / *1 ' v * "i
thou shalt not; as in the parallel verse 1 Chr. 17. 4. So Is. 27: 7.
Prov. 24: 28. Ezek. 18 :23, comp. v. 32. 1 K. 8 : 27. Gen. 30 : 20.
(b) what; as Job 16: 6 \f I keep silence ?jlrr -what
quilt me? i e. I am not relieved; Cant. 8: 4. Prov. 20 : 24. X>ao.
1: 10.
207. Prepositions.
f l . Pr epositions gover n the oblique cases of nouns,
pronouns, &c. ( 170, 173.)
2. Composite prepositions, in many cases, do not dif f er
in sense f rom the simple f orms.
E. g. Jer. 9: 21. Eec. 10: 14 L q. ; Esth. 3: 1. Pa
108 : 5 i. q- V?; Judg. 19: 3 0 L q. &c?
3. Vice versa, the simple f orms of pr epositions some-
times take the sense of compound f orms.
E. g. Num. 5: 20 nnn I. q. r>nn&; Ezek. 23: 6. So Hos. 12: 1
i. q. Bra ; and Is. 45: 9 rtt$ i q.
For the pleonasm and elliptit of prepositions, see 210. 211. 12.
208. Conjunctions.
Since the Hebrew language possesses bat very few conjunctions,
some of them are necessarily employed in a great variety of significa-
tions. This is particularly the case with the copulative 1; the various
uses of which are best learned from the lexicon and from practice.
For some peculiar uses of Vav, see 211. It note, 13 note. For
the ellipsis of conjunctions, see 211. 13.
2 0 9 , 2 1 0 . PLEONASM, ETC. 373
209. Interjections.
1. Interjections expressive of calamity or imprecation,
often take a dative after them.
E. g. 1 Sam. 4: 8 wo to / Ezek. 30: 2 nn wo to
<Zay /
2. Interjections which have the forms of other parts
of speech, take after them the cases required by those
forms. #
E. g. Ps. 1 : 1 with a genitive j 29: 1, 2 'lif t with an accu-
sative, &c.
210. Pleonasm.
I. Of personal pronouns. *
1. Verbal suffixes are not unf'requently pleonastic, be-
ing immediately followed by the noun to which they
have relation.
E. g. Ex. 2 : 6 she saw him the child ; 1 Sam.
21: 14 iJ33;tj~ns 13123M he changed it his understanding ; Job 33: 20
Dnb ir pn sjnnnt his soul abhors it bread. Such is the pr edominant con-
str uction in the Chaldee and Syr iac.
2. The suffixes of nouns are sometimes pleonastic in a
similar manner.
E. g. Is. 17 : 6 J"!**") D f lS02 in the twigs of it the fruit tree; Pr ov.
14: 13 nnaip nn^r w the end of it joy; Cant. 1: 6 "73-D my
vineyard which is to me. Such also is the gener al usage of the Chaldee
and Syr iac.
3. The dative case of pronouns after verbs, and espe-
cially verbs of motion, is often pleonastic.
E. g. Gen. 12: 1 go for thyself i. e. go; Cant. 2: 11
i b it has gone for itself i. e. has gone; Gen. 27: 43 ^bTna flee for
thyself i. e. f lee ; Is. 31 : 8 Vp D3 he has fled for himself i. e. he baa f led ;
Di gi t i zed bv
3 7 4
2 1 1 . ELLIPSIS.
Job 39: 4 ifcb touj-fltb they turned not hack for themselves L e. turned
not back. So also Cant. 2: 17 *^b HE! compare for thyself i. e. com-
pare; Job 12: 11 the palate relishes for itself L e. reli shes;
15: 28 houses which iftb *2ttT~itb they do not inhabit for themselves
L e. which no one inhabits; Pro v. 13: 13 'lb ban?, he shall perish for
himself 1. e. shall perish; Job 19 : 29 Q^b ^'ttsyear./br yourselves L e.
fear ye.
NOTE. The Arabic has the same idiom; and it is also very com-
mon in Syriac.
4. The dative pleonastic also occurs af ter par ticiples
and adjectives, but more seldom than af ter ver bs.
E. g. Hos. 8 : 9 a wild ass ib lonely for itself i. e. alone or
lonely; Amos 2:13 ftb rtfijbtt full for itself L e. full; Ps. 144 : 2
my deliverer for me i. e. my deliverer.
//. Qf prepositions.
5. The prepositions 3 and are sometimes pleonastic.
(a) S; as Ex. 32 y 22 thou knowest this people that 9*^2 they
are,evil, lit that they are in evil; Hos. 13: 9 ^"1T52 my help
is in thee, lit in respect to me [I am] in thy help; Ps. 29: 4. Prov.
3: 26. Is. 26: 4. 45 : 14 b$ only thou art God; Job 18 : 8. Ez-
ra 3: 3. In the three last examples, it stands even before the subject
of a sentence. This is technically called Beth essentiae.
NOTE. The name of Beth essentiae is also extended to the use of
a in cases like the following; as Ps: 118: 7 iiirp Jehovah is
among my helpers; 54 : 6. 99 : 6. Job 24 : 13. Judg. 11: 35. This
mode of expression, however, is common in the western languages.
([b) : as Deut. 15: 7 when there shall be with thee a poor man
one of thy brethren, lit of one of thy brethren; Lev. 4 :
2. 5: 13. Ezejc. 18: 10. This idiom is common in Arabic.
211* Ellipsis.
I. Of nouns.
1. The nominative case is sometimes omitted bef or e
ver bs.
E. g. Gen. 31: 36 ib it was hot to him viz. S)K anger, i. e. his
Anger burned, or he was angry; 34: 7, &c. So 1 Sam. 24: 11 Dnrfl
2 1 1 . ELLIPSIS. 375
Sp)j3? and it pitied thee, i. e. mine eye pitied; comp. Gen. 45: 20. Dent
7: 16.
NOTE. The word is not unfrequently omitted, in cases where
the sense requires it as the subject of a sentence; as Prov. 10: 24
the desire qf the righteous he will grant i. e. Jehovah will grant;
12: 12. 13: 21'. 21: 13. Job 3: 20. Ecc. 9 : 9. Ps. 10: 4, comp. v.
13, and see below in no. 8.
2. The accusative case, after several verbs which are
in frequent use, is often omitted, as being unnecessary to
render the language intelligible.
E. g. r nb* she bore i. e. children ; r HS he concluded i. e. n
^3 an
agreement; 11132 he inclined or spread i. e. the ear, or the tent ;
NiI53 he lifted up i. e. bip the voice ; ^ 9 he arranged i. e. 0*^*3 words
in pr ayer , &c. These omissions occasion little dif f iculty, and ar e soon
r ender ed f amiliar by pr actice.
3. When the subject of a proposition is required by
the sense to be repeated in the predicate with some ad-
dition, the actual repetition of it rarely takes place.
E g. Cant. 1: 15 0*3
P thine eyes [ar e the eyes] qf doves;
Ps. 18 : 34. 48 : 7. 55: 7. Is. 52 : 14.
4. In the designation of weights and measures, the or-
dinary words which express the standard of them are
commonly omitted. ( 176. 6.)
E. g. CI 05 Sjbf i} a thousand [shekels] of silver ; Snt ten [shek-
els] of gold ; Cl bi p six [ephahs] of barley ; "Pip two [loaves]
of bread.
5 In expressing the day of the month, the word tfp
day is commonly omitted; see 176. 8.
II. Of pronouns.
5. The personal pronouns are often omitted, as follows.
() In the nominative case most commonly, as in Gr eek and Latin.
() In the genitive af ter the inf initive mood, or af ter a noun. E. g.
Gen. 6: 19 nvnnb to preserve them alive fyc. instead of Dn^nnb;
Ex. 15: 2 Jehovah is my strength f HOp and my song, f or Tl l St l ;
Ps. 40: 10, 11. 60, 6, &c.
-*steiitized bv
3 7 6
2 1 1 . ELLIPSIS.
(e) In the accusative after verbs; as Ex. 2: 25 God looked upon
the children qf Israel, and God 5*1^1 observed them, for ; Ps.
137: 5 let my right hand TXstimforget me; 139: I. 17: I I . Gen.
6. The r elative pronoun "IS# is of ten omitted in the
f ollowing constructions, viz.
() In the nominative; as Gen. 15: 13 in a land 0!rib rib which
is not theirs; Is. 40 : 20. 51 : 2. 54: 1. 55 : 5. 61 : 10, &c.
() In the genitive after a noun in the construct state; as Ex. 4 :
13 send by the hand of him whom thou wilt send. See
179. 2. " ' "
(c) In the accusative; Prov. 9:5a* wine which "
n3D73 I heme,
mingled; Gen. 3: 13 rPil)J> what is this which thou hast done ?
(d) When used to qualify other words; as Ex. 18: 20 the -may
na hi which they go ; Job 3: 3 perish the day
ta lb 1 fit in which J was born ; Ps. 32: 2. Is. 1 : 30 : 23 : 7, &c. Ecc-
1 : 5 and the sun hastens to the place Qtt? Wn whence he
arose. The word which would qualify is also often omitted; as
Is. 29 : 1 the city TV"l Srt2n [fta in which David dwelt; Ps. 4 : 8
more than in the time Dttii 035*1 [is in which their corn
and new wine increase, &c. See 187. 2 note 2.
(e) In the sense of that which, he who, those who, &c; as Job 24 :
19 Shedl takes away litDtl those who have sinned; Ps. 12 :
6 I will place in safety ib [^2?N-ni$] him whom one puffs at L e.
who is contemned.
( / ) In an adverbial sense; as 1 Chr. 15: 12 ^b "Ttf 3*Din bi$
to the place which I have prepared for it. ( 187. 2 note 2.)
NOTE. The omission of Tijat is much more common in poetry
than in prose. In prose, it is generally inserted after a definite noun,
and omitted after an indefinite one, as in Arabfc. (De Sacy, Gramm.
Arabe II. 363.)
III. Of verbs.
7 . The ver b of existence ( " PN) is commonly omitted
between a subject and its pr edicate, especially when the
pr edicate stands f ir st. ( 180* 1.)
E. g. Gen. 3: 11 ">p3K naked am J; 4:13 'ft 1*
great is my iniquity, Sic.
2 1 1 . ELLIPSIS* 3 7 7
8. When the wor ds of any one ar e r epeated, the ver b
"VON* which marks quotation, is ver y of ten omitted, and
must be supplied f r om the sense of the passage.
E. g. Ps. 8: 4 when I behold the heavent ISM] I exclaim,
Lord, what is man SFC. 10:4 the wicked in his pride ["t^M] has said
snn^bs [flJrT] Jehovah will not punish; comp. v. 13 where the el-
lipsis is supplied, and see above in Ho. 1 note; 52: 8, 9. 59: 8. Job
8: 18.
9. When a f inite ver b would be pr eceded by an in-
f initive absolute of the same ver b, the f or mer is some-
times omitted.
For examples, see 199. 4.
NOTE. Besides the above particular cases of an ellipsis of the verb,
there occur many other, especially in poetry, which cannot be made
the subject of definite precept, but must be filled up in conformity
with the context Such are Job 39: 24. Is. 66 : 6. Ps. 3: 9. 4 : 3.
6:4. 7: 9. Jer. 11: 15. 2 Sam. 23: 17, comp. 1 Chr. 11: 19. 1 K.
11: 25. 2 K. 6: 33. Hoe. 8:1. Prov. 6: 26. See below in no. 15 note 2*
IV. Of adverbs.
10. The inter r ogative H is of ten omitted.
E. g. Gen. 27 : 24 "^a nt JtriM art thou my very son, for JlPiMtt ;
then that, for ^3D PJMfi; 1 Sam. 16:4. 30: 8. 2 Sam.
9 :6 :18 :29. Job 40: 25.
NOTE. This ellipsis of n often takes place in a negative interroga-
tion, before Mb ; as Jon. 4:11 &3HM Mb "OMI and should not I spare
Nineveh f instead of Mb!?,; Lam. 1:12. 3: 36. Ex. 8: 22. 2 K. 6:
26. Job 14: 16 for now thou numberest my steps, Sfttpn Mb] and
wilt thou not keep watch over my sins ? So also before bM 1 Sam. 27:10.
11. When two negative propositions f ollow each other
in the same construction, especially in poetic parallelism,
the negative adver b is sometimes omitted in the second
proposition, and must be supplied.
E. g/ 1 Sam. 2: 3 speak not proudly, pn* let not any rash
thing proceed from your mouth ; Ps. 9 : 19 for he will not always forget
the poor; the expectation of the afflicted shall not always perish; Job
28 : 17. 30 : 20. Is. 23: 4. 38 : 18. See below in no. 15. d.
37 8
2 1 1 . ELLIPSIS.
NOTE. When a negative is expressed in the first member of a par-
allelism, and the second has a Vav prefixed to it, that Vav should he
rendered disjunctively, viz. nor, but, &c. E. g. Ps. 44: 19 our heart
has HOT turned back from thee, Oni NOR our steps declined from
thy paths; Is. 41 : 28 / looked and there was MO man, qf them NONE gave
counsel, I inquired of them NOR did any answer, or BUT none gave
answer ; Job 3: 10. Is. 28 : SrDeut. 33: 6. ( 208.)
V. Of prepositions.
12. The prepositions 2, !?, &c. ar e not unf r equently
omitted wher e the sense requires them.
(a) The prefix a; as Ps. 66: 17 vVfi* I cried to him
with my mouth for "CB; 12:3. 17:10,13,14. 60:7 help me with
thy right hand; 108: 7. 109. 2, kc.
NOTE. The prefix D, when taken as a conjunction ( 157. 1), usu-
ally excludes a; as Am. 9:11 DM? 'EPS as in the days qf old, for ^ 3^ 3.
(b) The prefix V; as Prov. 27: 7 to the hungry soul,
any bitter morsel is sweet, for ; 13: 18. 14 : 22. Jer. 9: 2.
(c) The preposition ; Ecc. 2: 24 nothing is better for a man
^2#*$ than that he should eat, for
VI. Qf conjunctions.
13. Conjunctions which would expr ess some par ticular
r elation of the latter part of a sentence to the f or mer , ar e
of ten omitted, or their place is supplied by the copulative
E. g. Gen. 19: 23 and the sun was rising tta ofcl and [when] Lot
entered Zoar; Prov. 11: 2 pride cometh and [then] cometh shame,
or does pride come ? and [then] shame will follow ; Gen. 44: 4. Ex.
3:18. 16:21. 17:6. Ps. 148 : 5.
NOTE. The copulative Vav is here rendered when, then, &c. mere-
ly from necessity, the appropriate conjunction being omitted. ( 208.)
14. Conjunctions which ser ve to connect words and
phr ases ar e of ten omitted.t
NOTB. In technical language, that part of the sentence, which in cate*
like the above precede* Vav, is called protasis; that which follow*, aptdosis.
t NOTB. This is called the constructs cuyndctica i. e. without the ovvfoopot
or conjunction.
2 1 1 . ELLIPSIS* 3 7 9
(o) The copulative Vav; as Gen. 31: 2 yesterday and
the day before ; Judg. 19:2 a year and four months ;
Hab. 3: 11 TVi sun and moon; Nah. 3:1. Is. 63: 11. Ex.
15:9. Judg.~5: 27. Ps. 10:3.
NOTE. The asyndetic construction occurs principally in the ex-
pression of intense feeling in poetry; or in the phraseology of com-
mon life, which it is the custom of all languages to shorten.
(6) The disjunctive 1 or to or ; as 2 K. 9: 32 .TOblb 0*3tt> two or
three eunuchs ; 1 Sam. 20: 12. Is. 17:6.
(c) The sign of comparison 3 or ?K3 as; Is. 21: 8
he will roar as a lion ; Ps. 11:1 vna^y to your mountain
as a bird ; Is. 51: 12 the son of man who shall be made as grass ;
Job 24: 5. Ps. 40: 8. Nah. 3: 12, 13. Especially, when the follow-
ing member of a sentence has "J5 so, is a as omitted before the first
member; as Is. 55: 9 for as the heavens are higher than the earth, *J3>
so are his ways above 4rc. Ps. 48: 6. Job 7: 9. Judg. 5:15.
{d) The conditional particles *3 and tttf i f , provided that, although,
fee. as 4s. 48 : 21 they shall not thirst, provided that he
should conduct them through the desert; Job 19: 4. Ps. 139: 11. Gen.
42 : 38. Ex.4: 23.
(e) The particles *3 and signifying that; as Ps. 9: 21 the naf
tions shall know njafj that they are mere men; 50: 21. 71: 8.
Job 19: 25. Lam. 1: 21.
VII. Ellipsis in poetic parallelism.
15. ID poetr y, a noun, pronoun, ver b, adver b, or pr ep
osition, expr essed in the f ir st member of a parallelism, it
not unf requently omitted in the second member.
(a) A noun; as Ps. 24: 1 Jehovah's is the earth and all that
is in it, [it^Pb] Jehovah's is the world and they who dwell therein.
{b) A pronoun; Ps. 22: 6 "
32fi< / am a worm and no man, [^32**]
I am the scorn of men ; so nntt in v. 10.
(c) A verb; as Ps. 22: 3 O my God I call all the day, but
thou dost not answer ; and all the night [it"}^] do I call &c. 13: 3 15
rPttjfit rt3K how long shall I have [place] anxiety in my soul, [rWK"*!?
rPttta] how long shall I have [place] sorrow in my heart all the day ?
see below in d ; Is. 49: 7 kings shall behold and rise up, princes
[itf-P] shall behold and do reverence, &c.
(d) An adverb; as Ps. 10: 5 rmb why, Jehovah, standest thou afar
e j f , [nab] why hidest thou thyself; 13: 3 see above in c; 22: 2, &c.
For the omission of the negative lib in similar cases, see above in
no. 11.
(e) A preposition; as Job 12:12 with the aged is wisdom,
11 aTU
* f k understanding ; 15:3. Is. 28 : 7
44: saying to JerusalembS'W and to the temple, for ; 28 :
6. Job 34: 10. Gen. 49: 25 b*JE,/rom the God of thy father""2 n1
and from the Almighty, for n&E; Ps. 22: 2 why art thou distant
from the words of my cry, for Job 30: 5. Is. 46 : 9. 49 : 7.
61 : 7.
NOTE 1. Vice vena, a word is sometimes omitted in the fiiet mem-
ber of a parallelism, which is supplied in the second member; as Is.
48: 11 for how shall [my glory] be profaned, when I will not give
"H'23 my glory to another ?
NOTE 2. No one thing in all the badness of sacred philology and
interpretation requires more judgment, skill, nicety of grammatical
knowledge, and thorough acquaintance with the Hebrew and poetic
idiom, than the application of the principle just exhibited above. A
multitude of obscurities in the English translation of the Old Testa-
ment might be removed by the aid of it, and much light diffused over
the sacred writings. The application of the principle, however, in a
multitude of cases, is not properly the subject of any definite rule, but
must be Greeted by critical tact and sound discretion.
* 212. Change of construction in the same sentence.
1. When a sentence begins with a ver b in the inf ini-
tive pr eceded by a pr eposition and used in a f inite sense
( 200. 6), it of ten pr oceeds with a finite ver b.
E. g. Ps. 60: 2 2 1 8 * 1 w h e n he strove and returned ; Gen.
39: 18 wfo*
Jrowed my voice and cried; Is. 18:
5. 30: 12* 49: 5 Qeri. Amos 1: U. 2: 4. Gen. 27: 45. Job 28 : 25.
29: 6. 38: 7.
2. Sentences of ten begin with a par ticiple, and pr oceed
with a finite ver b. ( 203.)
E. g. Prov. 19: 26 0$ SK"T7U}73 he who abuses his father,
and chases away his mother; 2: 14. Is. 5: 11. 48: 1. 57: 3. Geq.
27:33. Ps. 15: 2, 3, &e.
3. Sentences of ten exhibit a change of person, especial-
ly in poetr y, viz.
() A transition f rom the third person to the second;
and vice versa.
E. g. Is. 1: 29 for THEY be ashamed qf the groves, which YE
have loved ; Gen. 49 : 4 THOU wentest up to thy fatherbedHE went
up to my couch ; Mic. 7: 18. Mai. 2: 15.
() A transition f rom the f ir st person to the thir d.
E. g. Is. 42 : 24. 44; 24, 25 / am Jehovah who made the universe,
HE frustrates the signs fa. This transition, however, is unfrequent,
and for the most part is altered in the Qeri.
NOTE. The same changes of person occur also in the use of suffix-
pronouns, a transition being often made from the first or second per-
son to the third, and vice versa; as Prov. 8:17 Kethib / [wisdom]
love her lovers i. e. those who love me j Mic. 1: 2 hear ye peo-
ple oil qf them, L e. all of you; Job 18: 4. Is. 22: 16, &c.
213. Constructio praegnans.
The name of consiructio praegnans is applied to phra-
ses which imply more than the wor ds liter ally expr ess,
although ther e is no dir ect ellipsis.
E. g. Ps. 22: 22 ^2n">25 "^50 hear [and deliver] me
from the horns qf the wild bulls, comp. v. 13; 32: 8 ftXPHt
I will counsel [and direct] to thee my eye ; 74:7 f ^ b
to the earth have they [cast down and] defiled the dwelling qf thy name ;
1 Sam. 10: 9 2b and Ood cAanged [his heart and
gave] to him another heart; 1 Chr. 12: 17 ^^b ^nia^b but if to de-
ceive [and betray] me to my enemies ; Ps. 118:5. Is. 38 :17. Jos. 4:18.
2 Sam. 18 : 19. Hos. 1: 2, &c.
NOTE. The following constructions, which are sometimes ranked
here, are rather to be considered as cases of direct ellipsis; viz. Num.
14:24 Fnn] [n^bb] Kbtt completely [to follow] Jehovah (J 206);
Ps. 13: 4 n)n lest I sleep [the sleep of] death. See
211. 2, 9 note.
5 0
214, 2 1 5 . ZEUGMA, HENDIADYS.
214. Zeugma.
1. The name Zeugma is applied to a construction wher e
two subjects have a ver b in common, but this ver b ex-
pr esses action &c. which can with pr opr iety be pr edicated
of only one of the subjects.
E. g. Job 4 : 10 the voice qf the lion and the teeth of the young lion*
are broken out i. e. the roaring of the lion [is made to cease], and the
teeth &c. Gen. 47 : 19 wherefore should we die, we and our land, i. e.
our land [become desolate]; Is. 55: 3. Hos. 1: 2. Jer. 15: 8. Est.
2. The f igur e Zeugma also includes those cases wher e
nouns ar e grammatically connected with pr eceding nouns,
when in r espect to sense such connexion cannot be ad-
E. g. Ps. 65: 9 thou makest 'WSti JQ the outgoings of the morning and
the evening to rejoice, where outgoings cannot be predicated of eve-
ning; Gen. 2: 1 the heavens and the earth and all OMK the host qf
them, i. e. the host of the heavens, viz. the stars. Compare Neh.
215. Hendiadys.
The name Hendiadys is applied to a construction in
which two nouns ar e put in the same case and connected
by a copula, while in r espect to sense one of them must
be taken as a genitive f ollowing the other , or as an adjec-
tive qualif ying the other . ( 161. 5.)
E. g. Gen. 1:14 and they shall be for signs and for sea-
sons i. e. they shall be for the signs of seasons &c. 3: 16 / will multi-
ply thy sorrow and thy conception 1. e. I will multiply the pains of thy
conception; Job 10: 17 misfortune* and a host i. e. a host of misfor*
tunes; 4:16 stiUness and a voice i. e. a low voice, comp. 1 K. 19: 12.
2 Chr. 16: 14. Jer. 29: 11. .
For the name, see 6 161. 5.
3 8 3
216. Paronomasia.
1, The name Paronomasia is given to an expression
which contains two or more words selected in such a man-
ner, that they may resemble each other in sound, while in
sense they may differ.
Paronomasia is a very favorite figure of rhetoric among the He-
brews, and is common in all the oriental languages. It differs from our
rhyme, inasmuch as the words which constitute it do not necessarily
stand at the end of parallelisms or strophes, but may be placed togeth-
er in any part of a sentence, and are found in prose as well as poetry.*
2. There are various modes of constructing the Paro-
nomasia, of which the following are the principal.
(a) By placing together like sounding words; as Gen. 1: 2 IJin
desolate and empty ; 4: 12 3?3 a fugitive and a vagabond;
18 : 27 IBi? dust and ashes ; Job 30 : 19. Is. 28 : 10, 13 IScb 122
* - T FF '
law here and law there, precept here and pre-
cept there; 24: 17 JtBI nnDl IPC terror and a snare and a sling;
Ps. 18 : 8. Lam. 3 : 47. Jer* 48 : 43. Is. 24 : 3, 4.
(fe) By using like sounding words in different parts of a sentence ;
as Hos. 8 : 2 the stalk yields no 7173p. meal; Is. 5: 7 and he looked
BE'IJEb for equity and lo nB'JJQ shedding of blood, for righteous-
ness and lo the cry of the oppressed ; 7 : 9 if fiib ye will not
believe, then fitb ye shall not be established; 61 : 3 he shall ap-
point HDN nnn 'liJD beauty instead of ashes; Ps. 40 : 4. 52 : 8. 68 : 3.
Zech. 9 : 5. Gen. 42: 35. Amos 5: 26.
(c) By changing sometimes the ordinary forms of words, in order
to produce similarity of sound; as Ezek. 43: 11 Vfijaia:) Tfijxin,
where N3173 stands forfirtaa ; Ps.32:1 rmun'IDS where
^iB2 stands for See Mic. 1 : 8. Ezek. 7: 11. Amos 5: 26.
(d) By employing, in some cases, a word sounding in some degree
like another; as Joel 1 : 15 it shall come as destruction
from the Almighty; Jer. 51: 2 / will send against Babylon D^T barbari-
ans tt'HT'l and they shall scatter her; Is. 32: 7 vVs *^5) the armour of
* Besides the name TtaQOvopctoia, the Greek rhetoricians also called
this figure naprjrtjaie and Tiaoojvufua; and the Latins, agnominatio.
.digitized by Google
3 8 4
the crafty is evil; Ezek. 7: 6 y*j?Sl K2 KB yj? the end is
come, come is the end, it is waked up against thee ; Is. 1 : 23
thy princes are revolters, comp. Hos. 9:15. Is. 57: 6. Amos 8 : 2.
(e) By repeating the same word In a different signification; as Ecc.
7: 6 like the noise [crackling] qf thorns under VOrt a pot;
Judg. 10: 4 Jair had thirty tons, and they rode upon thirty attest'
colts, and had thirty cities ; 15: 16 with the jaw bone "riJafitt of
an ass have / slain "IIEn one heap two heaps ; 1 Sam. 1: 24
and the lad was yet a lad; Jer. 1:11,12 what seest thou, Jerer
miah ? Ans. A rod "TjJSJ of the almond tree. Then God said, Well, for /
watch over fa.
( f ) Proper names are frequently made the occasion of Paronoma-
sia; as Mic. 1: 10 4San bN tes in Acco weep not, STntsb n
2a In Beth
Leaphra roll thyself "It* in the dust; 1: 14 the houses "qf Achzib
3T2ttb are liars; Zeph. 2: 4 W3> Gaza it forsaken; Gen. 9:
27 God n$;b nD] will enlarge Japhet; 49 : 8 O Judah thy breth-
ren shall praise thee ; 49: 16 "p
^ Dan shall judge; 49: 19
la Gad, a host shall press upon him ; Ruth 1: 20. Neh.
9: 24! Num. 18: 2. Is. 21: 2. Jer. 6: 1. 48: 2. Ezek. 25: 16. Hos.
2: 25. Amos 5 : 5, 6.
NOTE. Paronomasia is a very common figure in the New Testar
merit; as Mat. 8: 22 aqpee rove vfxpovs &dyai rove istvraiv vexgovg
let the dead bury their own dead ; see above in e. In Latin are found
capiatur Capua, cremetur Cremona; and Cicero exclaims (in Ver-
rem IV. 24) quod unquam hujusmodi EVERIUCULUM in provincia ullaJuU.
In the writings of the monks of the middle ages, and of the older Eng-
lish divines, Paronomasia abounds to excess.
A. p. 41.
In 10. 5 (p. 41) Is a reference to appendix A. In the progress
of the work, it was thought best to transfer to the body of the gram-
mar the matter which formerly stood in this place. The student is
therefore referred to 152 note 6 (p. 302), and 154. Par. IV.
B. p. 42.
Hebrew and'Greek alphabets.
The common assertion of writers on the old Greek alphabet has
been, that it consisted originally of only sixteen letters. The infer-
ence has been drawn from this, that when Cadmus left Phenicia, the
alphabet of his country comprised only this number of letters.
But this assertion in respect to the original number of Greek let-
ters, is built upon no definite and certain testimony. The oldest wri-
ters, Herodotus (5. 58) and Diodorus Siculus (5. 24), who relate the
story of Cadmus, say nothing of the number of letters; and the ac-
counts of later times disagree. Aristotle makes eighteen (Plin. Hist.
Nat. 7. 56); another account seventeen. (Plut. Sympos. 8 quaest. 3.
Isidor. Orig. I. 3. Potter's Greek Antiq. P. III. 8, 237 &c.)
A comparison of the Hebrew and Greek alphabets will make the
subject plainer. This may be made with probability, as follows.
s a n n u n u i s b a j e y s s p i D n
ABT A E(*F)Z H 9 IK A MN O J7(**)(t) P(.[) T
Upsilon and Omega seem to have been added later; and /?ai,
Ao7T7ra, and Zuvtit to have been rejected from the common alphabet,
as being superfluous, and retained merely as numeral signs. In the
Latin alphabet, taken from the old Greek, Bav passed into F, and
Kornia into Q. In the place of the corresponding composite letter
S was introduced.
* ZZmotjftov Bav, Digamma /", Latin F. ** avn7.
t KoTinft, Latin Q. 1 2uv, an old Greek S, Herod. 1. 139
Di ai t i zed bv Google
As the Greeks adopted a different mode of writing and reading
from that of the Phenicians, beginning at the right hand and proceed-
ing towards the left; so the old Phenician characters (Alph. third
column, p. 39) seem to have been reversed by them. Thus 3 of the
Phenicians, in Greek is written E; Sf the Phenician R is written P in
Greek &c. The four Gutturals , n, n, passed into vowels of ea-
sier sound, and were written as the consonants and in a line with
them. This fact renders it probable, that the strong guttural sounds
given by many grammarians to 9 are incorrect, and that n itself In
certain positions had a mild sound. Jerome calk n a vowel.
A comparison of the Greek and Hebrew alphabets in respect to
the names of the letters, renders it highly probable that they are of
common origin. There can scarcely be a doubt, that the Greeks re-
ceived their alphabet from the Phenicians.
C. p 60.
The names of the vowels are Chaldee, and of course indicate the
late origin of the vowels. They are probably significant; but the ex-
planation is attended with some difficulty. The following exhibits the
most probable account of this subject.
signifies collection or contraction of the mouth in uttering it.
nnB opening of the mouth.
fractio, or dividing of the mouth.
cluster of grapes, from the shape (v ).
p*VVj o creaking sound.
Dbin fullness or strength of sound,
fjttn means short, hurried.
a hissing sound.
Visp compression of the mouth.
D. p. 261.
In the first edition of this grammar, the theory of Gesenius was
adopted, who derives the great body of the Hebrew nouns from the
infinitive mood and the participles of Kal, and a few from the Infin-
itive and participles of other conjugations. This theory appeared,
at first view, to be very specious; and if it be well grounded, a prop-
er knowledge of it is, no doubt, very desirable. Much pains was ta-
ken in the first edition, to arrange and exhibit a regular series of these
various forms of derivative nouns. Subsequent examination, howev-
er, has satisfied me that the theory is true only to a moderate extent,
and that it is of very little, if any, practical utility to the student. The
Arabic language, to which Gesenius appeals for a complete parallel
in respect to the derivation of nouns from the infinitive and partici-
ples, will by no means support the theory which he maintains. In
Arabic, the nomen actionis or infinitive forms, and the nomen agentis or
participial forms, actually comprise but a very small part of the nouns
and adjectives in that language; immeasurably the greater number
being formed by varying the vowel sounds, or by prefixing, inserting,
or suffixing, in a great variety of ways, some of the formative letters,
which correspond to the Hemantiv ( vns f t s n) letters of the Hebrew;
and the use of which, no grammarian has ever attempted to reduce to
rule, because it is too complex and multifarious to be capable of any
such reduction.
Still less can any definite peculiar meaning be always attached to
individual forms of nouns in Hebrew. So much as this is doubtless
true, viz. that certain forms more usually have a certain signification.
Thus nouns and adjectives which have a Daghesh forte in the middle
radical, more commonly signify habitual quality or action; as
righteous, 4*53 n a sinner. So nouns with a prefixed often designate an
instrument of action ; as nnCJg a key from fins to open. But such mean-
ings are very far from being exclusively attached to such forms. They
are even less so, than in the case of certain significant forms in our
own language, viz. words ending in ish, able, &c.
In a word, the exceptions to the theory of derivation and meaning
which Gesenius proposes, and which was followed in the first edition
of this grammar, are so very numerous; the introduction of unknown
forms of the infinitive and participles (unknown at least in any of the
Hebrew now extant) into a language so simple as the Hebrew and
not at all abounding in variety of verbal forms, in order to carry
through and render probable the theory in question, is so objectiona-
ble ; that after repeated investigation and consideration, I have thought
it best to exclude the whole subject from the grammar, as laborious,
difficult, and comparatively of very little use in practice.
The only effectual method of becoming acquainted with the signifi-
cation of nouns of any form, is practice and the use of a good lexicon
and grammar; for all grammarians and lexicographers, not excepting
Gesenius himself, now concede, that the signification of any given noun
can never be determined with certainty from the mere form of the
Diaitized bv Google
E. pp. 85, 86.
f l . Table of the accents.
The accents marked In the following table with (*) belong excl ur
sively to poetry; those marked with (t) belong exclusively to prose;
the others are common to both. The letters 2 and 0 are used merely
to shew the position of the accents. The names are all Chaldee.
Class I; pause-accents.
1 $QD SILLUQ, L e. stop, pause ; or, with the two points at
' the end of the verse, p^DB Pj'lOB p^Vo pause at the end of
a verse; called also prolonged in reading or can di-
lation ; and mugitus L e. loud sound.
2 3 ATHNAHH, i. e. respiration, time to breathe; called also
^ none impulse of the vt>ice.
3 MERKA MAHPAKH ; composite; see 23, 25.
Class II; used occasionally as pause-accents.
4 fQD flfjcn TIPHHHA posterius, L e. palm qf the handy from the
shape; called also buckler, from the shape;
retardation, from its office; strong, when next be-
fore Silluq and Athnahh; going on. It is used in
poetry, but merely as a conjunctive; see 30.
5 *M TIPHHHA anterius; pRAEFoernvE.
6 t 3 ZAQEPH QATON, L e. elevator minor.
7 t 3 biia ZAQEPH GADHOL, i. e. elevator major.
8 f i NnbiD SEOHOLTA, i. e. cluster qf grapes, from its shape.
Class III.
9 t 3 V2n TEBHIR, L e. interruption, breaking of f .
10 D 5*^*) REBHIA, i. e. resting upon or over.
11 *D2 T23"\* REBHIA GERESH ; composite, and the Geresh PRAE-
POSITIVE; s e e 10, 15.
12 KNTTJC PASHTA, i.e. expansion of the voice; poarrposmvE.
13 M #p
")l ZAR^A, i.e. dispersion ; POSTPOSITIVE. In poetry, when
not postpositive, it is used merely as a conjunctive; see 31.
14 t t o YETHIBH, i. e. sitting, stopping ; called also Cipna "slfi
" tuba anterior, and tuba inferior ; PRAEPOSITIVE.
Class IV.
15 F 3 GERESH, i . e. expulsion; called also &*np buckler; and
KbDK staff, rod.
a *
16 J Hi GARSHAYIM, i.e. double Geresh; called also tTO^n
and dual and plural of D^n; see 15.
17 t CD JIURBN TELISHA GHEDHOLA, i. e. evulsio major ; called
also Httjbn (eradicator ?) and NO"in buckler; PRAEPOSITIVE.
10 3 Q
ARf f E
PHARA, i. e. the two horns of a heifer, from
^ the shape.
19 D PAZER, i. e. disperser.
20 |C!2 PESIQ, i. e. cessation ; called also fctjPOB separation; nev-
er used alone, but always preceded by a conjunctive on
the same word. See below in 1T 5. d. 1T 6. 6, note.
21 3 nsi E MUNAHH, i. e. joined; called also ^2 ascent; bs'lDTa
sieve; *Y13* straight trumpet; "IP/D walking
trumpet. In poetry it is inferius or superius, L e. written
either below or above the line, as a or 3.
22 3 ***?"! QADMA, i. e. before ; also fitb TN going on ; b2?$
23 3 *3"!*? MERKA, for prolonging; also or^
prolonging ; fitbtNE proceeding.
24 T 2 FlblE3 MERKA KHEPHULA, i.e. Merka doubled; also
called "p'ntain ]"nn two threads.
25 3 MAIIPAKH, i. e. inversion ; called also crooks
ed trumpet; "psn inverted trumpet. In poetry it is
^ inferius or superius, as 3 or 5.
26 2 nV'JJBUJ SHALSHELETH, i. e. a chain ; called also elevat-
ing the voice.
27 | DARGA, i. e. steps, a ladder.
s *
28 "{"CD TEUSHA QETANNA, I.e. evulsio minor; POST-
2 9 3 YERAHH, i.e. moon ; called also RN^ the moon
a day old ; NVAY round ; BSBA a wheel.
30 * M TIPHHHA postering, a conjunctive in poetry; see 4.
3 1 * u 5 ZARQA, a conjunctive in poetry when not postpositive; see 13.
5 1
Digitized bv Google
IT 2. Number qf the accents.
The different signs used as accents amount only to about twenty ;
but the accents made by compounding or doubling these signs, may
amount to nearly twice that number. Some reckon only twentyjive ;
others make five or six more; but the number above given is, per-
haps, as convenient as any.
IT 3. Similar accents distinguished.
() Athnahh (_.) and Yerahh (_) are similar in figure, but are
counterparts as to position.
() Rebbia (J.) should be over the middle of a letter as 5; while
the vowel Hholem should be smaller in size and placed over the side
of the . letter, as 2* or fit. In common printing, however, the size and
position of Rebhia is often the same as that of Hholem; and they are
to be distinguished only by practice and a knowledge of forms.
(c) Tiphhha (-) and Merka (_) are counterparts in form. So al-
so Pashta or Qadma (L) and Geresh (L).
(d) Pashta (l ) and Qadma (-) have the same figure; but Pashta
is always postpositive (T 4. b); while Qadma is scarcely ever so.
Doubtful cases may always be determined by the consecution ; see
the tables in T 7.
(<) Yethibh ( ) and Mahpakh (
) are similar in figure; but Ye-
thibh is always praepositive; while Mahpakh is scarcely ever so.
( f ) Telisha Ghedhola (J) and Telisha Qetanna (1) lean in oppo-
site directions.
T 4. Position qf single accents.
() When a single accent is placed on a word, the general rule is,
to put it upon the tone-syllable, and over or under the letter to which
the vowel of that syllable belongs; see below in 6, note. If the vow-
el does not interfere, the accent is put over or under the middle of
that letter, as I?*, . If the vowel and accent are to be placed
together, the latter is usually put on the left side of the former, as
; but sometimes at the right of Hholem, as 1J. If a syllable be-
gin with a Sheva, the letter with Sheva is disregarded in locating the
accent, as Oton.
() Six disjunctives and one conjunctive are marked in the table,
as befog distinguished by their peculiar positions, viz.
/. Postpositive. II. Praepositioe.
Tiphhha anterius 02 \ placed only
a s s ' s :
TelishaGhedhola 0a j word.
Segholta W\ placed only
Pashta Oaf over the fi-
Zarqa gal nal letter of
Telfeba Qetanna i '
a wo r A
These accents always retain their position, excepting in a very
few cases where that position is occupied by other accents, and they
are thus forced from it Cases of this nature are to be distinguished
by a reference to the usual consecution. Zarqa is sometimes crowd-
ed out of its- place in printing; as Ps. 43: 4, where it could not
be put over b on account of its form. So sometimes with Yodh and
Vav. See below in 7 9. 6, note.
NOTE. It is hence evident, that these seven accents do not neces-
sarily mark the tone-syllable ( 33. 4); since their position is always
the same, whether the tone be on the ultimate or penult syllable.
IT 5. Position of accents when compound or repeated.
() Merka Mahpakh The Merka is always placed on the
tone^syllable, and the Mahpakh on the preceding syllable of the same
word, if there be one. If not, usage varies; sometimes, in case of a
monosyllable or a penacuted dissyllable, both parts of the accent are
written on the same letter, as aid, ; at other times, the Mahpakh
is thrown upon the last syllable of the preceding word, with or with-
out Maqqeph; as D
a'/bs, Different copies vary in
regard to the accentuation of the same words.
() Rebhia Geresh ( ) . The Rebhia is always placed on the
tone-syllable, and the Geresh is praepositive; as In mon-
osyllables and penacuted dissyllables, they both fall on the same let-
ter, as Ms, ; the Geresh being never thrown upon the pre-
ceding word.
(c) Pashta when repeated (!_?). Pashta being always postpositive,
and therefore not always marking the tone-syllable (IT 4.6), is common-
ly written again over the penult syllable, when that syllable happens to
have the tone; as Gen. 1: 2 'inn. This is done merely to mark the
real tone-syllable, and occurs only with Pashta; though the same
was formerly practised with all the praepositive and postpositive ac-
cents. See the treatise porta accentudan appended to
the final Masora.
(<Q Pesiq f|) with conjunctives. The accent Pesiq is always placed
3 9 2
after the word to which it relates, and is always preceded by a con-
junctive accent on the same word, the latter retaining its usual posi-
tion. Pesiq is thus connected with at least seven of the conjunctives,
and very probably with all of them; see IT 6. 6, note (l); and IT 7
Tab. HI.
(e) Zarqa (?) in poetry with other accents. The accent Zarqa, as
a conjunctive in poetry, appears only in connection with some other
accent following it;* either upon the same word, as nby; or on one
joined by Maqqeph, as fEn's ; or perhaps without Maqqeph, as
D3 3TV] Ps. 49: 15 ed. Mich. In every case of genuine accentua-
tion, it appears to be connected with 'some one of the conjunctives.
Zarqa appears only on words of more than one syllable, and is placed
on the syllable next preceding the tone-syllable.
IT 6. Classification of the accents.
() The division of the accents into the two greater classes of dis-
junctives and conjunctives, and the opposite uses of these two kinds of
accents, are stated in 33. 7. The test for distinguishing to which of
these two divisions any given accent belongs, is the following, viz.
When an accent stands upon a word ending with a vowel or quiescent,
and the next word begins with an aspirate ; if that aspirate takes Daghesh
lene, the accent is disjunctive ; if not, it is conjunctive. ( 29. 13.)
() The conjunctive accents all appear to be on an equality as to
their power or office ; but the subdivision of the disjunctive accents
into appropriate classes, js a subject on which great labour has been
bestowed by the older grammarians, and in respect to which scarcely
any two have been agreed in opinion. Bohl divided them into domxni
majores et minores; Wasmuth afterwards classed them as emperor*,
kings, dukes, and counts; Pfeiffer arranged them as emperors, arch-
dukes, barons, and counts ; and Boston, in his celebrated Tractatus Stig-
mologicus, divides them into dommus absohttus, domxni primarily majo-
res, minores, et minimi. The conjunctives they all denominated min-
istri or servants.
The reason of this diversity is, that there are no certain and pre-
cise marks by which any one class of the disjunctives is definitely dis-
tinguished from the others. Every system of classification, which is
NOTE. The instance quoted below from Ps. 49 : 15 (the only ooe I hare
been able to find without Maqqeph) doe not disprove this; for the best copies
djer here, add the reading is not established.
built upon the supposed interpunction or distinction of the sense of
Scripture by the different accents, must be nugatory; because there
is no one relation of words to each other, nor distinction of words from
each other, in which various accents, and even those of different clas-
ses, are not occasionally employed. By assuming this principle, there-
fore, as the basis of their divisions, the older writers on accents have
been led to widely different results, while they have been able to
form no system which will bear the test of close examination. See be-
low in If 10. b.
NOTE. Writers on the accents have also disputed respecting the
nature of some of the accents, i. e. whether they were disjunctive or
conjunctive. The chief disputes have been respecting Pesiq, Tiphhha
posterius in poetry, and Merka Khephula. An investigation of some
hundreds of chapters, in order to find examples for the application of
the rule given above in a, afforded the following results.
(1) Pesiq (l) is disjunctive, and is preceded by the following con-
junctives, viz. (l-) Gen. 3: 22. Bent. 31 : 24. Ecc. 4: 1, &c. (l-)
Ps.62: 13. 64:6! 70:5, &C. (l-) Ps. 10:7. 69:3. 96:6, &c. (j-)
Ps. 20:8. 131 : 1. 143: 6. (t-) Ps. 10: 3. 65 : 12, &e. (f-) Gen. 2:
21, 22. Deut. 7 : 26, &c. (ll) 1 Sam. 12: 3. 2 K. 18: 14. Pesiq was
not found with the three last of these conjunctives before an aspirate,
so as to furnish decisive evidence of its nature when connected with
them; but analogy, the nature of Pesiq, and the fact that conjunctives
are all on an equality as to their power, leave little room to doubt
that Pesiq is always disjunctive. See IT 7 Tab. III. a. IT 8. i.
(2) Tiphhha posterius ( _) is proved to be conjunctive in poetry,
by Ps. 3 : 9. 18 : 5. 22: 13. 57 : 7, &c.
(3) Merka Khephula (_) is proved to be conjunctive by Ex. 5:15.
Ezek. 14: 4, &c.
(c) The divisions in the foregoing table are founded on the use of
the accents in prose. The basis of the classification of the disjunc-
tives, as there exhibited, is simple. The pause-accents make the pri-
mary divisions of a verse; or, when a verse is very short, it has
only one of them (Silluq) at the end; as 1 Chr. 1: 1, 2, 3, 4. When
the verse is longer, it is divided by Silluq and Athnahh into two parts,
which are often very unequal in length.
(rf) The secondary divisions of a verse are made within the limits
of the primary divisions, by the second class of disjunctives as marked
In the table. The number of these secondary divisions In any verse
3 9 4
depends, of course, on the number of the primary ones, and on the
length of the whole verse. In the same manner, the disjunctives of
the third class are used to subdivide the secondary divisions; and
those of the fourth class to subdivide the divisions made by those odf
the third.
(e) The poetry of the Hebrews, according to the accentuators,
comprises only the books of Psalms (D^nn), Proverbs and
the greater part of Job ; technically called rtigM truth, by com-
bining the initials of the names (IT 11. c). In these books, the primary
divisions are made by Silluq, Athnahh, and Merka Mahpakh. Thus,
Silluq alone is found in Ps. 19:1. Job 19:1, fee. Silluq and Athnahh in
Ps. 1:4,5, &c. and Silluq and Merka Mahpakh in Ps. 1:2. 3:4. Some-
times all three are employed, and the verse is divided into three parts ;
as Ps. 1: 1, 3, &c.
( f ) To subdivide these primary divisions in poetry, all the other
disjunctive accents, excepting those which belong exclusively to prose,
are used indiscriminately; so that in poetry all the accents of the sec-
ond, third, and fourth classes in the table, may be assigned to one
class, and called, in distinction from the pause-accents, leaser disjunc-
IT 7. Consecution of the accents.
(a) The leading pause-accent (Silluq) always stands at the end of
a verse, and the other disjunctives which may be employed, are
distributed on the right of it, viz. between it and the beginning of the
verse, according to their respective rank. See above in IT 6. c, d, &c.
and also the tables below.
(b) To disjunctives of every class are usually attached one or
more conjunctives, located on one or more of the preceding words, and
occasionally on the same word.
(c) The words thus occupied by a disjunctive and its preceding
conjunctive or conjunctives, are called the clause of that disjunctive;
and the disjunctive is said to govern this clause.
NOTE. Zaqeph Gadhol ( j ) and Yethibh (_) have no conjunctives
attached to them; and of course have no clause except the word on
which they stand.
(d) The following tables, with the accompanying explanations,
exhibit the various consecutions of the accents both in prose and in
(a) Consecutions qf the disjunctives.
Class I; pause-accents. Class II.
Class III.
Class IV.
9 10
C 9 v r

ff V c t
Pesiq (i) in its various
J *
9 C 9
none. connexions see below
in Table III.
9 V Y
f t I
9 C 9
Class IV.
Pesiq (i) in its various
connexions see below
in Table III.
(6) Disjunctives in connexion with conjunctives.
Class I.
11 12
r - I
Class II.
13 14 IS
c > ff \ | 1 *
Digitized btf Good
H:= =
Class ID.
> H
) s
Class IV.
22 23
' < : " 1 ~ - i -
Peslq (f) with conjunctives see below in Table III.
(a) Consecutions of the dujunctives.
Class I; pause-accents.
25 26 24
^ 1 s
Class II; lesser disjunctives.
t 1
Ps. 18: 1,
9f t
(6) Disjunctives in connexion with conjunctive*.
Class I.
SO 31 32
1 *
I -
) t
1 1
Class II.
34 35
" - t r
(a) Pesiq as a disjunctive.
In prose, Pesiq with a conjunctive usually appears as a disjunctive
of the fourth class, and as such is regularly found occupying the place
of any of the accents in the consecutions given in Tab. I no. 8. But
it occasionally appears to have also the power of a disjunctive of the
second and third classes, and is so used in Gen. 22: 11, 14. 39: 10.
46 : 2. Ex. 17 : 15. 34 : 6, 23. 35: 35, &c. &c.
Diaitized bv G0 0 5 l (
In poetry, Pesiq belongs to the second class, and is usually r emov-
ed one or two places from the governing pause-accent. With Mer ka
and Shalsheletb, it sometimes stands next to Silluq and Athnahh ; as
Ps. 24: 4. 89: 2, &c.
(b) Pesiq in connexion with conjunctives.
Prose or Poetry.
f ~
) *
> i
H - :
V j )
IT 8. Explanation of the tables of consecutions.
(a) General remarks, (l) The tables are designed to exhibit the
usual consecutions of the accents, beginning at the close of a verse and
reckoning towards the right In all the consecutions, as given in the
tables, the accents which stand at the left band belong to the next
higher class; and those on the right of them are used to subdivide the
clauses of the former in the order there exhibited.
(2) When more than one consecution, or line of accents, is placed
on the right of an accent in the tables; any accent in any one of the
perpendicular columns may, generally speaking, be used in the place
of any other accent in the same column. Thus in Tab. I no. 5, the
first subdivision on the right of Zaqeph Qaton (L) may be made by
3 9 0
Pashta (_) or Yethibh (-); the second by Rebhia, Pashta, or Yethibh;
the third also by Rebhia, Pashta, or Yethibh; and so through all the
(3) With the exception of the pause-accents, Tiphbha, and Se-
gholta, all the accents, disjunctive or conjunctive, may be repeated in im-
mediate consecution, as often as is necessary.
(6) In the first class, no. 1 shews that Silluq is sometimes the only
pause-accent in a verse; no. 2 exhibits it as preceded by Athnahh in
the same verse, as is usually the case; see above in 1 6. c. These
accents are never repeated.
(c) In the second class, no. 3 shews what secondary divisions are made
on the right of Silluq and Athnahh; both of them having subdivisions
of the same kind, made by the same accents, and in the same order.
Thus Tiphhha stands at the head of the first subdivision; Zaqeph
Qaton or its equivalent Zaqeph Gadhol at the head of the second, third,
fourth, Sic. and Segholta at the head of the fifth kc. see above in a.
2, 3. The number of intermediate clauses between Tiphhha and
Segholta is various, depending on the length of the verse, and the con-
sequent repetition or omission of the Zaqephs; comp. Gen. 1: 7.* 3:
3. Ezra 7:13. Tiphhha is never repeated nor omitted; Segholta is
never repeated, but is often omitted. Comp. in a, 3.
NOTE. In general, Segholta seems to govern a larger clause than
Zaqeph; and Zaqeph a larger one than Tiphhha. (IT 7. c.)
(d) In the third class, the several consecutions shew the order of
the subdivisions made by this class of accents under those of the pre-
ceding class; L e. those made within the limits of the secondary divis-
ions (IT 6. d). All these accents are subject to repetition or omission,
as the length of the secondary clauses may require. The tables shew
that Rebhia ('-) and Pashta (L) are common in the consecutions at-
tached to all the disjunctives of the second class; while Tebhir (-) is
attached only to Tiphhha ( - ); Yethibh ( _ ) to Zaqeph Qaton ( ) ;
and Zarqa (-) to Segholta (i.).
(e) The fourth class of disjunctives have no subdivisions under
them, and of course have none but conjunctives attached to them.
No. 8 exhibits the order of their consecutions when attached to ac-
cents of the third class ; and shews that they may all be connected, In
the same order, with any one of the third class which admits subdivis-
ions In its clause.
( / ) In Tab. I. 6, Is exhibited the manner in which the conjuno
tires are attached to the several disjunctives. They are often repeat-
ed (supra a, 3), and in many cases are wholly omitted; especially
where the disjunctive clause consists of only one word, or of two or
three words Joined by Maqqeph.
(g) The poetic accents are arranged in the tables, on the same
principles as those of prose, as above explained. But fai poetry, the
verses, and of course the members of them, are much shorter than m
prose, and the subdivisions much fewer.
(A) The conjunctives in poetry (nos. 3037) are much more nu-
merous than in prose, and are more frequently repeated. Most of
the disjunctives have a long train of them.
PESIQ. TAB. 111.
(t) Pesiq appears to possess an equal value in all its combinations
with conjunctives; and is quite anomalous in respect to position, as is
stated in the table. From an investigation of several hundreds of chap-
ters, it was found with only the seven conjunctives exhibited in the ta-
ble ; but it is very possible, that in other parts of the Bible it may oc-
cur in connexion with the remaining ones. Some of the consecutions
fai nos. 4044 belong only to prose.
(k) The mode of tracing the accents on the pages of the Bible is
simple. Commencing at the close of a verse, the consecutions are to
be followed through to the beginning. In the following examples,
those accents in capitals are pause-accents; those in small are lesser
disjunctives, and the class to which they belong is designated by the
figures which follow them; those in Italic are conjunctives.
Prose. Gen. 1 : 1 SILLUQ with Merka ; Tiphhha 2 with Merka:
ATHNAHH with Munahh ; Tiphhha 2. The shortness of the verse ex-
cludes all disjunctives of the third and fourth classes, and admits only
one in each clause of the second class; see above in c.
Verse 2 SILLUQ with Merka ; Tiphhha 2; Zaqeph Qaton 2 with
Munahh: ATHNAHH with Munahh ; Tiphhha 2; Zaqeph Qaton 2, Pash-
ta 3 (written twice IT 5. c) with Merka, Rebhia3. Here are subdivis-
ions made by accents of the third class, but none by those of the
fourth; and Tiphhha and Rebhia occur without any conjunctives, as is
often the case, both with them and with all the disjunctives.
NOTE. Words before Maqqeph, here and elsewhere, have no ac-
cent upon them; unless it be, that occasionally they have one part of
a composite accent. See 32.
Poetic. Ps. 1:1 SILLUQ with Munahh; Rebhia Geresh with Mer-
ka: ATHKAHH with Merka; Tiphhha anterius with Munahh: MER-
KA MAHPAKH with Yerah ; Zarqa postpositive with Merka; Pesiq with
Muhpakh; Rebhia with Munahh.
Verse 2 SILLUQ with Merka ; Rebhia Geresh with Merka: MERKA
MAHPAKH ; Rebhia with Merka; Tiphhha anterius; Pesiq with Mahpakh.
NOTE. The preceding tables of the accents were formed with much
labour from actual investigation, and are as perfect as circumstances
would permit. It is believed, that they are more complete than are
elsewhere to be found; though an attentive and more extended ex-
amination would probably afford the means of making some additions to
several of the consecutions. In some cases too, the student wilt prob-
ably find parts of consecutions varying from those in the tables, both
because copies of different editions differ in the accentuation besides
having various readings in themselves, and because occasional errors
in this species of typography are unavoidable. In doubtful cases, the
only method of obtaining satisfaction is to compare different editions.
The most accurate edition in all respects is that of Michaelis; the
next is that of Jablonski; that of Van der Hooght, although the most
elegant, is not always correct, especially in regard to the accents.
IF 9. Double accentuation.
() Double accentuation is to be carefully distinguished from all
those cases of compound accents and of accents repeated, which are
treated of in IT 5. It is of two kinds, as pertaining either to particular
words or to a train of discourse.
() Many cases occur, both in prose and in poetry, where particu-
lar words exhibit a double accentuation; viz. two disjunctives, or a
disjunctive and conjunctive, or two conjunctives, in the usual order of
consecution, are placed on the same word, instead of placing the in-
ferior accent on the preceding word. The following are examples, viz.
* ' P hta * *
t c A c A *
i > -* * >
v c f r r c ) j j > j
j - t >
Pesiq (t) also, besides its usual conjunctives, frequently takes Zar-
qa ( ~ ) conjunctive on the same word.
Digitized by
NOTE. ID the case of Zaqeph Qaton with Pashta ( 11), the latter
though postpositive is here necessarily thrown hack upon a preceding
syllable; see IT 4. b.
(c) A case of double accentuation, as pertaining to a train of dis-
course, occurs in the decalogue, Ex. 20: 215. When the decalogue
was read in course, as a part of a Sabbatical section of the law, it was
read as thirteen verses; and was furnished with one train of accents
accordingly, containing thirteen Silluqs. But at the feast of Pentecoet,
in which the Jews were accustomed to commemorate the promulga-
tion of the law from Mount Sinai, the decalogue was publicly read as
divided into ten portions, each of which was furnished with its appropri-
ate train of accents. These portions were very unequal, and are indi-
cated in our common Hebrew Bibles by the letter 0.* See on this
subject ABIGHT de accentibus Heb. c. VII.
In some cases, where the different divisions terminate at the same
place, the two trains of accents coincide and only one appears; as in
part of v. 6, and v. 7, 11, 12, 14. The two last portions were made
by dividing v. 14; and of course Silluq must be understood upon
along with Athnahh, although in modern editions the former is usual-
ly omitted.
NOTE. The above quotations are made from the edition of Michae-
ls. In that of Van der Hooght, the verses are numbered differently,
but the other divisions and the two trains of accents are the same as
in that of Michaelis.
IT 10. Original design of the accents.
It is stated in 33.1 that three uses have been assigned to the ac-
cents, viz. to mark the tone-syllable; to serve as signs of interpunc-
tion; and to guide the recitation or cantillation of the sacred text It
may here be proper to inquire, which of these uses was probably in-
tended by the accentuators.
(a) Were the accents intended to mark the tone-syllable ? We have
seen (IT 4. b) that seven of the accents do not necessarily indicate the
* The Rabbins considered this doable accentuation as a (treat mystery, and
delighted to draw from it recondite doctrines. "Magna multaque in its latere
mytltria, quitibet fateri neecsse habet, qui duplieem in deealogo et a/iis in loeis
eonsiderabit accentualionem. Nemo unquam fuit ex omnibus retro howinibui,
qui rationem ejus dare potuit, nee erit posthae utftu, qui cam penetrate vatebk
Elias Scbnegassius in Abicht c. VII.
place of the tone. It can therefore hardly be deemed probable, that
the authors of the accents invented them for this purpose, and then
placed them in such positions as not to accomplish their object. Nor is
it any more probable, that they invented nearly forty accents to de-
signate the tone-syllable, when in all cases one would have better an-
swered their purpose. For such reasons, this opinion has generally
been rejected.
(6) Were the accents invented as signs of interpunction ? This opin-
ion has found many supporters, both among ancient and modern wri-
ters on the accents. No satisfactory theory, however, has ever yet
been proposed by the advocates of this view; scarcely any two of
them being agreed in respect to it. Nor is this disagreement a sub-
ject of wonder; for there is not a page of the Hebrew Bible which
does not confound all attempts to support the theory of real interpunc-
tion by the accents. Every kind of connexion, even the most intimate
that can exist between words, is constantly broken up by the use of
the disjunctives. Thus in Ps. 18 : 1 we have ntt?n
the words of this song, where a noun in regimen with the follow-
ing word, the most intimate of all grammatical connexions, has a dis-
junctive accent upon i t ; and so in a multitude of cases. On the other
hand, the conjunctive accents are sometimes placed on words which
have no connexion, either in respect to grammar or sense. Thus in
Ps. 4 : 5 commune with your own hearts on your bed nbo ^73*11 and be
still Selah, where the words be still and Selah are united by the ac-
cents in the most intimate and inseparable connexion; and so in very
many cases. Not a chapter in the Bible can be pointed and read
according to the accents and make sense of it, if they are regarded as
distinctive of the sense and meaning of words. (IT 6. 6.)
Some writers have been aware of this difficulty, and to avoid it
have made the accents distinctive of either a dictamen logicum, gram-
maticum, or rhetoricum. When one of these fails, they then resort to
the other. But in 1 Chr. 1 : 110,which is a mere catalogue of
proper names, all having the same relation to, and connexion with
each other,the accents, both conjunctive and disjunctive, are employ-
ed in all their accustomed mixture and sequences. To what dictamen
must we resort, in order to account for a usage like this ?
Another difficulty in the way of considering the accents as signs of
interpunction, is presented by those cases in which two or more ac-
cents are placed on the same word (IT 9. b). Is a word at the same
Diqitized by Google
time disjoined in different degrees ? or at die same time both disjoined
and conjoined ? or can it be doubly conjoined ? The same difficulty
also occurs in those cases, in which the very same words, in the same
connexion and sense, are furnished with accents of different kinds; as
2 Sam. 22 which has prose accents, compared with Ps. 18 where the
lame song has poetic accents; and which in the former case often has
conjunctives, where in the latter it has disjunctives. Is then the same
composition at the same moment both poetry and prose ? or are the
same words, in the same connexion and meaning, in the one case to be
conjoined with others in sense, and in the other case to be at the same
time disjoined from them in sense ? Let him believe it, who thinks
with the Rabbins, that the Scriptures have seven times seven senses !
(e) The accent* were intended to guide the cantiUation of the sacred
text. From time immemorial the Jews have cantillated the Scriptures
in their synagogues ( 33. 8). Among the greater part of them, this
cantiliation is and ever has been modulated by the accents. This cus-
tom is at least as old as the Talmud, in which it is mentioned; and this
must be as old as the accents themselves. (Talm. Bab. Megilla c. rv.
fol. 32 col. a.)
If we allow this to have been the primary design of the accents,
then we can account for it how genealogical tables can have conjunc-
tive and disjunctive accents,how the poetical consecution should di
for from that of prose,-rand how the titles of the Psalms fee. should
have the same consecution as the body of the Psalms themselves. On
this ground too we can account for the variety of the accents, which on
any other is inexplicable. For to what purpose are so many conjunc-
tives, all having merely one and the same power of joining words to
each other, if that is all their office ? Whereas variety of modulation,
so as to render cantiUation agreeable, would not only admit, but require
various conjunctives, as the representatives of different modulations.
One other circumstance may be added. The name given to the
accents, in the Porta Jccentudm appended to the final Masora and
certainly very ancient, is m*uic, modulation, a word derived from
J t heat a musical instrument, as a harp &c. All the Jews, with
one consent, allow the musical use of the accents to be one of the de-
signs which the authors had in view; and the foregoing considerations
may serve to shew, that in all probability it was the principal one.
IT 11. Present utility of the accents.
{a) All the accents, except seven, almost invariably designate the
tone-syllable of words. This affords great assistance to any one, who
desires to render himself familiar with this part of Hebrew grammar,
so intimately connected with the vowel-changes which take place in
this language.
(b) They generally serve, like the accents in Greek, to distinguish
words of the same form but of different meaning; as 5)32 they built,
5|32 among us ; nilC they led captive 3 plur. from they turned
back 3 plur. from 2=nzj; Tnsj he caught 3 praet. of Kal, THN I shall see
1 fut. apoc. from HTN, &c. &c.
(c) In poetry, the pause-accents serve, for the most part, to distin-
guish the parallelisms with a good degree of accuracy. Very seldom
indeed is one constrained to differ from the division which they make.
This is quite useful to the beginner in the study of Hebrew poetry.
It is indeed a matter of surprise, that the authors of the accents should
have committed such a mistake, as to designate only the books of
Psalms, Proverbs, and Job, as poetic (IT 6. ). Is then the song of
Moses, of Deborah and Barak, the Canticles, Lamentations, and most
of the prophets, not poetry ? Still, as the prose accents which are
used in these books, generally serve to distinguish the parallelisms
which they contain, the mistake of the authors of the accents is of lit-
tle consequence at the present time.
In regard to the prosaic parts of the Old Testament, the accents
are of less importance in marking the divisions of the text; as the stu-
dent seldom needs any other guide to interpunction, than the sense of
a passage.
(<2) The vowels, in innumerable cases, are affected by the accents,
being changed through their influence from short to long, and vice
versd. It becomes then indispensable to an accurate and extensive
knowledge of the mutations of the Hebrew vowels, to acquire an ad-
equate knowledge of the accents.
(c) Finally, no student of Hebrew, who has a love for his business
and genuine ardour in the pursuit of it, can ever sit down satisfied to
read his Hebrew Bible, and pass over it leaving large portions of its
characters unexplained, and himself unable to decide whether they are
worth the trouble of explanation. The labour of acquiring all the
knowledge of the accents which is attainable at the present day, is
Diaitized bv
certainly very little, with the aid of tables like those presented above.
Two or three days faithful exercise in writing down the accents
and tracing their consecutions, will render the business easy; and to
pursue it afterwards will frequently be pleasant, and not unfrequently
F. p. 145.
The following table exhibits the forms of in all the conjuga-
tions, and of course the origin of all the names of the conjugations.
/. Usual
2. Niphal b*B3 taphJaL
3. Piel pi-9el. 4. Pual pfcf&L
5. Hiphil b^crr toph-9iL 6. Hophal hdpt+SdL
7. Hithpael btfann tith-pa^el
II. Ummial
8. Hothpaal hithrp&9&h
9. Poel b*1B pd-siL 10. Poal pd-Sdl.
11. Hithpoel bsinnn hith-p^siL
12. Polel
VvjjB pW-fcl
13. Polal
bb*B p6S4dL
14. Hithpolel hUh~p69-liL
15. Pilel p&4il. 16. Pulal V&RJf-W-
17. Hithpalel bbxBnr-t huhrp&4iL
18. Pealal 19. Poalal
b?b?B p*ydl#al
20. Pilpel
21. Polpal
bs^B pdlrpaL
22. Hithpalpal b$bDnn kuh-pdl-pdL
23. Peoel >9191 pi9d-9cL
24. Tiphel fiphrScL
25. Popaal bB*n pW-pd&dL
In the following praxis, the Jirst number or figures of any refer-
ence indicate in all cases the section of the grammar, and the other
figures or letters refer to the subdivisions of that section. Dec. 1. &c.
refer to the declensions in 154 Par. II. When the letters no. are
prefixed, the reference is to the number in the praxis itself.
Those portions of the grammar which are to be attentively studied
in the first perusal, are indicated by the marks (*) and ( t ) ; the for-
mer being used to mark whole sections, and the latter parts of sec-
tions. When placed before a section or part of a section, they include
also all subdivisions belonging thereto, which are printed in large type.
If the study of Hebrew be commenced under an instructer, the
following assignment of recitations will be found convenient.
RECITATION I. 1019 inclusively. II. 2023. III. 24
27. IV. 2836. V. 3738 to verse 6. VI. Reading of
Gen. 1 : 616; the reading lessons in all cases to be conducted on
the same principles as in 38. VII. Gen. 1: 16 to 2 : 25. VIII. Gen. 3
and 4 to v. 11. IX. 4552. X. 5360. XI. 6271. XII.
7280. XIII. 8490. XIV. 9193 with the paradigm of
the regular verb ( 127 Par. 1); giving an account of the characteris-
tics and the uses of each conjugation as studied in REC. XII. Exerci-
ses here in writing full paradigms of various regular verbs, would be
very useful. XV. 128134. XVI. 135143.
The student may now with advantage begin the study of his He-
brew Bible, and in this way come gradually to a more thorough
knowledge of those portions of the grammar which he has already
been over; while recitations in the remaining part may be continued
at the pleasure of the instructer. The student will find it most profi-
table, to take at first short lessons, to make himself perfectly familiar
with the parts of grammar referred to in the praxis, and to persevere
in reviewing thoroughly and frequently the ground which he may
have gone over.
Diaitized bv G o o Q l e
Rxc. XVII. Vent 1. n^Citna.
1. n*a$na, 9 preposition 157. 1; for punctuation, see 61. 7.
a feminine denominative noon 129.6. b ; Dec. I. fc, and 138. I.
Syntax" 173. 4.
2. a verb Kb 120 and 127 Par. XIV; 3 masc. praet of Kal,
conjugated Kal f it "is, Nipb. Pi. fiOa ;* syntax in 189. 1.
3. a noun phiral from ftibfijt 133. 1; comp. Sheva under M
26: 5; Pattahh furtive under final n of the root disappears when the
word receives any accession 27, 1, 2, as does also Mappiq 30. 1; the
Hholem in the plural is defectively written 24. 3, as is usual in thii
and other similar words; Dec. I. d; nom. case to 167. 2.
XVIII. Verse$ 1,2.nnvr * ynfitn ntn nfij .
4. nfi$ 167.1,4. d ; syntax in 173. 2. m a d e up of the ar-
ticle -n 65 and 61.1; and the noun 134.3 note, and 151. 3 note
with 154 Par. Ill; acc. case after fiOS 196. 1.
6. yjfitrr nf ijl. Vav conjunction 158. 1 and 61. 15. nfij in no. 4.
m a d e up of the article n 61. 2, and the noun y^fij firom
ground-form ynij Dec. VI. a, and 143 note 2; comp. 55. 5. a; syn-
tax as in no. 4.
6. a verb ?ib from rtjfi 122 and 127 Par. XV, also Pt
guttural 102. 3 note; conjugated Kal fPH, Nipb. mna; 3 fem.
praet of Kal 122. 4 note.
7. XIX. Vtrse 2 to the end. irfefl irin nouns originally of Dec.
VI ; see 143 note 19, and 47. 3; for the pointing of FOT, see 61.19.
bo See also 216. 2. a. '
8. -pjjn masc. noun from root Dec. VI. I; nom. case to
understood 211. 7. b? prep, with the fcrm of a noun 157. 2. a; root
nb^. *2B noun plur. const from obs. sing. HJD Dec. IX. &, and 146;
found only in the plural 133.6; syntax in 207 and 172.3. d, compared
with 135. 1. Dinn masc. noun Dec. I. c, and 138; plur. in ni 133.
4; genitive 170. 1 and 135. 1.
9. ni l Dec. I. d ; const, state 135.1; nom. case (172.3) to rH*n!a
participle fem. from P]!^ a verb gutt. conjugated Kal Piel
NOTE. TO conjugate a verb in Hebrew, is to repeat the forma of it in the
praeterof all the conjugations in use. It should then be declined through the
tense or mood in wLicb it ia found. The nouns also should be declined through
all their forms.
J)inn, Inf. PJhn, part masc. 5)nn 90. 2; for the fem. form, see 90. 3
and 127 Par. XX. It Is here used as a verb of past time 203. 2, and
agrees with ni l .
10. like in no. 4, except that Pattahh under is pro*
longed by the pause-accent 60. 7. a ; syntax in 170. 1 and 135. 1.
11. XX. Verse 3. Vav conversive 93; a verb KB
from 107 and 127 Par. V; conjugated Kal Niph.
Hiph. Hith. IB&nn; fut Kal and 107.1.
c ; final Tseri shortened to Seghol 54. 3, comp. 93.3 and 35.4. Synt.
as in no. 2.
12. fiit apoc. from in no. 6, 123.1, d 2 and note 1.
For the use, see 91.6 and 193.4. a. ma s c . Dec. I. a ; no plural
In Wi the Vav conv. omits Daghesh 93. 1 and 45. 6.
13. XXI. Verse 4. Vav in no. 11; N"V fut apoc. Kal from
itfin a verb rfb 122 and i gutt. 104; conj. Kal Niph. irio:,
Pu. Hiph. Hoph. fifiOfl, Hith. iiK^nSl; form in 123.1, d
2; synt as in no. 2. -tffcn art. 61. 2, and noun no. 12. conjunc-
tion. ma s c . adj. Dec. I, fem. nato Dec. X and 132. 4; synt.
in 180. 1 and 211. 7.
14. bio;! fut. apoc. Hiph. from b^a 99.1, c; comp. 91. 6. d and
93. 1. "P3 prep, like a const noun 157.2. a. 6 1 . 17.
61. 2 small.
15. XXn . Verse 6. verb Kb aa in no. 2. - i t e b 157. 1 and
61. 6; synt in 173. 1 and 195. 1. OV* irreg. noun, sing. Dec. 1, plur.
Dec. II. nb^b noun with p paragogic 50. 4. a, from b?b of Dec.
VI. q; form in 143 note 24; Pattahh changed to Qamets 60. 7. a;
*b a mixed syllable 37. 5. Snjfr Segh. n. Dec. VI A class, but found
only in abs. state. D e c . VI. i nnjj numeral 152. 3 small, an4
154 Par. IV; used as an ordinal.
16. XXIII. Versa 6 and part of 7. Dec. Ill and 140; Pat-
tahh furtive 27. 2. !^r>3 from Dec. VI. />, and 143 note 16;
const and the whole taken as a prep. 157. 2. c. Tp 61. 16 small
b*33 Hiph. part see in no. 14; Dec. I; synt. in 203. 4. trnb
nos. 10, 15.
17. Verse 7. fut apoc. Kal from nip* a verb ?4b and I) gtUU
123.1, d 1; Vav in 93.1. VyF* *"> 16 and* 61. 2.
18. XXIV. Vent* 7 in put, 8, 9. reL proo. 187; nom. to
fPFj understood 211.7.HITOn prep. 61.11 and 157.2. e ; nnn like
noun of Dec. VI. b ; lit mder part. 6 1 . 6; genitive case 170.
2. b. ^ 61.12 and 187. 2. e; b? like a noun of Dec. Hd; lit
upper part. "iT
3 no. 12; synt in 190. 1. adverb; root
19. Vent 8. no. 4 and 60. 7. a. >29 ordinal 164 Par. IV
and 152. II.
20. Vent 9. <ut Niph. from a verb rfb with Vav move*
able 117. 2. b. ^ prep. 157. 1, 2. a. D e c . HI; root Mp.
21. ttiprn Vav conj. verb from no. 13, fat Niph. 102. 5.
a r t and fem. adj. with understood, or used as a noun,
Dec. X; root
22. XXV. Vent 10. conj. 61. 16; prep. 61. 7; noun Dec.
IX. o, and 146 const state; root rnjd in no. 20. tPT?? Doc* VIII. a,
and 145.
23. Vent 11. frit apoc. Hiph. from fitSH 91. 6. a.
and 3 ^ Dec. VI. 5"HTa part. Hiph. from 105 and 127 Par.
IV; Dec. L #1l Dec. VI. c.
24. XXVI. y* Dec. VII. a. D e c . VI. u, and 143 note 19;
root !Tn$. nip part, act Kal from Site* in no. 17; 90. 1. 6, and
122. 2.6 ; defectively written 24.3. "Hi with Dagh. euphonic 29. 8.
25. prep, and noun Dec. I; S suffix pronoun 5 masc. sing.
135. 6 col 2. qual i f i es to 187. 2, tn which. tan J Dec. VL c,
with light suffix. ia 157. 4. a.
26. Vent 12. axinj 3 fem. fut apoc. Hiph. fro* R2 a verb "*
class I, and lk 6 109, 120, and 122 Par. VI and XIV. n o .
25; suffix IST, 135. 5. b and 7. e. *0^3 hi no. 13.
- 27. XXVII. Vent 13. ordfoal 152. 0, and 154 Par. TV.
28. Vent 14. no. 12; sing, with plur. nom. 189. 4. nSWD
def. written for 24. 3 and 133. 3. c, note 2; from ground-
form Dec. Ill; plur. 0*
- and rft 133. 5; root
prep, with Hhireq parvum, to prevent the concurrence of two vocal
Sheva* 58. 1, compared with 61. 7; 3pj?n const Dec. Ill; see no. 16.
29. inf. const Hiph. from Vie ; synt 201. 1. 9 4 .
1 and 192. 5. 6 ; comp. 189. 4 note 1. ririttb 24. 3; pL from ni
Dec. I, see 133. 4; synt 196.3 tPTarta!:*, conj. 61. 17; noun pi
from "15
)& Dec. VII and 144 ; root jjj; synt 195. 3 and 215.
no. 15 pi. of rtatt) Dec. XI; plur. in D% and rrt .133. 6.
30. XXVIII. Verse 15. rrrtKJOb no. 28 ult Vitvjb Inf. const
Hiph. from a verb 1*9 117 and 127 Par. XII; comp. no. 29.
31. Verse 16. rnK!3 154 Par. IV. 2; art 163. 2.
a, and 165. 1; tPb^Ja pi. adj. masc. from bi l l Dec. Ill; Hholem def.
written 24. 3, comp. no. 3; synt in 179. 1. b^tt 24. 3; art 165.
1; synt 178. 1. a. p r e p , and Segh. noun Dec. XIII const
state; root b l t t E . 1 6 3 . 2. a, and no. 1 5 . m a s c . adj.
Dec. VIII and 145 (with suff. 'Staj? 2 Chr. 10: 10); synt. as
above. D e c . II. b.

32. XXIX. Verse 17. fut. Kal from *|n3 a verb "JD 113 and
127 Par. X; anomalous 114. IV. b. finfct 157. 4. d.
33. Verse 18. b'uiab"?, no. 14 ul t inf. const Kal from b-j E; synt.
in 201. 1. 6 1 . 6.
34. Verse 20. fut. Kal from f ni B, 193. 4. a. XD3
nouns of Dec. VI in apposition 168. 1. f e m . adj. Dec. X from
masc. ''n Dec. VIII, 132. 4; root "
2^- D e c . I ; see 133. 7.
Fiste? fut. Polel from 5)1^, 81. 4 and 117. 8.
35. XXX. Verse 21. art. and n. plur. Dec. I ; 133. 1. b,
note. ~b3 const, ofb' s Dec. VIII. e, and 145. 2. a; synt in 161.1. 6,
note. a r t . 61. 2 small, and 165. 2. a, note 2. ni773Hi1 art.
and fem. Segh. part. Kal from 90. 3 and 127 Par. XX; synt in
163. 3 and 203. 1 ; comp. in no. 9. DPJP&b nos. 25, 26, and 135.
7. b. Pj33 Dec. IV./*; synt. in 161. 1. a.
36. Verse 22. no. 12 ult. fut. Piel from - f j a 104. 4 and 127
Par. I l l ; final Tseri changed to Seghol as in no. 11 ult. S*3i*b inf.
const, from no. 11; for punctuation of b, see 61. 9 and 47. 5. a.
i m p e r a t i v e s Kal of verbs Hb. c o n j . 61. 17, and
imper. Kal of D*V3*2 prep. 61. 6, and noun plur. no. 22 ult.
37. Verse 24. KStin no. 26, and 193. 4. a. !"WH2 irreg. noun, see
lexicon; in apposition with aj?3 168.1. i r pn const, of ii*H taken as
a noun (comp. no. 34) with paragogic i 50. 4. d, and 50. 5; Daghesh
omitted in Yodh 45. 4, 6; vowel under Yodh dropped 56. 3. The
regular const. n*n appears in v. 25.
38. Verse 26. 1 pi. fut. Kal of nili* no. 17; synt. in 189. 1
note, and 193. 4. a. wnbs a prep, and noun Dec. VI. a, with light
suffix 135. 5. b. !)2nsi73"l3 prep, as in no. 28 ul t n w i Dec. I with
light suff. as above. 7 ! conj. and fut. Kal of r H^. nana prep.
Digitized bv
as in no. 28, and noun Dec. XL a; Daghesh omitted in i 29. 15. a,
6. Enn art as pron. 163. 3, and masc. part Kal; comp. in no. 35.
39. Verse 27. HSJ53 found only in abs. state, 137.1 note; root
40.. Verse 28. no. 36.DHb 157. 4. a note, and corrigenda
at the end of the volume. & c . no. 36. f o r 95.
2. a i hnper. Kal with suit 126. 6. a &c. and IV note 11. YVTIM-
per. of SYin, comp. no. 38.
41. Verse 29. mn 159. 1 and 50. 4.6.*M13 114. IV. b.TlblMtb
* - s * s
prep, and noun Dec. XII. <2, and 149; syrit. in 195. 3.
42. Verse 30. Dec. VI; gen. after 172. 3. 6, and const be-
fore aip? 161. 1. 6. *
43. Verse 31. Htor 192. 2. 1 7 8 . 2. a. a r t . 165. 2.
a, note 2. In the similar cases w. 5, 8, 13, 19, 23, the ordinal does
not take the article.
44. Verses 13. Vav 93. 1 small; fut Pual from Mb*.
BtttX Dec. IV. g, and 141 note 3; see 214. 2. [2] fut apoc.
Piel from rrbs 123. III. c. D e c . XI. f , and 148 note 2; for
the form of the word, see 47. 2 note; the N would here seem to be
in otio 23. 6, since it does not prolong the Pattahh. [3] in 157. 4. <u
r-ns 192. 2. rntDS^ prep. 61.9, and inf. const, from iiu>9 122. 2.
ey synt. in 200. 6. c.
45. Verses 4, 5. ni'lb'in pi. const found only in this form and with
suff. 137.1 note; root Dipgfis, prep, and inf. const Niph. from
with noun-suffix 126. 5 and IV notes 14, 15 ult Synt in 202.
2 small. See 16. b and 95. 2. d. rrito* no. 44 ult genitive after
200. 2; const before rhiV. and governing &c. in the acc. 202.1,
2 and note 1. [5] Dec. IX. b. !i;rn DntJ 193. 3. o ; so ng3?
fut Kal of a verb gutt. 60. 7. a, and 105. 2. b. -pDtJn Hiph. of
nOtt; pluperf. 192. 2 . a d v . 156. 3.6; synt. in 206. 1. o.
no. 44 ult synt. in 201. 1 and 202. 1.
46. Verses 6, 7. fut- Kal from ttb*. njrsfj Hiph. of ttjSW.
[7] fut. Kal from cl. Ill of 111. 4 note, and I; Seghoi
for Tseri 93. 3 and 54. 3. *>*9 synt in 174. 2. e, and 197. 3 ult
170. 2. c. no* 3 fut Kal of ITO3 a verb "|d and !? gutt. 113 and
105. "PBN Dec. VIII. 6; dual with light suff. 135. 9 and 154 Par.
Ill; form in 41. 3. a ; root P)2it. c o n s t from ST31B3 Dec. XI.
c; acc. after ns?; root DtD3. O^n n. pi. Dec. VIII. t, and 145 note
4; comp. 133. 6. TCtp.b synt in 195. 3.
47. Verses 8, 9. fut. Kal from t33 113.EipV fut. apoc.
eonv. Hiph. from DT ; iV 118. HI. c. d$3 adv. *12* 60. 7. a. [9]
fut. apoc. Hiph. from 105. 3; comp. no. 45 v. 5.
part. Niph. from I t t n a verb togutt. 90. 1. a, and 102. 3; used as an
adj. 90. 3; comp. 179.1 small. D e c . IX ; root Jti O. bswa
Dec. II; root b^t*.^pna no. 16."jail Dec. VIII; two forms "ja
and "ja 145 note 1, the former being most common. f e m . inf.
const, from 109. I. c, comp. 87. 4. ; genitive 200. 2, and governs
the acc. 202. 1. It has the article like a common noun. yni aita
61. 19.6; synt. 162 and 202. 1.
48. Verses 1014. Klti part, of MS* 24. 3; synt. 203. 2.
61. 12. nipttJlrib no. 46 v. 6, and 201. 1. f u t . Niph. as past,
193. 3. 6. p i . of m' n Dec. I, irregular. [11] Ki n 183. 1.
a r t . as rel. pron. 163. 3; part. Kal from SiO a verb yy 115
and 127 Par. XI; synt. 203. 1. 1 8 7 . 2 . 6. [12] i n t i const,
from 2"T Dec. IV; comp. Sheva under T, 26. 5 small; for 1, see 61.18
small; nom. to ITtt 211. 7. NlnJi, art. 61. 2 small, and 165. 1 ;
66. 6, used as a demonstrative, 179. 6. [14] ntt"lJ3 const, of riE'lp
Dec. XII. 6; acc. after 196. 2.KlfT 183. 2.
49. Verses 1517. njS' l fut. Kal from nj?b 114. IV. a.
fut. Hiph. from H3* a verb "MD cl. IV, 112 and 127 Par. IX andX Hiph.
def. written 24. 3; suffix 126. 6. c, and IV note 16. mayb inf.
t : T i
const, from l ay with verbal suffix 126. 5; comp. 126. IV note 6 and
127 Par. XXI; synt. in 201. 1 and 202.1 small. r n n ^ b l idem. [16]
1S*H fut. apoc. Piel from rniE 123. III. c ; comp. 117. 2. 6; and see
above in no. 44 v. 2. Sbn!: no. 36. bbN inf. abs. Kal from b?N 127
Par. V; synt. in 199. 1,2. d. basin fut. Kal of bafij, but also with
final Pattahh in v. 17, see Ges. lex. art. "DN note 1; synt. in 193. 5,
c. [17] case absolute 175. 3. c. i n f . const, with noun-
suffix 126. 5 and IV note 6; comp. 202. 2 small. mEn nifc inf. abs.
and fut. Kal from fi?a 127 Par. XII; synt. in 199. 1, 2. 6.
50. Verses 1822. r v n inf. const, of rTH, nom. case to STTrt un-
derstood 211. 7 ; governing D"1Kn 202. 2. *nab adv. 156.3. a and 5
note; properly a noun of Dec. VIII. ib 157. 4. a note; Daghesh
euphonic inb 29. 8 ; synt. in 173. 1. 11^3 prep, and noun of Dec.
VI with suffix. [19] no. 46 v. 7, def. written 24. 3. fi*a*2 fut.
apoc. Hiph. from Mia 124. 4. a, and 127 Par. XIX. ni&nb, b in no. 28;
synt. in 201.1. 1 9 3 . 5. c, and 195. 1 small. 1BC3 in app. with
^b 168.1,but the b omitted 211.12. 6 ; or perhaps 210. 2. [20]
Digitized by Google
133. 4. 0*^4 case absolute 175. 3. b. [21] bey fut apoc. HI ph.
from bB3. D e c . XI; root dnn. ^ a l of 1^25^ cL
II of*B 110; Pattahh changed 60. 7. a. vns}?5M3 pi. with sufF. f rom
*b3 Dec. IV. t, and 141 note 4; comp. 133. 5 ; synt in 170. 2- c,
p r e p , with verbal suffix 157. 3 note; for suffix, which re-
fers to fern, ybag, see 126. 7, 8; comp. in no. 18. [22] 73*2 fut. apoc.
Kal of ttsa 123.1. d 1. iiiBAtb irreg. noun of Dec. 1, XIII, and I I ;
synt in 195. 3. A i t Hiph. of Mis with suffix which moves for-
ward the tone and causes Qamets under Yodh to fall away, 118 par.
second; see also 93. 1 small.
61. Verses 2326. D?i3 this time, now, 163.3; adverbially 156. 3,
b ; or 174. 2. e. n finjT 198. 2 note. nn^b Pual, 95. 3. <2, e.
[24] ST3 with Qamets Hhateph for Hholem 54. 2. b. "PliJ 136.
13 and 164 Par. I. isfit Dec. VIII. d. pan] as fut 192. 5. b.
from ira, const. &c. Irreg. see In v.22. [26] IVTJ synt in
188. 3. dt7.
3*Jj numeral with suff. 152 note 4. a d j . from
t hr Dec. VIII. e, and 146. 2. c ; Shureq for Qjbbuta 21. 19 note.
WKptan? Hithpolel of site 117.8, and 118. IV. c; for Qamets, see also
60. 7. b 2 a j as past, 193. 3. b.
62. Verses 15. b*3> 177. 1 and 178. 1. d. ^ PJt? 211. 10.
^baetn rib 193. 4. b, and 196. 4. [2] baas 193.6. c. [3] conj.
61. 17; but, 211. 11 note. c o mp . 210. 2, 3. f r o m 9*3,
193. 4. b, and 196. 2. ]nnn fut Kal of nn with parag. Nun 96.
1. a, and 35. %; see also 118 at the beginning; as subjunctive 193. 5.
b 9. [4] ni 199. 2. 6. [5] 203. 1. tjabSK no. 49 v. 17.
*n|3B3i Niph. as fut 192. 5. c par. second. O^IP? dual of Dec.
VI. q, and 143 note 16 (2). QTrbfcO 61.9 and 47. 5. a. 204. 2.
53. Verses 610. s. 123.1, d. ttWQ noun Dec. X,
used as predicate 161. 3. inn 5 part Niph. 90. 1. a, and 102.
3; see 203. 3 note 2. b^tonb' 201. 1. n^rn then 211. 13.
frjn] 114. IV. b. TTB5 157. if.* [7] from D-P? Dec. VIII,
comp. no. 51 v. 25. f o t . of IBn. Stirs const of Dec.
IX. b; root Sib*. riian from rniAil Dec. X; see 24. 3, and comp.
no. 3. [8] ^cnn?3 part Hlthp. agreeing with D^nbit 203. 3 note 1;
see 80. 3. d. Hmb no. 9; see Jahn's Bib. Arch. 101. V.
fut Hithp. 80.3. b; synt In 189. 9, comp. 188. 3. [9] ad?.
with suff. 156. 5; form of ^ as of Dec. VIII, 166. 3. b. [10] Vin
Vav conv. 93. 1 small; fut Kal of fit V 110. 2 and I. b. iOn# fat
Niph. 102. 5; sense in 77. 2. c.
54. Verses