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International Journal of Scientific Research in Chemical Engineering, 1(1), pp.

9-16, 2014
Available online at
ISSN: 2345-6787; 2014 IJSRPUB
Full Length Research Paper
Design of Aerobic Pond for Wine Industry
Abhishek Sao
, Omprakash Sahu

Department of Chemical Engineering, IT Guru Ghashi University, Bilaspur (CG), India.
Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, Kombolcha (SW), Ethiopia
*Correspondence author; Tel: +251933520653
Received 26 March 2014; Accepted 06 May 2014
Abstract. One of the most important environmental problems faced by the world is management of wastes. Industrial
processes create a variety of wastewater pollutants; which are difficult and costly to treat. Wastewater characteristics and levels
of pollutants vary significantly from industry to industry. Now-a-days emphasis is laid on waste minimization and revenue
generation through byproduct recovery. Pollution prevention focuses on preventing the generation of wastes, while waste
minimization refers to reducing the volume or toxicity of hazardous wastes by water recycling and reuse, and process
modifications and the byproduct recovery as a fall out of manufacturing process creates ample scope for revenue generation
thereby offsetting the costs substantially. The objective of the study is to study the physicochemical paramtere of Wine
industry and desing areobic pond for the treatment of watewater. The pond reduced 80% COD, 75% BOD and othere
paramters upto dischargeable limit.
Keywords: Biological; Chemical; Dissloved; Sedimentation; Treatment
In the food industry, the brewing sector holds a
strategic economic position with the annual world
beer production exceeding 1.34 billion hectolitres in
2002 (Safley and Westerman, 2008). Beer is the fifth
most consumed beverage in the world behind tea,
carbonates, milk and coffee and it continues to be a
popular drink with an average consumption of 23
litres/person per year. The brewing industry has an
ancient tradition and is still a dynamic sector open to
new developments in technology and scientific
progress. However, this market hides an important
heterogeneity of production capacity (Laginestra and
van-Oorschot, 2009; Battimelli et al. 2010); for
example in 2002, the worlds 10 largest brewing
groups shared almost 50% of the world production
(Rinzema et al., 1994). In contrast, a microbrewery
may start its activity with an annual production close
to 1000 hl. Brewers are very concerned that the
techniques they use are the best in terms of product
quality and cost effectiveness. During production,
beer alternately goes through three chemical and
biochemical reactions (mashing, boiling, fermentation
and maturation) and three solideliquid separations
(wort separation, wort clarification and rough beer
clarification) (EnviroFacts, 1995). Consequently water
consumption, wastewater and solide liquid separation
constitute real economic opportunities for
improvements in brewing. Several technologies can
be applied for this treatment (NIWA, 2008). They can
be, in one stage, where all the biological reactions are
realised into one reactor, or two stage, where the first
reactor runs the acidogenesis and the second runs the
acetogenesis and the methanisation (Moletta, 2003).
Generally the continuous fermentation is used with
suspended micro-organisms or microorganisms in
biofilm structures (Chynoweth et al., 1998). These
biofilms can be formed without any carrier (granules)
or on a carrier (plastic or mineral). This carrier can be
fixed or mobile in the digester. Anaerobic digestion
shows good reliability for this wastewater because
generally it has low nitrogen and phosphorus in regard
of carbon content for aerobic treatment. The wineries
have seasonal activity. So the wastewater production
occurs mainly during harvesting and at the time of
wine making(Fannin and Biljetina, 2007). The
wastewaters can be treated as they are produced, or
can be stored (generally after good sieving) and
treated within several months (Oldham and Nemeth,
2013). In the storage tank of the waste wastewater
occurs an acidic fermentation, if the residence time is
long enough. The digesters are generally heated to
reach the mesophilic range with the biogas produced.
Sometime psychrophilic range is used. The working
Sao and Sahu
Design of Aerobic Pond for Wine Industry
pH values are 6.5 to 8 and 140 addition of soda will
help the process.
Anaerobic ponds require high volume lagoons to
process organic wastes with a solids concentration
within the range of 4 to 8% (Tchobanoglous et al
1993). The low solids fermentation system converts
volatile solids to gas, reducing the BOD and the solids
content of the water (Erden et al., 2010). The BOD of
meatworks wastewater is of the order of 2 g/L BOD
and a pond volume sufficiently large to retain seven
days of effluent production is necessary to reduce the
BOD by 90% (EnviroFacts 1995). The effective
lifespan of an anaerobic pond is ten to fifteen years,
depending on the efficiency of pre-treatment to
remove fat and other solids. Two anaerobic ponds
operating in parallel are recommended, to halve the
loading rate and to improve the flexibility of the
system (Safley and Westerman, 2008). Traditionally
the development of an insoluble crust was considered
an advantage, acting as a biofilter to reduce odour.
Treated effluent from the anaerobic pond flows into a
facultative and/or aerated pond in series, followed by
one or two settling ponds. In this sititution an effort is
made to maintane the effluent come out from the wine
industry. The main aim of the study is to desing the
pond for the treatment of effluent. The initial and
finial parameter are also study befor and after
treatment with aerobic pond.


2.1. Material

The waste water arrangement from the wine industry
whose parameter are mention in Table 1.

Table 1: Charaterstic of wine industry waste water
S.No. Parameter Parameters
1. pH 4.3
2. Total
3. Total
4. B.O.D., 20
C, 5 days
5. C.O.D. 30,000
2.2. Desing

The complte flow diagram for the desing in shown in
Fig. 1.
loading (v, g/m
d), which is given by:
v = LiQ/Va
where Li is the influent BOD, mg/l (= g/m
Q is the flow, m
and Va is the anaerobic pond volume, m
The permissible design value of v increases with
temperature, but there are too few reliable data to
enable the development of a suitable design equation.
The v should lie between 100 and 400 g/m
day, the
former in order to maintain anaerobic conditions and
the latter to avoid odour release.
However, the upper limit for design is set at 350
day in order to provide an adequate margin of
safety with respect to odour (Paing et al., 2003). Once
a value of v has been selected, the anaerobic pond
volume is then calculated from equation. The mean
hydraulic retention time in the pond (a, d) is
determined from:
a = Va/Q
Retention times in anaerobic ponds greater than 1
day should not be used. If equation 10.2 gives a value
of a <1 day, a value of 1 day should be used. The
corresponding value of Va is Q m
. Anaerobic ponds
are usually 25 m deep, with a value of 3 m usually
being assumed for process design (and adjusted, if
necessary, during the physical design stage. The
anaerobic pond area (Aa, m
) is then given by:
Aa = Qa/Da = LiQ/vDa
where Da is the anaerobic pond working (ie liquid)
depth, m.
The performance of anaerobic ponds increases
significantly with temperature, and the design
assumptions for BOD removal can be confidently
adopted. These are based on experience with
anaerobic ponds in Germany in winter (T <10C).

International Journal of Scientific Research in Chemical Engineering, 1(1), pp. 9-16, 2014

Fig. 1: Flow diagram for treatment plant (EnviroFacts, 1995)
Anaerobic ponds can be satisfactorily designed, without the risk of odour release, on the basis of volumetric BOD

Sao and Sahu
Design of Aerobic Pond for Wine Industry
2.2.1. Design temperature

The design temperature for anaerobic ponds is
usually taken as the mean air temperature of the
coldest month. This is slightly conservative as the
pond temperature is 12 degC higher than the air
temperature in the coldest month.
The mean monthly temperature is the mean of the
mean daily temperatures that is the 2831 day
average of the mean of the daily maximum
temperature and the daily minimum temperature
(these are measured every day at meteorological
stations, usually at 8 am).

2.2.2. Sludge accumulation

The rate of accumulation of digested sludge in
anaerobic ponds in warm climates is usually taken as
0.04 m3/person year. This is, however, only a rough
estimate, and in northeast Brazil much lower rates
were measured: of the order of 0.01 m
/person year
(Silva, 1982). Initial rates of sludge accumulation are
higher as the sludge volume comprises two zones: one
for sludge digestion and one for the storage of
digested sludge initially the volume of the former is
a higher proportion of the total, so accumulation rates
are higher; as time passes its proportion of the total
declines and accumulation rates become lower.
Nelson (2002) describes a mechanistic model for
sludge accumulation in primary facultative ponds; the
model includes sedimentation of influent settleable
solids, digestion of the settled solids and sludge
compaction The management of sludge from
anaerobic ponds is fully described by Franci (1999).

2.2.3. Drying beds

Sludge removed from anaerobic ponds can be
conveniently dewatered in sludge drying beds
(Oldham and Nemeth, 2013). Moisture loss is by
evaporation and percolation through the sandgravel
bed which comprises the base of the drying bed (300
mm of 0.30.75 mm sand over 300 mm of 525 mm
gravel). The drying bed area should be ~0.025
m2/person, and the sludge should be applied at the
start of the dry season.

2.3. Analysis

The samples were collected were analyzed for
temperature, pH, Total Solids(TS), Total Dissolved
Solids(TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), chloride
content, oil /grease, Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand
(BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD) values.
The techniques and methods fol-lowed for collection,
preservation, analysis and interpreta-tion are those
given by ASAE (1985).


3.1. Physicochemical Study

3.1.1. pH

Because most of the chemical and biochemical
reactions are influenced by the pH, it is of great
practical importance (Tchoboanoglous, 2003; Oswald
et al, 2004). The adverse effects of most of the acids
appear below pH 5 and of alkalis above pH 9.5. From
the this treatment the pH was increase from 4.3 to 6.5.

3.1.2. Total suspended solids (T.S.S.)

The T.S.S. affect the light intensity of water,
suspended solids are the cause of suspended particles
in side the water body influencing turbidity and
transparency (Polprasert and Kemmadamrong, 2012).
From this study initial 12,000 mg/l SS was reduced to

3.1.3. Total Dissloved Solid

The term solid refers to the matter either filterable or
in filterable that remain as residue upon venerating
and subsequent drying at a defined temperature
employed for drying and ignition (Johns, 2012).
Different forms of solids are defined on the basis of
method applied for their determination. High
concentration of total solids during summer was
probably due to low level of water, the direct
relationship between rainfall and total solids was
attributed to an increased load of soluble salts from
the catchment area as a results of surface runoff. In
effluent total solids total dissolved solids total
suspended solids are composed mainly of carbonates
bicarbonates, chlorides, sulphates, nitrates, Ca, Mg,
Na, K, Mn and organic matter silts and other particles
polluting water increase the concentration f total
solids. In the present investigation the range of total
solids in untreated effluent was 45,000 mg/lit was
reduced to 5,000 mg/l.

3.1.4. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD

BOD is the amount of oxygen that a sample of
wastewater must provide to transform by biochemical
oxidation (bacterial oxidation), biodegradable organic
matter. Digestion time used is 5 days hence the name
BOD5. Therefore, it is an indirect indication of
bacterial activity of purification expressed in
International Journal of Scientific Research in Chemical Engineering, 1(1), pp. 9-16, 2014
milligrams of oxygen per liter of effluent and is
calculated by the difference between the measurement
of oxygen content in the effluent at time 0 and that
after 5 days of digestion (Green, 2012). The
biodegradability of effluent is appreciated by the ratio
DCO/DBO5: if less than 2, it is readily biodegradable;
between 2 and 3, it is biodegradable; greater than 3,
the effluent is found not biodegradable. In the present
study the biological oxygen demand was reduced
from 20,000mg/l upto 5,000mg/l.

3.1.5. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

COD is the oxygen consumption by strong chemical
oxidants to oxidize organic and mineral substances in
water. It allows for assessment of the pollution load of
wastewater, including pollution by undesirable
organic compounds. COD is one of the main measures
for effluent discharge standards (Polprasert and
Agarwalla, 2005). It is normally measured in
treatment facilities of industrial and municipal
wastewater and it provides an indication of the
effectiveness of the treatment process. In the present
study the chemical oxygen demand was reduced from
30,000mg.l to 8,500mg/l was observed.

3.2. Desing for different Unit

The various treatment units in different schemes were
designed for a design flow of 10 Mld, in accordance
with the CPHEEO Manual (1999) and/or other and
appropriate criteria relevant for operation and design
of appropriate units. The process design of Clarifier
and activated sludge process (ASP) was done.

3.2.1. Design of Clarifier

The average flow rate of the industry is 10,000 m3/d
and the highest observed peak daily flow rate is
25,000 m
/d. The overflow rate for the clarifier is 40
m3/m2.d at average flow and the side water depth of
4m. For this industry rectangular clarifier was
designed based on the following criteria (Mara and
Pearson, 1998; Heubeck and Craggs, 2010). From the
data, the following parameters were identified:
A = Q/V = 10,000 m
= 250m

3.2.2. Length of the Tank

L = A/W= 250m
= 41.67m

3.2.3. Detention time and overflow rate at average

Tank volume = side water depth x length x width
= 4 x 42m x 6m
= 1008 m
Overflow rate = Q/A = 10000m
= 40
Detention time = Tank Volume/ Q
= (1008m
) (24 h/d)/ (10,000m
/d) = 2.42h

3.2.4. Detention time and overflow rate at peak

a) Overflow rate = Q/A
= 25000m
/ 250m

= 100 m
Detention time = Tank/Q
= (1008m
) (24h/d) /(25000m
/d)= 0.97h

3.2.5. Scour Velocity

= 8k (s-1) gd/ f
= [(8) (0.05) (0.25) (9.81) (100 x 10-6 )/0.025]
0.063 m/s.

3.2.6. Peak flow horizontal velocity
V = Q Ax
= 25000 m3/d x 1 6m x 4m (24 h/d) (3600 s/h) =
0.012 m/s.

3.2.7. Effluent Vs COD concentration

Effluent bsCOD concentration = Ks [ 1 + (kd) SRT]
/SRT (Yk kd) 1
= (10 g COD/m
) [ 1 + (0.10 g VSS/g VSS.d) (6d)] /
(6d) [(0.40g VSS/g COD) (12.5 g COD/g VSS.d)
(0.10 g VSS/g VSS.d)] 1
= 0.56 g bs COD/m

3.2.8. Aeration Tank Volume

Aeration Tank Volume = (Q)
Aeration Tank Volume = (Q) = 0.197d (10000m
) =

3.2.9. Total Sludge Production

a) Total sludge production based on Kg of VSS/d
Total sludge production based on Kg of VSS/d = XT
= (2500 g VSS/m
) (197m
) (1 Kg/10
g) 6d = 82.1 kg

3.2.10. Biomass Fraction

Biomass fraction = Biomass concentration (X)
= (287.2 g/m3.d) (0.197) 2500 = 0.58

Sao and Sahu
Design of Aerobic Pond for Wine Industry
3.2.11. Oxygen Required

Oxygen Required (Ro) = Q(So S) 1.42P

= P
nb VSS

= 82.2 Kg/d (1000m
)(30g VSS/m
)(1 Kg/10
= 522 Kg/d Ro
= (10000m
/d)[(192 0.56) g COD/m
]( (1 Kg/10
1.42(52.2 Kg VSS/d)
= 1177 Kg O

3.2.12. Aerobic Pond

= Qa/Da = LiQ/vDa
The miniumum retension time less than 1 days
= 10,000x1/ 3


It was conculed that numerous physical and chemical
methods employed in the disposal of wastes the
advantage in using bacterium is that they play a key
role in the reduction of COD 85%, BOD 72%, total
protein 50%, total solid 76% and total phenol 60%.
For the efficiency of the treatment, various design
parameters were analyzed because if the solids in the
effluent were discrete particles of uniform size,
uniform density, uniform specific gravity and uniform
shape, the removal efficiency of these solids would be
dependent on the surface area of the tank and the time
of detention. The selection of suitable loading rate
depends on the type of suspension to be separated.
The effect of the loading and detention time on
suspended solids removal varies widely depending on
the character of waste water, proportion of settable
solids, concentration of solids and other factors. In the
designing of the clarifier, scour velocity is very
important in order to avoid the resuspension
(scouring) of settled particles, horizontal velocities
through the tank should be kept sufficiently low. From
the designing values identified, the horizontal velocity
value even at peak flow is substantially less than the
scour velocity. Therefore, settled matter should not be
resuspended. All the biological treatment reactor
designs are based on the mass balance. Based on this
biomass mass balance the organisms load can be
inoculated for the efficient treatment.


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Sao and Sahu
Design of Aerobic Pond for Wine Industry

Mr. Abhishek Sao was finial year Chemical Engineering student in department of chemical
engineering, IT, Guru Ghasi Das University, Bilaspur (CG), India in 2011. His specialization is
process engineering.

Mr Omprakash Sahu was graduated from department of Chemical Engineering, ITGGV Bilaspur
(CG) India in the year of 2003.His specialization in Chemical, Energy and Environment