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**The Two-Body Problem
**

Energy Equation

Specific Momentum

Elliptical Orbit Geometry

MAE

!ASA "mage

MAE

The Two-Body Problem

Motion of a #pacecraft in the #olar #y#tem i# generally dominated by one central body

at a time$

The tra%ectory of the #pacecraft relati&e to the central body 'Earth( #un( moon( etc$)

repre#ent# a #olution to the two-body problem$

A##umption# for the two-body problem include*

The motion of the #pacecraft i# go&erned by attraction to a #ingle central body$

The ma## of the #pacecraft i# negligible compared to the central body$

The bodie# are #pherically #ymmetric( with ma## concentrated at the center of each body$

Only gra&itational force# act on the bodie#$

+

MAE

Circular Orbit

!ewton,# law of uni&er#al gra&itation #tate# that the gra&itational force between two

ma##e# i# in&er#ely proportional to the #quare of the di#tance beteen them$

F=

mGM

r

2

r=distance between body centers

F=gravitational force

m=spacecraft mass

M=central body mass

G=6.67×10

−11

m

3

( kg)(s

2

)

-or a circular orbit to occur( the gra&itional force mu#t balance the centrifugal force

'radial component of acceleration)$

m

V

2

r

=

mG M

r

2

V =

.

G M

r

&elocity for circular orbit

.

MAE

Gravitational Constants

"t i# con&enient to define a gra&itational con#tant a# the product of the central body

ma## and the uni&er#al con#tant$

j=GM=gravitational constant

Mercury (/+$0 .+1$2

3enu# +.(454$4 6/50$4

Earth 398,600.4 6378.14

Mar# .(44$+ ++12

7upiter 06(200(115$. 20(.1

Saturn +2(1+1(501$2 6/(64

8ranu# 5(24/(054$5 5(551

!eptune 6(420(+/2$4 .(26.

Moon .1/$4 02+2$.

Sun 0+(20(.+1(1+5$5 616(///

j(km

3

/s

2

) central body radius (km)

5

MAE

Energy Equation

V =

.

2j

r

−

j

a

V =

.

j

r

circular 'a 9 r)

V =

.

2j

r

parabola: 'a 9 infinite)

V =

.

2j

r

+

j

a

ellip#e 'a ; /)

hyperbola 'a < /)

The energy equation gi&e# the &elocity of the #pacecraft at a gi&en di#tance from the

central body$

V=velocity

r=orbit radius

a=orbit semima!or a"is

j=gravitational constant

:al#o determine# e#cape &elocity

6

MAE

Parameters of an Ellitical Orbit

=ine of Ap#ide#

Apoap#i#

Periap#i#

General* Periap#i# Apoap#i#

Sun* Perihelion Aphelion

Earth* Perigee Apogee

Moon* Perilune Apolune

a c

r

a

r

p

b

0

r

V=velocity

r=orbit radius

a=semima!or a"is

b=semiminor a"is

c=distance to ellipse center

0=true anomaly

r

a

=radius at apoapsis

r

p

=radius at periapsis

V

¸

2

MAE

!ecific Momentum

The angular momentum per unit ma##( al#o called the #pecific momentum( i# related

to the flight path angle( orbit radiu#( and &elocity$

H=r V cos ¸

H=specific momentum

r=orbit radius

V=velocity

¸=flig#t pat# angle

0=true anomaly

e=

.

1−

H

2

ja

e 9 / circle

e < 0 ellip#e

e 9 0 parabola

e ; 0 hyperbola

The #hape of the orbital tra%ectory i# determined by the eccentricity 'e) parameter$

r

V

tan ¸=

1

r

dr

d 0

¸

4

MAE

Ellitical Orbit Geometry

8#eful relation#hip# can be deri&ed from the orbit geometry$

r=

r

p

(1+e)

1+e cos 0

=

a(1−e

2

)

1+e cos 0

cos 0=

r

p

(1+e)

r e

−

1

e

=

a(1−e

2

)

r e

−

1

e

radiu#*

true anomaly*

e=

r

a

−r

p

r

a

+r

p

=

r

a

a

−1=1−

r

p

a

eccentricity*

e=eccentricity

a=semima!or a"is

r

p

=radius at periapsis

r

a

=radius at apoapsis

0=true anomaly

r=orbit radius

1

MAE

More Ellitical Orbit Geometry

>et more u#eful relation#hip# can be deri&ed from the orbit geometry$

tan ¸=

e sin0

1+e cos 0

flight path*

t=2n

.

a

3

j

period*

r

p

V

p

=r

a

V

a

#emima%or a?i#*

V

p

=velocity at periapsis

V

a

=velocity at apoapsis

a=

r

a

+r

p

2

=

r

p

1−e

=

r

a

1+e

&elocity*

e=eccentricity

a=semima!or a"is

r

p

=radius at periapsis

r

a

=radius at apoapsis

¸=flig#t pat# angle

0=true anomaly

0/

MAE

"esources

Orbit Animation @artoon

http*AAwww$youtube$comAwatchB&9.#CqD57Et5o

"nclination and Ground TracF#

http*AAwww$youtube$comAwatchB&9CeG-Gmp#44E

Eccentricity Ground TracF#

http*AAwww$youtube$comAwatchB&9>o1r-mfH.E

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