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# Drag Polar

Wake Vorticies
Induced Angle-of-Attack
Induced Drag
Drag Polar
MAE 2
Campbell, !"!, and C#ambers, !\$!, Patterns in t#e %k&, 'A%A %P-()*, )++*!
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MAE 2
Wake Vorticies
A ,ake -orte. is created b& air /leaking0 around t#e tips of a finite-lengt# ,ing!
Pressure o-er t#e bottom surface is greater t#an t#at on t#e top surface!
"lo, establis#es a circular pattern do,nstream of t#e ,ing!

airflo,
\$ig#t ,ing counter-clock,ise
rotation ,#en -ie,ed from be#ind
1eft ,ing clock,ise rotation ,#en
-ie,ed from be#ind
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MAE 2
Vortex Effects
3#e ,ingtip -ortices cause a do,n,ard -elocit& component on t#e ,ing itself!
3#is do,n,ard flo, is called do,n,as#!
Do,n,as# reduces t#e effecti-e angle-of-attack at t#e airfoil!
1ift coefficient slope is reduced relati-e to angle-of-attack 4,ill deri-e later5!
Vorte. do,n,as# increases drag on t#e ,ing!
3#is source of drag is called induced drag or drag-due-to-lift!
3#ere are man& p#&sical e.planations for induced drag!
E-er& aerod&namicist #as #is6#er fa-orite e.planation!
V
V
w=downwash
*
MAE 2
Induced Drag
Induced drag is estimated b& tilting t#e lift -ector b& t#e angle-of-attack /induced0 b&
do,n,as# acting on t#e ,ing!
3#e induced angle-of-attack at a gi-en airfoil section depends on t#e lift distribution
o-er t#e entire ,ing 4and possibl& ot#er nearb& aerod&namic surfaces5!

b 7 ,ingspan
1ift Distribution
Do,n,as#
Distribution
(
MAE 2
Induced Angle-of-Attack
"or an elliptical lift distribution, t#e do,n,as# induced angle-of-attack is
appro.imated as8

i
=
C
L
AR

i
=induced angle-of-attack
C
L
=wing lift coefficient
AR=aspect ratio
b=wingspan
S=wing reference area
AR=
b
2
S
A span efficienc& factor 4later related to 9s,ald:s efficienc& factor5 is introduced to
appro.imate t#e induced angle of attack for non-elliptical lift distributions!

i
=
C
L
e AR
e=efficiency factor
e1
;
MAE 2
Induced Drag Coefficient
A ne, component of drag results ,#en t#e lift force -ector is tilted b& t#e induced
angle of attack!
D
i
=Lsin
i
L
i
L=q S C
L

i
=
C
L
e AR
D
i
q S
=
C
L
2
e AR
C
Di
=
C
L
2
e AR
3#e induced drag coefficient is defined b& normali<ing t#is component of drag force!
C
Di
=induced drag coefficient
C
L
=airplane lift coefficient
e=efficiency factor
AR=aspect ratio
=
MAE 2
Drag Polar
3#e drag polar pro-ides t#e basic aerod&namic information needed to predict
performance of an airplane!
Parasite Drag 8 includes profile drag of ,ing, friction and pressure
drag of tail, fuselage, engine nacelles, landing gear, etc!
C
D
=C
D0

C
L
2
e AR
Induced Drag8 drag due to lift
C
D
=C
D0
C
Di
C
D
=drag coefficient
C
L
=airplane lift coefficient
C
D
=C
D0
K C
L
2
or
e=Oswald's efficiency factor
AR=aspect ratio
K=induced drag factor
>
MAE 2
Drag Polar Examples : Transport
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MAE 2
Drag Polar Examples : Figters
'icolai, 1!M! And Caric#ner, ?!E!, "undamentals of Aircraft and Airs#ip Design, AIAA, 2@)@!
)@
MAE 2
!esources
Wake Vorte.
#ttp866,,,!&outube!com6,atc#A-7E)E%m-&Am9s