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ISA Transactions

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/isatrans

DC servomechanismparameter identification: A closed loop input error approach

Ruben Garrido

, Roger Miranda

Departamento de Control Automtico, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN 2508 San Pedro Zacatenco, Mxico, DF 07360, Mexico

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 17 February 2011

Received in revised form

7 June 2011

Accepted 27 July 2011

Available online xxxx

Keywords:

Closed loop parameter identification

Servomotor

PD control

a b s t r a c t

This paper presents a Closed Loop Input Error (CLIE) approach for on-line parametric estimation of

a continuous-time model of a DC servomechanism functioning in closed loop. A standard Propor-

tional Derivative (PD) position controller stabilizes the loop without requiring knowledge on the ser-

vomechanism parameters. The analysis of the identification algorithm takes into account the control law

employed for closing the loop. The model contains four parameters that depend on the servo inertia,

viscous, and Coulomb friction as well as on a constant disturbance. Lyapunov stability theory permits

assessing boundedness of the signals associated to the identification algorithm. Experiments on a labora-

tory prototype allows evaluating the performance of the approach.

2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Direct Current (DC) servomotors are widely employed in in-

dustry; examples of their application include computer-controlled

machines, robots, and process control valves. Modern digital ser-

vodrives used for controlling these actuators performtuning auto-

matically using real-time data. This procedure is composedof three

sequential steps. In the first step, a parameter estimation algo-

rithm identifies a model of the servomotor. In the second step, the

parameters obtained in the first step, allows computing a control

algorithm. In the third step, the servomotor works using the con-

trol algorithm computed in the second step. Regarding the design

of the control law, there exist a great number of designs includ-

ing Proportional Derivative (PD) and Proportional Integral Deriva-

tive (PID) controllers. On the other hand, even if there exists a

lot of work concerning parameter identification [1,2], most of the

proposed algorithms deal with open loop stable systems. In this re-

gard, note that a second order model of a position-controlled ser-

vomotor is not bounded-input bounded-output stable. Moreover,

if parameter identification is performed when the servomotor is

coupled to a mechanical load, for example to a robot arm, closed-

loop identification with the loop closed around a position sensor

would be desirable for security reasons since open loop techniques

would lead to unbounded motor behavior.

Several papers propose methods for closed-loop identification

of position-controlled servomechanisms [311]. In [3], the authors

propose an internal model controller designed from results

obtained using off-line identification algorithms. An off-line least

squares method allows tuning a two degrees-of-freedom linear

E-mail address: garrido@ctrl.cinvestav.mx (R. Garrido).

controller in [4]. In [5], the authors employ a disturbance observer

to obtain discrete-time estimators for the servo inertia and viscous

friction which in turn are employed for obtaining Coulomb friction

estimates. It is worth noting that the authors evaluate performance

of the proposed estimators through experiments. In [6], a recursive

multi-step extended least squares permits identifying a linear

discrete-time model of a servo. The servo input and output feed the

estimation algorithmand a proportional controller closes the loop.

According to the taxonomy given in [12], the approach proposed

in [6] would correspond to a direct approach where the controller

is ignored for identification purposes. It is also worth noting that

the authors do not give a convergence analysis of the identification

algorithm.

Relay-based techniques are widespread for servo identifica-

tion [711]. The idea behind these methods, which is similar to

the relay tuning methods in process control [13], is to close the

loop through a relay in order to obtain a sustained oscillation; then,

its amplitude and frequency allowidentifying linear and nonlinear

servo models. Adrawback of relay-based techniques is the fact that

tuning of the relay controller can be cumbersome and the methods

proposed in the literature do not provide a systematic tuning pro-

cedure of the relay controller.

Refs. [14,15] study several identification algorithms applied

to linear discrete-time plants. These methodologies termed as

the Closed Loop Output Error (CLOE) algorithms have several

advantages with respect to traditional closed loop identification

methodologies. They are able to produce unbiased estimates;

moreover, the controller used for closing the loop has a prime role

in the identification procedure, and iterative tuning procedures

accommodate easily within these methodologies. Moreover, real-

time experiments using laboratory prototypes validate these

approaches.

0019-0578/$ see front matter 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.isatra.2011.07.003

2 R. Garrido, R. Miranda / ISA Transactions ( )

This work presents an on-line closed loop identification al-

gorithm for estimating the parameters of a DC servomechanism.

The proposed approach, termed as the Closed Loop Input Error

(CLIE) algorithm is based on the same idea used by the CLOE al-

gorithms, i.e., two identical controllers close the loop around the

plant and the identified model. However, instead of using the out-

put error, the algorithm studied here uses the input error and re-

lies on a continuous-time nonlinear model of the servomechanism.

The main features of the proposed approach are as follows. First,

a rigorous parameter convergence result supports the proposed

algorithm; second, it takes explicitly into account the controller

employed for closing the loop as in the case of CLOE algorithms.

However, compared with these algorithms, the CLIE method does

not require values of the parameter estimates obtained previously

under open loop conditions. Furthermore, it does not assume any

prior knowledge on the servomechanism parameters. Finally, a PD

controller, which is tuned straightforwardly, ensures closed loop

stability without knowledge on the servomechanism parameters.

Real-time experiments allowassessing the performance of the pro-

posed approach. The paper outline is as follows. Section 2 presents

the proposed identification algorithm together with its stability

and convergence properties. Section 3 shows the experimental re-

sults obtained in a laboratory prototype using the CLIE algorithm

and a continuous-time least squares algorithmwith forgetting fac-

tor. The paper ends with some concluding remarks.

2. Closed loop parameter identification

2.1. Servomechanism dynamics

Consider the following model of a DC servomechanism com-

posed by a brushed servomotor, a servoamplifier, and a position

sensor

J q(t) + f q(t) + f

c

sign( q) = ku(t) + d

m

(1)

where q, q and q are the angular position, velocity and acceleration

respectively; u the control input voltage, J the motor and load in-

ertia, f and f

c

are, respectively, the viscous and Coulomb friction

coefficients, k is a parameter related to the amplifier gain and to

the motor torque constant, and the term d

m

is a constant distur-

bance. This model is widely used in the literature [1621], and it is

valid for DC and AC brushless servomotors if the amplifier driving

the servomotor works in the current mode.

2.2. Proposed closed loop input error method

The idea behind the proposed Closed Loop Input Error (CLIE)

algorithm is as follows (see Fig. 1). Two identical PD controllers

close the loop around the servomechanism and its model. The

error between the inputs of these closed loop systems feeds

an identification algorithm that subsequently update the model

parameters.

2.3. Stability analysis

Consider Eq. (1) written as follows

q = a q csign( q) + bu + d (2)

where parameters a = f /J , b = k/J , c = f

c

/J , d = d

m

/J are

positive constants. Let the following PD control law apply to the

servo (2)

u = k

p

e k

d

q + s

e

(3)

Fig. 1. Block diagram of the proposed identification method.

where s

e

is a bounded excitation signal. The terms k

p

and k

d

are

positive constants and correspond respectively to the proportional

and derivate gains. The variables

e = q

d

q (4)

e = q (5)

define the position error and its time derivative with respect to a

reference q

d

. Substituting (3) into (2) yields

q = a q csign( q) + bk

p

e bk

d

q + bs

e

+ d. (6)

Note that the term = csign( q) + bs

e

+ d is bounded. The

above notation allows writing

q = c q + bk

p

e + (7)

with c = a+bk

d

> 0. The time derivative of the Lyapunov function

candidate

V =

1

2

q

2

+

1

2

_

c

2

2

+ bk

p

_

e

2

+

c

2

e q (8)

evaluated along the solutions of (7) is

V =

c

2

q

2

c

2

bk

p

e

2

+ q

c

2

e

which is subsequently upper bounded as

V

c

2

| q|

2

c

2

bk

p

|e|

2

+ || | q| +

c

2

|| |e|

= z

T

Az + || B

T

z

min

(A) z

_

z

B ||

min

(A)

_

with z =

_

| q| |e|

_

T

, A =

c

2

diag

_

bk

p

1

_

, B =

_

c

2

1

_

T

. The

term

min

(A) stands for the minimum eigenvalue of matrix A.

Hence,

V < 0 as long as z

B||

min

(A)

and the trajectories of (7)

are uniformly ultimately bounded [22]. This result shows that the

PDcontroller stabilizes the DC servomechanismmodel (2) without

explicit knowledge on its parameters.

Consider nowthe estimatedmodel of the servomechanismwith

a,

b, c, and

d being estimates, respectively, of a, b, c, and d

q

e

= a q

e

csign( q) +

bu

e

+

d (9)

R. Garrido, R. Miranda / ISA Transactions ( ) 3

in closed loop with the PD control law

u

e

= k

p

e

e

k

d

q

e

+ s

e

(10)

with

e

e

= q

d

q

e

. (11)

Note that the same gains are used in (3) and (10). Substituting

(10) into (9) yields

q

e

= a q

e

csign( q) +

bk

p

e

e

bk

d

q

e

+

bs

e

+

d. (12)

Define the error between the plant and the model outputs

= q q

e

. (13)

An expression for the second time derivative of (13) follows by

using (6) and (12); hence

= q q

e

= c bk

p

+

_

a a

_

q

e

+

_

c c

_

sign( q)

+

_

b b

_

_

k

d

q

e

k

p

e

e

_

(

d d). (14)

Define the error vector

, the regressor vector , and the

disturbance estimation error

=

=

_

_

_

_

a a

b b

c c

d d

_

_

(15)

=

_

_

_

q

e

k

d

q

e

k

p

e

e

sign( q)

1

_

_ =

_

_

_

q

e

u

e

sign( q)

1

_

_. (16)

Using these definitions allows writing (14) as

= c bk

p

+

T

. (17)

At this point, it is convenient to define the input error

u

= u

e

u. (18)

The following expressions for the input error and its time

derivative result from using (3) and (10)

u

= k

p

+ k

d

(19)

u

= k

p

+ k

d

. (20)

Consider the following Lyapunov function candidate

V =

1

2k

p

2

u

+

1

2

_

bk

2

d

+ ck

d

1

_

k

p

2

+

1

2

k

d

(21)

with > 0 a constant matrix and > 0. The above expression is

positive definite if ck

d

1 > 0. Obtaining the time-derivative of

(21) using (20) leads to

V =

1

k

p

_

k

p

+ k

d

_

+

_

bk

2

d

+ ck

d

1

_

k

p

+ k

d

.

Substituting (17) into the above equality yields

V = k

d

(ck

d

1)

2

bk

2

d

k

p

2

+ k

d

T

_

u

+

1

_

. (22)

Consider the following algorithm for estimating

=

u

. (23)

Since is a constant, then

. Substituting

V = k

d

(ck

d

1)

2

bk

2

d

k

p

2

. (24)

Fromthe above equality, it is clear that

u

, , and

are bounded

and V(0) V if ck

d

1 > 0. Applying Barbalats lemma allows

showing that , , and

u

converge to zero [23]. To this end, note

from (24) that

V bk

d

k

p

2

.

Integrating with respect to time the above inequality yields

V V(0)

_

t

0

bk

d

k

p

2

d (25)

from which the following inequality follows

_

t

0

2

d

V(0)

bk

d

k

p

< . (26)

From the above and the boundedness of and , it follows that

converges to zero. On the other hand, boundedness of and

implies boundedness of q

e

and q

e

; hence, control signal u

e

and

consequently, the regressor vector are also bounded. The above

results allow concluding that the signal in (17) is bounded. From

(24) it follows that

V k

d

(ck

d

1)

2

. (27)

Integrating with respect to time the above inequality leads to

V V(0)

_

t

0

k

d

(ck

d

1) d. (28)

This last results allows writing

_

t

0

2

d

V(0)

k

d

(ck

d

1)

< . (29)

Applying Barbalats lemma permits concluding that converges

to zero. Finally, from (19) it is clear that

u

also converges to zero.

The following proposition resumes the foregoing results.

Proposition 1. Consider the servo model (2) in closed loop with

control law(3) and the estimated model (9) in closed loop with control

law (10). If (23) updates the servo model parameters and ck

d

1 >

0, then,

, , ,

u

, q

e

, q

e

, q

e

, and remain bounded. Moreover,

u

converges to zero.

Note that Proposition 1 only ensures boundedness of

. Con-

vergence of this vector to zero requires a Persistently Exciting (PE)

condition on the regressor vector . The following definition about

a Persistently Exciting (PE) signal [23] establishes a condition for

parameter convergence.

Definition 1. A vector : R

+

R

2n

is PE if there exist positive

constants

1

,

2

, such that

2

_

t

0

+

t

0

v

T

()

T

() vd

1

(30)

for all t

0

0, z R

2n

, and v = 1.

The next expressions correspond to the update law (23)

written line-by-line for each parameter estimate assuming =

diag

_

1

2

3

4

_

a =

1

q

e

b =

2

u

e

c =

3

sign( q)

u

d =

4

u

.

4 R. Garrido, R. Miranda / ISA Transactions ( )

Fig. 2. Experimental setup.

3. Experimental results

3.1. Experimental setup

The laboratory prototype consist of a servomotor from Moog,

model C34-L80-W40 (Fig. 2) driven by a Copley Controls power

servoamplifier, model 423, configured in current mode. A BEI

optical encoder, model L15 with 2500 pulses per revolution, allows

measuring the servomotor position. The algorithms are coded

using the MatLab/Simulink software platform under the program

Wincon from Quanser Consulting, and a Quanser Consulting

Q8 board performs data acquisition. The data card electronics

increases four times the optical encoder resolution up to 2500

4 = 10 000 pulses per revolution. The control signal produced by

the Q8 board passes through a galvanic isolation box. The software

runs on a personal computer using an Intel Core 2 quad processor,

and the Q8 board is allocated in a PCI slot inside this computer.

The following transfer function, which is composed of a high-pass

filter in cascade with a low-pass filter, allows obtaining velocity

estimates from position measurements

G(s) =

400s

s + 400

500

s + 500

.

The lowpass filter attenuates the highfrequency components of

the positionsignal. The Simulink diagrams use a sampling period of

0.1 ms and the ODE5 solver. Fig. 2 depicts the experimental setup.

3.2. Experiments

3.2.1. Parameter identification

Two Duffing systems generate the signal used for exciting the

servomechanism

x

1i

= x

2i

i

(31)

x

2i

= [0.25 + x

2i

+ x

1i

1.05x

3

1i

+0.3 sin(

i

t)]

i

; i = 1, 2

s

e

= 7x

11

5x

12

; x

1i

(0) = 0; x

2i

(0) = 0;

1

= 1 rad/s;

2

= 2 rad/s.

This type of chaotic excitation was proposed in [24] for pa-

rameter identification of a speed controlled servomotor. Fig. 3

shows the time evolution of s

e

. The gains for the PD controller are

k

p

= 10 and k

d

= 0.28, and the update law gains are = diag

_

12 3000 180 90

_

.

Fig. 4 shows the time evolution of the parameter estimates

obtained using the proposed approach. Fig. 5 depicts the input

error

u

and the evaluation of the PE condition (30) with v =

1

2

_

1 1 1 1

_

T

; the values for the PE condition in Fig. 5(b) are

Fig. 3. Chaotic excitation signal.

Fig. 4. Parameter estimates obtained using the CLIE method: a,

b, c, and

d.

shown every five seconds, i.e. = 5 s. Hence, the regressor vector

fulfills the PE condition during the experiment. Table 1 shows the

parameter estimates obtained from the experiment. They were

R. Garrido, R. Miranda / ISA Transactions ( ) 5

Fig. 5. Identification error and the PE condition time evolution for the CLIE method.

Table 1

Nominal parameters of the servomechanismand the parameter estimates obtained

using the CLIE method.

a

b c

d

Nominal parameters 0.193 137.78 0

CLIE method 0.1801 139.5 3.475 0.6004

LS method 0.0654 137.1 3.927 0.6519

computed as the mean value of the estimates from the time

period t = 35 s to t = 40 s. This table also depicts the parameter

values computed from the servomotor and servoamplifier data.

Parameters a and b are the only ones available from that data;

Coulomb friction coefficient was unavailable. On the other hand, a

parasitic voltage in the servoamplifier produces a constant voltage

acting as a disturbance. A potentiometer in the servoamplifier

allows compensating for this disturbance voltages; it was set in

such a way that no current flows through the servoamplifier.

Hence, the nominal value of d is set to zero. However, note that

the CLIE algorithm produces a nonzero estimate

d. This estimate

would correspond to a constant bias introduced by the galvanic

isolation box. Note also that a value of

d = 0.6004 corresponds

to a disturbance voltage of

d/

parameters a, and

b produced by the CLIE algorithm remain close

to the corresponding nominal parameters.

For comparison purposes, the continuous-time least squares

algorithm with forgetting factor [25] allows estimating the

servomechanism parameters; see Appendix for further details.

The forgetting factor is set to = 1, the initial conditions

and the bound for the gain matrix are set to P(0) = diag

_

1000 1000 1000

_

, and R

0

= 2(1000)

3

. The filters described

in Appendix were implemented using

1

= 40, and

2

= 400.

Fig. 6 depicts the estimates obtained using the least squares

algorithm, Fig. 7(a) shows the identification error, and Fig. 7(b) the

PE condition (30) with v =

1

2

_

1 1 1 1

_

T

. As in the case of the

CLIE method, Table 1 gives account of the estimates mean value

computed from the time period t = 35 s to t = 40 s.

It is worth remarking that both estimators produce essentially

the same estimate values; however, comparing Figs. 4 and 6,

the time evolution of the parameter estimates produced by the

least squares method exhibits a more oscillatory behavior and,

in the case of the parameter a associated to the viscous friction,

Fig. 6. Parameter estimates obtained using the continuous-time least squares

method: a,

b, c, and

d.

in some parts of the graph it takes negative values. Concerning

the values presented in Table 1, it is interesting to note that the

parameter estimate a produced by the least squares method is very

different to the nominal value whereas the corresponding estimate

produced by the CLIE method remains closer to this nominal value.

On the other hand, both algorithms produce similar parameter

values

b, c, and

d.

3.3. Model validation

The estimated model is validated by using the parameter

estimates of Table 1 for computing the following model reference

controller. Fig. 8 depicts a block diagram illustrating the validation

approach. The goal of control law (32)

u =

1

b

_

d + a q + csign( q) 2

n

q +

2

n

(r q)

_

(32)

6 R. Garrido, R. Miranda / ISA Transactions ( )

Fig. 7. Identification error and the PE condition time evolution for the continuous-

time least squares method.

Fig. 8. Validation scheme.

is to compensate for the constant disturbance d, the friction

terms a q, csign( q), and the gain b, and to obtain the closed-loop

polynomial s

2

+2

n

s+

2

n

. Signal q

d

is the output of the reference

model

q

m

+ 2

n

q

m

+

2

n

q

m

=

2

n

r (33)

with

n

= 15, and = 1. The reference corresponds to the first

Duffing system in (31), i.e. r = 7x

11

. Fig. 9 shows the results for

model validation using the parameter estimates produced by the

CLIE method. Fig. 9(a) depicts the tracking error = q

m

q, and

Fig. 9(b) the outputs of the reference model and the servomecha-

nism. Note that both responses are indistinguishable and the track-

ing error settles around210

3

motor shaft turns; since eachshaft

turn corresponds to 10000 encoder pulses, then, the tracking error

is roughly 20 encoder pulses, i.e. 0.2% of one motor shaft turn. The

Mean Square Error (MSE) served as a performance index

E =

1

T

_

_

t+T

t

(10 000)

2

d. (34)

The time interval is fixed to T = 5 s. Note that in this case

the tracking error is expressed in encoder pulses; Fig. 9(c) depicts

the MSE. In this case, the maximum MSE is around 3 encoder

pulses. The above results indicate that the parameter estimates

obtained using the CLIE method produces good tracking results

even if the control law (32) does not use integral or other kind

of dynamic compensation. Fig. 10 depicts the results for model

validation using the parameter estimates produced by the least

squares algorithm. From Figs. 9 and 10, it is clear that both,

Fig. 9. Model validation results for the CLIE method: (a) tracking error; (b) model

and servomechanism output; (c) mean square error.

the CLIE and the least squares algorithms produce good tracking

results; however, note that the MSE for the CLIE algorithm is

slightly smaller. An explanation for this results could be the fact

that the estimate a produced by the CLIE method is closer to the

corresponding nominal value compared with the one produced by

the least squares method (see Table 1).

Despite producing essentially the same results, from an

implementation point of view, the CLIE algorithm requires less

computational resources. This feature would be useful when using

lowcost microprocessors. In this regard, note that the CLIE method

requires solving four differential equations; in contrast, the

least squares method requires solving four differential equations

directly producing the parameter estimates plus ten differential

equations generating the gain matrix P. Moreover, calculating

the regressor vector for the least squares method requires more

computational effort since it requires solving eight differential

equations associatedto four second-order transfer functions. Inthe

case of the CLIE method, it requires solving only two second order

transfer function, the first associated to the estimated model, and

the second to the filter used for obtaining velocity estimates in the

model.

It is also worth noting that the estimates produced by both

estimation algorithms should be taken as nominal values; i.e., in

practice, the servomotor model parameters could change and the

identified parameter values would not correspond to the current

values. Therefore, some sort of compensation should equip the

control lawusing these parameters; for instance, an integral action

could counteract the effect of changes in the parasitic voltages in

the power amplifier or other constant disturbances.

R. Garrido, R. Miranda / ISA Transactions ( ) 7

Fig. 10. Model validation results for the continuous-time least squares method:

(a) tracking error; (b) model and servomechanism output; (c) mean square error.

4. Conclusion

This paper exposes a Closed Loop Input Error (CLIE) method for

on-line identification of a four-parameter model of a servomecha-

nism. The proposed approach does not rely on relay techniques, it

does not need a priori knowledge about the servo model parame-

ters, and it allows freely choosing the excitation signal. The con-

troller closing the loop is a proportional derivative algorithm. A

rigorous parameter convergence result theoretically supports the

CLIE algorithm. Experiments on a laboratory prototype support the

findings. It is worth remarking that experiments, performed using

a model reference control law designed using the parameter esti-

mates, show a mean square error of 3 encoder pulses using an op-

tical encoder with 2500 4 pulses per revolution. Moreover, the

CLIE produces parameter estimates similar to those obtained with

a standard continuous-time least squares algorithm with forget-

ting factor, but with less computational resources.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Gerardo Castro and Jess Meza

for their help during the experiments.

Appendix. Model parametrization for applying the on-line

least squares method

This Appendix describes how to apply the on-line continuous-

time LS method for servomechanism identification. Applying this

algorithm requires filtering of both sides of the servomechanism

model (2) (see [23] for further details). Using the second order

linear stable filter (s) = s

2

+

1

s +

2

allows obtaining the

following regression equation

z =

T

LS

z = L

1

_

2

s

2

(s)

_

LS

=

_

_

_

LS1

LS2

LS3

1

_

_ =

_

_

_

h

1

q

h

2

sign( q)

h

2

u

1

_

_

=

_

_

_

a

c

b

d

_

_

h

1

= L

1

_

2

s

(s)

_

h

2

= L

1

_

2

(s)

_

.

The operators and L

1

denote, respectively, the convolution

and inverse Laplace transform.

The following continuous-time least squares with forgetting

factor algorithm [25] permits identifying vector

z =

LS

LS

= z z =

LS

= P

LS

P =

_

P P

LS

T

LS

P, if P(t) R

0

0, otherwise,

P(0) = P

0

= P

T

0

> 0

> 0, R

0

> 0, P(0) R

0

.

Vector

denotes the estimate of , P is the gain matrix,

LS

is

the identification error and the forgetting factor.

References

[1] Ljung Lennart. System identification. Prentice Hall; 1987.

[2] Nelles O. Nonlinear system identification. Springer Verlag; 2001.

[3] Adam EJ, Guestrin ED. Identification and robust control for an experimental

servomotor. ISA Transactions 2002;41(2):22534.

[4] Iwasaki T, Sato T, Morita A, Maruyama M. Autotuning of two degree of freedom

motor control for high accuracy trajectory motion. Control Engineering

Practice 1996;4(4):53744.

[5] Kobayashi S, Awaya I, Kuromaru H, Oshitani K. Dynamic model based

autotuning digital servo driver. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

1995;42(5):4626.

[6] Zhou Y, Han A, Yan S, Chen X. A fast method for online closed loop

system identification. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing

Technology 2006;31(12):7884.

[7] Tan KK, Lee TH, Vadakkepat P, Leu FM. Automatic tuning of two degree of

freedomcontrol for DC servomotor system. International Journal of Intelligent

Automation and Soft Computing 2000;6(4):2819.

[8] Tan KK, Xie Y, Lee TH. Automatic friction identification and compensation with

a self adapting dual relay. International Journal for Intelligent Automation and

Soft Computing 2003;9(2):8395.

[9] Tan KK, Lee TH, Huang SN, Jiang X. Friction modeling and adaptive

compensationusing a relay feedback approach. IEEE Transactions onIndustrial

Electronics 2001;48(1):16976.

[10] Lee TH, TanKK, LimSY, DouHF. Iterative learning control of permanent magnet

linear motor with relay automatic tuning. Mechatronics 2000;10(1):16990.

[11] Besanon-Voda A, Besanon G. Analysis of a two-relay system configuration

with application to Coulomb friction identification. Automatica 1999;35(8):

13919.

[12] Forsell U, Ljung L. Closed loop identification revisited. Automatica 1999;35(7):

121541.

[13] strm KJ, Hagglund T. PID controllers: theory, design and tuning. 2nd ed.

International Society for Measurement and Control; 1994.

[14] Landau ID, Karimi A. An output error recursive algorithm for unbiased

identification in closed loop. Automatica 1997;33(5):9338.

[15] Landau ID. Identification in closed loop: a powerful design tool (better design

models, simpler controllers). Control Engineering Practice 2001;9:5965.

8 R. Garrido, R. Miranda / ISA Transactions ( )

[16] Ellis G. Control systems design guide. second ed. Academic Press; 2000.

[17] Kelly R, Moreno J. Learning PID structures in an introductory course of

automatic control. IEEE Transactions on Education 2001;44(4).

[18] Moreno J, Kelly R. On motor velocity control by using only position

measurements: two case study. International Journal of Electrical Engineering

Education 2002;39(2).

[19] Guarino Lo Bianco C, Piazzi A. A servo control system design using dynamic

inversion. Control Engineering Practice 2002;10:84755.

[20] PI and PID controllers tuning for integral-type servo systems to ensure robust

stability and controller robustness. Electrical Engineering 2006;88:14956.

[21] Schmidt PB, Lorenz RD. Design principles and implementation of acceleration

feedback to improve performance of DC drives. IEEE Transactions on Industry

Applications 1992;28(3).

[22] Khalil KH. Nonlinear systems. Prentice Hall; 1996.

[23] Sastry S, Bodson M. Adaptive control, stability, convergence and robustness.

Prentice Hall; 1989.

[24] Fuh CC, Tsai HH. Adaptive parameter identification of servo control systems

with noise and high-frequency uncertainties. Mechanical Systems and Signal

Processing 2007;21:143751.

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