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1.

(a) what do you mean by organizational


culture?
Ans: organizational culture is the basic pattern of share assumptions, values and
beliefs considered to be the correct way of thining about and acting on problem and
opportunities facing the organization. !t define what is important and unimportant in
the company.
"ne of the issues involving culture is that it is define both in terms of its causes and
effect.
#$ %riffin says&
'he set of values, beliefs, behaviors, customs and attitudes that helps the member of
the organization understand what it stand for, how it does things. And what it
considers important.
(b)describe strong and wea culture? And source of
culture?
Ans: strong culture: this e(ists when an organizations core values are both intensely
held and widely shared. 'he greater the number of members who accept the core
values, a strong culture creates an internal climate of high behavioral control and
builds cohesiveness loyalty and organizational commitment.
)trong culture have a greater impact on employee behavior and are more directly
related to reduced turnover.
$ea culture: !n this case, the organizations core values are not widely held or
intensely felt. 'his culture have little impact on member behavior.
)ource of culture: the original source of the culture usually reflects the vision of the
founders. *ompany founders are not constrained by previous customs or approaches
and can establish the early culture by articulating an image of what they want the
organization to be. 'he small size of most new organizations maes it easier to instill
that image with all organizational members. $hen the culture is in place, certain
organizational practices help maintain it. +or instance, during the employee selection
process, managers typically ,udge ,ob candidates not only on the ,ob re-uirement but
also on how well they might fit into the organization. At the same time, ,ob candidates
find out information about the organization and determine whether they are
comfortable with what they see.
(*) state the factors effected ethical behavior, suggest
the method of improving ethical behavior?
Ans: factors that effect ethical behavior:
(1) stage of moral development: research confirms there are three levels of moral
development ,each having two stage. An individuals moral ,udgment becomes less
dependent on outside influences and more internalized.
(.) individual characteristics: two individual characteristic/ values and personality
play a role in determining whether a person behaves ethically. 0ach person comes to
an organization with a relatively entrenched set of personal values, which represent
basic convictions about what is right and wrong. "ur values develop from a young
age, based on what we see and hear from parents, teachers, friends, and others. 'hus
employees in the same organization often possess very different values. Although
values and stage of moral development may similar.
(1) )tructural variables: an organizations structural design can influence whether
employees behave ethically. 'hose structures that minimize ambiguity and
uncertainty with formal rules and regulations and those that continuously remind
employees of what is ethical are more liely encourage ethical behavior. "ther
structural variables that influence ethical choices include goal, performance appraisal
systems, and reward allocation procedures.
Although many organizations use goals to guide and motivate employees, those goals
can create some une(pected problems.
(2)organizational culture: the content and strength of an organizations culture
influence ethical behavior. $e learned in chapter 1 that an organizational culture
consists of the shared organizational values. 'hese values reflect what the
organization stands for and what it believes in, and they create an environment that
influences employee behavior ethically. $hen it comes to ethical behavior, a culture
most liely to encourage high ethical standards is one that3s high in ris tolerance,
control, and innovative.
(4) issue intensity: A student who would never consider breaing into an instructors
office to steal an accounting e(am may not thin twice about asing a friend who too
the same course from same instructor last semester what -uestions were on an e(am.
)imilarly, a manager might nothing about taing home a few office supplies yet be
highly concerned about the possible embezzlement of company funds. 'hese
e(amples illustrate the final factor that influences ethical behavior. 'he intensity of
the ethical issue itself.
..(a) what is strategic planning and management?
Ans: definition of strategic planning:
strategic planning are the plans to achieve goals. 5ore precisely, a strategic plan is a
general plan outlining decisions of resource allocation, priorities, and action steps
necessary to reach strategic goals. 'hese plans are set by the board of directors and
top management, generally have an e(tended time horizon, and address -uestions of
scope, resource deployment, competitive advantage, and synergy.
6efinition of strategic management:
)trategic management is what managers do to develop an organizations strategic its
an important tas that involves all the basic management functions7planning,
organizing, leading, and controlling .
'here are the plans for how the organization will do whatever its in business to do,
how it will compete successfully, and how it will attract and satisfy its customers in
order to achieve its goals.