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Est 1030 introduction to comparative politics of Europe

Course aims:
To foster an appreciation of the different political systems to be found in the EUs 27
member states
!n introduction to political science" one of the 3 disciplines upon #hich European
studies is based
$e able to compare and critically analyse different political systems
To understand the comple%ity of the member states" EU shouldnt #or& as states are so
different" still it does #or&
Course te%t:
$ale" Tim '200()
European *olitics: a comparative introduction
edition" *al+rave" U,
-o+#ood" *atricia and .oberts" /eoffrey '2003)"
Europen *olitics Today"
edition" 0anchester university *ress" U,
'not that +ood)
1ecture 1 : The *olitical 1andscape of Europe
2hat do #e understand by 3Europe4
2hat ma&es us similar is more pronounced than that that ma&es us different 2e have similar
political systems 'unli&e !fricans #ho have totally different politics) Europe comprises more
countries that the European Union" e% 5or#ay isnt part of it Unfortunately #e sometimes
understand Europe as bein+ also means European Union
E% also !lbania is not European Union" #e have problems #ith Tur&ey due to reli+ion
6s European inte+ration uni7ue4
European states are recent constructs emer+in+ after the 18
century !s a recent
construct they need not al#ays endure 'European super9state4)
The overthro# of absolute monarchies in En+land and :rance and the rise of
The e%tension of the vote to all men and eventually" to all #omen ':inland '1;08)"
0alta '1;<7)" 1iechtenstein '1;(<)
5ationalism 'li&e 0alta) and the rise of /ermany and 6taly
'=#it>erland is still the only country in the #orld #ho burn #itches)
Europe is not only the EU and the EU is not the only concept of #hat it means to be
Can #e spea& of a Common European E%perience4
?0alta are an anomaly in politicis" #e do not +o by consensus politics #e have a +reat
opposition" only malta and another 2 countries in eu that are not in consensus politics
T#o factors in the rise of modern Europe :
The collective e%perience of fascism '+ermany" france" spain" *ortu+al)
:ascism survived in #estern Europe into the 1;70s 6t created shared fear of e%treme
ideolo+ies and a commitment to pluralism
The +ro#th of communism in the east also created:
! common +oal to +uarantee economic prosperity at home to avoid domestic support for
communist parties as #ell as the end of balance of po#er politics #ithin Europe
The result of this common shared e%perience #as a commitment #ithin #estern
Europe to#ards open and democratic +overnment" liberal democracies:
.epresentative +overnment" meanin+ that +overnment both represent and are
responsive to the #ishes of the people
=eparation of po#er" bein+ a system of chec&s and balances
:reedom of opinion
The rule of la# as this consolidates the role of the @udiciary and entrenches limited
The collective fear of communism
Collective Economic :oundations:
6ndustrial societies across Europe
The recent do#nturn in manufacturin+ production and the emer+ence of post9
industrial societies
The decline in a+riculture" manufacturin+ and the rise of service industries
!+ein+ #or& forces and the need for mi+rants
Common social trends
The myth of a classless society and the decline of manufacturin+ #or&ers
:emale emancipation and the debate over affirmative action
Aeclinin+ attendance of reli+ious services and the mar+inalistaion of a reli+ious
+roups combined #ith the rise of reli+ious +roups combined #ith the rise as a
minority reli+ion in Europe
1ivin+ in multi9national and multi9racial societies: accommodatin+ national minorities
and inclusive policies for mi+rants
0orocco as an EU member4
0orocco applied in 1;(7
3#e #ant to be the southern rib of Europe '*rime 0inister Ariss Betton)
32e already have a very" very close relationship #ith morocco" and #ere studyin+ +ivin+
them even more advanced status '$enita :errero92aldner" EU commissioner for e%ternal
CThey treat tur&ey so badly in @oinin+ EU #hilst morocco not bad as =panish '#ho are very
stron+ in EU) push for their @oinin+D
$asic definitions:
The state: a soverei+n political community and the territory occupied by that
=overei+nty: the ultimate ri+ht to decide and control ho# a state #ill be run and its
The nation: a community of persons bound by common decent" lan+ua+e" history etc
The nation9state: a country #here the boundaries of a nation correspond to the
territory of a state
=tate in malta #e understand by delineable territory in #hich a +roup of people collectively
Ether countries have more complicated borders
=overei+nty the ri+ht that a state has that is reco+nised by its o#n people and international
community to ma&e la#s for its o#n state
0alta is an e%ample of a nation9stateF united in one nation Ethers li&e =panish have many
nations in one state E% bas7ues in spain" =a%ons in +ermany ! nation ie need not have a
state E% curds are in ira7 and in tur&ey They are reco+nised as a separate nation but not a
separate state
The 6mportance of a Constitution
=ome constitutions are #ritten #hile others are not codified" often referred to as un#ritten
Constitutions act as 3po#er maps and ensure" if upheld by the state" the triumph of the rule
of la# over arbitrary po#er
E% :rance have constitution chan+in+ all the time
$ritish not even #ritten Even 6srael and ne# >ealend not #ritten
6t is a po#er map as it outlines #ho are the men of po#er in the state and #hat po#ers they
Constitutions do several thin+s:
They serve as an e%pression of ideolo+y and philosophy
They serve as an e%pression of the basic la#s of the re+ime
They provide or+ani>ational frame#or&s for +overnments
They may state #hether the system is a sin+le level of +overnment" t#o levels
'federal) or multilevel
Constitutions have an amendment clause
'in +ermany that they are a federal state you can never chan+e it" even if @esus comes etcG
separate po#er in federal +ermany)
Europe hass some of the oldest states in the #orld 'notably 5or#ay) #ith
constitutions stretchin+ bac& nearly 200 yrs
5or#ay '1(1<)" the 5etherlands '1(1H)" 1u%embour+ '1(8()
Europe also has some of the most recent 3ne# states in the #orldI
=lova&ia '1;;2)" 1ithuania '1;;;2)" *oland '1;;;7)" =erbia '2008)
$eyond its role in any state" a constitution is &ey in the establishment of a federal
*oland has a lot of debate on po#er of president
0alta #ill probably have a dispute on a electin+ the president in a popular #ay ie by votin+
:ederal and unitary =tates:
! federal state brin+s to+ether various constituent re+ions into one federal unit
*o#er is shared bet#een t#o or more level of +overnment #ith the central" federal
+overnment normally controllin+ defence and e%ternal policy such as education and
social services
The po#er of the re+ions is enshrined in the constitution and in the political set9up
! constitution is essential
Unitary 9J defence9J hi+h politics
healthK family" la#" politics
federal 9J federal 9J def" sin+le currency
9Jo#n +overnments #ith o#n parliaments and elections and oversee education" public
Therefore 2 systems of +overnment =upreme ie #hole country and re+ional
Usually federal states are found in hu+e countries as it is a more efficient and practical #ay to
split country po#er
There are 2< federal states +lobally" H in Europe '.ussia" /ermany" !ustria" =#it>erland and
$osnia and -er>e+ovina)
a federal state brin+s to+ether various constituent re+ions into one federal unit
po#er is shared bet#een t#o or more levels of /overnment #ith the central" federal
+overnment normally controllin+ defence and e%ternal relations #hile the re+ional
+overnments control policy such as education and social services
the po#er of the re+ions is enshrined in the constition 'uncontinued note)
#hy opt for a federation4
:ear of e%ternal forces
Economic and military benefits
Unification of diverse nation9 +roups
:ederations also allo# for +reater subsidiarity and e%perimentation
:ederalism can complicate EU decision9ma&in+ for federal states due to the split in
$el+ium : from unitary to federal state
The modern state of $el+ium emer+ed in 1(30
*ost L 1;<H bel+ium sa# a radical shift in the #ealth of :landers an 2allonia
-appened as flanders became much richer than 2allonia and had to help in money
:from unitary to federal +overnment
1;82K1;83 la#s establishin+ the lin+uistic areas of $el+ium
1;70 and constitutional amendments to create lin+uistic9based communities #ith
le+islative po#ers
1;(0 and the addition of e%ecutive +overnment to communities
1;((K1;(; $russels +iven re+ional e%ecutive and le+islative body
1;;3 $el+ium becomes a federation
Continued political reform and the crisis of 2007
0ost unifyin+ thin+ in bel+ium is their monarchy
-e three lan+ua+e communities:
The :lemish community 'dutch9spea&in+)" the :rench 'ie :rench9spea&in+) communityM the
+erman9spea&in+ community
The three re+ions: the :lemish re+ion" the 2alloon re+ion" the $russels9capital re+ion
The $el+ium political system
The federal +overnment controls:
Bustice" defence" the federal police" social security" public debt" nuclear ener+y
amon+st others
The lin+uistic communities:
Culture" education and the use of lan+ua+e" health policy and assistance to
The re+ions:
Economy" employment" a+riculture" #ater policy" housin+" forei+n trade 'in their
Unitary state:
The most popular form of arran+ement for mana+in+ the state
*o#er can be dele+ated in 3 #ays:
Aecondetration: the spreadin+ of +overnment administration out of the core
Aecentrali>ation: dele+atin+ policy e%ecution to sub9national bodiesK authorites
Aevolution: the centre dele+ates decision9ma&in+ authority to lo#er levels
$asic difference bet#een unitary and fedral state is that +overnment has po#er to close the
other parliament e% spain" 0adrid has po#er to ta&e a#ay po#er of catalonia" same in
En+land can do so to =cotland as it has soverei+nty En the otherhand +ermany #hich is
federal" has cannot have berlin ta&e po#er of $avaria as it does not have soverei+nty
$+roup tut
Constitution is optional unless you have a federal state 6t here is important to differentiate
po#er 6f it is not present you have anarchy
0alta is #or& in pro+ress in constitution #ise ie there are still #or& and chan+es bein+
Unitary statesF all po#er concentrated in the hands of the capital city 'Nalletta)
=till =pain is unitary but loo&s very much li&e /ermany Oou #ould be electin+ t#o separate
+overnments The only difference is that =pain bein+ unitary" 0adrid can easily remove the
po#er of the other +overnment" #hile /ermany can never have $erlin remove the po#er of
$avaria as it is federal
6n 0alta #e have decentralisation by the local council" still at any point in time +overnment
bein+ unitary can remove the local councils
Ae9concentrationF +overnment share their administrative po#er 0alta there is /o>o #ho
can apply for funds etc
AevolutionF separate parliaments and then a national parliament Pli&e /ermany :rance is
+oin+ in this direction =pain and U, are li&e it Aecision ma&in+ to re+ional representatives"
literally re+ional +overnments 'still it can be #ithdra#n by capital city Punli&e /ermany #ho
still is a devolution)
=pain: a de facto federation4
The =panish civil #ar and the :ranco re+ime
1;7( Constitution: the state of the autonomies
$et#een 1;7; and 1;(3" all the re+ions in =pain #ere constituted as autonomous
6n 1;;8 the process #as closed #hen the autonomous status Ceuta and 0elilla
=pain #or&s completely as a federal state #ith the e%ception of the 0adrid po#er to remove
#hich ma&es it unitary
=pain has asymmetric po#erM each re+ion has different po#er 'most Catalonia)
The =panish political system creates t#o tiers of +overnmentM Catalonia overseas in
Catalonia" 0adrid defence Catalonia very po#erful as blac&mails 0adrid as it is +ettin+
more and more independence E% 1;;2 Catalonia #as Elympics and had most symbolic #ere
of Catalonia not =panish E% too there #ere #ho ar+ued not to have =panish ,in+ open it 6n
fact he #as not at openin+ ceremony" but #as at closin+
Under there constitution it doesnt say ho# much po#er each re+ion has 6t is done by
ne+otiatin+ 0eans de facto as there is po#er to unify all country" but it is not possible to use
this po#er as there #ould be a revolution" means that it is de facto 2ith such revolution all
po#er #ould brea& up so le+ally it is unitary state" but in practice 'de facto) it is federal 5o
one #ill ris& ta&in+ po#er in =pain
Aevolution in U,
The United ,in+dom: the latest e%periment in devolution
Pe% 5orthern 6reland +ivin+ it po#er and ta&in+ it bac& all the time due to problems ie
controllin+ it from 1ondon
1;21 and the 5orthern 6rish !ssembly
1;;7 and the $lair +overnment
1;;7 and referendums in =cotland and 2ales 'to a+ree to have their o#n devolve
1;;( and the 5orthern 6rish referendum 'to a+ree to have their o#n +overnment)
1;;; devolution
En+land is not a re+ion in itself 2hich is #hy this may brea& do#n 2hen it comes to ma&e
policies for En+land" ie that apply only to En+land both =cotland" 2ales and 5 6reland This
is an anomaly E% =cotland decides thin+s #hich effect it only on itself 2hile =cotland and
2ales etc also decide #hat happens to En+land =o no# there is a petition for En+land to
have its o#n parliament
*roblems #ith devolution:
!symmetric po#ers
The lace of an assembly for En+land 'non9En+lish 0*s currently vote on policy
#hich can only be applied in En+land #hile En+lish 0*s cannot vote on similar
policies #hich are applied to =cotland or 2ales)
The 5orthern 6rish assembly and its viability
P=cotland is number one re+ion to +et EU funds" it is the one #ith its o#n representation and
+ets most fundsP
0an is a *olitical !nimal '!ristotle)
Collective activity
6nitial diversity of vie#
*rocess to reconcile those differences
!cceptance by +roup of the bindin+ nature of the final compromise
*olitics is about compromise" allocatin+ resources and enforcin+ decisions
2e are animals prepared to con+re+ate in +roups" but #e resolve all conflict bet#een us
throu+h politics The activity #hich listens to demands etc
5ot everyone is e7ual in politics" but that is all #hat it is about The idea is comin+ to a final
decision #hich once comes everyone accepts it
E% 808e increase in 0alta" made a decision" #hich issued as a declaration and then lobby
+roups are ma&in+ all possible to chan+e it bac& =till once bud+et comes this cannot occur
unless political system crumbles
Early 1;(0sF famous election of seats" #hich had opposition boycottin+ parliament 6e
political system startin+ to crumble 6n end a+reed to compromise on constitution Chan+ed
itF5o +overnment can #in a ma@ority of seats #ithout a ma@ority of votes
/overnments and *o#er
/overnment: the communitys accepted apparatus for ma&in+ and enforcin+
/overnments can be elected" appointed" inherited or imposed
/overnment is not merely politicians but all decision9ma&ers
*o#er: the central currency of politics but #hat is po#er and ho# can it be +au+ed
/overnments have to decide #hat to listen to" ie #ere po#er comes to place *o#er is
relative" depends on perception and actual resources E% 0alta chamber of commerce said
that it doesnt li&e the increase" it has a lot of po#er =o t#o ma@or economic +roups #ho are
al#ays listened to 6n case of national +overnment listen to more Elder days" socialists to
unions #hile nationalists to economic +roups
1ast +eneral elections #as one due to university students 2ith the result that they #ere the
&ey electoral +roup They have a lot of po#er before elections" later much less 2hich is #hy
e%actly after elections +overnments become nasty" and ma&e it to become its pea& of niceness
before elections
*o#er depends on 6 believin+ you are po#erful and you sho#in+ it
E% Chinese man #ho stood in front of ; tan&s
3*o#er is a matter of +ettin+ people to do #hat they #ould not other#ise have done '.obert
*olitical Culture:
2hat is political Culture: the system of empirical beliefs" e%pressive symbols" and
values #hich defines the situation in #hich political action ta&es place
Aimensions of political culture:
=ystem dimension: attitudes to#ard the nation" the re+ime and the authorities
#ho control po#er at any +iven time
*rocess dimension: attitudes to#ard the role that the individual plays in the
political arena
*olicy dimension: the results of politics" the outputs of the political system
*olitical cultureF e%pectations of people on #hat they #ant from politics
0altas has lots of #ea&nesses" also !merica -o#ever they are never #ron+ as they are a
reflection of political culture" this bein+ uni7ue it can never be criticised
E% =audi !rabia have no problem #ith rulin+ family Eil is so rich due to them that they
dont pay income ta% $uy support of people by not ta%in+ them Their people are happy" it is
their political culture
E% it is naQve to after &ill =addam insist that they have democracy li&e the EU #est and also
especially insist to have female representation as it +oes a+ainst their political culture
E% #e have no problem #ith our president havin+ no po#er
E% :rance often +o in public demonstrations a+ainst their o#n +overnment Punli&e 0altaP
6n =#it>erland it is not possible as one +oes to referendum so it is unacceptable
E% in /ermany there is distrust of policeman as they are considered somethin+ distant due to
fascist history #hile 0alta one #aves at them or at least police loo& proud and #e dont loo&
at them ne+atively
E% #e have to face the fact that our soldiers #ill never protect us #hile U= e%pects to have
their soldiers constantly defend them
political systems are lar+ely fi%ed and chan+e slo#ly" the political process sis fluid
and can chan+e 7uic&ly
the three branches of +overnment
9the e%ecutive 'directin+ the nations affairs" supervisin+ policy
implementation" mobilisin+ support" providin+ crisis leadership)
9the le+islative 'popular representation in democracies" venue for debate and
consultation" creator of le+islation)
9@udiciary 'to uphold the rule of la#)
E% parliament tal& of =ant Plast #ee& is a @o&e as only 2 sides .ulin+ party al#ays votes and
#ins 6n fact parliament rarely is in ne#s
6taly contrary it is al#ays in ne#s etc
2e had this period only of parliament durin+ 0intoff *olitical system #as same but process
chan+ed all of a sudden parliament suddenly became very po#erful Eur parliament is purely
a @o&e
0intoff could ris& votin+ a+ainst his party #hich is #hy parliament became po#erful Today
no one ris&s it as it #ould be a 3&iss of death
E%ecutive in 0alta F prime9minister F to +ive direction" mana+e and oversee
implementation -e usually is the one #ho ma&es la#s =tructure that brin+s to+ether elective
representatives #ho allo#s them to debate and compromise
! debate is to chan+e opinions" e% %araban& no one chan+es opinions in politics so discussion
K debate is totally useless #hich undermines ho# a @o&e it is
BudiciaryF to educate and ma&e sure that the other t#o parties stay bound in la# E% /erman
very very stron+ Pto ensure that no one li&e -itler ever emer+es a+ain 6f so he #ould be
controlled and removed by @udiciary
0intoff #ent to U, he #as ne+otiatin+ #ith Calaham as&ed his concerns'problems) and
tal&ed for about Hhrs and then as&ed him more and he repeated a+ain Then #ife came and
&noc&ed and told them that one of his problems #as his marria+e" so told them to tal& on
marria+e Ether one panic&ed as he #as bachelor of 80 and @ust left *oint is F
0intoff #as very unpredictable" a #ay of not sho#in+ #hat to do ne%t and a #ay of po#er

political system
political process
branches of +overnment
of the 27 in political system of eu" some are very stron+ and some very #ea&
*olitical structures do not chan+e often #hile political processes do chan+e a lot
*olitical system F +overnmentF 3 branches F e%ecutive 'structure #hich runs country on a
day to day basis)" le+islative 'parliament #hich is there to le+islate" ie passin+ and
discussin+ la#s) and @udiciary
1imited +overnment is about people bein+ protectin+ from +overnment and the minorities
protected from havin+ any abuse
*olitical =ystems are lar+ely fi%ed and chan+e slo#ly" the political process is fluid
and can chan+e 7uic&ly
The *olitical *rocess
The political process is the system by #hich the political demands of a people are
communicated to the +overnment and the #ay in #hich the +overnment acts on those
The political process can chan+e because of chan+es in the
Economic factors 'e% recession)
2ea& +overnment 'e% 0alta 1;;8)
Chan+es in political culture 'e% chan+e in stipend to smartcards etc attitude)
?6n politics e%actly after election they ma&e hard decisions as media is usually soft on you in
order that the ape% is ne%t election #ere he can decrease ta%es etcR
E%ternal inputs:
intermediate +roups as filters for demands
the importance of status and moderation as a +uarantor of bein+ listened to by
political parties and interest +roups and their o#n a+enda
#ith inputs: the a+enda of those in +overnment
*olitical =upport
support for the e%ecutive
support for the re+ime
support for the #ider political community 'e% $el+ium" :lemish people #ho #ant to
be separate" ie lac& of support for he #ider political community !ny country #hich
splits up li&e C>ech .epublic)
Budicial revie# and constitutional courts:
constitutional courts #ere established across Europe after 222 '!ustria in 1;<H"
2est /ermany in 1;H1" :rance in 1;H;) and after the demise of :ascism '=pain in
1;(1 and *ortu+al in 1;(2) as #ell as after the fall of communism in eastern and
central Europe '*oland in 1;(H 'subse7uently heavily reformed)" the C>ech republic
in 1;;3 amon+st others) ?constitutional court in order to protect the country from
uprisin+ of dictators etcR
!ppointment to the Court
The Courts as la#9ma&ers throu+h enforcement and interpretation
!ny party in /ermany #hich advocates holocaust denial and #hich is 5a>i is banned
!t times of #ar cabinet stops" #hile in /ermany the constitutional court doesnt stop
Control of 3
branch depends on country #ere in /ermany is very stron+ #hile ours #ea&
6e not all constitutional courts have same po#er
6so+lucose case Psee itP as considered very imp for European institutions
The .unnin+ of the =tate" the E%ecutive
The E%ecutive:
directs the nations affairs
supervises policy implementation
mobili>es support
provides crisis leadership
three principal forms" namely *residential 'Cyprus)" =emi9*residential 'E% :rance) and
*arliamentary '0alta)
The difference bet#een -ead of =tate and -ead of /overnment
-ead of =tate
The EU has 7 monarchies and 20 republics
Their role '#hen distinct from the -ead of /overnment) is primarily procedural"
symbolic and diplomatic
They may act as an alternative locus of po#er
They may provide important leadership in times of crisis
2hen combinin+ the role of -ead of /overnment they continue to represent the
symbolic embodiment of the =tate
6n all political systems the -ead of =tate and of /overnment are separate -ead of =tate F
SueenK *resident in 0alta #hile -ead of /overnment is e% *rime 0inister in 0alta /E5T6
/E5T6 /E5T6
*residential systems of +overnment 'Cyprus)
*resident of Cyprus is -ead of =tate
*resides over Council of 0inisters
=eparate -ouse of .epresentatives
E%ecutive and le+islative politics separate
*resident has @udicial po#er as even thou+h he cannot control them he has ri+ht of veto on
them =o he has a lot of po#er" still he cannot ma&e la# This happens mostly in !mericaM
not much in Cyprus veto as he has also his o#n party Therefore #hat e%ecutive does here is
basically done by the president
The Cypriot house of representatives is made up of (0 but actually only H8 sit up Enly the
+ree& ones the Tur&ish ones no as the island has been partitioned
They &eep #ith this system that is not #hole as" as lon+ as they &eep these institutions in a
#ay to &eep pressure on the Tur&ish side of the island
PE%ecutive is most important as it is #hat mana+es the countryP
2hen Cyprus became independent they devised this system to cut bet#een /ree& Cypriots
and Tur&ish ones
=emi9*residential =ystems':rance)
*resident and le+islative elected separately
E%ecutive po#er shared bet#een the *resident and a *arliamentary /overnment
2hile :rance is the purest e%ample of a semi9presidential +overnment in the EU"
other countries resemble this method of +overnment" in particular =lovenia" .omania
and 1ithuania but they are still lar+ely considered *arliamentary
The system in :rance o#es much to Ae/aulle
6s one head of state but 2 heads of /overnment" 1 the prime minister the other the president
The president has the po#er to choose the *0
The president promul+ates la#
has a very limited form of veto
can refer la#s for revie# to the Constitutional Council
may dissolve the :rench 5ational !ssembly
refer treaties or certain types of la#s to popular referendum
is the Commander9in9Chief of the armed forces
can order the use of nuclear #eapons
names certain members of the Constitutional Council
2hen domestic problems is +oin+ throu+h problems Pespecially due to coalitionsP
only problem #ith this system is cohabitations F #hen the president is in char+e in runnin+
the country and then the parliamentary elections return a +overnment #hich is not form the
presidents side of political spectrum =o system is not perfect
This system #as created by Ae /aulle -e had a populist party
Countries li&e =lovenia and the above mentioned are still semi a lot as they have very
po#erful prime9ministers
Therefore has ri+ht to dissolve parliament
!nd also therefore chooses *rime9minister
-as ri+ht to call a referendum
The *arliamentary E%ecutive
The *rime 0inisterK-ead of /overnment is normally first amongst equals but has
dual po#er:
*o#er over the runnin+ of the e%ecutive
*o#er over the internal control of the e%ecutive
Cabinet +overnment operates under the system of:
Collective cabinet responsibility
6ndividual ministerial responsibility
1i&e 0alta and almost all other EU states The most simple in a #ay as ultimately you are
votin+ eefectively for one leader Then the +overnment #ill be formed out of parliament bu
parliament they +et to control the country *rime minister is al#ays to be most dominant
persons Cabinet need not be made of elected members *arliament is made of mi+ht is ri+ht
/roups #hich cabinet is +lorification of the leader
*arties are fra+mented in themselves e% parliamentary memebers #ho feel closer to Aalli
than to +on>i 6n therefore bi+ countries prime minister sort of leads smaller +roups of
leaders e% leads dalli and therefore the +roup #hich follo#s Aalli
This of course occurs in bi++er countries as in 0alta it is basically possible to meet all
parliament on a day to day basis
$y havin+ control over his parliamentary members prime ministers controls all bureaucracy
etc he has e%tensive po#er #hich depends on ability to control his o#n party ! president
can be impeached 'li&e 5ic&son in !merica #ho decided to resi+n instead of bein+
impeached)" he is a victim of a day to day basis unli&e prime minister
/overnment in most eu states are made of a prime minister Por Chancellor in /ermanyP #ho
controls the cabinet
Ence the overall ma@ority of the parliament has accepted it the #hole collective cabinet has to
accept it E% if only ( ta&e place and H approve !ll the rest #ho have not participated have to
6f somethin+ +oes #ron+ in individual ministry" the minister in 7uestion has to resi+n -e ahs
individual responsibility over his o#n minister =omethin+ #hich is not on European
commission They cannot sac& individual ministers
*rime 0inister and Cabinet operate under several constraints #hich impact their
individual several constraints #hich impact their individual and combined po#er:
e%pectations and popular perception of the role of +overnment
attitudes to#ards political inclusion and the acceptance of partisan politics
the po#er of appointin+ people to the cabinet
the politics of +ettin+ into po#er in coalition systems and the art of stayin+ in po#er once
a +overnment is formed
6n !merica head of +overnment controls e%ecutive or+ans that run the state E% in 0alta #e
have no minister for defence #hile in !merica no free health care
6n some political systems you have stron+ leaderships in others not so prime minister acts
dependin+ #hat is e%pectin+ from him
E% =#eden doesnt ma&e any difference #ho is in +overnment as they al#ays are to a+ree
#ith unions Unli&e 0alta etc
=#eden therefore are used #ith conciliation politics therefore are very +ood in EU Unli&e
0alta that prime minister can @ust not a+ree #ith unions and #e dont see it stran+e
0a@ority" 0inority and 0ulti9party /overnment
The uni7ueness of sin+le9party +overnment Pli&e 0alta and U, and /reece They are
best form of +overnment as due to everythin+ is internal and simple the +overnment
can +o do#n to runnin+ party Unli&e coalitions #ere parties are destroyed due to
internal opposition
The po#er of the *0 and Cabinet
The predominance of coalition +overnment
The difficulty in selectin+ coalition partners
The difficulty in allocatin+ portfolios
The need to maintain coalition harmony
Eutsi>ed ma@ority coalitions
0inority +overnments and vulnerability Enly one party controls on their o#n but
they do not have enou+h seats to control parliament
Coalition +overnments F basically #hen 2 or more parties come to+ether and by havin+ a
ma@ority in +overnment they control it Then they split roles bet#een each other
Eutsi>ed ma@ority coalition diff F coalitions #hich not only +et about H1U of parliament li&e
normal coalitions but most of parliament li&e 6taly This occurs so as that every one is
represented also li&e :inland
5ormal coalitions have a lot of internal problems e%ample #ho is +oin+ to +et #hat portfolio
and #ho is +oin+ to be the leader etc
Aifference bet#een cohabitation and coalition cohabitation F centres of po#ers from
different parties therefore po#er split in 2
Coalition 2 or more people #ho come to+ether but one of them #ill be the person in char+e
,ey to understandin+ bureaucracy is:
6nternal 'ministerial direction" formal re+ulations" competition" professional standards)
$ureaucracy that body of public servants #ho help +overnment in e%ecutive service
*oliticaians ma&e sure that buracrats do it in the #ay politicians #ant
$euracracy here #e mean in the elite buracry $eurocarcy is defined in 2 parts the one #ho
does the @ob and the brain #ho tells #hat to do $rain F politicians Then there is an elite #ho
help +overnment ma&e decision li&e public servants of hi+h +rade E% parliamentary
secretaries and directors etc are classified as the elite
2 bi+ problems in buracrcay are accountability and efficiency
you are a +eneralist" you may end up #or&in+ any#here
!ccountability F 2 typesF internal and e%ternal *oliticians may have to resi+n due to
corruption etc so they are the ma@or form of control of public services 0inisterial direction
or interference same thin+
E%ternal control of public services F the ombudsman" there for citi>ens #ho feel that the
public services is not bein+ fair
Nise+rad /roup
'East9) Central Europe
6nternational cooperation launched in 1;;1
C>ech .epublic
Comparison of political systems" they are close in +eo+raphical terms and history path#ay
Communist re+ime and transition to democracy
Triple transition concept
Economic transformation
*olitical transition L democratic transformation
Aemocratic revolution 1;(;
/eneral reasons 'Bac7ues .upni&)
1 $rea&do#n of socialist planned economy
2 Aiver+ent forces #ithin =oviet empire
3 :ati+ue of ideolo+ies
:eature of democratic transition
.ound9table tal&s leadin+ to democrati>ation
contract elections in *oland 1;(;" free election in C>echoslova&ia and -un+ary
$road catch9allumbrella democratic movements:
9=olidarity '*1)
9Civil :orum 'CT)
9-un+arian Aemocratic :orum" :ides> '-U)
9 *ublic a+ainst Niolence '=,)
=ocial9democrati>ation of communist parties versus the C>ech case of unreformed
Nelvet divorce of C>echoslova&ia 1;;291;;3
=ta+es of political development
Transition '10(;K;0 L mid of the 1;;0s)
Early consolidation and 'mid of the 1;;0s 9 2000)
Europeanisation '2000 L 200<)
Consolidation4 'since 200<)
6nternational Commitments
5!TE 1;;; '=lova&ia 2002)
EU 200<
*olitical systems of N< countries
*arliamentary democracies in all cases
*oland till 1;;7 'ne# constitution) L some tendencies to semi9presidential model
Today valid constitutions:
C>ech .epublic and =lova&ia 1;;2K3
-un+ary 1;<; '
Guncontinued note
-eads of =tate L elections
C>ech president and -un+arian president elected by the parliament 'for H years in
both cases)
Enly one re9election of the same person possible
Naclav ,laus 'CT)
1as>lo =olyom '-U)
*olish and =lova& presidents elected directly by voters for H years
T#o9round absolute ma@ority system #ith t#o best in the 2
Enly one re9election of the same person possible
=lova& president elected by the *arliament till 1;;;
1ech ,ac>yns&i '*1)
6van /asparovic '=,
-eads of state L competences
0ostly symbolical
.epresentation functions
5omination functions
0ost of the competences need countersi+nature
-istorically" there have been attempts to create politically stron+ presidency '-avel" 2alesa"
,acy>ns&i" ,laus)
/overnments L +eneral features
.esponsible to parliaments or to lo#er chambers 'CTV *1)
/eneral practice of Coalition +overnments
=tron+ position of prime minister in -U" *1" =,
2ea&er position of some C>ech prime ministers 'dependin+ on composition of
/overnments L uni7ue features
5on9balanced coalitions in -un+ary 'bi+W small party) since 1;;( and *oland
'a+rarians as pivotal party)
0inority +overnments in CT '1;;897 ,laus 2" 1;;( Tosocs&y" 1;;(92002 Teman X
opposition a+reement" 20089200; Topolane&)
6lliberal tendencies in the 1;;0s in =lova&ia 'Nladimis 0eciar)
=ometimes" far ri+ht and populist parties have coalition potential '-U 1;;( L 2002"
*1 200892007" =, since 2008)
The role of le+islatives:
Symbols of popular representation
To give the system legitimacy
To link the people to the executive
Debate public issues
Create laws
In cabinet systems to actually create the executive
1e+islative are le+itimisors of political re+imes" they ma&e thin+s le+itimate
The .elative po#er of le+islativesF
In our political system, the House of Representatives is not a nexus of power nor
ebate! It is more a public platform upon which government an opposition make
This is stanar in a two"party system
In political systems built on consensus politics or forme of multiple parties, the
legislative be very powerful
The situation is more complex in a presiential system like the #S or Cyprus!
1e+islatives are often determined byF
Si$e an the number of houses
Si$e must balance the nees of a workable forum for iscussion with the nee to stay
In non"emocracies legislatives can be exceptionally large!
Pirony is that most dictatorships have a parliament" but is effectively controlled" it is there to
pretend P
! parliament in a democracy shouldnt be over 800 *roblem #ith si>e is that if there is a
lar+e population you become less representative E% 0alta has a lar+e representation in
relative to its si>e
In the %# the largest &arliament is that of the #' ()*)+ an the smallest is that of
Cyprus (,) of a possible -.+
/ith a cap on si$e, representation ecreases! 0 1erman member of the 2unestag
represents 34,... people, a 5altese 5& represents uner )... an a 1reenlaner
less than 6...!
Oou #ant it bi+ enou+h to represents enou+h but not too bi+ as due to functionality
6ndia has bi++est democracy 6t is 7uestionable #hether it is truly a democracy
Central issue in bicameral systems is the relative power of each house an its
#pper houses can be to safeguar regional interests (1ermany, 0ustria+ or veste,
historical interests (the #', former 5altese governments+
#pper houses can be irectly electe (C$ech Republic, &olan, the vast ma7ority of
the Italian an Spanish Senate+, allocate through an electoral college or provincial
councils (8rance an Hollan+ or are regional representatives (1ermany+!
Traditionally the lo#er house #ill #ield +reater po#er but the upper houses are not bereft of
The EU is often seen as a bicameral system #here the upper house 'the Council) is more
&arliaments are self"regulating! 2asic units an working proceures centre aroun9
&roceural rules which are establishe by &arliament itself
&arty groups which ominate the business of &arliament an collectively make
ecisions on proceures
5uch work is now unertaken in committees but the plenary session remains the
principle forum within which votes are taken an ebates conucte
Scaninavian countries have strong committees!
Parliaments principal functions
Representation9 the political system in a emocracy erives legitimacy by ensuring
emocratically electe representatives steer political evelopments! /here apathy
manifests itself at election time, a political system may show signs of eclining
support from its citi$ens
The empowerment of the %& is a reflection of a esperate attempt to maintain the
legitimacy of the %# pro7ect
:egislating an the ifference between ma7oritarian systems (5alta, the #', 8rance+
an consensus"base political systems (primarily Scaninavian systems+
Consensus"base systems also normally have a committee"base system where
much of the work of parliament is unertaken
Central an %astern %uropean states remain a work in progress where classification
is ifficult
:egislatives play a central role in making an breaking governments, especially in
parliamentary systems
In political systems where no single party wins elections, forming a government out of
the parties in parliament can be a lengthy process as seen in 2elgium in 6..;
<nce in power, parliament controls government through scrutiny as well as the ability
to unermine support for government business!
The EU and 5ational *arliamentsF
The link between national parliaments an the %# has often been fraught, the latter
seen as unermining the former
5aastricht, 0msteram an :isbon have all trie to brige the gap
:isbon will ensure that =& receive raft legislation, ensure that subsiiarity is
respecte, will ensure =&s have a greater role in the implementation freeom,
security an 7ustice policies, an that they are notifie of application for %#
1ib n noti lit lift
/hat typeof party system>
" In terms of national political systems we can ifferentiate between two party systems such
as those in 5alta an the #' while most %uropean countries are examples of multi"party
"5ulti"party systems can be ifferentiate into9
"5oerate systems
"&olarise multi"party systems
*olitical participation:
2hile parties lin& us to +overnment directly" interest +roups utili>e both direct and
indirect means to +et their messa+e across
2hile fe# people #ill @oin a party" the vast ma@ority of us #ill be part of an 6/ at some
sta+e or other of our lives
6/s are about influencin+ decision ma&ers but not becomin+ decision ma&ers
=ometimes referred to as *ressure +roups
There is one significant difference between a political party and an interest group; a political
party is there to be elected and become government, an interest group is there to effect
government and is not interested in becoming it.
Only one wants to be elected and the other wants to influence. This changes everything ex the
greens were just an interest group but now became political party. An interest group is not
there to be popular, doesnt have to move from its position, only wants its point to arrive
what matters that govern listens to it unli!e political parties which matters that they are
Cate+orisin+ 6nterest /roups
9 /roups can be defined in terms of:
9 The interests they represent
9 2hether they are permanent or temporary
9 *rotective and promotional +roups
9 2hether they are insider or outsider +roups
"ermanent li!e #$% which will be there forever, temporary li!e those on &aceboo! i.e.
single issue ex sign to stop canteen food etc.
"rotective groups protect their members; promotional ones promote something not exclusive
to their members. '.e. #$% is a protective one as it protects only its students ex wont defend
$T electronics wor!ers. "romotional li!e (reenpeace ex not exclusively their members but
something generic.
'nsiders) groups operating in partnerships with the government to help it to run it
*or!ing alongside the government and have privileges therefore. +o government business
such as groups that control mani!ata.
6nterest /roup !ctivity
6/ activity can be impacted by various factors but a &ey determinant is the type of interest
representation system found in each country
*luralist systems #ill allo# a free mar&et in interest representation" often +ivin+
advanta+e to business interests
Corporatist systems +ive special places to certain +roups around the decision ma&in+ the
table but +roups not included #ill often be disadvanta+ed
9Ether factors involved include:
9the density and spread of the or+anisation involved
9the rules +overnin+ 6/ behaviour
9political culture
9the socio9economic interests of the +roups concerned '/overnments need to be re9
elected so any +roup #hich can influence the outcome of elections or the functionin+
or the economy are &ey)
96nterest +roups can try and achieve their a+enda in several #ays" includin+:
9 direct contact #ith politicians and civil servants 'in corporatist systems this is
facilitated by direct meetin+s bet#een those directly involved in decision ma&in+ and the
political elite)
6n non9corporatist systems /overnment maintain stron+ lin&s #ith &ey E/ #hile also
often consultin+ #ith them for feedbac& and information in the draftin+ of proposals
2idespread consultation helps prevent problems form surfacin+ durin+ the
implementation sta+e
6/ #ill also use indirect means to influence the /overnment" either by tryin+ to raise
a#areness or even public support throu+h media campai+ns
6nterest +roups also directly support political parties #ith the aim that once they form part of
/overnment they #ill be pre9disposed to listen to that party
9Ultimately" to be successful a +roup must try and:
9.ecruit all those directly impacted by a proposal so as to represent the full spread
9$rin+ si+nificant economic resources into the campai+n
9*rovide that state #ith somethin+ #hich it" itself" is not prepared to provide
'information" +alvani>in+ support for a proposal)
9seriously put at ris& +overnment popularity
PPPP+ib nota mand ni&ol
6nterest /roups at a European 1evel
1obbyin+ of the EU institutions be+an primarily in the 1;7;s
The =in+le European !ct '1;(8) meant that the EC #ould be involved in more areas
of 3domestic policy #ith the result that lobbyin+ increased
Enlar+ement merely increases the players involved and the comple%ity of EU
!ll EU institutions are &ey tar+ets for lobbyists but the importance of any one tar+et depends
on the country concerned and the policy are bein+ lobbied there is no sin+le method #hich
applies to everyone
*olitical Communication F
Bust as politics is about bar+ainin+" politics is about educatin+ and informin+
individuals about collective action and become reconciled to the national policy
*olitical communication is a t#o9#ay street #ith /overnment passin+ information
do#n and listenin+ 'hopefully) to the feedbac& passed up#ards
The media play the principal role
0ass 0edia
The mass media have played a pivotal role in the politics of democracies in the
t#entieth century
That role is believed to have been challen+ed by three phenomena
!nde& nota nie7sa
The union as a force of chan+e in domestic politics" Europeani>ation
0ur #ebsite vleumedumt u do#nload notes of europeanisation
European studies and Europeani>ation
:or much of its history" European =tudies focused primarily on the forces #hich
caused inte+ration and the structures created in $russels
6ncreased focus on analysin+ the conse7uences of inte+ration at a domestic level:
Europeani>ation: 3domestic chan+ed caused by inte+ration
Europeani>ation or EU9i>ation4
6n the 1;;0s the prevailin+ idea #as that because the EU #as standard" the result
#ould be standard" leadin+ to each member state eventually transformin+ into e%actly
the same type of political system: #e #ould all come to be identical
Europeani>ation is distinct form inte+ration: inte+ration is a process #ith an aim"
Europeani>ation is #hat happens as a conse7uence of that process
Europeani>ation: three principal 7uestions
To understand Europeani>ation #e must understand:
2hat stimulates chan+e4
2hat chan+es4
2hy is chan+e differentiated4
2hy chan+e happens4
The principal stimulus for chan+e is the EUs policy output and the de+ree of fit
bet#een #hat the EU #ants and the domestic set9up
*olicy fit and institutional fit
The application of fit to positive inte+ration
The EUs stimulus for chan+e
$ulemer and .adaelli ,nill and 1ehm&uhl
5e+otioation 'bottom up)
9positive inte+ration 1positive inte+ration
9ne+ative inte+ration 2ne+ative inte+ration
:acilitated coordination 3framin+ inte+ration
Aomains of Europeani>ation
*olitics '*olitical and normative structures)
6nstitutions" *ublic !dministration" 6nter+overnmental relations" le+al
*olicies 'Type and scope of policies)
*olity '*olitical parties and 6nterest /roups)
=ocietal9cleava+e structures
The 0ediatin+ :actors #hich inform ho# countries chan+e
Narious factors impact ho# countries chan+e and each country #ill ahve a different
combination of these factors at play:
9:actors include institutional traditions" e%ecutive leadership" the
administrative reform capacity of the institution" timin+" le+itimisin+ policy
discourse" norm entrepreneurs and cooperative informal institutions
,ey determinants include veto players and facilitatin+ formal institutions
degree of misfit
limite misfit absorption
larger egree of
misfit accomoation
substantial misfit transformation
Europeani>ation in 0alta
Chan+es to core +overnment structures" both hori>ontal and vertical
Chan+es to policy
9*olicy types
9*olicy mechanisms
Chan+es #ithin the #ider polity" especially interest +roup activity and values
The *residency as a force for concentrated chan+e