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Aircraft Design Project

AIRCRAFT DESIGN
PROJECT
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Aircraft Design Project
Chapter 1
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Aircraft Design Project
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
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1.1 Defining a new design
1.2 Design process
1.3 Concep!a" design
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A beautiful aircraft is the expression of the genius of a great engineer who is also a
great artist.
Neville Shute,
British Aeronautial En!ineer an" Novelist,
Fro#, No Highway, 1$%&'
(hen )ou loo* at airra+t, it is eas) to o,serve that the) have a nu#,er o+
o##on +eatures- .in!s, a tail .ith vertial an" hori/ontal .in! setions, en!ines to
propel the# throu!h the air, an" a +usela!e to arr) passen!ers or ar!o' I+, ho.ever, )ou
ta*e a #ore ritial loo* ,e)on" the !ross +eatures, )ou also an see su,tle, an"
so#eti#es not so su,tle, "i++erenes' (hat are the reasons +or these "i++erenes0 (hat
.as on the #in"1S2 o+ the "esi!ners that ause" the# to on+i!ure the airra+t in this
.a)0
Airplane "esi!n is ,oth an art an" a siene' In that respet it is "i++iult to
learn ,) rea"in! a ,oo*3 rather, it #ust ,e e4periene" an" pratie"' 5o.ever, .e an
o++er the +ollo.in! "e+inition an" then atte#pt to e4plain it' Airplane "esi!n is the
intelletual en!ineerin! proess o+ reatin! on paper 1or on a o#puter sreen2 a +l)in!
#ahine to 112 #eet ertain spei+iations an" re6uire#ents esta,lishe" ,) potential users
1or as pereive" ,) the #anu+aturer2 an"7or 182 pioneer innovative, ne. i"eas an"
tehnolo!)' An e4a#ple o+ the +or#er is the "esi!n o+ #ost o##erial transports,
startin! at least .ith the Dou!las DC91 in 1$:8, .hih .as "esi!ne" to #eet or e4ee"
various spei+iations ,) an airplane o#pan)' 1The airline .as T(A, na#e"
Transontinental an" (estern Air at that ti#e'2 An e4a#ple o+ the latter is the "esi!n o+
the ro*et9po.ere" Bell ;91, the +irst airplane to e4ee" the spee" o+ soun" in level or
li#,in! +li!ht 1Oto,er 1%, 1$%&2' The "esi!n proess is in"ee" an intelletual ativit),
,ut a rather speial one that is te#pere" ,) !oo" intuition "evelope" via e4periene, ,)
attention pai" to suess+ul airplane "esi!ns that have ,een use" in the past, an" ,)
1!enerall) proprietar)2 "esi!n proe"ures an" "ata,ases 1han",oo*s, et',2 that are a part
o+ ever) airplane #anu+aturer'
1.1 Defining a new design
The "esi!n o+ an airra+t "ra.s on a nu#,er o+ ,asi areas o+ aerospae en!ineerin!'
As sho.n in the illustration, these inlu"e aero")na#is, propulsion, li!ht9.ei!ht
strutures an" ontrol'
Eah o+ these areas involves para#eters that !overn the si/e, shape,
.ei!ht an" per+or#ane o+ an airra+t' Althou!h .e !enerall) tr) to see* opti#u# in
all these aspets, .ith an airra+t, this is pratiall) i#possi,le to ahieve' The reason
is that in #an) ases, opti#i/in! one harateristi "e!ra"es another'

Aircraft Design Project


Aero")na#is Propulsion
<i!ht9(ei!ht Control
Strutures
In #ost ases, the "esi!n o,=etives are not as +ouse"' >ore o+ten, the
nature o+ an airra+t "esi!n is o#pro#ise' That is, the !oal is to ,alane the
"i++erent aspets o+ the total per+or#ane .hile tr)in! to opti#i/e a +e. 1or one2
,ase" on .ell9"e+ine" #ission re6uire#ents'
There are #an) per+or#ane aspets that an ,e spei+ie" ,) the #ission
re6uire#ents' These inlu"e-
The airra+t purpose or #ission pro+ile3
The t)pe1s2 an" a#ount o+ pa)loa"3
The ruise an" #a4i#u# spee"s3
The nor#al ruise altitu"e3
The ran!e or ra"ius .ith nor#al pa)loa"3
The en"urane3
The ta*e9o++ "istane at the #a4i#u# .ei!ht3
The lan"in! "istane .ith ?@ perent o+ the #a4i#u# +uel .ei!ht3
The purhase ost3
An" other re6uire#ents onsi"ere" i#portant3
1.1.1 Aircraf P!rpose
The startin! point o+ an) ne. airra+t is to learl) i"enti+) its purpose' (ith this,
it is o+ten possi,le to plae a "esi!n into a !eneral ate!or)' Suh ate!ories
inlu"e o#,at airra+t, passen!er or ar!o transports, an" !eneral aviation
airra+t' These #a) also ,e +urther re+ine" into su,ate!ories ,ase" on partiular
"esi!n o,=etives suh as ran!e 1short or lon!2, ta*e9o++ or lan"in! "istanes,
#a4i#u# spee", et' The proess o+ ate!ori/in! is use+ul in i"enti+)in! an)
e4istin! airra+t that #i!ht ,e use" in #a*in! o#parisons to a propose" "esi!n'
(ith #o"ern #ilitar) airra+t, the purpose +or a ne. airra+t !enerall)
o#es +ro# a #ilitar) pro!ra# o++ie' For e4a#ple, the #ission spei+iations +or
the ;98$ piture" in +i!ure 1'1 a#e +ro# a 1$&& re6uest +or proposals +ro# the
A'S' Air Fore Fli!ht D)na#is <a,orator) in .hih the) .ere see*in! a researh
airra+t that .oul" e4plore the +or.ar" s.ept .in! onept an" vali"ate stu"ies
that in"iate" suh a "esi!n oul" provi"e ,etter ontrol an" li+t 6ualities in
e4tre#e #aneuvers'
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Aircraft Design Project
(ith #o"ern o##erial airra+t, a proposal +or a ne. "esi!n usuall)
o#es as the response to internal stu"ies that ai# to pro=et +uture #ar*et nee"s'
For e4a#ple, the spei+iations +or the #ost reent Boein! o##erial airra+t
1B9&&&2 .ere ,ase" on the interest o+ o##erial airlines to have a t.in9en!ine
airra+t .ith a pa)loa" an" ran!e in ,et.een those o+ the e4istin! B9&B& an" B9
&%& airra+t'
Sine it is not usuall) possi,le to opti#i/e all o+ the per+or#ane aspets in an
airra+t, "e+inin! the purpose lea"s the .a) in settin! .hih o+ these aspets .ill
,e the C"esi!n "rivers'D For e4a#ple, .ith the B9&&&, t.o o+ the pro#inent "esi!n
"rivers .ere ran!e an" pa)loa"'
1.1.2 Pa#"oad
The pa)loa" is .hat is arrie" on ,oar" an" "elivere" as part o+ the airra+tEs
#ission' Stan"ar" pa)loa"s are passen!ers, ar!o or or"nane' The +irst t.o are
onsi"ere" non9e4pen"a,le pa)loa" ,eause the) are e4pete" to ,e transporte"
+or the o#plete "uration o+ the +li!ht plan' >ilitar) or"nane is e4pen"a,le
pa)loa" sine at so#e point in the +li!ht plan it per#anentl) leaves the airra+t'
This inlu"es ,o#,s, ro*ets, #issiles an" a##unition +or on9,oar" !uns'
For personal or s#all !eneral aviation airra+t, the pa)loa" inlu"es the
pilot as .ell as passen!ers an" ,a!!a!e' For ,usiness, o##uter an" o##erial
airra+t, the pa)loa" "oes not inlu"e the +li!ht or a,in re., onl) the passen!ers,
,a!!a!e an" ar!o'
1.1.3 Cr!ise and $a%i&!& 'peeds
The #ission o+ an airra+t usuall) "itates its spee" ran!e' Propeller9"riven
airra+t are usuall) "esi!ne" to ruise at spee"s ,et.een 1?@ to :@@ *nots' Jet
po.ere" airra+t have hi!her ruise spee"s that are nor#all) spei+ie" in ter#s o+
>ah nu#,er' The t)pial ruise >ah nu#,er +or ,usiness an" o##erial =et
airra+t is +ro# @'F to @'F?' This ran!e o+ ruise spee"s is lose to opti#u# +or
#a4i#i/in! the o#,ination o+ pa)loa" .ei!ht, ran!e an" spee"' The +e.
supersoni o##erial airra+t "esi!ns 112 have supersoni ruise spee" as their
priniple "esi!n "river an" 182 sari+ie ran!e an" pa)loa"' The ruise >ah
nu#,er o+ the Conor"e is 8'@8' It .ill arr) 1@@ passen!ers .ith a ran!e o+ :&%@
#iles, .hih is onsi"era,l) less than the airra+t o+ nor#al lass, .hih have
hi!h su,soni ruise spee"s'
"
#igure 1.1 $%2&
Aircraft Design Project
>o"ern #ilitar) =et o#,at an" atta* airra+t usuall) have a +li!ht plan
that involves e++iient ruise at hi!h su,soni >ah nu#,ers' This is usuall) in
the ran!e +ro# >ah @'F? to @'$@' The #a4i#u# spee" is usuall) spei+ie" in the
onte4t o+ an interept portion o+ the +li!ht plan' This has a >ah nu#,er that is
t)piall) in the ran!e o+ 8'@'
1.1.( Nor&a" Cr!ise A"i!de
The ruise altitu"e is !enerall) "itate" ,) the ruise spee", propulsion s)ste#
an" a,in pressuri/ation' An airra+t .ith an un9pressuri/e" a,in .oul" ruise no
hi!her than 1@,@@@ +eet' (ith propeller9"riven airra+t, tur,o9har!e" piston
en!ines an #aintain a onstant horsepo.er up to an altitu"e o+ appro4i#atel)
8@,@@@ +eet' 5i!her altitu"es are possi,le .ith tur,oprop airra+t, suh as the
Piper Che)enne, .hih have a #a4i#u# eilin! +ro# :?,@@@ to %1,@@@ +eet' The
"erease in air "ensit) .ith hi!her altitu"e lo.ers the "ra!, so that +or these
airra+t, the ruise ran!e inreases .ith altitu"e'
At hi!her su,soni >ah nu#,ers, the tur,o9=et en!ine !ives the hi!her
e++iien)' For su,soni tur,o9=et airra+t, there is an opti#u# altitu"e .here the
+uel onsu#ption is a #ini#u#' This ours at appro4i#atel) :B,@@@ +eet'
There+ore, it is the ,est altitu"e +or the #ost e++iient, lon! ran!e ruise o+ tur,o9
=et9po.ere" airra+t'
1.1.) Range
The ran!e is the +urthest "istane the airra+t an +l) .ithout re+uelin!' In a +li!ht
plan, ran!e re+ers to the "istane travele" "urin! the ruise phase'The hoie o+
the ran!e is one o+ the #ost i#portant "eisions ,eause it has a lar!e
1e4ponential2 e++et on the airra+t ta*e9o++ .ei!ht' An airra+t that is inten"e" to
+l) aross the Anite" States 1Ne. Gor* to Seattle2 shoul" have a #ini#u# ran!e
o+ 8?@@ nautial #iles' A ran!e o+ :?@@ nautial #iles .oul" ,e neessar) +or
transatlanti +li!hts +ro# East oast A'S' ities to oastal ities in (estern Europe'
Shorter ran!e transports that are "esi!ne" to +l) ,et.een #a=or ities in a re!ional
area 1e'!', <os An!eles to San Franiso2 shoul" have a #ini#u# ran!e o+ ?@@
nautial #iles' T.ie that ran!e .oul" allo. an airra+t to +l) non9stop ,et.een
#ost o+ the #a=or ities alon! either oast o+ the Anite" States'
1.1.* End!rance
En"urane is the a#ount o+ ti#e an airra+t an +l) .ithout re+uelin!' (ith a
reonnaissane airra+t, en"urane is one o+ the #ain "esi!n "rivers' For a
o##erial airra+t, a +li!ht plan .ill inlu"e an en"urane phase to allo. +or
ti#e that ni!ht is spent in a hol"in! pattern prior to lan"in!' For operation .ithin
the ontinental Anite" States o##erial airra+t are re6uire" to ,e a,le to hol"
+or %? #inutes at nor#al ruise +uel onsu#ption' For international operation, the
re6uire" hol" ti#e is :@ #inutes'
1.1.+ Ta,e-off Disance
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Aircraft Design Project
The total ta*e9o++ "istane o+ the len!th o+ a run.a) nee"e" to aelerate, li+t o++,
an" li#, to presri,e o,stale hei!ht' The o,stale hei!ht is ?@ +eet +or #ilitar)
an" s#all ivil airra+t, an" :? +eet +or o##erial airra+t' The ta*e9o++ "istane
that is re6uire" to ao#plish this "epen"s on "i++erent +ators in the "esi!n suh
as the thrust to .ei!ht ratio, the #a4i#u# li+t to .ei!ht ratio an" the sur+ae o+
the air +iel" that a++ets the rollin! +rition o+ the lan"in!9!ear .heels'
(able 1.1 (ypical ranges for )ifferent types of aircraft.
Aircraf T#pe Range -na!ica" &i"es.
Personal7Atilit) ?@@91@@@
Re!ional Tur,oprop F@@918@@
Business Jets 1?@@91F@@
S#aller Jet Transports 8?@@9:?@@
<ar!er Jet Transports B?@@9&8@@
Di++erent "esi!ns an +all into stan"ar" ate!ories +or ta*e9o++ an" lan"in!'
A onventional ta*e9o++ an" lan"in! 1CTO<2 airra+t has "istane that is !reater
than 1@@@ +eet' A short ta*e9o++ an" lan"in! 1STO<2 airra+t, suh as the GC91? in
+i!ure 1'8 an ta*e o++ an" lan" in un"er 1@@@ +eet' Both o+ these .oul" have a
!roun" roll portion "urin! ta*e9o++ an" lan"in!' A vertial ta*e9o++ an" lan"in!
1HTO<2 airra+t "oes not re6uire a !roun" roll'
Personal an" !eneral aviation propeller9"riven airra+t, .hih are inten"e"
to operate out o+ s#aller airports, nee" ta*e9o++ "istanes o+ 18@@ to 8@@@ +eet'
<ar!er t.in en!ine propeller o##uter airra+t, .hih operate out o+ #e"iu# to
lar!er si/e airports, have ta*e9o++ "istanes +ro# :@@@ to ?@@@ +eet' Business an"
s#aller o##erial =ets have ta*e9o++ "istanes o+ ?@@@ to &?@@ +eet' <ar!er
o##erial =et transport airra+t re6uire ta*e@o++ "istanes +ro# F@@@ to 11@@@
+eet' The ta*e9o++ "istane is a +untion o+ the altitu"e o+ the airport, althou!h the
"istane at sea level is usuall) spei+ie"' Ta,le 1'8 lists the altitu"e an" run.a)
len!ths o+ so#e o+ the #a=or airports in A#eria'
1.1./ 0anding Disance
The lan"in! "istane onsists o+ the len!th o+ the run.a) nee"e" to "esen" +ro#
a spei+ie" hei!ht o+ ?@ +eet, touh"o.n an" ,rea* to a stop' Fators that a++et
the lan"in! "istane are the #a4i#u# li+t to .ei!ht an" the sur+ae o+ the air
+iel", .hih a++ets the lan"in!9!ear .heelsE ,ra*in! +rition oe++iient' The li+t
*
#igure 1.2 +,%1"
Aircraft Design Project
to .ei!ht ratio "iretl) a++ets the slo.est 1stall2 spee" at .hih the airra+t an
+l)' The lan"in! touh"o.n spee" is ta*en to ,e a s#all perenta!e hi!her than
the stall spee"'
(able 1.2 Altitu)e an) runway length of -ajor airports in A-erica
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Ci# Airpor E"e1aion -f. R!nwa# -f.
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Atlanta 5arts+iel" 1@8B 11FF$
Boston <o!an 8@ 1@@F1
Chia!o OE5are BB& 11B@@
Denver Denver ?%:1 18@@@
<os An!eles <os An!eles 18B 18@$1
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For o##erial airra+t, in a .orst ase senario, the lan"in! "istane is
"eter#ine" .ith hal+ o+ the +uel .ei!ht at ta*e9o++ re#ainin! an" .ith an
a""itional t.o9thir"s "istane to aount +or pilot varia,ilit)' Even .ith these
#easures, the lan"in! "istanes are al#ost al.a)s less than the ta*e9o++ "istanes'
There+ore, .ith re!ar"s to airports .ith availa,le run.a) "istanes, the li#itin!
on"itions .ill !enerall) ,e set ,) ta*e9o++'
1.1.2 P!rc3ase Cos
The purhase ost o+ an airra+t involves the ost inurre" in the researh,
"evelop#ent, test an" evaluation 1RDTIE2 phase o+ the ne. airra+t "esi!n, an"
the a6uisition 1A2 or pro"ution ost o+ usto#er9or"ere" airra+t' The ost o+
researh an" "evelop#ent is a#orti/e" over an initial +i4e" nu#,er o+ pro"ution
airra+t' There+ore, as the nu#,er o+ pro"ution airra+t use" to "istri,ute this ost
inreases, the purhase ost per airra+t "ereases' The "eision on the total
nu#,er o+ airra+t to ,e pro"ue" is there+ore an i#portant +ator in esta,lishin!
the purhase prie' In so#e ases, this prie an" usto#er o#petition #a) ,e the
+inal ar,iters that "eter#ine i+ a "esi!n is to ,e ,uilt'
The ost esti#ates are ,ase" on Cost esti#atin! relationshipsD or CERs'
These are si#ple #o"el e6uations that orrelate a +e. i#portant harateristis o+
a lar!er !roup o+ airra+t .ith their ost' The pri#ar) harateristis on .hih
these are ,ase" are the .ei!ht o+ the struture o+ the airra+t, .hih is a +i4e"
perenta!e o+ the ta*e9o++ .ei!ht, the #a4i#u# spee" at ,est attitu"e, an" the
pro"ution rate' Fro# these, .e e4pet that lar!er, heavier airra+t .ill ost #ore
than s#aller, li!hter airra+t' Si#ilarl), airra+t .ith hi!her ruise spee"s are
e4pete" to ost #ore than slo.er airra+t'
1.1.14 5edera" A1iaion Reg!"aions
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Aircraft Design Project
An) airra+t "esi!n #ust onsi"er stan"ar"s an" re!ulations that are set ,)
!overn#ent assoiations' Civil airra+t "esi!ne", ,uilt an" operate" in the Anite"
States #ust satis+) the provisions o+ the Fe"eral Aviation Re!ulations 1FARs2'
The FARs is ontinuall) ,ein! up"ate" to inorporate a""itional re6uire#ents that
o#e a,out "ue to inrease" ti#e an" e4periene .ith e4istin! airra+t' Eletroni
listin!s o+ the FARs an ,e o,taine" throu!h a (orl" (i"e (e, lin* to the Fli!ht
Stan"ar"s Servie o+ the A'S' Fe"eral Aviation Assoiation 1FAA2' The e4at lin*
an ,e +oun" throu!h a searh un"er the *e).or" FAA'
Setions o+ the FARs that are o+ partiular interest to "esi!ners are Air
(orthiness Stan"ar"s, General Operatin! an" Fli!ht Rules an" Operations' Air
(orthiness Stan"ar"s Part 8: an" 8? in partiular "e+ine "i++erent ate!ories o+
airra+t 1+or e4a#ple, transport or o##uter2 ,ase" on suh harateristis as
nu#,er o+ passen!ers an" #a4i#u# ta*e o++ .ei!ht'
These ate!ories are i#portant in #a*in! o#parisons to other airra+t
.ith re!ar" to +li!ht per+or#ane, or other "esi!n "rivers'
1.2 Design Process
The proess o+ "esi!nin! an airra+t an" ta*in! it to the point o+ a +li!ht test artile
onsists o+ a se6uene o+ steps, as illustrate" in +i!ure 1':' It starts ,) i"enti+)in! a
nee" or apa,ilit) +or a ne. airra+t that is ,rou!ht a,out ,) 112 a pereive"
#ar*et potential an" 182 tehnolo!ial a"vanes #a"e throu!h researh an"
"evelop#ent' The +or#er .ill inlu"e a #ar*et9share +oreast, .hih atte#pts to
e4a#ine +ators that #i!ht i#pat +uture sales o+ a ne. "esi!n' These +ators
inlu"e the nee" +or a ne. "esi!n o+ a spei+i si/e an" per+or#ane, the nu#,er
o+ o#petin! "esi!ns, an" the o##onalit) o+ +eatures .ith e4istin! airra+t' As a
rule, a ne. "esi!n .ith o#petitive per+or#ane an" ost .ill have an e6ual
share o+ ne. sales .ith e4istin! o#petitors'
The nee"s an" apa,ilities o+ a ne. airra+t that are "eter#ine" in a
#ar*et surve) !o to "e+ine the #ission re6uire#ents +or a oneptual airra+t'
These are o#pile" in the +or# o+ a "esi!n proposal that inlu"es 112 the
#otivation +or initiatin! a ne. "esi!n an" 182 the Ctehnolo!) rea"inessD o+ ne.
tehnolo!) +or inorporation into a ne. "esi!n' It is essential that the #ission
re6uire#ents ,e "e+ine" ,e+ore the "esi!n an ,e starte"' Base" on these, the #ost
i#portant per+or#ane aspets or C"esi!n "riversD an ,e i"enti+ie" an"
opti#i/e" a,ove all others'
Follo.in! the "esi!n proposal, the ne4t step is to pro"ue a oneptual
"esi!n' The oneptual "esi!n "evelops the +irst !eneral si/e an" on+i!uration +or
a ne. airra+t' It involves the esti#ates o+ the .ei!hts an" the hoie o+
aero")na#i harateristis that .ill ,e ,est suite" to the #ission re6uire#ents
state" in the "esi!n proposal'
The "esi!n .ill #a*e esti#ates o+ the total "ra! an" si/e the po.er plant'
It .ill "eter#ine the ,est air+ra#e to ao##o"ate the 112 pa)loa" an" 182 .in!
an" en!ine plae#ent' This oneptual "esi!n .ill loate priniple .ei!ht !roups
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Aircraft Design Project
in or"er to satis+) stati sta,ilit) re6uire#ents' It .ill si/e ontrol sur+aes to
ahieve a "esire" "e!ree o+ #aneuvera,ilit)' Finall) the oneptual "esi!n .ill
esti#ate the RDTIE an" a6uisition osts to "evelop one or #ore test artiles'
Researh, Develop#ent an" >ar*et Anal)sis
>ission Re6uire#ents
Coneptual Desi!n
Re6uire#ents
No satis+ie" 0
Ges
Preli#inar) Desi!n
Stop
Final Evaluation

Go
Detaile" Desi!n
Test Artile Fa,riation
Fli!ht Test
#igure 1. Design Process flow chart
1/
Aircraft Design Project
The oneptual "esi!n is "riven ,) the #ission re6uire#ents, .hih are
set in the "esi!n proposal' In so#e ases, these #a) not ,e attaina,le so that the
re6uire#ent #a) nee" to ,e rela4e" in one or #ore areas' This is sho.n in the
iterative loop in the +lo. hart' (hen the #ission re6uire#ents are satis+ie", the
"esi!n #oves to the ne4t phase, .hih is the preli#inar) "esi!n'
DE'I6N PROPO'A0
0ON6 RAN6E-HI6H 'PEED 'U7'ONIC 7U'INE'' 8ET
(e propose to "esi!n a lon! ran!e hi!h spee" su,soni ,usiness
=et' It is inten"e" to have a ruise >ah nu#,er o+ @'F? an" a ruise altitu"e o+
1:@@@ #' Its ran!e .ill ,e 1@@@@ *# .ith a +ull pa)loa" +ollo.e" ,) 1 hour loiter
an" reserves e6ual to 8? J o+ re6uire" #ission +uel' Also it shoul" +l) :@@ *# to
alternate "esent' Its none4pen"a,le pa)loa" .oul" onsist o+ passen!ers an"
,a!!a!e, .ith a #a4i#u# total .ei!ht o+ $?@ *!' Depen"in! on the internal
la)out, this .ill o#+orta,l) ao##o"ate +ro# %9B passen!ers 1e4lu"in! re.
#e#,ers2' The #a4i#u# ta*e o++ .ei!ht is esti#ate" :?@@@ *!' Other +eatures o+
the "esi!n inlu"e a s.ept ,a* .in! on+i!uration .ith .in!lets, split t)pe +laps
.ith hi!hl) e++iient aero")na#i .in! an" ,o") an" a ver) li!ht .ei!ht
struture' The #ost ritial tehnolo!) rea"iness issue is the propulsion s)ste#
an" the ,o") "esi!n' It shoul" have a <7D ratio o+ a,ove 1B to #eet the lon! ran!e
an" the en!ine shoul" have the spei+i +uel onsu#ption o+ @'% or ,elo.' An
e4istin! en!ine that has ,een selete" as a re+erene en!ine +or the "esi!n is the
GE9CF9:% series en!ines' Base" on the "ra! esti#ate at ruise on"itions, the
airra+t .oul" re6uire t.o o+ these en!ines'
This airra+t .oul" ,e one a#on! the lon! ran!e series .hih has
,een #anu+ature" ,) Bo#,ar"ier, Dassault, Boein!, Gul+ Strea#, Cessna et'
5ene it has so #an) o#petitors' But still "ue to its uni6ue +uel onsu#ption
an" li!ht .ei!ht struture it has to attrat the usto#er an" "evelop a !oo"
#ar*et' Fi!ure 1'% sho.s an artistEs ren"ition o+ the propose" "esi!n' The
harateristis o+ this =et are liste" in the ta,le that +ollo.s' Sine there are so
#an) e6uivalent airra+ts are there, o#parisons an ,e #a"e to opti#i/e the
values an" also +or initial "ata a6uisition' It is evi"ent that all o+ the airra+ts that
has ,een selete" +or the literature surve) are urrentl) in servie'
The pri#ar) "esi!n "rivers are li!ht .ei!ht, hi!h <7D an" less +uel
onsu#ption' The seon"ar) "esi!n onsi"erations inlu"e #o"erate ta*e9o++ an"
lan"in! "istanes .hih are o#para,le to e4istin! hi!h spee" su,soni ,usiness
=ets' An i#portant note is that #ost o+ the ontrol s)ste#s shoul" ,e o+ ,asi t)pe
1li*e split +lap et'2 in or"er to #a*e the airra+t availa,le at a heap rate ,ut at a
relia,le on"ition'
11
Aircraft Design Project
#igure 1.! ,onceptual Design
The preli#inar) "esi!n is a +ine tunin! o+ the oneptual "esi!n #a"e
throu!h para#etri .in" tunnel tests o+ sale airra+t #o"els o+ the "esi!n' So#e
o+ the #ore "i++iult aspets to pre"it are teste" in this phase' This inlu"es the
112 en!ine inlet interation .ith the +usela!e an" .in! an" 182 .in! interation on
ontrol sur+aes'
The preli#inar) "esi!n also involves a #ore "etaile" anal)sis o+ the
aero")na#i loa"s an" o#ponent .ei!hts' Base" on this, the strutural "esi!n is
+urther re+ine"' Aero elasti #otion, +ati!ue an" +lutter are onsi"ere" at this
sta!e' A""itional on+ir#ation o+ esti#ates #a) re6uire ,uil"in! an" testin! so#e
o+ the propose" strutural o#ponents' At the o#pletion o+ this sta!e, the
#anu+aturin! o+ the airra+t is !iven serious onsi"eration an" the ost esti#ates
are +urther re+ine"' At the en" o+ this step, the "eision is #a"e .hether to ,uil"
the airra+t' (ith the "eision to ,uil" the airra+t, the "esi!n is C+ro/en'D
The "etaile" "esi!n involves !eneratin! the "etaile" strutural "esi!n o+
the airra+t' This involves ever) "etail nee"e" to ,uil" the airra+t' So#eti#es
o#ponent #o*9ups are ,uilt to ai" in the interior la)out' 5o.ever, the present
use o+ o#puter ai"e" "esi!n 1CAD2 so+t.are an su,stantiall) #ini#i/e the
nee" +or #o*9ups ,) provi"in! realisti :9D vie.s'
1.3 Concep!a" Design
This artile "eals .ith the steps involve" in the oneptual "esi!n o+ an
airra+t' It is ,ro*en "o.n in to several ele#ents, .hih are +ollo.e" in or"er'
These onsist o+,
1' <iterature surve)
8' Preli#inar) "ata a6uisition
:' Esti#ation o+ airra+t .ei!ht
a' >a4i#u# ta*e9o++ .ei!ht
,' E#pt) .ei!ht o+ the airra+t
' (ei!ht o+ the +uel
"' Fuel tan* apait)
%' Esti#ation o+ ritial per+or#ane para#eters
a' (in! area
,' <i+t an" "ra! oe++iients
' (in! loa"in!
"' Po.er loa"in!
e' Thrust to .ei!ht ratio
?' En!ine seletion
B' Per+or#ane urves
&' H9n "ia!ra#
F' :9vie. "ia!ra#
12
Aircraft Design Project
The "evelop#ent o+ these ele#ents is illustrate" in the upo#in! stu"ies that
onsist o+ Klon! ran!e hi!h spee" su,soni ,usiness =et "e+ine" in the pree"in!
"esi!n proposal' The #ission re6uire#ents o+ this "esi!n are relativel) "i++iult to
ahieve3 there+ore, it is a !oo" e4a#ple in .hih o#pro#ise is nee"e"'
Chapter 8
1
Aircraft Design Project
DATA A9UI'ITION
Chapter :
1!
Aircraft Design Project
CHAPTER 3
E'TI$ATION O5 AIRCRA5T :EI6HT
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.1 Ai&
3.2 E;!ip&ens and &e3ods !sed
3.3 Proced!re
3.( 'pecificaion C3ar
3.) $ission Profi"e
3.* 6enera" O!"ine
3.+ Deai"ed Proced!re
3./ Ieraion
3.2 Conc"!sion
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.1 Ai&<
To esti#ate the !ross ta*e o++ .ei!ht, +uel .ei!ht an" e#pt) .ei!ht o+ the airra+t
in the "esi!nin! proess throu!h various throu!h nu#erial steps'
3.2 E;!ip&ens and &e3ods !sed<
1' Fuel +ration #etho"
8' Ta,les an" harts +ro# Re+-9 ,oo*s
:' Surve) "etails
%' Results o+ E49@1
3.3 Proced!re<
1' Desri,e the #ission spei+iation ela,oratel) in a sheet'
8' Dra. the #ission pro+ile part learl)'
:' (ith the help o+ the a,ove t.o harts .or* out the rest throu!h the +uel +ration
#etho" to ahieve the o,=etive'
3.) $ission Profi"e<

?
B
% &
1"
Aircraft Design Project
1 8 : F $
Descripion<
Phase 1 - En!ine start an" .ar#9up
Phase 8 - Ta4iin!
Phase : - Ta*e9o++
Phase % - Cli#, to ruise altitu"e an" aelerate to ruise spee"
Phase ? - Cruise
Phase B - <oiter
Phase & - Fl)in! to alternate +iel"
Phase F - Desent
Phase $ - <an"in!, ta4iin! I shut9"o.n
1'
Aircraft Design Project
Chapter %
1*
Aircraft Design Project
CHAPTER (
E'TI$ATION O5 CRITICA0 PER5OR$ANCE PARA$ETER'
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(.1 Ai&
(.2 E;!ip&ens and &e3ods !sed
(.3 $a%i&!& 0if coefficien
(.( :ing 0oading
(.) T3r!s o weig3 raio
(.* Engine 'e"ecion
(.+ Design Daa
(./ Conc"!sion
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(.1 Ai&<
To esti#ate the Critial per+or#ane para#eters li*e,
1' 1C
<
2
>A;
8' <7D
:' (7S
%' T7(
These para#eters .ill ,e "eter#ine" ,) suh aspets as #a4i#u# spee", ran!e,
eilin!, rate o+ li#,, stallin! spee", lan"in! "istane an" ta*e9o++ "istane'
(.2 E;!ip&ens and &e3ods !sed<
1' Re!ulae L False >etho"
8' Air+oil setions re+erenes
:' Spei+iation hart
%' Jet airplane per+or#ane e6uations
?' Graphs an" ta,les +ro# re+erenes
B' Previous e4erise results
Proced!re<
(.3 $a%i&!& 0if Co-efficien< -C
0
.
$A=
This is the sta!e in the "esi!n proess .here .e #a*e an initial hoie +or the
air+oil shape +or the .in!' As +ro# the re+erenes o,taine" +ro# the literature surve) an"
throu!h .e, #ost o+ the ,usiness =ets avail NACA B "i!it air+oil setions L the la#inar
+lo. series'
NACA * DI6IT 'ERIE'
1.
Aircraft Design Project
B 9 SI;T5 SERIES
: 9 <OCATION OF >IN C
P
in 1171@2
th
OF C5ORD
8 9 IDEA< C
<
IN TENT5S
18 9 >A; T5ICMNESS IN J OF C5ORD
A+ter the si49series setions, air+oil "esi!n ,ea#e #uh #ore speiali/e" +or the
partiular appliation' Air+oils .ith !oo" transoni per+or#ane, !oo" #a4i#u# li+t
apa,ilit), ver) thi* setions, an" ver) lo. "ra! setions are no. "esi!ne" +or eah use'
O+ten a .in! "esi!n ,e!ins .ith the "e+inition o+ several air+oil setions an" then the
entire !eo#etr) is #o"i+ie" ,ase" on its :9"i#ensional harateristis'
The NACA si4 "i!it air+oils have ,een partiularl) +avore" ,) the !eneral
aviation in"ustr) in the Anite" States' Thou!h .e have intro"ue" the pri#ar) air+oil
+a#ilies "evelope" in the Anite" States ,e+ore the a"vent o+ supersoni +li!ht, .e havenNt
sai" an)thin! a,out their uses' So letNs ,rie+l) e4plore the a"vanta!es, "isa"vanta!es, an"
appliations o+ eah o+ these +a#ilies'
A)0antages1
1' 5i!h #a4i#u# li+t oe++iient
8' Her) lo. "ra! over a s#all ran!e o+ operatin! on"itions
:' Opti#i/e" +or hi!h spee"
Disa)0antages1
1' 5i!h "ra! outsi"e o+ the opti#u# ran!e o+ operatin! on"itions
8' 5i!h pithin! #o#ent
:' Poor stall ,ehavior
%' Her) susepti,le to rou!hness
Applications1
1' Piston9po.ere" +i!hters
8' Business =ets
:' Jet trainers
%' Supersoni =ets
For #an) airplanes, inlu"in! so#e !eneral aviation airra+t, one air+oil setion is
use" at the .in! root, an" another air+oil shape is use" at the .in! tip, .ith the air+oil
setions ,et.een the root an" tip ,ein! a linear interpolation ,et.een the root an" tip
setions' Sine the surve) "etails +or the air+oils o+ ,usiness =ets are #aintaine" seretl),
.e an hoose our o.n air+oil .hih .ill #eet the re6uire#ents'
(./ Conc"!sion<
Thus a+ter per+or#in! so #an) ri!orous steps o+ #athe#atial anal)sis .e
onlu"e" that our airra+t is havin! the a,ove "ata' An",
1&
Aircraft Design Project
99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999
9
1' >a4i#u# <i+t Coe++iient 1C
<
2
>A;
O 8'%:
8' >a4i#u# <i+t to Dra! ratio P<7DQ
>A;
O 1B
:' (in! <oa"in! P(7SQ O :$8'$$B *!7#
8
%' Po.er <oa"in! P(7TQ O %$B'? *!7*N
99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999
9
References<
1' Airplane "esi!n ,) Ros*a# PTa,les I hartsQ
8' Airra+t Desi!n ,) Ra)#er PTa,les I hartsQ
:' Airra+t Per+or#ane an" "esi!n ,) John' D' An"erson
%' Aero")na#is, Aeronautis an" Fli!ht >ehanis ,) > Cor#i*
?' Surve) sheets
B' Previous e4erise results
&' http-77...'h6'nasa'!ov7o++ie7pao75istor)7SP9%BF7h1%9:'ht#
F' http-77...'aerospae.e,'or!76uestion7air+oils76@@%1'sht#l
$' Theor) o+ (in! Setions ,) A,,ott I Al,ert
99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999
2/
Aircraft Design Project
21
Aircraft Design Project
Chapter ?
CHAPTER )
PER5OR$ANCE CUR>E'
-----------------------------------------------------------------
).1 Ai&
).2 6rap3 ? Ca"c!"aions
a. 6rap3
@. Ca"c!"aions
c. '!&&ar#
).3 Res!"
-----------------------------------------------------------------
).1 Ai&
To "ra. the various !raphs to esti#ate the per+or#ane para#eters o+ the
airra+t that is ,ein! "esi!ne"'
).2 6rap3 ? Ca"c!"aions
1. T3r!s >s >e"oci#
6rap3<
22
Aircraft Design Project
2. >ariaion of 0AD >s >e"oci#
6rap3<
3. T3r!s a1ai"a@"e BT
A
C >s A"i!de
6rap3<
2
Aircraft Design Project
'
6rap3<
(. Aerod#na&ic Para&eers
6rap3<
2!
Aircraft Design Project
). C"i&@ Hodograp3<
6rap3<
2"
Aircraft Design Project
Ca"c!"aions<
6rap3<
2'
Aircraft Design Project
*. A"i!de >s BRAcC
$A=
<
6rap3<
2*
Aircraft Design Project
2.
Aircraft Design Project
Chapter B
CHAPTER *
>-n DIA6RA$
---------------------------------------------------------------
*.1 Ai&
*.2 5or&!"a Used
*.3 Diagra&
*.( $ode" Ca"c!"aion
*.) Ta@"e
*.* Conc"!sion
---------------------------------------------------------------
*.1 Ai&
To "ra. the H9n "ia!ra# +or the lon! ran!e hi!h spee" su,soni ,usiness =et'
*.2 5or&!"a Used
1'
2
3
n =
O
2
4 5 ,
6A$ 3
8
2 8 7 1 1

8'
4 ,
n2
5
6A$ 3

=
8
R
*.3 Diagra&
2&
Aircraft Design Project
/
Aircraft Design Project
Chapter &
CHAPTER +
3->IE: DIA6RA$
------------------------------------------------------
+.1 Ai&
+.2 Diagra&
+.3 Conc"!sion
------------------------------------------------------
+.1 Ai&
To "ra. the :9vie. "ia!ra# o+ the airra+t .hih has ,een "esi!ne"'
+.2 Diagra&
+.3 Conc"!sion
1
Aircraft Design Project
Thus the :9vie. "ia!ra# o+ the airra+t that has ,een "esi!ne" to #eet the
propose" re6uire#ents is "ra.n'
2
Aircraft Design Project
Chapter F
CHAPTER /
DE'I6N 'U$$ARD
--------------------------------------------------------------
/.1 Ta@"e
/.2 Res!"
--------------------------------------------------------------
(able ..1 ,o-parison ,hart
'". No. CONTENT' AC9UIRED DATA 5INA0 DATA
@1'
@8'
@:'
@%'
@?'
@B'
@&'
@F'