Acknowledgements

This program was originally compiled by Kristin Gale (Speech Pathologist) and
Robyn Pallas (DSTLA – Langage) !""#$
%pdated by Amanda &alla (Speech Pathologist) !""'$
Acti(ities and strategies within this resorce ha(e been sorced )rom the
)ollowing pblications*
 Langage Games )or +lassrooms K,!
-ary .arris,+lar/e 0112
 Langage Games )or +lassrooms 3,4
-ary .arris,+lar/e 0112
 Kindergarten 5ral Langage Program
.elen Drmmond 6 -ichelle 7(erson
 +$L$A$S (+lassroom Listening and Spea/ing) – K,!
Lyn Plorde
 Langage Acti(ities – Ttor Program
R$ 8ielson9 Stherland S7S+
 De(eloping +ommnication 6 Langage S/ills
Delamain 6 Spring !"""
 .ow to :denti)y 6 Spport +hildren with Speech and Langage Di))iclties
Spea/e9 ;$ !""3
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Contents
+haracteristics o) Stdents with Langage Learning Disability <
Langage S/ills Screener K , 4 4
Attention and Listening 2
+omprehension and =ollowing Directions 04
7>pressi(e Langage and +onstrcting Sentences 3"
?ocablary and +ategorisation 31
Describing and Se@encing #!
Pragmatics 4"
+reating a ?isal +lassroom to Spport Langage 42
%se)l Resorces 2!
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Characteristics of Students with a Language Learning Disability (LLD)
&hen wor/ing with stdents with LLD9 it is important to remember that each
stdent is an indi(idal with indi(idal problems and that each stdentAs
langage and learning pro)ile is there)ore di))erent$
The )ollowing otlines common areas o) di))iclty that stdents with LLD ha(e9
these are important to consider when wor/ing with LLD stdents*
Disorganised In Time
Stdents with LLD are o)ten disorganised in time and they can ha(e di))iclty
nderstanding timetables$
Stdents with LLD*
• =re@ently trn p late to class
• Do not /now where they shold be at gi(en times
• +an totally )orget arrangements nless reminded immediately be)orehand
• 5)ten need reminding abot changes to rotines and to conslt timetables to )ind
ot in)ormation$
As well as being disorganised in sch matters as timetables9 stdents with LLD are
o)ten ine))icient with their se o) time in other respects$ They can*
• +an be slow to get started on tas/s
• Do not achie(e enogh in the time allowed
• Become e>cellent procrastinators
• Be nrealistic abot the amont o) time it ta/es to complete tas/s
• 8ot appreciate how many steps there are in a tas/ and how long each one will
ta/e$
Disorganised With ossessions
• +an o)ten ha(e ntidy loc/ers
• -ay not bring appropriate e@ipment and boo/s to class and o)ten )orget to
ta/e important in)ormation home e$g$ notes )rom teacher9 permission slips
• -ay be naware o) the boo/s and materials that they do ha(e
• -ay lose things )re@ently$
Difficulties Structuring Work
This aspect is a re)lection o) the stdentsA di))iclty to organise ideas and
thoghts$ :t can be e>acerbated by poor reading comprehension and poor writing
s/ills$
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5)ten LLD stdents*
• -ay ha(e di))iclty nderstanding what they ha(e to do nless it is care)lly
e>plained
• -ay ha(e problems with seeing tas/s throgh to completion nless gi(en help to
strctre the tas/ step by step
• +an o)ten lose trac/ o) where they are in a tas/9 complete part o) it9 and )ail to
retrn to it – o)ten re@iring encoragement to persist$
Disorganised In lace
Stdents with LLD can be (ery con)sed at school*
• They can ha(e di))iclty in locating classrooms and /nowing what to do when there
are classroom changesC
• They can become pro)icient o(er time9 bt enconter di))iclty when they need to
adapt to the ne>pected$
!he above summary "as ta#en from $. %rent& '. (ough & S. )obinson
*+ne in ,leven - Practical Strategies for !eaching Adolescents "ith a Language
Learning .isability/ Chapter !"o. Published in 2000 by AC,) Press.
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LA!"#A"$ S%ILLS SC&$$!$& % ' (
!A)$* ++++++++++++++++ DAT$* ++++++++++ CLASS* +++++++++++++++
Based on yor obser(ation o) the stdent or reports )rom their class teacher9 indicate
yesDno )or the statements below$ A large number of 12+1 responses may indicate a
language difficulty that re3uires assessment by a Speech Pathologist.
Language Area ,$S !-
L
i
s
t
e
n
i
n
g

.

/
o
l
l
o
w
i
n
g

D
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
s
%nderstands age appropriate concepts
Seems to nderstand and )ollow a con(ersation
+an nderstand a range o) @estions
%nderstands sentence types e$g$ prepositions9 present tense9 negation
+an )ollow instrctions accrately
Rarely as/s )or instrctions to be repeated
+an remember what the spea/er has said
+an recall details o) a story
+an ma/e in)erences9 draw conclsions 6 predict otcomes o) a story
+an nderstand indirect re@ests9 hmor and sarcasm
Attends to speechD spea/er
C
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
n
g

S
e
n
t
e
n
c
e
s
%ses sentences that are grammatically correct
Sentences seem long enogh )or age
%ses complete sentences with words in correct order
As/s a range o) @estions
0
o
c
a
b
u
l
a
r
y

.

C
a
t
e
g
o
r
i
s
a
t
i
o
n

%ses (ocablary appropriate )or age
%ses appropriate and speci)ic (ocablary
%ses (ocablary that relates to class topics or sbEect themes
+an nderstand word relationships
+an gi(e instrctions )or a game or directions to an e>act location
:s able to se@ence sentences in a logical order to tell a story
Lin/s ideas sing Eoining words e$g$ and9 bt9 so
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D
e
s
c
r
i
b
i
n
g

.

S
e
1
u
e
n
c
i
n
g
%ses a range o) te>ts e$g$ labelling9 reconting e>periences9 telling a
narrati(e9 obser(ing and describing

r
a
g
m
a
t
i
c
s
:nitiates con(ersation
%ses con(ersation rles
%ses eye contact appropriately
:s able to stay on topic dring a con(ersation
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What is Attention . Listening2
Attention de(elops in stages as the childAs commnication de(elops$ Babies can
pay )leeting attention to people and obEects bt are easily distracted$ This
progresses to being able to )ocs on a single acti(ity$ =ollowing this children are
able to shi)t attention between two acti(ities or two spea/ers and )inally they
de(elop mlti,)ocs or integrated attention s/ills$ A child mst be able to )ocs on
the spea/er or acti(ity e(en i) there are distractions arond them$
To access the classroom a stdent needs to listen and se an integrated le(el o)
attention (attend to more than one thing at a time) e$g$ listen to the teacher and
write$ +hildren with di))iclties attending and listening will )ind the classroom
en(ironment (ery distracting and be nable to )ocs and attend appropriately$
+hildren with attention and listening di))iclties may be ob(iosly distractible e$g$
be nable to sit still9 )idgety or distract other children$ :t is also possible that the
(ery @ite child also has di))iclties attending and listening e$g$ not interacting
with the class9 not )ollowing instrctions and being passi(e$
Characteristics of Attention . Listening Difficulties
• Poor concentration9 especially when listening
• Di))iclty carrying ot instrctions presented orally
• +ary ot only part o) an instrction9 or do the wrong thing when gi(en a
direction
• =orget in)ormation presented orally
• Rely on (isal ces
• :mplsi(e responses – doesnAt listen to all o) the in)ormation
• Becomes tired easily
• A))ected by bac/grond noise
• ?ery @ite and will copy other stdents to complete tas/s
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Strategies for the Classroom
• 7nsre yo ha(e the childAs attention
• Spea/ more slowly
• Allow e>tra time )or responding
• Rephrase @estions or directions more simply9 gi(e a cle to the answer
• %se meaning)l gestres
• .elp direct stdents throgh instrctions9 match words to actions
• Be consistent with se o) words
• Position the stdent where heDshe can see both the teacher and any other
(isal material (boo/s9 board) being sed$ This is particlarly important
dring whole class acti(ities where there are li/ely to be more distractions$
• Redce distractions in yor classroom (both aditory and (isal)$
• %se FGood ListeningG rewards in yor classroom$ This can be bro/en into*
good sitting9 good loo/ing and good thin/ing$ .a(e a points chart )or all
the stdents in yor class and reward stdents )or each component o)
listening$
• %sing timers can be a good strategy to help children )ocs )or a speci)ic
period o) time$ 7>plain to the child that they ha(e to )ocs ntil they hear
the bHHer and show them on the timer or cloc/ when time will be p$
Reward stdents )or attending and listening )or a set period o) time with
stars9 stic/ers or points$ Gradally increase the amont o) time stdents
ha(e to attend )or$
• %se (isal spports )or new concepts or instrctionsC these inclde
pictres9 real obEects9 photos9 gestres (pointing) and handots$
• Brea/ instrctions down into smaller parts$ Gi(e the child time to process
and carry ot each part o) the instrction$
• Gi(e instrctions in the order that it needs to be carried ot$
• Repeat the class instrctions to the child indi(idally$ 7ncorage himDher
to repeat the instrctions bac/ to yo$ :) they ha(enAt recei(ed all o) the
instrction repeat it )or them again9 )ocs on the things they didnAt attend
to the )irst time$
Strategies to Teach Students
• &hen yo want the childAs attention encorage them to sit still and stop
what they are doing e$g$ pt down their pencil or remo(e the toy they are
playing with$ This will help them to channel their attention to yo and not
be distracted by something in their hands$
• The child recites the in)ormationDinstrction9 either ot lod or in their
heads e$g$ Fmaths boo/ pages ! and #Imaths boo/ pages ! and #I
maths boo/ pages ! and #G$
• 7ncorage them to wor/ in @ite areas in the classroom$ :t might help i)
their des/ is by the wall or )acing the )ront (where there are less
distractions)$
• 7ncorage stdents to as/ )or clari)ication i) they didnAt get all o) the
instrction$
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Acti3ities for Attention . Listening
Story Actions
)aterials* Stories
rocedure*
• Di(ide the class into 3 to # small
grops
• Assign each grop a di))erent
word )rom the story yo will read
to them$
• 7ach grop mst decide on a
way to portray their word9 sing a
(erbal representation and an
action$ =or e>ample9 the word
FcarG might be represented by a
FbbrrrmmmG noise accompanied
by a steering wheel action$
• &hen all grops ha(e been
assigned a target word and ha(e
decided how they will represent
their word9 the teacher reads the
story alod$
• 7ach time a target word is said9
the rele(ant grop mst do their
action and ma/e their sond$
$4am5le
Story* A Trip to the =arm
Target Words*
/armer igs 6orse 6ay
SHy wanted to see all the animals
on the )arm$ She li/ed the horses
and the sheep the best$ She saw a
farmer tossing some hay to the
5igs$ She was srprised to see that
the 5igs slept on the hay$ The
farmer e>plained that the 5igs li/ed
the hay becase it was so)t$
GThe 5igs donAt really li/e to sit in
mdG9 the farmer said$ Then the
farmer showed SHy the horses$
The horses were eating some hay$
FDo the horses only eat hayJG
as/ed SHy$
The farmer laghed and said F8o$
The horses eat hay and lots o)
other things as well$G
FDo 5igs eat hayJG as/ed SHy$
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• Ko may need to loo/ at or point
in the direction o) appropriate
grops to prompt them to do their
sondDaction$
Ko cold ma/e p yor own
stories or se a boo/ yo ha(e
been reading in class$ Some
modi)ications may need to be made
so that the target words occr more
)re@ently$ .owe(er9 when the
target words occr less )re@ently9
the children are re@ired to
concentrate harder and listen more
care)lly )or their ce to do their
action and sond$
Story Actions $4am5le Continued
Story* SantaAs Dilemma
Target Words*
Santa Christmas &eindeer
resents
:t was almost Christmas and Santa
had to pac/ p the 5resents ready
)or Christmas 7(e$ Santa /new
that the children wold be waiting
)or their 5resents and wold be so
sad on Christmas Day i) Santa and
his reindeer did not deli(er the
5resents7
Santa went to chec/ on his
reindeer$ The reindeer had been
(ery @iet that day9 which was
nsal so close to Christmas$
Santa )ond the reindeer chewing
on some o) the 5resentsL
F5h9 noLG cried Santa7 F&hat are
yo reindeer going with the
childrenAs 5resentsJ &e need
those 5resents )or Christmas
Day$G
FKes9G the farmer said9 Figs and
horses do eat hay$ Bt both the
5igs and the horses eat other )oods
too$G
The farmer as/ed SHy i) she wold
li/e to eat some hay too$
F8oLG cried SHy$ Bt the )armer
was only Eo/ing$
SHy said to the farmer9 F:Am going
home to ha(e some Eice and
biscits$ : will let the horses and
the 5igs ha(e all the hayLG
%ey Word for the Day
)aterials* +hart below
rocedure*
• Draw a chart with stdentsA
names sch as the one shown
below$ At the beginning o) the
day9 tell the class what the /ey
word is )or the day (e$g$
/angaroo)$ Ko may want to draw
a (isal reminder on the board$
• Throghot the day9 yo will
randomly say the word$
• Stdents mst raise their hands
or signal some other way when
they hear the /ey word$
• The stdent who )irst gi(es the
signal that heDshe heard it gets a
tic/ beside their name$
• Try to interEect the /ey word at
nsal times e$g$ :n the middle
o) a math problem9 in the middle
o) a song9 etcI
Students  i) heard the word
)irst
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The reindeer stopped chewing and
loo/ed at Santa$ The reindeer )elt
bad that they had damaged the
5resents9 and might rin
Christmas )or the children$
Santa smiled$ F:tAs 5$K$ reindeer9G
Santa said$ F:) yo help me9 we can
)i> p all these 5resents in time )or
ChristmasG$
!ame
+arey
Linda
8ic/
Bess
Sara

8o5 To A Word
)aterials* A selection o) words – no
materials re@ired
rocedure*
• .a(e stdents standing p in their
own space$
• They listen to a target word told to
them prior to the game
commencement$
• Target words cold inclde*
!eacher names
Students names
4ey "ords from class topics
e.g. Sam& Alison& gold& echidna
• &hen stdent hears the target
word child sits down$
• ?ary the action9 e$g$ stamp )eet9
clap hands9 trn arond9 nod head9
hands on head9 pll ear9 rb nose9
toch toes$
What9s Wrong Signal
)aterials* 8rsery rhymes9 poems9
red paper )or each child
rocedure*
• Read )amiliar poems9 stories or
nrsery rhymes to the class$
• Randomly ma/e errors in these
(e$g$ ;ac/ and ;ill went p a
ladder9 Goldiloc/s and the 3 Stairs9
.ic/ory9 Dic/ory9 Doc/9 the mose
went p a loc/$
• :) stdents hear an error9 they mst
raise their red paper as a signal to
stop yo$
• Then select one o) the children to
correct what yoA(e said$
• Ko may ha(e stdents close their
eyes while they listen so they donAt
raise their paper Est becase they
see others doing$
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)usical Instruments
)aterials* A selection o) msical
instrments
rocedure*
• +hoose a (ariety o) msical
instrments or sond ma/ers$
Stdents may ma/e their own e$g$
rice in an old drin/ bottle9 paper
clips in a glass Ear$
• Sit stdents in a circle and choose
a stdent to be the Mmsical
condctorA$
• The grop holds their instrment
still and closes their eyes$ The
condctor wal/s arond the circle
and taps a stdent on the
sholder$ That stdent then plays
their instrment$
• Teacher as/s the class to open
their eyes and gess who was
playing their instrment$
Sto5: "o:
)aterials* A selection o) msical
instrments
rocedure*
• 7ach child selects a msical
instrment$ &hen yo say FG5LG
the stdents can ma/e a noise with
their instrment$
• &hen yo say FST5PLG the
stdents mst stop ma/ing a
noise$
• This game can also be played with
msic$ &hen the msic starts so
do the instrments$ Stop the msic
at (arios inter(als and the
stdents mst listen and stop when
the msic stops$
• Ko can ma/e this game more
comple> by gi(ing directions li/e
Fall the girls G5LG or Fall the people
who are 4 years old G5LG$

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6ot . Cold
)aterials* tic/ing cloc/ or timer
rocedure*
• Sit stdents in a grop and as/
them to close their eyes$ Then hide
a tic/ing cloc/ or timer somewhere
in the classroom$
• &hen the cloc/ is hidden9 choose
a stdent to )ind the cloc/$ The
class can gi(e cles by saying MhotA
or McoldA i) they are mo(ing closer
to or )rther away )rom the noise$
!ews Swa5
)aterials* none
rocedure*
• Di(ide stdents into pairs and each
stdent tells their news to their
partner$
• Stdents then gi(e their partners
news to the class$
• The news partner can gi(e points
or rewards )or the @ality o) their
partnerAs news gi(ing and listening
s/ills$
Who9s That2
)aterials* none
rocedure*
• Arrange stdents into a grop$
Trn one stdent away )rom the
rest o) the grop$
&hythm . 8eats
)aterials* none
rocedure*
• +lapDtap ot simple sond
se@ences with yor hands and
as/ stdents to copy yo e$g$ clap
yor hands twice9 clic/ yor )ingers
and tap yor /nees$
• Stdents mst loo/ and listen to
copy yor sond patterns$
• Ko can e>tend this acti(ity by
increasing the comple>ity o) the
sond patterns$
/ruit Salad
)aterials* none
rocedure*
• Stdents sit in a circle on chairsC
ha(e one stdent standing in the
middle o) the circle (no chair )or
himDher)$
• 7ach stdent is assigned the name
o) a )rit$ =or yonger stdents yo
may need to gi(e them a pictre
card9 name tag etc$$$ to help them
remember what )rit they are$
• The stdent in the middle calls ot
two )rits e$g$ Fapples 6 bananasG$
These stdents ha(e to swap
chairs and the stdent in the
middle has to reach a chair also$
• The stdent that is le)t o(er then
becomes the caller and the game
repeats$
• &hen the caller says F)rit saladG
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• Select another stdent to say a
word e$g$ spelling word9 animal9
)ood9 contry etcI
• The stdent who is trned away
has to listen and gess who said
the word e$g$ F:t was SamG$
e(eryone has to swap chairs$
• This game can be played with
colors9 shapes9 animals9 or
(ocablary )rom class topics$
)usical Instruments
)aterials* A selection o) msical
instrments$
rocedure*
• +hoose a (ariety o) msical
instrments or sond ma/ers$
Stdents may ma/e their own e$g$
rice in an old drin/ bottle9 paper
clips in a glass Ear$
• Sit stdents in a circle and choose
a stdent to be the Mmsical
condctorA$
• The grop holds their instrment
still and closes their eyes$ The
condctor wal/s arond the circle
a taps a stdent on the sholder$
That stdent then plays their
instrment$
• Teacher as/s the class to open
their eyes and gess who was
playing their instrment$
6ot . Cold
)aterials* tic/ing cloc/ or timer
rocedure*
• Sit stdents in a grop and as/
them to close their eyes9 and then
hide a tic/ing cloc/ or timer
somewhere in the classroom$
• &hen the cloc/ is hidden choose a
stdent to )ind the cloc/$ The class
can gi(e cles by saying MhotA or
McoldA i) they are mo(ing closer to
or )rther away )rom the noise$
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What is Com5rehension2
+omprehension (or recepti(e langage) is concerned with the words9 sentences9
stories9 signs9 gestres we nderstand$ +omprehension is or nderstanding o)
langage not the se o) it$ Di))iclties with (erbal comprehension can ma/e it
hard )or children to listen to and carry ot instrctions$ They may nderstand
only a part o) what has been said9 or miss ot on /ey words or concepts$ 5)ten
they ha(e di))iclties when the instrctions get longer and more comple>$
A childAs o(erall learning and cogniti(e abilities can in)lence the de(elopment o)
recepti(e langage$ Attention9 listening9 social interaction and aditory
processing also impact on the de(elopment o) recepti(e langage$
Recepti(e langage can be delayed or disordered$ The )eatres o) delay and
disorder o)ten o(erlap9 bt they are (ery di))erent di))iclties$ &hen children are in
the early stages o) langage de(elopment it can be (ery di))iclt to determine i) a
childAs langage is delayed or disordered$
A child with a recepti(e langage delay is slower to de(elop their nderstanding$
The de(elopment )ollows the normal se@ence and pattern that is e>pected bt it
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is at a slower rate$ Recepti(e langage disorder means that the ac@isition is not
only at a slower rate bt the se@ence and pattern o) de(elopment is di))erent
)rom normal$ The se(erity o) the delay or the disorder depends on the natre o)
the di))iclties and the childAs age$
Characteristics of &ece5ti3e Language Difficulties
• Di))iclty carrying ot instrctions
• 5nly complete part o) instrctions bt not the entire direction$
• Relies on (isal ces9 gestres and copies the actions o) others
• As/s )or instrctions to be repeated
• +an be lost in the classroom9 can be slow to start and )inish tas/s
Strategies for the Classroom
• %se (isal ces sch as real obEects9 pictres9 handots9 slides or charts$
• Accompany (erbal commandsDinstrctions with )acial e>pression and gestre
as appropriate
• 7mphasise /ey words by e>aggerating stress and pasing patterns in yor
speech
• Spea/ slowly and clearly
• Be aware o) the childAs aditory memory span$ Some children may ha(e
di))iclty processing and remembering long comple> instrctions9 so brea/
them down into smaller chn/s
• Simpli)y yo langage$ +hoose yor words care)lly – brea/ a long instrction
p into /ey points rather than sing comple> sentence strctres e$g$ FBe)ore
play time9 pac/ p yor scissors and gle9 write yor name on yor wor/ and
pt it in my red bo>$G ?erss FTidy p9 name yor wor/9 pt it in my bo> and
go to playG$
• Gi(e the instrctions one at a time and in the order that yo want them to be
carried ot$
• Gi(e the child time to process and comprehend langage$
• :) the stdent does not respond9 rephrase what yo said or say something else
that adds more in)ormation$
• +lari)y that the stdent has nderstood the instrction by as/ing him or her to
repeat it bac/ to yo$
• 7>plain things e(en i) they appear ob(ios e$g$ F:Am going to read a story9 it is
important to loo/ at me and the boo/ when : am reading$ :t is important to
thin/ abot what : am saying$G
• 7>plain to the child indi(idally what is going to happen ne>t so that he or she
/nows what to e>pect$
• 7ncorage simple9 FstandardG or FrotineG ways o) saying instrctions$ :t is not
ncommon to say the say things many di))erent ways$ =or stdents with
langage learning di))iclties sing a MconsistentA ways o) saying things assists
comprehension$
• Designate a classroom MbddyA who the stdent can as/ )or assistance and
clari)ication )rom$
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Acti3ities for &ece5ti3e Language
Su5er S5y
)aterials* A small obEectC a pair o)
)nny glasses sch as large glasses
or decorated snglassesC )olded
pieces o) red and white constrction
paper – enogh )or one o) each
color )or e(eryone in the room$
rocedure*
• Select a stdent to lea(e the room$
&hile that stdent is gone9 hide an
obEect (e$g$ coin9 pencil9 paper) in
the room$
• &hen that stdent retrns9 yo
mst gi(e hints abot where the
• .ere is the symbol system*
• %n)olded red paper N hot (a lot o)
)ire)
• =olded red paper N warm (a little
)ire)
• %n)olded white paper N cold (a lot
o) snow)
• =olded white paper N cool (a little
snow)
• &hen the stdent )inds the obEect9
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obEect is$ -a/e the hints progress
)rom general to more speci)ic9 )or
e>ample*
:tAs near the )ront o) the room$
:tAs near something s@are in the )ront
o) the room$
:tAs near where the teacher sits$
:tAs on one o) the legs where the
teacher sits$
• &hile the selected stdent is trying
to )ollow the hints9 the rest o) the
stdents are holding p their
papers to let the stdent /now i)
heDshe is FhotG or FcoldG$
Co5y Cat Drawing
)aterials* 7ach child shold ha(e a
piece o) paper with three bo>es
drawn on it e$g$

rocedure*
• Teacher directs children as to what
to draw in the bo>es9 e$g$ draw a
small tree in the last bo>9 pt a
circle arond the )irst bo>9 write
yor name in the middle bo>$
heDshe gets to wear the FSper
SpyG glasses$ The acti(ity
contines with other stdents
ha(ing trns$
8lock Design
)aterials* set o) bloc/s )or each child
rocedure*
• Teacher directs children to ma/e a
design with their bloc/s e$g$ Fred9
bloc/9 yellow bloc/ and then ble
bloc/G$ The designs and directions
can be made more comple> e$g$
Fma/e a s@are with some red
bloc/s$ &e are going to ma/e a
hose$ %se a red bloc/ on the
bottom )or the )loor etc$$$
• +hildren can repeat the acti(ity
with a partner$
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• Di(ide children into pairs and gi(e
another sheet$ 7ach child has a
trn directing their partner$
; )arks the S5ot
)aterials* Small obEects eg$ stapler9
pen9 paper clip9 toy car
rocedure*
• .ide an obEect
• Gi(e the children simple directions
to help them )ind the obEect
• Race to see who can )ind the
obEect )irst$
• +hildren may ta/e trns to hide an
obEect and then gi(e the rest o) the
grop directions$
Simon Says
)aterials* Sample instrctions
rocedure*
• Ttor acts as FSimonG and gi(es
children instrctions to carry ot$
• All children stand p )acing the
ttor$
• Ttor gi(es an instrction which
the children carry ot i) yo ha(e
said FSimon saysG )irst$ :) they do
the action and yo ha(e not said
FSimon saysG then they are FotG
and mst sit down$
Instructions Continued
• Three Part*
 Toch yor /nees9 toch
yor sholders9 toch yor
)eet
 Sit down9 stand p9 trn
arond
 +lap yor hands9 pat
yor head9 then rb yor
tmmy
Linguistic Conce5ts
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• Begin with the simple one part
directions and then increase the
length and introdce lingistic
concepts$
Instructions
Simon saysIII
• 5ne part*
 Sit down
 Trn arond
 Toch yor head
 Pt yor hands p
• Two part*
 +lap yor hands then sit
down
 Stand p and trn arond
 Toch yor ears and yor
moth +lose yor eyes and
toch yor nose
/ollow the )a5
)aterials* maps9 colored pens
rocedure*
• Di(ide the children into pairs9 who
sit )acing each other with a barrier
in between$
• Draw a rote )rom one landmar/ to
another on a map9 /eeping an
nmar/ed copy o) the same map$
• +opy enogh maps )or each pair
o) children9 gi(ing one o) the pair
the nmar/ed map and gi(ing the
(when)
&hen : clap my hands9 yo Emp p
and down
&hen : pt p my hand yo toch
yor nose
(ntil)
DonAt trn arond ntil : sneeHe
DonAt sit down ntil : clap my hands
(i))
Pt yor hands p i) yo are a girl
Toch yor head i) yo are wearing
ble
(be)ore)
Be)ore yo toch yor nose9 sit down
Be)ore yo toch yor head9 clap
yor hands
(a)ter)
+lap yor hands a)ter yo stand p
Toch yor nose a)ter yo toch yor
ear
0ariations
• Laminate the maps9 place in plastic
sheet protectors or photocopy onto
o(erhead transparency slides$
Then draw the paths on with
o(erhead transparency mar/ers9
which can later be rbbed o))$
• .a(e the children draw their own
paths throgh the maps and
describe the rote to their partner$
!ote
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other child the map displaying the
designated path$
• The child with the completed map
mst describe the rote depicted
to his partner e>actly9 whilst that
child draws the path with a
colored pen$
• &hen complete9 compare the
paths )or any errors andDor
discrepancies9 and discss how
the directions cold be more
accrately )ormlated$
• Swap tas/s9 with the child who
pre(iosly )ollowed the directions
then describing a new rote to his
partner$
Line'#5
)aterials* none
rocedure*
• Teacher )orms the class into a line
by gi(ing indi(idal directions$ =or
e>ample* ;ohn stand ne>t to the
door and )ace the blac/boardC
;ane stand an arms length away
)rom ;ohn9 )acing the opposite
directionC Pal stand between ;ohn
and ;ane so that yo are )acing
;ohn$ +ontine ntil all the
stdents are )itted into the line$
-aps can be made more or less
di))iclt by (arying the amont o)
content contained9 i$e$ streets9
bildings etc$ =or older children yo
can copy sitable pages ot o) a
street directory9 or enlarge a section
o) a particlar page$
Sit Down
)aterials* none
rocedure*
• .a(e all children stand p beside
their chairs$
• Gi(e a series o) instrctions )or
certain stdents to sit down9
gradally redcing the nmber o)
children remaining standing$
• =or e>ample*
All boys - sit do"n
,veryone "ith blue eyes - sit do"n
,veryone "earing a 5umper - sit
do"n
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• ?ary the di))iclty o) instrctions )or
indi(idal stdents$
• This game can be sed as an
alternati(e way to organise the
class into a single )ile line prior to
lea(ing the classroom$
"uess the !e4t Word
)aterials* Storyboo/s
rocedure*
• Teacher reads a story to the class$
• Teacher stops reading in the
middle o) some sentences and
as/s i) anyone can gess what
word might come ne>t$
• 7ncorage stdents to ma/e
logical gesses$ =or e>ample* in
the sentence FThe little boy
• +ontine ntil one child is le)t
standing$
Action Codes
)aterials* none
rocedure*
• Teacher gi(es the children a code
to remember*
blue 6 clap hands
red 6 stamp feet
green 6 sha#e hands in air
• Practice with the children
per)orming the actions a)ter yo
say the colors$
• Teacher names a series o) colors
e$g$ ble I$red$
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li(edI$G some reasonable
gesses might inclde FatG and
FinG9 bt illogical answers wold be
FhoseG9 Fa)terG$
ossible 3s Im5ossible
)aterials* none
rocedure*
• The teacher names one stdent$
.eDshe tells that stdent to listen
care)lly and )ollow hisDher
directions$ &hen she says9 FBring
me the chal/G9 the stdent mst
)ollow the directions$ :) she says
something li/e9 FBring me the wall9G
the child mst say9 FThatAs
impossibleG$
• +hildren mst per)orm the actions
that correspond to the code
colors$
• Start with single actions9 then
gradally increase the length o) the
code9 i$e$ two actions9 three
actions9 etc$
• Ko may gi(e the stdents an
opportnity to call ot some codes$
:nstrct the new caller as to how
many colors to say in their code$
ossible
5pen a boo/
+lose the door
Drop a pencil
Toch something green
=old yor hands
Sit on the )loor
Bring me a paper
Lean on a door
Scratch yor elbow
Knoc/ on the des/
Brin/ me a coat
+t a paper
.old p three )ingers
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• Gi(e other stdents a chance to
)ollow directions$
• ?ary the directions going )rom the
possible to impossible at random9
so that stdents mst attend
closely$
• Gi(e stdents a chance to gi(e
each other FpossibleG and
FimpossibleG directions$
Draw the erson
)aterials* Paper and crayons )or
each stdent
rocedure*
• Read one o) the )ollowing
passages to the stdents$
• They mst listen to the passage
and9 a)ter yo ha(e )inished
reading it9 draw a pictre o) the
person the passage describes$
Im5ossible
Sit on the ceiling
Bring me the coat rac/
Toch the s/y
&al/ on yor nose
Drop the school
Scratch the moon
5pen a pencil
Knoc/ on the inside o) yor belly
+t a roc/ in two
=old a bric/
.old p 41 )ingers
+lose the wall
assage <7
Ben had a sbstitte teacher at
school today$ She had dar/ brown
hair which was ct (ery short$ She
had )rec/les and bright red lipstic/$
She wore a bright red shirt and blac/
slac/s$ She wore gold earrings9 a
long gold nec/lace and a gold
bracelet that all matched$
assage =7
-rs 5tis opened her door$ A stranger
was as/ing )or directions to a
neighborAs hose$ The stranger had
on )aded ble Eeans and a t,shirt with
a pictre o) a rainbow on it$ .e had
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• Ko might ha(e a contest to
encorage the stdents to
remember as many details as
possible$
• +ontine with the other passages
as time permits$
Dress #5
)aterials* A bo> o) Eewellery and
clothing accessories
rocedure*

• Show the Eewellery and clothing
accessories to the class$
• Discss any new (ocablary words
(sch as coral9 clasp9 re(ersible9
pewter)$
blond hair and a mostache that was
a little dar/er than his blond hair$ .e
wore a Eean Eac/et and a dar/ ble
cap$
assage >7
&endy had been writing to her pen
pal )or more than se(en years$
=inally9 she was going to meet her$
&endyAs pen pal had coal,blac/ hair
that went down to her waist$ She
wore a prple and pin/ striped shirt
and a prple cordroy s/irt$ She had
pin/ /nee,highs with matching
snea/ers$
• Then as/ the class i) the stdent
)ollowed the directions correctly$
• :) anything was incorrect9 ha(e the
other stdents tell what was
missed$
• Gi(e another set o) directions and
select another stdent to )ollow
them$
• +ontine as time permits$ Also
gi(e the stdents a chance to gi(e
each other directions$
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• Then gi(e a series o) three
directions9 sch as* Pt a gold
bracelet on yor le)t wrist9 tie a
striped scar) arond yor waste9
and pt a white glo(e on yor right
hand$
• The stdents mst raise their
hands i) they thin/ they can )ollow
the directions$
• Select one stdent to come to the
)ront o) the class and )ollow the
directions$
8arrier "ames
Acti3ity
Barrier games are simple procedres
based on gi(ing and recei(ing
instrctions$ Basically9 they re@ire
children to interact and se langage
to complete a tas/$ +hildren de(elop
a range o) langage s/ills depending
on the comple>ity o) the game$
Spea/ers learn the importance o)
gi(ing e>plicit and complete
in)ormation to listeners$ Listeners
Barrier games in(ol(e one player
gi(ing instrctions9 while a second
player recei(es and acts pon them$
5ne player gi(es the instrctions
while the other ses @estions to
clari)y in)ormation$ A)ter recei(ing
instrctions and clari)ying them in this
way9 the barrier is remo(ed and a
comparison o) the materials is made$
Se(eral di))erent /inds o) barrier
games are otlined below$
/ollowing Instructions
Describe )or reprodction by a
partner9 items in a se@ence sch as
bead patterns9 or describe how to
assemble a pictre or obEect )rom
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learn the importance o) monitoring
in)ormation and sing @estions to
clari)y or gain )rther in)ormation$
?ocablary related to the langage o)
description is also de(elopedC )or
e>ample9 children begin to se a
(ariety o) nons9 attribtes and
location words$
Barrier games are easy to prodce
sing a wide (ariety o) )ormats and
materials$ They are sitable )or all
ages and abilities$
Sources of materials for making
barrier games*
• &rapping paper
• -agaHines
• Posters
• -aps
• +oloring Boo/s
• Reading materials
• Bloc/s
• Beads
• =arm animals
• Dinosars
• LegoDDplo people
• +ars
8arrier "ames Continued
S5otting the difference
7ach player has a pictre$ 5ne has
some details which are slightly
di))erent$ Stdents describe their
pictres to each other to nco(er the
di))erences$ Alternati(ely9 the stdent
with the FcorrectG pictre can only
answer FyesG or FnoG to @estions
as/ed by their partner9 in an e))ort to
determine what the di))erences are$
composite parts$
)atching arts
7ach player has an identical set o)
pictres on cards$ 5ne describes a
card9 while the other locates the
matching one$ Repeat ntil all cards
are matched$ This can be made
more challenging by ma/ing all the
cards (ery similar9 re@iring greater
descripti(e powers$ This acti(ity is an
adaptation o) the card game
F+oncentrationG$
icture com5letion
Both players ha(e a bac/grond
scene in )ront o) them$ 5ne player
places items on the bac/grond9 to
complete the pictre9 describing their
location to a partner9 who tries to
place them in an identical manner$
This can be (aried by sing
coordinates to place obEects9 e$g$
attribte bloc/s9 on a grid$
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Communicati3e crosswords
5ne stdent has all the across
answers on their grid9 whilst the other
has all the down answers$ Player 09
who wants the own words to
complete their crossword9 as/s player
! )or a cle or phonic hint$ :) player 0
gesses correctly9 they ha(e a
second trn$ Trns contine ntil
both players ha(e completed the grid$
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What is $45ressi3e Language2
7>pressi(e langage is concerned with the words we se and how we combine
these words together$ :t is or (erbal se o) langage not the nderstanding o) it$
5r tal/ing s/ills are one o) the most important parts o) commnication and it is
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an area that lots o) children ha(e di))iclties de(eloping$ 7>pressi(e langage is
not concerned with speech sonds$
A childAs o(erall learning and cogniti(e abilities can in)lence the de(elopment o)
e>pressi(e langage$ Attention9 listening9 social interaction9 nderstanding and
aditory processing also impact on the de(elopment o) e>pressi(e langage$
7>pressi(e langage can be delayed or disordered$ The )eatres o) delay and
disorder o)ten o(erlap9 bt they are (ery di))erent di))iclties$ &hen children are in
the early stages o) langage de(elopment it can be (ery di))iclt to determine i) a
childAs langage is delayed or disordered$
A child with an e>pressi(e langage delay is slower to de(elop their langage$
The de(elopment )ollows the normal se@ence and pattern that is e>pected bt it
is at a slower rate$ 7>pressi(e langage disorder means that the ac@isition is
not only at a slower rate bt the se@ence and pattern o) de(elopment is di))erent
)rom normal$ +hildren with an e>pressi(e langage disorder may ha(e di))iclties
with some things and not others e$g$ a child with a disorder might be good at
(ocablary bt ha(e di))iclties with se@encing$ .owe(er9 a child with an
e>pressi(e langage delay will ha(e di))iclties with both se@encing and
(ocablary$ 7>pressi(e langage di))iclties range in se(erity$ The se(erity o) the
delay or the disorder depends on the natre o) the di))iclties and the childAs age$
Characteristics of $45ressi3e Language Difficulty
• The child does not tal/ (ery mch
• +hild ses short sentences
• Lea(es ot words and word endings
• +hild pts words in the wrong order
• %ses incorrect grammar
• %ses simple sentence )orms
• +hild con)ses tenses
• .as di))iclty )orming a complete sentence
Strategies for the Classroom
• Gi(e the stdent lots o) e>tra time to respond to yor @estions and
comments$ .eDshe might nderstand the @estion bt might not ha(e the
words to e>press themsel(es$
• As/ the child @estions that will help them to organise and e>press what they
are trying to say e$g$ Fwhen did yo go to the mo(iesJG F&ho did yo go withJG
• Gi(e the child )re@ent opportnities to e>press hisDher ideas$ They need
opportnities to re@est9 re)se obEects or e(ents9 ma/e choices and state
hisDher needsDpre)erences$ This will help children to learn that tal/ing gi(es
them independence and inpt into sitations$
• Show yo are listening$ -a/e eye contact and get down to their le(el$
• Repeat incorrect sentences correctly within the conte>t o) the con(ersation
Language Strategies & Activities for the Classroom LAP Central Coast Complied by A. Walla Speech Pathologist 200
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• Add on rele(ant in)ormation to sentences which the child prodces e$g$
+.:LD* :tAs hot today T7A+.7R* Kes it is$ : li/e this /ind o) weather
• 7>pand incomplete tterances by )illing in the gaps e$g$
+.:LD* She rn )ast T7A+.7R* Kes9 she is rnning )ast
• Always pro(ide the child with a good model o) words and sentences$ DonAt
)ocs on trying to get them to say it9 gi(e them the words$ +hildren learn better
when they ha(e a model to copy and they are nder less pressre$ e$g$
+.:LD* -e to the shop T7A+.7R* ReallyJ : went to the shops tooL
• Re)ormlate the childAs sentence in a di))erent syntactic )orm withot changing
the meaning$ This models new sentence )orms in a )amiliar semantic
en(ironment e$g$
+.:LD* : went shopping T7A+.7R* Did yo go shoppingJ
• Pro(ide models o) di))iclt strctres9 e$g$ i) the child ses irreglar past tense
(caght9 ran9 threw) incorrectly9 se correct models as o)ten as possible$
• -a/e deliberate errors and encorage the children to identi)y and correct yor
mista/es$
• Target speci)ic grammatical errors – e>plain the correct se and practice sing
the targets in sentences$
Strategies to Teach Students
• 7ncorage the child to se /ey words when they are tal/ing9 these are the
words that hold the most in)ormation$
• 7ncorage the child to draw pictres abot what they are tal/ing or writing
abot$
Acti3ities for $45ressi3e Language
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What I like
)aterials* none
rocedure*
• Teacher selects a theme e$g$ )ood9
hobbies9 toys9 animals9 colors$
• +hildren sit in a circle at the )ront
o) the classroom and tell the
teacher what they Fli/eG )rom the
selected theme$
$4am5le*
Theme N .obbies
+hild 0 F: li/e )ishingG
+hild ! F: li/e playing compter
gamesG
+hild 3 F: li/e ta/ing my dog )or
wal/sG
Ko may want to pass arond a ball
or special obEect to indicate whose
trn it is to tal/$
Add on Story
a5er lanes
)aterials* paper (any other
FthrowableG obEects9 sch as bean
bags can also be sed)
rocedure*
• .a(e the children ma/e paper
planes9 or pro(ide them yorsel)$
• :n trn children throw their paper
plane )rom somewhere in the
room$
• The child mst then describe
where their plane landed9 e$g$ F-y
plane landed on the )loor nder
PalAs chairG$
• 7ncorage the children to
)ormlate their sentence in a
di))erent way to the person be)ore
them9 e$g$ F&hen : threw my
planeIG9 The place where my
plane landed IG9 FPal is sitting
abo(eI$G9 F&here Pal sits is the
place IG$
• This game is se)l )or teaching or
rein)orcing prepositions or location
words as well as encoraging the
stdents to se a (ariety o)
sentence types$
W6 8owling
Language Strategies & Activities for the Classroom LAP Central Coast Complied by A. Walla Speech Pathologist 200
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)aterials* none
rocedure*
• +hildren sit in a circle$ Teacher
starts a story by saying an opening
phrase9 e$g$ FToday when : wo/e
p9 : saw IG
• Teacher nominates a child who
mst then add a phrase to the
pre(ios one9 so that the story
ma/es sense9 e$g$ FI$a big brown
dog that wasIG$
• The ne>t child in the circle
contines the story
• +ontine ntil a reasonable
conclsion has been reached9 all
children ha(e had a trn9 or a child
is nable to )ormlate a contining
phrase$
• 7ncorage the children to end their
part o) the story mid thoght9 so
that it is easy )or the ne>t child to
)ollow on
• Discss (arios conEnctions9
ways to Eoin sentences and how to
set p the story )or the ne>t person
Some ideas )or story starters*
As 7 loo#ed over my shoulder&
7 sa" 8.
7 heard a loud noise coming from
8888..
7 "as "al#ing to school "hen 8
7 loo#ed under my bed and sa" 8
$y dog started bar#ing so 7 8
"uess Who I9m Thinking -f
)aterials* 4 toy bowing pins or
s/ittles (alternati(ely yo can se
0$!# litre so)t drin/ bottles or
rectanglar wooden bloc/s)9 ball9
stic/ on labels
rocedure*
• Ta/e 4 bowling pins and label
them with each o) the 4 FwhG
@estions*
• what9 where9 when9 why9 who9 how
• Teacher nominates a topic9 e$g$
Dinosars$ :n trn children roll a
ball to /noc/ o(er the pins
• +hild mst as/ a @estion sing
each FwhG word they ha(e /noc/ed
o(er9 which relates to the teacherAs
topic9 e$g$ F&here do dinosars
li(eJG9 &hat did dinosars eatGG$
• Pins are replaced and another
topic gi(en$ +hildren mst se the
topic name in their @estions
• +hildren do not ha(e to be able to
answer the @estionsC rather the
obEect is to )ormlate
grammatically correct @estions9
whose content is appropriate to the
MwhG @estion sed$
Some possible topics inclde*
dinosars school
)riends apples
dogs the circs
tigers hambrgers
babies trains
hoses the beach
the Hoo polltion
boo/s holidays
grandparents swimming
toys En/ )ood
Language Strategies & Activities for the Classroom LAP Central Coast Complied by A. Walla Speech Pathologist 200
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)aterials* none
rocedure*
• The child thin/s o) someone in the
room and describes that person$
As/ another child to gess who the
person is by listening to the cles$
,9ample: ;<er 5umper is red=
)emory "ame
)aterials* none
rocedure*
-emory – sing the )orm F: went
shopping and boght a
OOOOOOOOOOOG$
7ach person repeats the sentence
)orm and adds another item to the
shopping list$
7>ample*
+hild 0* F: went shopping and
boght an appleG$
+hild !* F: went shopping and
boght an apple and a )rit EiceG$
This game cold be adapted to*
F: went to the Hoo and saw OOOOOOG

F: went to the party and ate OOOOOOG

F: )ell and bro/e my OOOOOOOOOOOOG
!oun'0erb )atching
Tricky Teacher
)aterials* none
rocedure*
Teacher wal/s arond the classroom
ma/ing tre and )alse statements
abot di))erent children$
:ndi(idal children respond to the
teacher sing either F: doG or F: do
notG$
$4am5le*
!eacher: ;>ou have bro"n hair=
Child: ;>es& 7 do have bro"n hair=
!eacher: ;>ou have blue eyes=
Child: ;2o& 7 don/t have blue
eyes=& or ;2o 7 do not
have blue eyes=
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)aterials* word cards with nons
and (erbs written on them
rocedure*
• Discss the )act that sentences
can tell ho"& "hen& "here and
"hy$
• Select a non card and a (erb card
and demonstrate the types o)
sentences$
=or 7>ample*
.owJ Santa )ell noisily.
&henJ Santa )ell "hen he
came do"n the
chimney
&hereJ Santa )ell on the
slippery roof
&hyJ Santa )ell because
)udolph tripped him
• Di(ide stdents into grops o)
three or )or$ .a(e each grop
select a non card and a (erb
card$
• 7ach grop mst ma/e sentences
that tells ho"& "hen& "here& and
"hy9 and then tell them to the
class$
• The rest o) the class mst gess
which type o) sentence each one
is$
• Let the grops do more sentences
as time permits$
ossible !ouns ossible 0erbs
scarecrow sang
tiger sat
baby ate
ballerina dran/
clown slept
giant danced
eagle read
elephant wal/ed
Eanitor Emped
mose tal/ed
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Ask ?uestions
)aterials* none
rocedure*
• Tell the class an answerC they
mst then generate as many
@estions as possible to that
answer$
=or e>ample* .AT
ossible 1uestions
&hat do yo wear on yor headJ
&hat starts with @6A and rhymes with
satJ
&hat is the last word in the title o) a
boo/ Dr$ Sess wrote abot a carJ
&hat can yo wear on yor head to
/eep the sn ot o) yor eyesJ
A)ter stdents ha(e generated
@estions to that answer9 contine
with di))erent answers$ 7ncorage
them to generate a longer list o)
@estions each time$
ossible answers
pencil
7$T$
nrse
at 0! oAcloc/
on Snday morning
ble
slowly
a robin
sea gll
)armer
care)lly
tr/ey
dinosars
hard
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Dice "ame
)aterials* three large dice or yo can
ma/e cardboard cbes and three sets
o) pictres*
• eo5le ictures* a collection o)
pictres o) di))erent people e$g$
boy9 girl9 lady9 grandad$
• Action ictures* a collection o)
(arios actions e$g$ wal/ing9
rnning9 swimming9 pshing$
• -bBectClace ictures* a
collection o) pictres with di))erent
obEects or places e$g$ dog9 par/9
water9 pram9 ca/e9 beach$
rocedure*
• Arrange the three dice$ 5n one
dice stic/ the people pictres on
each side9 then on the ne>t dice
stic/ the action pictres and on the
last dice stic/ the obEectDplace
pictres$
• .a(e stdents roll the dice and
ma/e p sentences with the
pictres they roll (e$g$ The boy is
wal/ing the dog or The girl is
swimming in the water$)
• This game can be applied to lots o)
di))erent sentence strctres and
can be sed to de(elop the se o)
conEnctions (Eoining words) e$g$
and9 bt9 becase9 so9 althogh$
• +ollect pictres and play the game
in a similar way e$g$ FThe dog and
catG or FThe boy was rnning
becase he was late )or schoolG$
Treasure 6unt
)aterials* e>citing or nsal obEects
to hide arond the classroom$
rocedure*
• .ide (arios obEects arond the
room and place a treasre chest in
the middle o) the room$
• -a/e sre the obEects are e>citing
things that the stdents will want to
search )or or will notice as Mot o)
the ordinaryA$
• Send stdents o)) to collect
treasre9 either indi(idally or in
grops and when they ha(e
)inished get them to sit in a circle
arond the treasre chest$
• As/ each stdent to say what they
)ond and place their treasre into
the chest$
/eely 8ag
)aterials* )eely bag (old pillow slip or
sac/) and obEects to pt inside
rocedure*
• +ollect a (ariety o) itemsC itAs good
i) they ha(e a )nny )eel or shape$
• Place them into a bag and get
children to ta/e trns at ta/ing an
item )rom the bag$
• As/ each child to tal/ abot what
they ha(e e$g$ F:tAs small and so)tI
As/ the stdent @estions to help
them tal/ abot their obEect e$g$
Fwhat color is itJG F&hat does it
)eel li/eJ :s it hard or so)tG$
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What is 0ocabulary . Categorisation2
?ocablary is the words yo se and nderstand$ Stdents with a limited
(ocablary ha(e di))iclties sing a wide (ariety words in their tal/ing and will
ha(e di))iclties nderstanding more comple> words that are not stored in their
(ocablary$ Stdents with (ocablary di))iclties o)ten ha(e storage and word
retrie(al di))iclties which ma/e tas/s li/e categorising challenging$ This is /nown
as word )inding di))iclties$ +hildren with word )inding di))iclties sometimes /now
the word they want to say bt canAt access the word in their word store$
Sometimes it ta/es longer )or the child to retrie(e the word9 so their sentences
are o)ten )illed with pases and MemptyA words e$g$ MmA9 Mthe thingie$$A$ At other
times9 the word may not be retrie(ed at all9 which can be )rstrating )or the child
and the con(ersation partner$ +hildren can con)se the meanings o) word they
are trying to thin/ o) e$g$ McatA instead o) MdogA or will se the same words )or
di))erent things e$g$ McatA )or all <,legged animals$ Sometime they can con)se the
sounds in words e$g$ MelephantA is said as Me)alntA$ A child may also se a large
proportion o) (age9 non's5ecific words sch as FsomethingG9 FsomebodyG or
FthingG to try to o(ercome the di))iclty$ The child may also Mopt otA when they
canAt )ind the right word e$g$ the child will say9 FdonAt /nowG$
&ord )inding di))iclties mean that children ha(e di))iclties organising words into
grops or Mword drawersA within the brain$ +hildren may ha(e problems sorting
words into grops o) similar meaning e$g$ di))erent types o) transport or )ood etc$
Stdents with (ocablary and categorisation di))iclties need opportnities to
learn new words in many di))erent conte>ts in order to clearly organise and
classi)y new words with already learnt words$ The more times yo say a word9
the more chances a child has o) sa(ing it to their (ocablary store$
Characteristics of 0ocabulary . Categorising Difficulties
• Limited word se
• %se the FwrongG word
• DonAt /now the name o) common obEects
• %se ne>pected9 nsal words
• DonAt nderstand words sed by others
• &ord sage lac/s (ariety
• Di))iclty thin/ing o) the word to se
• Sentences lac/ cohesion and meaning throgh searching )or words
• Langage is concrete
• Tal/ arond the word
• Speech may sond dys)lent
• Try to rephrase or re(ise sentencesC or throw away )irst attempt and start
again
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• -ay display oral searching mo(ements
• %se non,speci)ic words e$g$ FitG9 FthingG9 Fst))G
Strategies for the Classroom
• :ntrodce new (ocablary )re@ently
• Pro(ide demonstration o) (ocablary or e>planation o) more abstract words
• 7ncorage describing o) n/nown items
• Bild p (ocablary throgh categorisation games
• Bild p semantic relationships between words
• Show how words relate to each other
• Begin by wor/ing on accracy o) naming9 this is achie(ed9 increase speed
• 8aming o) presented obEects9 pictres
• 8aming items within a gi(en category
• Re(iew pre(iosly n/nown words reglarly
• %se oral cloHe or sentence completion to )acilitate word retrie(al
• Gi(e prompts to help the child thin/ o) the word9 eg$ the )irst sond o) the
word9 Fit sonds li/eIG9 gi(e a description
• At the beginning o) each topic discss and introdce the new words that are
associated with$ Ko can ma/e posters o) the words and stic/ them arond
the classroom$
• %se personalised (ocablary boo/s that the children can add new words to
and loo/ bac/ on when they need to$
• %se mind maps and spider diagrams to thin/ o) the (ocablary associated with
a particlar topic e$g$ beachI
• As/ the child to describe the obEect they are thin/ing o) by )nction or
attribtes e$g$ F&hat is it sed )orJ9 &hat does it loo/ li/eJ9 &hat color is itJG
• Gi(e the child plenty o) time to thin/ o) the word be)ore yo help them
• Gi(e himDher a choice between two words e$g$ F:s it a ladybird or a beetleJG
• %se a (ariety o) cesDsenses to teachDrein)orce (ocablary e$g$ Sight9 smell9
hearing9 toch and taste$
• Repeat what they ha(e said to gi(e a lead in to the word9 e$g$ FSo yo went )or
a wal/ and yo saw aIG
• 5nce the child has the word9 repeat it and as/ them to say it again$ Rein)orce
phonological (what it sonds li/e) and semantic (what it means) in)ormation$

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Acti3ities for 0ocabulary . Categoristaion
Classification &elay
)aterials* Pictre cards ()rom
rele(ant categories) and bo>es (one
)or each category)
rocedure*
• Select a nmber o) categories
(e$g$ ! or 3 )or yonger children9
p to 4 )or older children)9 and
)ind pictres o) items which
belong to those categories (abot
0" pictres)$
• =or each category yo are sing9
place a bo> on a table at the )ront
o) the classroom9 labelled with
the name andDor an ob(ios
pictre representing that
category$
• Di(ide the class into ! teams and
ha(e them line p at the bac/ o)
the classroom$
• Sh))le the pictre cards and
di(ide them into ! e(en piles9
placing these side by side in )ront
o) the bo>es$
• The )irst child in each line races
to the )ront o) the room9 trns
o(er the )irst card in hisDher pile9
and places it in the appropriate
category bo>$
• That child then rns bac/ to
toch the hand o) the ne>t
stdent in hisDher line9 who then
Category Ste5s
)aterials* none
rocedure*
• +hildren line p on one side o)
the room
• Teacher nominates a category )or
the )irst child9 who mst name as
many items as possible within the
category
• +hild may ta/e one step )or each
item named
• :) sheDhe pases )or # seconds or
ma/es a mista/e9 the ne>t child
gets a trn9 with a new category
nominated by the teacher
• =irst child to reach the other side
o) the room wins
• Alternati(ely9 once the teacher
has nominated a category9 each
child cold attempt to name an
item within that category9 ta/ing a
step i) correct$ 8o step is ta/en i)
the child ma/es an error9 pases
)or more than # seconds9 or
repeats a pre(iosly mentioned
item$ +ontine ntil a child
reaches the other side o) the
room$
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races to the )ront to select and
classi)y a card$
• +ontine ntil all the cards are
sed$ The team that classi)ies all
their cards )irst is the winner$
Category Trains
)aterials* small wooden bloc/s
rocedure*
• Di(ide children into teams with
each team allocated a nmber o)
bloc/s$
• Teacher nominates a category$
• =irst team names items within
the category and )or each item
named place a bloc/ in a line9
ma/ing a train$
• &hen there is a pase )or more
than # seconds9 the children are
nable to thin/ o) them$
• 8e>t team attempts a new
category$
• The team with the longest train
are the winners$
asswords
)aterials* +oncepts list
rocedure*
Select appropriate concepts to se
a password related to the theme
(concept) to enter the room$
7>ample*
Teacher* Kesterday we tal/ed abot
Astralian animals$ +an yo name
an Astralian animalJ
Stdent* 7chidna
Teacher* Kes9 yo can come in and
sit down$
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Category ost 8o4
)aterials* word bo>es – cardboard
bo> with a posting slot ()or each
team) and to/ens to post$
rocedure*
The children are di(ided into three
teams each with a conceptD
category9 e$g$ animals9 )ood9 toys$
7ach team sits behind their bo> and
stands p as the teacher
annonces their category$
The person at the )ront recei(ed a
to/en to post )or a correct response
ntil all children ha(e had a trn at
gi(ing a category e>ample$
7>ample*
Teacher* )ood
Stdent* )rom team ! (stands p)
+hipsL
Teacher* yes9 (gi(es child to/en to
post)
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Indi3idual Acti3ities to De3elo5 0ocabulary . Categorisation
Categories
rocedure* Ttor reads the words ot lod9 and writes in the answers that the
stdent sggests$ Gi(e cles i) necessary$ 5ne line is )illed in )or yo$
$4am5les What9s the category2 Another e4am5le
%eans& cabbage& carrots ?egetables peas
0$ bee)9 chic/en9 por/
!$ seesaw9 mon/ey bars9 swings
3$ hammer9 saw9 screwdri(er
<$ Sydney9 -elborne9 .obart
#$ balloon9 party hat9 ca/e
4$ Eam9 (egemite9 honey
2$ ring9 bracelet9 earring
'$ s@are9 circle9 rectangle
1$ Sprite9 =anta9 Pepsi
0"$ sleeping bag9 tent9 torch
00$ handlebars9 pedal9 seat
0!$ Ea(elin9 =risbee9 boomerang
03$ Toyota9 =ord9 -aHda
0<$ Eellybeans9 smarties9 Ea))as
0#$ wasp9 ant9 grasshopper
04$ sr)ing9 water,s/iing9 di(ing
02$ reading9 maths9 spelling
0'$ slippers9 boots9 thongs
01$ measles9 mmps9 )l
!"$ 7arth9 -ars9 ?ens
Categories
rocedure* ttor reads the words ot lod9 and writes in the answers that the
stdent sggests$ Gi(e cles i) necessary$ 5ne line is )illed in )or yo$
$4am5les What9s the category2 Another e4am5le
Apple& pear& banana 'ruit +range
0$ red9 ble9 yellow
!$ cat9 dog9 gold)ish
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3$ Eeans9 shorts9 shirt
<$ ?ictoria9 Tasmania9 Peensland
#$ train9 car9 bicycle
4$ ;apan9 Astralia9 +hina
2$ cow9 sheep9 hen
'$ bedroom9 bathroom9 landry
1$ Eice9 cordial9 mil/
0"$ piHHa9 hambrger9 chips
00$ moo9 miaow9 baa
0!$ hand9 toe9 chin
03$ peas9 broccoli9 carrots
0<$ daisy9 da))odil9 orchid
0#$ chair9 bed9 cpboard
04$ )ootball9 tennis9 swimming
02$ teacher9 doctor9 plmber
0'$ pen9 chal/9 crayon
01$ toaster9 blender9 iron
!"$ gitar9 drms9 piano
Categories
rocedure* stdent names as many items as possible in the gi(en category9
within a time limit o) two mintes$ Gi(e cles i) necessary$ Ttor writes in the
stdentAs responses9 and /eeps a record o) the totals$
Things yo se in the /itchen*
Games yo can play in the playgrond*
Things yo can do in9 on9 or near the sea$
Animals that are se)l to hmans*
Things yo can se )or ctting*
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Things yo need )or camping*
Things yo wold )ind at a birthday party*
Parts o) a car*
Things that are so)t and cddly*
Things that yo only see at night*
Categories Attributes
Procedre* Ttor reads the words ot lod9 and writes in the answers that the
stdent sggests$ Some o) these are tric/yL :) yo canAt gess9 choose an
answer )rom the list below – bt try to co(er the list while yo are thin/ing abot
it$
$4am5les What ha3e they got in common2
,g. eagle& butterfly& bat animals that fly
0$ elephant9 hippo9 whale
!$ /angaroo9 rabbit9 )rog
3$ Hebra9 magpie9 panda bear
<$ possm9 tree sna/e9 orang,tan
#$ pig9 chic/en9 )ish
4$ leech9 tic/9 mos@ito
2$ elephant9 walrs9 wart hog
'$ taipan9 )nnelweb spider9 sea wasp
1$ /itten9 lamb9 pppy
0"$ dinosar9 dodo9 Tasmanian tiger
00$ gira))e9 ostrich9 em
0!9 parrot9 btter)ly9 tropical )ish
03$ cat9 )o>9 wild pig
0<$ shar/9 (ltre9 hyena
0#$ seagll9 pelican9 albatross
+.5:+7S*
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animals that hop
animals that hmans eat
animals with deadly stings
animals with long nec/s
animals with ts/s
baby animals
birds that eat )ish
blac/ and white animals
blood,sc/ing animals
color)l animals
e>tinct animals
)eral Astralian animals
sca(engers
tree,dwelling animals
(ery large animals
Scattergories
rocedure* thin/ o) an e>ample o) each category9 starting with the gi(en letter$
Ttor writes in the answers$ Gi(e cles i) necessary$
A wild animal9
insect or bird
A )rit or
(egetable
An item o)
clothing
A comic strip
or cartoon
character
S
D
B
T
R
P
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Categories D-dd -ne -ut9 (Animals)
rocedure* ttor reads ot the names o) animals$ Stdent says which one
doesnAt belong9 and e>plains why$ Ttor can write in brie) answers$ 7ncorage
the stdent to se )ll sentences$
0$ lion9 tiger9 leopard9 cow
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
!$ elephant9 mose9 hippopotams9 whale
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
3$ rabbit9 octops9 star)ish9 crab
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
<$ ginea pig9 /oala9 gold)ish9 canary
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
#$ eagle9 /oo/abrra9 dragon)ly9 magpie
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
4$ caterpillar9 )rog9 bee9 coc/roach
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
2$ owl9 sna/e9 liHard9 crocodile
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
'$ /itten9 cow9 lamb9 pppy
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
1$ mon/ey9 /oala9 possm9 deer
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
0"$ /oala9 /angaroo9 )rill,nec/ed liHard9 wombat
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
00$ em9 ostrich9 haw/9 pengin
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OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
0!$ btter)ly9 bat9 trtle9 mos@ito
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
03$ seagll9 salmon9 shar/9 tna
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
0<$ horse9 cat9 camel9 don/ey
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
Categories . Attributes ?uiE (Animals)
rocedure* ttor reads the @estions ot lod9 and writes in the answers that
the stdent sggest$ Gi(e cles i) necessary$
0$ 8ame two animals that li(e in the sea
!$ 8ame two wild animals with stripes
3$ 8ame two birds that canAt )ly
<$ 8ame two insects that sting
#$ 8ame two )arm animals that gi(e s meat
4$ 8ame two mammals that people can ride
2$ 8ame two animals with dangeros teeth
'$ 8ame two birds that can learn to tal/
1$ 8ame two noctrnal animals
0"$ 8ame two animals with poches
00$ 8ame two animals that growl
0!$ 8ame two )eatherless animals that lay eggs
03$ 8ame two animals that are help)l to )armers
0<$ 8ame two animals that are (ery intelligent
0#$ 8ame two animals with spi/es
04$ 8ame two )ish that people li/e to eat
02$ 8ame two white animals or birds
0'$ 8ame two blac/ animals or birds
01$ 8ame two animals with tentacles
!"$ 8ame two animals that ha(e starred in mo(ies
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What is Describing . Se1uencing2
Describing re)ers to the ability to e>plain an obEect9 e(ent or action with accracy9
logical se@ence and speci)ic (ocablary$ &hen we are describing obEects we
se a range o) adEecti(es and a speci)ic sentence that has a logical se@ence
e$g$ FA big9 yellow9 )l))y EmperG$ Se@encing re)ers to the ability to organise
thoghts and actions$ Stdents will )ind it di))iclt to comprehend a range o)
e(ents and pt them together in a logical se@ence e$g$ chapters in a story$
Se@encing di))iclties can also mean that sentence strctre will lac/ order and
se@enceC stdents may also )ind it di))iclt to se and nderstand conEnctions$
Describing and se@encing di))iclties mani)est themsel(es in many di))erent
ways and can impact pon many aspects o) the crriclm$ These di))iclties can
become (ery apparent when stdents are completing written pieces o) wor/$
Characteristics of Describing . Se1uencing Difficulties
A child with se@encing di))iclties might ha(e problems with*
• &ord order in sentences$
• Retelling stories and e(ents
• Describing a series o) actions in a tas/
• Temporal se@encing ()or e>ample nderstanding and sing the concepts
be)oreDa)ter9 morningDa)ternoon)
• Rote se@ences sch as the days o) the wee/ or the alphabet
• =ollowing a se@ence o) instrctions
• %sing conEnctions to constrct a piece o) spo/en or written wor/
• Langage seems to lac/ cohesion
• Langage o)ten appears concrete9 predictable and in)le>ible
Strategies for the Classroom
• Teach children the meaning o) common se@ential Mmar/ersA sch as the
words and phrases M)irstA9 Mand thenA9 MlastA$
• Demonstrate se@ences o) actions9 sch as the di))erent steps needed to
complete a tas/9 rather than Est sing tal/ing to e>plain
• Learn rote se@ences in small chn/s with lots o) repetition and re(ision ()or
e>ample chn/ the months o) the year into seasons so that children only need
to learn three months at a time initially)
• %se (isal aids sch as a timeline displayed in the classroom relating to the
wee/ mar/ing reglar and special e(ents
• Teach time (ocablary in a systematic way$ +oncepts sch as Mbe)oreA and
Ma)terA are di))iclt becase they change according to the period o) time yo are
re)erring to$ Start with concrete e>amples ()or e>ample pictre se@ences)$
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• Target the nderstanding o) time words be)ore yo e>pect yor child to se
them appropriately
Acti3ities for Describing . Se1uencing
8lock Talk
)aterials* set o) bloc/s
rocedure*
• .a(e the grop sit in a circle
arond a set o) bloc/s$ Gi(e the
stdents a topic word sch as
FappleG$ Then select one stdent
who mst say a statement abot
an FappleG sch FApples are good
to eatG$
• Then the stdent can stac/ one
bloc/ on top o) another$
• +ontine with another stdent
ma/ing a statement e$g$ F&orms
are in apples sometimesG then
the stdent can stac/ a bloc/ on
top o) the )irst two bloc/s$
• +ontine with other stdents
saying statements and stac/ing
bloc/s$
• The grop tries to ma/e the
stac/ as tall as possible$ &hen
the stac/ )alls start o(er again
with a new topic word$
/eelie 8ag
)aterials* a pillow case or similar
bag and miscellaneos obEects
rocedure*
• Pt one obEect in the bag$
• As/ a stdent to loo/ at the obEect
and then describe it to the rest o)
the grop withot saying its
name$
• The rest o) the grop tries to
gess what the obEect is9 based
on the descriptions$ The stdent
who gesses correctly9 now ta/es
a trn at describing$
• Ttor can ta/e the )irst trn and
model a good description$
• 7ncorage stdents to tal/ abot
)eatres sch as siHe9 shape9
color9 what the obEect is sed
)or9 the grop to which the obEect
belongs etcI
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Se1uencing Cards
)aterials* story se@ence pictres
0 set per child
rocedure*
• Discss se@ence o) pictres i$e$
 StartD)inish
 -iddleDand then
 7ndDlast
• As/ stdents to se@ence
pictres in order$
• As/ indi(idal stdents to
describe the acti(ity in each
pictre (one sentence per
pictre)$
• 8ow as/ each stdent to Ftell the
storyG abot the pictres by
himsel)$
icture A Story
)aterials* pictres o) obEects9
actions9 locations9 etc$
rocedure*
• +hildren sit in a circle$ Teacher
pro(ides each child with a pictre$
• Teacher begins telling a story by
gi(ing the opening sentence9 e$g$
F&hen : was wal/ing to school
I$G
• The )irst child in the circle then
ta/es p the story where the
teacher le)t o))9 adding one or two
sentences$ The child mst
inclde a word or content
prompted by their pictre in their
part o) the story9$ FI$ : saw a big
)erocios dog9 and IG
• The ne>t child in the circle
contines the story9 adding on to
the pre(ios childAs sentences9
and inclding their own target
word$
• The children contine the story
arond the circle ntil all stdents
ha(e had a trn9 or the story
comes to a logical conclsion$
• Start again with a new opening
sentence and di))erent pictres$
Some e>amples inclded F:
loo/ed p and sawIG &hen :
wo/e p this morningIG: stepped
throgh a magic door andIG
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I S5y
)aterials* spy glass – a rolled p
piece o) paper or tbe
rocedure*
• +hildren close eyes
• Teacher describes something in
room e$g$ : spy something small
and rond$ :t has nmbers on it
and ! hands$
• Gi(e e>tra cles i) children canAt
gess
• Gi(e children a trn at FspyingG
Action "ames
)aterials* none
rocedure*
Gi(e children instrctions that
in(ol(e )ollowing words sch as
M)irstA9 Mand thenA and MlastA$ =or
e>ample*
=irst clap yor hands and then
stand p
=irst Emp in the ble hoop and then
sit on the mat
%se the same langage in relation
to e(eryday instrctions in the

Who Is It
)aterials* pictre o) di))erent people
e$g$ )rom magaHines$
rocedure*
• Place pictres (0",0!) in )ront o)
the grop$
• +hildren ta/e trns describing a
person and the rest o) the grop
mst gess which person they
are describing$
• Ttor can ta/e the )irst trn and
model detailed descriptions e$g$
:Am thin/ing o) the person who
has blonde9 crly hair and is
wearing a red Emper$
Toy Story (Describing)
)aterials* toys (stdents cold
bring a )a(orite toy )rom home)
rocedure*
• Di(ide the class into small grops
• Grops sit in a circle9 each child
holding a toy
• +hildren de(ise a story sing the
toys as characters
• 7ach grop presents their story to
the rest o) the class9 sing the
toys to act ot the tale$
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classroom$
=or e>ample*
=irst tidy yor maths away then )ind
yor reading boo/s$ Last9 sit on the
carpet$
Story Se1uences
)aterials* pictres (a se@ence o)
e(ents)
rocedure*
• Arrange se@ences o) pictres
into the correct order and tal/
abot the story presented$
• Ko can se pblished materials9
pictres yo ha(e drawn or
photographs that yo ha(e
ta/en$ +hange the nmber o)
pictres (sch as )rom three to
si>) to ma/e the tas/ easier or
harder$
0ariation*
%se toy )igrines9 or cardboard ct
ots o) the characters o) a /nown
story boo/ to act ot the e(ents o) a
story which has been shared with
the class$
Comic Stri5 Se1uencing
)aterials* copies o) comic strips9
correction )lid
rocedure*
• %se the correction )lid to white
ot the te>t contained in the
cartoon speech balloons$
• Photocopy the amended comic
strip and pro(ide a copy to each
stdent$
• +hildren mst spply their own
words )or each o) the speech
balloons in the comic strip9
de(eloping a new story$
• Stdents swap their comic strips
• Teacher selects some stdents to
tell the story o) their )riendAs
comic strip to the rest o) the class
• +hildren shold be encoraged to
describe each panel o) the comic
strip in trn to prodce a cohesi(e
story$
0ariation*
• +hildren cold wor/ in pairs or
small grops to increase
discssion$ 5ne person )rom
each grop cold present the )inal
story$
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8efore And After
)aterials* Se@ence pictres
rocedure*
• The obEect o) this game is to
isolate a particlar e(ent in a
se@ence9 sing the prompts
Fbe)oreG and Fa)terG$
• Select ! children to play this
game and ha(e them come ot
to the )ront o) the classroom$
• Place a set o) Embled se@ence
cards in )ront o) the children and
ha(e them decide on an
appropriate arrangement o) the
se@ence$
• +hoose a se@ence o) a length
appropriate to the age and ability
o) the children$ Ko may choose
! children o) similar ability to play
with each other9 and se
materials o) corresponding
di))iclty$
• The teacher then chooses one o)
the pictre cards in the se@ence
bt does not tell the children
which has been chosen$
• :n trn the children try to gess
which pictre has been chosen$
• The child has to describe the
e(ent portrayed in their chosen
pictre in s))icient detail )or the
• The ne>t child attempts a gess
)rom the restricted )ield o)
pictres9 i$e$ those which are
be)ore or a)ter the pre(iosly
chosen pictre$
• +ontine ntil someone gesses
the right pictre$
• To ma/e the tas/ more di))iclt9
ta/e the se@ence pictres away
once the children ha(e arranged
them$
• Select one pictre9 and contine
as be)ore$
0ariation*
• %se a boo/ as the se@ence
pictres9 with the children mo(ing
)orward or bac/wards in the boo/
in response to be)ore and a)ter
prompts$
• Select an e(eryday se@ence9
e$g$ getting dressed9 ma/ing a
sandwich9 playing a game9 etc$
Tell the children that yo are
thin/ing o) one action in this
acti(ity$ .a(e the children ma/e
gesses in trn9 gi(ing the
Fbe)oreG and Fa)terG prompts as
appropriate$
• &ith older children yo cold se
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teacher to identi)y it$
• :) the pictre described is not the
target9 the teacher says Fbe)oreG
or Fa)terG in order to indicate
where the target lies in the
se@ence$
written sentences rather than
pictres9 or ct p a written story
into logical Fchn/sG$
Clue Chart /or Describing -bBects
+5L5%R
S.AP7
S:Q7
T7RT%R7 , how it )eels
L5+AT:58 – where it is )ond (high9 low9 corner)
-AT7R:AL , what it is made o)
PARTS – leg9 wheels9 slee(es9 bttons9 etc$
&7:G.T , hea(y9 light
P%RP5S7 , what do yo do with itJ
85:S7 , can it ma/e oneJ
-5?7 , )le>ible9 not )le>ible9 a part that trns
+AT7G5RK , )rnitre9 toy9 clothing9 (ehicle
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What is ragmatics2
Pragmatics is how we MseA langage in social sitations$ 5r langage adapts
depending on or commnication partner9 the en(ironment we are commnicating
in and what we are commnicating abot$ 5r pragmatics enables s to adEst or
langage so that it is appropriate )or each social sitation we are in$
Pragmatics in(ol(es both (erbal and non,(erbal aspects o) langage
(appro>imately 1"S o) in)ormation is commnicated non,(erbally to the listener)$
Pragmatics can a))ect thin/ing and reasoning s/ills (high le(el langage) this may
inclde*
• Problem sol(ing , the ability to se yor own e>perience to sol(e gi(en
problems
• %nderstanding abstract langage9 e$g$ idioms sch as F:Am plling yor legG or
metaphors sch as F.e was tied p all dayG
• Prediction , the ability to predict what may happen ne>t
• -a/ing in)erences and assmptions based on gi(en in)ormation (FReading
between the linesG)
• %nderstanding case and e))ect – the ability to nderstand relationships
between e(ents9 and the nderstanding o) conse@ences$
Characteristics of ragmatic Difficulty
• +hild has di))iclty initiating and sstaining con(ersation
• +hild does not ta/e trns appropriately9 and o)ten interrpts other spea/ers
• +hild has poor eye contact
• :nappropriate )acial acti(ity
• +hild changes topics inappropriately
• +hild has di))iclty se@encing a story and may gi(e nnecessary detail
• Langage may be non,speci)ic
• Does not respond when as/ed a @estion
• 8on,(erbal commnication does not match (erbal
• :ntonation does not match sitation9 e$g$ (oice is monotonos9 e(en when
interested in topic
• Dys)lent langage – stop D start9 repeat phrases9 words
• %ses style o) langage inappropriate to listener or sitation
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• +ontent is inappropriate to the listener or sitation
• -a/es comments that are interpreted as FrdeG or hrt)l by listeners
• Do not pic/ p on the non,(erbal signals o) others
• %se the same style o) langage in all sitations
• :nappropriate Fpro>emicsG9 e$g$ stand too close or too )ar away
• %nable to tal/ abot )eelings
• Di))iclty ma/ing )riends
• Poor perception o) )acial e>pression and (ocal ces
• Do not nderstand the langage con(entions o) social interaction9 e$g$ F.ow are
yoJG is not really an en@iry abot yor health
• Poor organisational s/ills$
Strategies for the Classroom
• Teach idioms be)ore sing them e$g$ F:tAs raining cats and dogsG by discssing
what they cold mean and why they ha(e this meaning$
• A(oid indirect langage e$g$ F+an yo close the windowG9 and instead as/
directly
• e$g$ FPlease close the windowG$
• :) the child )ails to respond to a @estion which has re@ired reasoning yo
can*
o Say part o) the answer and get them to complete it
o Gi(e them a choice o) answers to which they can say yes or no
o Lin/ in)ormation to their own e>periences e$g$ F&ere yo sad when
yo lost yor hatJG
o 7ncorage them to (erbalise their reasoning by as/ing F.ow do
yo /nowJG This will help them to come nderstand the steps they
went throgh to come to their conclsion$
• Praise appropriate eye contact
• Play trn ta/ing games
• :nterrpt inappropriate topic changes9 and remind child what it is yo are tal/ing
abot
• +arry ot e(ery day se@ences (e$g$ getting dressed9 ma/ing a sandwich)$ Tal/
abot each step9 as/ Twhat comes ne>tJT etcI
• Try sing Fsel) tal/G to describe e(eryday socially appropriate beha(iors in a
direct )ashion9 e$g$ F:Am Est chec/ing my clothes to ma/e sre : loo/ neat and
tidy be)ore : go into the classroomG
• As/ @estions which strctre responses9 e$g$ Twhat happened )irstJT9 Tthen
what happenedJT9 Twho did thatJT etcI
• .elp the child to organise e(ents by saying T8ow9 )irst yo OOOOOOOOO$ Then9
yo OOOOOOOOO$ &hat do yo do ne>tJT
• :ntrodce some se@encing acti(ities9 sch as retelling stories9 )ollowing
instrctions9 passing on messages9 be)ore and a)ter games
• Gi(e the child as mch opportnity as possible to con(erse and commnicate
• Rein)orce all attempts to commnicate
• Gi(e speci)ic )eedbac/ as to the childAs commnicati(e beha(iors
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• :denti)y areas o) wea/ness D sitations which are casing concern9 and teach
s/ills or strategies )or dealing with this sitation – discss ideas9 options and role
play the sitation
• 7dcate peers as to the speci)ic needs o) the indi(idal
• Bild p awareness o) non,(erbal commnication*
• child )ails to respond to a @estion which has re@ired reasoning yo can*
o Say part o) the answer and get them to complete it
o %se photos o) di))erent )acial e>pressions – label e>pressions9 identi)y
the accompanying emotions$
o :n a play sitation model di))erent )acial e>pression and ha(e child
identi)y the F)eelingG that goes with the )ace$
o Label e>pressions in an ongoing )ashion9 Fyo loo/ sadG9 F:Am happy$
Ko ga(e me a hgG9 F:Am angry$ Ko threw yo toy on the )loorG
interpret the )eelings o) others by commenting on the )acial
e>pressions and body langage9 F.e loo/s sad$ .is moth is trned
down9 and his sholders are droopingG$
o &atch (ideos9 and discss the interactions – what was good and
what was ine))ecti(e$ Tal/ abot )acial e>pressions and body
langage – try to decide how the characters were )eeling$
o Try watching (ideos with the sond trned down so that yo need to
rely on the non,(erbal commnication
o Practise ma/ing )acial e>pressions in )ront o) a mirror
• %se adio tapes to distingish how people are )eeling by the way their (oice
sonds
• Practise saying the same thing with di))erent intonation9 and discss how this
changes the meaning
• %se concrete ces to assist in establishing appropriate personal space
• Discss the ces to be aware o) in con(ersational settings which may indicate
that a participant is being inappropriate$ – role play sitations
• %se (isal prompts and reminders
• %se 8ews Plans* children can be gi(en a sheet o) paper with colmns mar/ed
ot$ They can draw a pictre )or each colmn9 plan their news9 tell their news
sing their plan9 and then write their news sing the plan$ :nitially9 begin with only
3 colmns*
W6- W6$&$ W6AT
People only place only , no people people and actions
The children can then as/ @estions on the basis o) the plan$ 7ncorage the
children to as/ @estions in order to elicit new in)ormation$
As the children increase their competence9 add the other @estions9 e$g$
W6$! W6- W6$&$ W6AT W6, /$$LI!"S
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• Teach s/ills one at a timeC be speci)ic as to the s/ill being addressed
• Generalise s/ills by practising them with people in the childAs en(ironment –
begin with more )amiliar people9 wor/ing towards those who are less well /nown
• 8egotiate an nobtrsi(e signal system to se with the child$ =or e>ample9 yo
might toch yor nose with yor inde> )inger when yo notice they ha(e
interrpted other spea/ers$ This may need to begin with a more ob(ios signal
and then be broght down to a more sbtle le(elC
• 7ncorage in(ol(ement in ot,o),school acti(ities in which the child is interested$
This may pro(ide opportnities to interact with children with similar interestsC
• Drama classes can be a se)l acti(ity9 as participants o)ten practice acting ot
particlar FscenariosG9 and )ocs on e>pression9 reactions and general
con)idence$
• -a/e transitions easier )or the child9 especially when mo(ing )rom a more
enEoyable acti(ity to a less )a(ored one – gi(e warning in ad(ance that a
change is coming9 and pro(ide some Fwind downG time
• Be a good model o) appropriate social s/ills
• DonAt attempt to teach these social s/ills at times o) high stress – wait ntil the
child is more com)ortable and rela>ed
• &hen teaching speci)ic s/ills*
o :denti)y the area o) wea/ness
o Discss the sitations where the di))iclty arises
o Discss some appropriate responses
o Discss what wold be an inappropriate response
o Tal/ abot the non,(erbal messages to loo/ ot )or : this sitation
o Role play the sitation (or role play9 demonstrate at any other o)
these le(els)
o Practice9 practice9 practice
o Generalise the beha(ior into other en(ironments9 e$g$ yo may gi(e
some members o) the class (not only the ones with di))iclties) an
assignment to se their s/ill in the playgrond in a gi(en lnchtimeC
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Social Stories
Social Stories are written to help a child who doesnAt always /now how to
manage particlar social sitations$ 7ach story begins with detailed in)ormation9
accrately describing the sitation$ This pro(ides the child with speci)ic
in)ormation abot "hat happens and "hy. Stories may also inclde desirable
responses and may be sed to prepare children )or new sitations$ Stories
shold contain descripti(e9 perspecti(e and directi(e sentences*
♦ .escriptive sentences describe what happens9 where the sitation occrs9
who is in(ol(ed and what they are doing and why$ The sentences shold be
as accrate as possible and shold inclde terms sch as MsallyA or
MsometimesA rather than MalwaysA in order to a(oid literal interpretations and
help the ppil to cope with possible changes$
♦ Perspective sentences describe the reaction and response o) others in the
target sitation and sometimes the reasons )or their response9 and may
describe the )eelings o) others$

♦ .irective sentences describe desired responses to social sitations9 and tell
the child9 in positi(e terms9 what he or she shold try to do or say in the target
sitation$ As some children interpret langage literally9 it is important to a(oid
statements that are in)le>ible9 and it is pre)erable to se terms sch as M: will
try to9A rather than M: canAtA or M: will$A
There shold be between two and )i(e descriptive and perspective sentences to
e(ery directive sentence in a story$ .irective sentences may not always be
necessary9 howe(er$ This )ormla ensres that the ppil is pro(ided with enogh
detailed in)ormation abot the target sitation and that the story does not become
a list o) things to do$
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Sit down with the child and tal/ abot the target sitation$ Get them to gi(e yo a
description abot what happens$ &hen writing the story9 try and se their words
as mch as possible$ :tAs o/ay to add an adltAs perspecti(e9 bt tal/ abot it with
the child$
A social story shold be easy to nderstand and shold there)ore contain simple
langage$ Pictres (either drawn by the ppil9 an adlt or photographs) can be
sed to illstrate the story$
The story shold be ready daily at )irst and9 i) possible9 immediately be)ore the
target sitations$ Stories shold be /ept in a place that the stdent can easily
access independently$
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$4am5les of Social Stories
LUNCH TIME
♦ Be)ore lnch : am sally in the classroom$
♦ A teacher tells me when it is time to go and ha(e lnch$
♦ : get my lnch bo>9 and then : wal/ to the seats$
♦ &hen : go ot )or lnch9 there are lots o) people there$ %sally9 it is not Est my
class$
♦ A grown,p sally shows me where to sit$
♦ There are lots o) children on the seats who are tal/ing at the same time$
♦ :) the children get too noisy9 a grown,p as/s them to tal/ @ietly$
♦ Sometimes children )orget to close their moths when they are eating$
♦ : will try to stay calm and @iet i) : see children opening their moths when they
are eating$
♦ : will try to eat my own lnch and not worry abot the way the other children are
eating their lnch$
PLAYING WITH LEGO
♦ Sometimes there is lego ot to play with$
♦ Sometimes : can play by mysel)9 and : can play with all o) the lego$ Then : can
ma/e log bses$
♦ Sometimes other children want to play at the same time$
♦ &hen other children want to play9 : will try and share the lego$
♦ &hen : try to share9 : cold ma/e other things li/e short bses or cars$
+$ Rowe9 0111 British ;ornal o) Special 7dcation$
Speech and Lanage Therapy
St Leonards Primary +are +entre9 8ttall St9 80 #LQ
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Language Strategies & Activities for the Classroom LAP Central Coast Complied by A. Walla Speech Pathologist 200
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Creating a 0isual Classroom to Su55ort Language
A (isal classroom in(ol(es sing (isal in)ormation to help stdents to
nderstand what is happening in the en(ironment arond them$ This may
in(ol(e sing photos9 pictres9 diagrams andDor symbols to spport the (erbal
in)ormation that is being gi(en$ =or stdents with langage and commnication
di))iclties a classroom can be a noisy and distracting en(ironment9 this ma/es it
di))iclt to M)ilter otA and )ocs on what is important$ ?isal commnication tools
assist stdents by helping them to )ocs on important in)ormation and aim to
spport their di))iclties comprehending or e>pressing themsel(es$
-any children with langage and commnication di))iclties )ind it hard to
nderstand (erbal in)ormation9 di))iclties may inclde*
• Di))iclties nderstanding the strctre o) their day9 and the di))erent acti(ities
that will be happening dring their day$
• %nderstanding the order in which things will be happening dring the day or
the wee/$
• %nderstanding (erbal instrctions which are gi(en to them$
• %nderstanding speci)ic words9 inclding new (ocablary which has been
introdced at school or at home$
• Di))iclties thin/ing o) the words which they want to say$
• Di))iclties sing langage to tal/ to other people$
?isal in)ormation is mch easier )or children with langage and commnication
di))iclties to nderstand$ %nli/e spo/en words9 (isal in)ormation does not )ade
away9 and is there)ore more concrete$ ?isal tools are not designed to replace
spo/en langage9 they are there to spport it9 so when sing (isal spports
ma/e sre yo tal/ as well$
?isal Tools +an .elp Stdents*
• 7stablish and maintain attention
• Stay )ocsed and complete instrctions
• %nderstand what is e>pected o) them
• +omplete tas/s and acti(ities
?isal Tools +an .elp Teachers*
• Spend less time redirecting and repeating instrctions
• Redce the intensity o) spport needed )or many stdents
• Promote the consistent se o) langage )or (erbal re@ests and directions
• Assist and spport classroom management
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I hear & I forget
I see & I remember
I do & I understand
- Chinese Proverb
Strategies for the Classroom
• %sing a carpet tileD piece o) tape or a chair to designate a ppilAs space in the
classroom and where they need to sit$
• %sing a photo or a symbol to emphasise what beha(iors or actions are
e>pected )rom the child e$g$ Listen9 Loo/9 &ait$
• %sing photo or pictre material to represent new (ocablary or topics which
are being introdced in the classroom$
• %sing a pictre schedle with a photo or a symbol )or each acti(ity9 to ma/e a
(isal record o) the strctre o) the day$
• +learly mar/ing ot di))erent areas o) the classroom e$g$ -o(ing )rnitre into
di))erent positions to section o)) areas9 ptting tape on the )loor to mar/ ot
areas$
• -a/ing a pictre or photo boo/ o) new (ocablary9 li/e a pictre dictionary$
The child can loo/ throgh the boo/ reglarly to rein)orce learning o) new
words$
• Demonstrate the acti(ity or action9 rather than Est tal/ing abot it$
What ictures Do I #se2
?isal tools are designed and implemented to spport and de(elop
comprehension o) spo/en langage$ =or (isal tools to be sccess)l the method
)or selecting what type o) pictres to se is important9 some pictres are easier to
comprehend compared to others$ Below is a list o) (isal tools arranged )rom
easiest to more di))iclt$ &hen selecting pictres always consider yor stdents
needs and abilities$
)eal ob5ects  Parts of ob5ects  Photos Pictures  Line .ra"ings  Written
Words
7asiest -ore Di))iclt

$4am5les of 0isual Tools
?isal Timetable
A (isal timetable shows the acti(ities a person is going to do in a long period o)
time9 sch as a morning9 a)ternoon or whole day$ :t incldes e(ents sch as
mar/ing the roll9 maths9 cra)t9 lnch time and home$ This is di))erent to a task
schedule9 which sets ot the acti(ities and steps o) one acti(ity9 )or e>ample
cra)t* ct9 color in and gle$ The timetable needs to be pt in a place where the
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child can easily see and yo can reach it -a/e sre it is /ept in the same place
so that sDhe will always /now where to go$
7>ample o) a ?isal Timetable
Day o) the wee/
?elcro
SymbolsDphotographs
)or each acti(ity
PochDbo> )or
acti(ities that ha(e
)inished9 below the timetable
Tas/ Schedle
A tas/ schedle is simple procedres or MrecipesA )or classroom acti(ities$ They
are great )or stdents who ha(e di))iclty completing tas/s9 remembering a
se@ence o) steps within a tas/ and ha(e comprehension di))iclties$ Tas/s
schedles tell stdents what materials they need to do the tas/ and what steps to
ta/e to complete it$
7>ample o) a Tas/ Schedle


Language Strategies & Activities for the Classroom LAP Central Coast Complied by A. Walla Speech Pathologist 200
20
Rotines and Transition
?isal tools assist stdents in comprehending rles9 rotines and classroom
e>pectations$ Some e>amples or (isal tools to spport rotines and transition
inclde*
Language Strategies & Activities for the Classroom LAP Central Coast Complied by A. Walla Speech Pathologist 200
2!
!he above information on visual tools "as adapted from an article "ritten by 4risten
Pattison @Speech PathologistA. !he article used original information from L.<odgdon.
;?isual Strategies for 7mproving Communication= @0BBA.
Pictures from %oardma#er
#seful &esources
The )ollowing is a list o) resorces that ha(e been )ond to be se)l in wor/ing
with langage disordered children*
&$/$&$!C$ 8--%S
Language Assessment and 7ntervention for the Learning .isabled& &iig and
Semel9 -errill
An 7ntroduction to Children With Language .isorders& ?$A$ Reed9 -acmillan
.irecting ,arly .iscourse& -arion Blan/9 +ommnication S/ill Bilders
.irecting School .iscourse& -arion Blan/9 +ommnication S/ill Bilders
,ffective Cuestioning9 -c+andlish 6 &ebb9 .elios
Last Pic#ed& 'irst Pic#ed +n& Richard La(oie9 011<
'riendly 4ids& 'riendly Classrooms9 .elen -cGrath and Shona =rancey9
Longman
ACTI0IT, 8--%S and W-&%8--%S
Classroom Listening and Spea#ing (+LAS) Series9 Lyn Plorde9
+ommnication S/ill Bilders (A(ailable )rom pro,ed Astralia – "2 ## 14"
144)
<,LP Series o) &or/boo/s9 Lingisystems (pro,ed)
CL7P &or/boo/s (-orphology9 Synta>9 Semantics9 Pragmatics)9
+ommnication S/ill Bilders9 Psychological +orporation
Story Stuff& Se3uencing Stuff& Con5unctions Stuff& Rebecca +lar/ ("! 11'<
1!21)9 .eidi Rees ("! 11"10!<1)
=ran/ Scha))er Pblications , blac/line masters and se@encing cards
(Dominie)
D'rog..D series o) wordless pictre boo/s9 -ercer -ayer
!hin# 7t - Say 7t & L$ -artin9 pro,ed
7diom Wor#boo# series& -$ Aslin (2 boo/s)9 pro,ed
Learning to Listen and )emember: A story telling program& -a@arie
%ni(ersity Special 7dcation +entre
Choose !our Way (ameboo#s @e.g. !he 7sland of <orror& !he castle of
'earA& P$Brston9 &al/er Boo/s
,9ercises for .escriptive Language& L$ -attes9 A+A9 Sil(ereye
Se3uencing (ames and Activities& Academic +ommnication Associates9
Sil(ereye
,lementary Communication (ames9 ;$ .ad)ield9 8elson
Language Strategies & Activities for the Classroom LAP Central Coast Complied by A. Walla Speech Pathologist 200
23
7ntermediate Communication (ames9 ;$ .ad)ield9 8elson
Advanced Communication (ames9 ;$ .ad)ield9 8elson
Social Communication S#ills for Children& -cGann and &er(en9 pro,ed
+ral Language Activities for Special Children9 D$ -anni>9 Sil(ereye
'riendly 4ids& 'riendly Classrooms9 .elen -cGrath and Shona =rancey9
Longman
Language Strategies & Activities for the Classroom LAP Central Coast Complied by A. Walla Speech Pathologist 200
2<