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You are on page 1of 14

1.0 Introduction

Our interest so far has been focused on the

series impedance part of the transmission

line model. This is the part of the

transmission line for which a voltage drops

as loading current increases, and the voltage

drop always leads the current that caused it

(or the current lags the voltage).

Another effect is that leading current is

produced as a function of the voltage at a

bus. This effect is caused by capacitance. In

the case of overhead lines, there is

capacitance between phases and also

between each phase and ground. Which is

larger

!ecall the relation for capacitance of a

parallel plate configuration"

d

A

C

(#)

#

where $ is the permittivity of the medium

between the plates ($%&.&'()#*

+#,

f-m), A is

the area of one of the plates, and d is the

distance of separation between them. .ote

that as d decreases, / increases. 0or

overhead lines, the separation between

phases is significantly less than the height of

the conductor. As a result, the phase+to+

phase capacitance is the dominating

influence.

What does this do to currents !ecall that

1

c

%#-2/, so as / goes up, reactance goes

down. 0or a shunt capacitor, the current is

given by 3-41

/

, so for greater capacitance,

for a given voltage, we get more charging

currents.

Example 3.7: Infinite niforml! "har#ed

"onductor

,

/onsider a charge 5 on infinitely long

conductor of length h and radius r. (This

charge 5 is not related to the current flow6

in fact, you can assume no current is flowing

if you li7e.) Then the charge density is

hq Q

h

Q

q

(,)

.ow consider a cylindrical surface, 0ig. #,

with a cylinder enclosing the conductor

having surface area A. The radius of the

cylinder (measured from the centerline of

the conductor) is !, where !88r.

h

!

9

9

9

9

9

9 9

9

9

9

9

9 9

9

9

9 9

0ig. #

:efine E (volts-meter) as the electric field

intensity and $ (coulomb-m

,

) as the electric

flu; density, both vectors directed radially

outwards from the conductor such that

<

E D

(<)

=ere,

r

0

,where

meter f % 10 &' . &

1(

0

. Also define

da as a vector of differential length normal

and outwards to the surface of the cylinder.

Then recall >auss? law for electric fields

which says that the surface integral of the

dot product of $ and da e@uals the charge

enclosed, i.e.,

qh Q da D

A

(()

Integrating about the cylindrical surface, we

obtain"

R

q

D qh Rh D

(

) ( *

(')

This is e@. (<.(() in the te;t.

Aubstituting e@. (<) into e@. (') results in

R

q

E

(

(B)

.ow recall potential difference between two

points in space C

D

and C

E

that are located

distances !

D

and !

E

, respectively, from the

centerline of the conductor, is obtained by

R

R

R

R

P P

dl E dl E v v v

(F)

(

The first integral in (F) is positive if C

E

is

closer to the charge than C

D

. Aince E and dl

are both in the radially outwards direction,

using e@. (B), with ! replaced by l, we have

R

R q

R

R

q

R R

q

dl

l

q

dl

l

q

dl E v

R

R

R

R

R

R

ln

(

ln

(

) ln *ln

(

1

(

(

(&)

G@uation (&) is identical to (<.(&) in the te;t.

(.0 +,o-,ire confi#uration

.ote that the te;t does not do this case.

/onsider two straight infinitely long

conductors separated in space by a distance

!

#,

, having radii of r

#

and r

,

, respectively.

C

E

C

D

@

,

@

#

!

#,

0ig. ,

'

We desire to obtain the potential difference

between two arbitrary points in space, C

E

and C

D

, due to the charges residing on

conductors # and ,, @

#

and @

,

.

Our approach is using superposition, to get"

) 1 *

v

, the potential difference due to @

#

, and

) ( *

v

, the potential difference due to @

,

.

Then we add to get total potential difference.

0rom e@. (&), we 7now that the potential

difference between two points !

E#

and !

D#

away from conductor # is given by

1

1 1 ) 1 *

ln

(

R

R q

v

(H)

Ii7ewise, the potential difference between

two points !

E,

and !

D,

away from conductor

, is given by

(

( ( ) ( *

ln

(

R

R q

v

(#*)

Then, by superposition,

'

+

+ +

(

(

(

1

1

1

(

( (

1

1 1 ) ( * ) 1 *

ln ln

(

1

ln

(

ln

(

R

R

q

R

R

q

R

R q

R

R q

v v v

(##)

B

3.0 .ulti-,ire confi#uration

/onsider having n charged conductors

labeled #,J,n. Then e@. (##) generaliKes,

and we may obtain the voltage drop between

any two points C

E

and C

D

in space as

'

+ +

n

i i

i

i

n

n

n

R

R

q

R

R

q

R

R

q v

1 1

1

1

ln

(

1

ln ... ln

(

1

(#,)

G@uation (#,) is identical to (<.(H) in te;t.

We desire to obtain an e;pression for

potential difference between point C

E

and a

reference point C

D

, where C

D

is far away

from the conductor, so far, in fact, that its

potential will be Kero so that v

ED

Lut this will ma7e each term in e@. (#,) very

large in positive direction because !

Di

will be

very large (note that placing point C

D

on the

F

conductor and point C

E

far away does not

help because doing this will only ma7e each

term very large in negative direction).

Aome tric7y manipulation will help us here.

This manipulation depends on one very

important assumption, and that is that the

charges on the conductors sum to Kero. This

will be the case if the voltages sum to Kero,

since @%/v, which is true for three+phase

transmission systems. This means that

0

1

n

i

i

q

(#<)

G@uation (#<) is same as (<.'*) in te;t.

.ote that if (#<) is true, then multiplying

each term by a constant Mln(!

D#

)-,N$ will not

change the fact that it sums to Kero, i.e.,

0 ln

(

1

0

(

) ln*

1

1

1

1

n

i

i

n

i

i

R q q

R

(#()

G@uation (#() is same as (<.',) in te;t. The

usefulness of e@. (#() will be apparent in

what we do ne;t.

&

!eturning to e@. (#,), let?s e;pand the

logarithm terms to get"

+

n

i

i i

n

i i

i

R q

R

q v

1 1

ln

(

1 1

ln

(

1

(#')

This is the same as e@. (<.'#) in the te;t.

Aince the left+hand+side of e@. (#() e@uals *,

we can add it to the right+hand+side of e@.

(#') to obtain"

+

n

i

i

n

i

i i

n

i i

i

R q R q

R

q v

1

1

1 1

ln

(

1

ln

(

1 1

ln

(

1

(#B)

.ow combine the second and third

summations in e@. (#B) to get"

( )

,

_

+

+

n

i

i

i

n

i i

i

n

i

i i

n

i i

i

R

R

q

R

q

R R q

R

q v

1 1 1

1

1

1

ln

(

1 1

ln

(

1

ln ln

(

1 1

ln

(

1

(#F)

Ta7e the limit as the point C

D

is moved to O"

,

_

,

_

n

i i

i

n

i

i

i

n

i i

i

n i

R

P

R

q

R

R

q

R

q

v v

i

1

1 1 1

/../ 1

1

ln

(

1

ln

(

1 1

ln

(

1

lim

lim

(#&)

G@uation (#&) is the same as (<.'() in te;t. It

can be used to compute the voltage between

H

any point C

E

and a distant reference

(ground). .ote that this voltage depends on

the charges on all conductors.

To clarify, !

Ei

is the distance between C

E

and

the center of the i

th

conductor. If C

E

is on the

i

th

conductor, then !

Ei

is the radius of the i

th

conductor.

0or e;ample, we can compute the voltage at

a point on conductor P# of an n+conductor

configuration as"

n

i i

i

R

q v

1 1

1

1

ln

(

1

(#H)

G@uation (#H) is same as e@. (<.'') in te;t.

Te;t on page F& indicates that Qwhile

physical considerations indicate that the

surface of conductor # is an e@uipotential

surface, application of (<.'') gives slightly

different results for different choices of

points on the surface.R

What this means can be viewed easily in the

two conductor case, as shown in 0ig. <,

#*

where we see that different positions for the

point on conductor P#, C

#

(represented by

the blac7 dot), yield different !

#,

(distance

from C

#

to centerline of conductor ,).

:ifferent positions for C

#

yield different !

#,

@

#

@

,

0ig. <

0or this case, because !

#,

is normally much

greater than the conductor radius, we can

assume that the !

#,

is 4ust the distance

between centerlines of the two conductors.

0or the more general case of multiple

conductors, as given by e@. (#H),

n

i i

i

R

q v

1 1

1

1

ln

(

1

(#H)

we use the following notation"

!

##

%r

#

, the radius of conductor P#.

!

#i

%d

#i

, the distance between centerlines

of conductors # and i.

With this notation, e@. (#H) becomes"

##

,

_

+ + +

n

n

d

q

d

q

r

q v

1 1(

(

1

1 1

1

ln ...

1

ln

1

ln

(

1

(,*)

This is same as e@. (<.'B) in te;t.

And the general case is, for conductor 7"

,

_

+ + + +

kn

n

k

k

k k

k

d

q

r

q

d

q

d

q v

1

ln ...

1

ln ...

1

ln

1

ln

(

1

(

(

1

1

(,#)

This is the same as e@. (<.'F) in te;t and is

the fundamental relation for developing

e;pressions for potential at a conductor due

to charged conductors.

The general approach to derive capacitance

for a particular three+phase configuration of

conductors is

#. Write down the voltage e@uation, e@.

(,#), for the given geometry

,. Sse @

#

9@

,

9@

<

%* to e;press the voltage

e@uation in terms of only @

#

(or @

a

).

<. Aolve for @

#

-v

#

%/

#

.

These steps are similar to the steps

employed for deriving inductance

e;pressions and so we will not spend time

#,

on them. !ather, we will 4ust summariKe, on

the ne;t page, the capacitance relations for

different geometries.

AummariKing the main derivations for

computing capacitance, we have"

#. /apacitance of phase a to neutral, in f-m,

for e@uilateral configuration, unbundled"

) % ln*

(

r D

c

a

(,,)

where D is distance between phases and r

is conductor radius. This is (<.B#) in te;t.

,. /apacitance of phase a to neutral, f-m,

for asymmetrical phase configuration,

transposed, bundled"

) % ln*

(

c

b m

a

R D

c

(,<)

#<

where :

m

is the >T: between phases as

developed for inductance"

( )

3 % 1

) 3 * ) ( * ) 1 *

ab ab ab m

d d d D

and

c

b

R

is /apacitive >T! for the bundle"

( )

( )

( ) bundle conductor ( for ,

bundle conductor < for ,

bundle conductor , for ,

#-(

#( #< #,

< - #

#< #,

, - #

#,

d d rd

d rd

rd R

c

b

capacitive >T! >T! uses r whereas

capacitive >T! 4ust uses r.

Aome last comments"

The capacitance you compute using the

above e;pressions is typically e;pressed in

terms of shunt susceptance per unit length,

with units of mhos-meter. To do this, use

C B

c

(,()

(.ote that 1

c

%#-L

c

).

It is typical in modeling transmission lines

in a power flow program to compute

L%L

c

U(line length) and then model L-, at

each end of the line.

#(

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