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1.0 Introduction
Our interest so far has been focused on the
series impedance part of the transmission
line model. This is the part of the
transmission line for which a voltage drops
drop always leads the current that caused it
(or the current lags the voltage).
Another effect is that leading current is
produced as a function of the voltage at a
bus. This effect is caused by capacitance. In
the case of overhead lines, there is
capacitance between phases and also
between each phase and ground. Which is
larger
!ecall the relation for capacitance of a
parallel plate configuration"
d
A
C

(#)
#
where \$ is the permittivity of the medium
between the plates (\$%&.&'()#*
+#,
f-m), A is
the area of one of the plates, and d is the
distance of separation between them. .ote
that as d decreases, / increases. 0or
phases is significantly less than the height of
the conductor. As a result, the phase+to+
phase capacitance is the dominating
influence.
What does this do to currents !ecall that
1
c
%#-2/, so as / goes up, reactance goes
down. 0or a shunt capacitor, the current is
given by 3-41
/
, so for greater capacitance,
for a given voltage, we get more charging
currents.
Example 3.7: Infinite niforml! "har#ed
"onductor
,
/onsider a charge 5 on infinitely long
conductor of length h and radius r. (This
charge 5 is not related to the current flow6
in fact, you can assume no current is flowing
if you li7e.) Then the charge density is
hq Q
h
Q
q
(,)
.ow consider a cylindrical surface, 0ig. #,
with a cylinder enclosing the conductor
having surface area A. The radius of the
cylinder (measured from the centerline of
the conductor) is !, where !88r.

h
!
9
9
9
9
9
9 9
9
9
9
9
9 9
9
9
9 9
0ig. #
:efine E (volts-meter) as the electric field
intensity and \$ (coulomb-m
,
) as the electric
flu; density, both vectors directed radially
outwards from the conductor such that
<
E D
(<)
=ere,
r

0

,where
meter f % 10 &' . &
1(
0

. Also define
da as a vector of differential length normal
and outwards to the surface of the cylinder.
Then recall >auss? law for electric fields
which says that the surface integral of the
dot product of \$ and da e@uals the charge
enclosed, i.e.,
qh Q da D
A

(()
Integrating about the cylindrical surface, we
obtain"
R
q
D qh Rh D

(
) ( *
(')
This is e@. (<.(() in the te;t.
Aubstituting e@. (<) into e@. (') results in
R
q
E
(

(B)
.ow recall potential difference between two
points in space C
D
and C
E
that are located
distances !
D
and !
E
, respectively, from the
centerline of the conductor, is obtained by

R
R
R
R
P P
dl E dl E v v v
(F)
(
The first integral in (F) is positive if C
E
is
closer to the charge than C
D
. Aince E and dl
are both in the radially outwards direction,
using e@. (B), with ! replaced by l, we have

R
R q
R
R
q
R R
q
dl
l
q
dl
l
q
dl E v
R
R
R
R
R
R
ln
(
ln
(
) ln *ln
(
1
(
(

(&)
G@uation (&) is identical to (<.(&) in the te;t.
(.0 +,o-,ire confi#uration
.ote that the te;t does not do this case.
/onsider two straight infinitely long
conductors separated in space by a distance
!
#,
#
and r
,
, respectively.

C
E
C
D
@
,

@
#

!
#,

0ig. ,
'
We desire to obtain the potential difference
between two arbitrary points in space, C
E
and C
D
, due to the charges residing on
conductors # and ,, @
#
and @
,
.
Our approach is using superposition, to get"

) 1 *

v
, the potential difference due to @
#
, and

) ( *

v
, the potential difference due to @
,
.
Then we add to get total potential difference.
0rom e@. (&), we 7now that the potential
difference between two points !
E#
and !
D#
away from conductor # is given by
1
1 1 ) 1 *
ln
(

R
R q
v
(H)
Ii7ewise, the potential difference between
two points !
E,
and !
D,
away from conductor
, is given by
(
( ( ) ( *
ln
(

R
R q
v
(#*)
Then, by superposition,

'

+
+ +
(
(
(
1
1
1
(
( (
1
1 1 ) ( * ) 1 *
ln ln
(
1
ln
(
ln
(

R
R
q
R
R
q
R
R q
R
R q
v v v
(##)
B
3.0 .ulti-,ire confi#uration
/onsider having n charged conductors
labeled #,J,n. Then e@. (##) generaliKes,
and we may obtain the voltage drop between
any two points C
E
and C
D
in space as

'

+ +
n
i i
i
i
n
n
n
R
R
q
R
R
q
R
R
q v
1 1
1
1
ln
(
1
ln ... ln
(
1

(#,)
G@uation (#,) is identical to (<.(H) in te;t.
We desire to obtain an e;pression for
potential difference between point C
E
and a
reference point C
D
, where C
D
is far away
from the conductor, so far, in fact, that its
potential will be Kero so that v
ED
Lut this will ma7e each term in e@. (#,) very
large in positive direction because !
Di
will be
very large (note that placing point C
D
on the
F
conductor and point C
E
far away does not
help because doing this will only ma7e each
term very large in negative direction).
Aome tric7y manipulation will help us here.
This manipulation depends on one very
important assumption, and that is that the
charges on the conductors sum to Kero. This
will be the case if the voltages sum to Kero,
since @%/v, which is true for three+phase
transmission systems. This means that
0
1

n
i
i
q
(#<)
G@uation (#<) is same as (<.'*) in te;t.
.ote that if (#<) is true, then multiplying
each term by a constant Mln(!
D#
)-,N\$ will not
change the fact that it sums to Kero, i.e.,
0 ln
(
1
0
(
) ln*
1
1
1
1

n
i
i
n
i
i
R q q
R

(#()
G@uation (#() is same as (<.',) in te;t. The
usefulness of e@. (#() will be apparent in
what we do ne;t.
&
!eturning to e@. (#,), let?s e;pand the
logarithm terms to get"

+
n
i
i i
n
i i
i
R q
R
q v
1 1
ln
(
1 1
ln
(
1

(#')
This is the same as e@. (<.'#) in the te;t.
Aince the left+hand+side of e@. (#() e@uals *,
we can add it to the right+hand+side of e@.
(#') to obtain"

+
n
i
i
n
i
i i
n
i i
i
R q R q
R
q v
1
1
1 1
ln
(
1
ln
(
1 1
ln
(
1

(#B)
.ow combine the second and third
summations in e@. (#B) to get"
( )

,
_

+
+
n
i
i
i
n
i i
i
n
i
i i
n
i i
i
R
R
q
R
q
R R q
R
q v
1 1 1
1
1
1
ln
(
1 1
ln
(
1
ln ln
(
1 1
ln
(
1

(#F)
Ta7e the limit as the point C
D
is moved to O"

,
_

,
_

n
i i
i
n
i
i
i
n
i i
i
n i
R
P
R
q
R
R
q
R
q
v v
i
1
1 1 1
/../ 1
1
ln
(
1
ln
(
1 1
ln
(
1
lim
lim

(#&)
G@uation (#&) is the same as (<.'() in te;t. It
can be used to compute the voltage between
H
any point C
E
and a distant reference
(ground). .ote that this voltage depends on
the charges on all conductors.
To clarify, !
Ei
is the distance between C
E
and
the center of the i
th
conductor. If C
E
is on the
i
th
conductor, then !
Ei
is the radius of the i
th
conductor.
0or e;ample, we can compute the voltage at
a point on conductor P# of an n+conductor
configuration as"

n
i i
i
R
q v
1 1
1
1
ln
(
1

(#H)
G@uation (#H) is same as e@. (<.'') in te;t.
Te;t on page F& indicates that Qwhile
physical considerations indicate that the
surface of conductor # is an e@uipotential
surface, application of (<.'') gives slightly
different results for different choices of
points on the surface.R
What this means can be viewed easily in the
two conductor case, as shown in 0ig. <,
#*
where we see that different positions for the
point on conductor P#, C
#
(represented by
the blac7 dot), yield different !
#,
(distance
from C
#
to centerline of conductor ,).

:ifferent positions for C
#
yield different !
#,
@
#

@
,

0ig. <
0or this case, because !
#,
is normally much
greater than the conductor radius, we can
assume that the !
#,
is 4ust the distance
between centerlines of the two conductors.
0or the more general case of multiple
conductors, as given by e@. (#H),

n
i i
i
R
q v
1 1
1
1
ln
(
1

(#H)
we use the following notation"
!
##
%r
#
, the radius of conductor P#.
!
#i
%d
#i
, the distance between centerlines
of conductors # and i.
With this notation, e@. (#H) becomes"
##

,
_

+ + +
n
n
d
q
d
q
r
q v
1 1(
(
1
1 1
1
ln ...
1
ln
1
ln
(
1

(,*)
This is same as e@. (<.'B) in te;t.
And the general case is, for conductor 7"

,
_

+ + + +
kn
n
k
k
k k
k
d
q
r
q
d
q
d
q v
1
ln ...
1
ln ...
1
ln
1
ln
(
1
(
(
1
1

(,#)
This is the same as e@. (<.'F) in te;t and is
the fundamental relation for developing
e;pressions for potential at a conductor due
to charged conductors.
The general approach to derive capacitance
for a particular three+phase configuration of
conductors is
#. Write down the voltage e@uation, e@.
(,#), for the given geometry
,. Sse @
#
9@
,
9@
<
%* to e;press the voltage
e@uation in terms of only @
#
(or @
a
).
<. Aolve for @
#
-v
#
%/
#
.
These steps are similar to the steps
employed for deriving inductance
e;pressions and so we will not spend time
#,
on them. !ather, we will 4ust summariKe, on
the ne;t page, the capacitance relations for
different geometries.
AummariKing the main derivations for
computing capacitance, we have"
#. /apacitance of phase a to neutral, in f-m,
for e@uilateral configuration, unbundled"
) % ln*
(
r D
c
a

(,,)
where D is distance between phases and r
is conductor radius. This is (<.B#) in te;t.
,. /apacitance of phase a to neutral, f-m,
for asymmetrical phase configuration,
transposed, bundled"
) % ln*
(
c
b m
a
R D
c

(,<)
#<
where :
m
is the >T: between phases as
developed for inductance"
( )
3 % 1
) 3 * ) ( * ) 1 *
ab ab ab m
d d d D
and
c
b
R
is /apacitive >T! for the bundle"
( )
( )
( ) bundle conductor ( for ,
bundle conductor < for ,
bundle conductor , for ,
#-(
#( #< #,
< - #
#< #,
, - #
#,
d d rd
d rd
rd R
c
b

## What is difference between >T! and

capacitive >T! >T! uses r whereas
capacitive >T! 4ust uses r.
The capacitance you compute using the
above e;pressions is typically e;pressed in
terms of shunt susceptance per unit length,
with units of mhos-meter. To do this, use
C B
c

(,()
(.ote that 1
c
%#-L
c
).
It is typical in modeling transmission lines
in a power flow program to compute
L%L
c
U(line length) and then model L-, at
each end of the line.
#(