In the Name of Zeus

Notes (2) to Zeus by Arthur Bernard Cook (1925)
jwr4
• referring to:Zeus a Study in Ancient Religion Vol 2 Part I (1925) by Arthur Bernard Cook
The double axe and the Labyrinth
1
If e ere right in thinking that !abranda as called "the #lace of the $ouble A%e" because
re#eatedly struck by lightning&' e (ust gi)e a like e%#lanation of !abyrinthos*
+he #lace here the lightning fell in the for( of the sky,god"s a%e ould be dee(ed s#ecially
sacred to the sky,god*
+he Cretan double a%e as' in (y o#inion' #ri(arily the attribute of -ronos and only secondarily'
if at all' the attribute of Rhea* .ith the fall of the "/inoan" ci)ili0ation the a%e #assed fro( the old
sky,god -ronos to the ne sky,god Zeus' throughout #reser)ing its character as the tangible token
of the lightning,flash*
The duplication of the double axe
2
Sir Arthur 1)ans' ithout indulging in such subtleties' risks a si(ilar con2ecture a #ro#os of the
sa(e ring: " +he curious redu#lication of the a%e blades suggests indeed that it stands as an i(age of
the con2unction of the di)ine #air3a solar and a lunar di)inity*"
Personally I should contend that the double a%e hafted in a leafy ste(' as at 4agia +riada (#i* %%)ii'
b5 and -nossos (fig* 67&5' betokened the union of the Sky,father ith the 1arth,(other' and that an
ordinary double a%e on its ooden handle ca(e to be recei)ed as a sy(bol of like significance*
+he ob)erse of these coins fro( the si%th century B*C* 8nards3 hether their style be archaic
(fig* 9:65' late archaic (fig* 9:;5' fine (figs* 9:9' 9:&5' or decadent (figs* 9:<' 9::53shos a
=anifor( head consisting of a (ale and a fe(ale #rofile co(bined: the re)erse has a double a%e
ith a short handle* Sir Arthur 1)ans (akes the attracti)e suggestion that the for(er is the
"anthro#o(or#hic e>ui)alent" of the latter*
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2 Page &96 in Zeus a Study in Ancient Religion Vol 2 Part I (1925) by Arthur Bernard Cook
Coins of Tenedos
A didrach(on e%tant in the collections of Berlin (fig* 9:75 and Alasgo (fig* 97@5' e%hibits the
double a%e standing on the u##er(ost of three ste#s beteen a #air of #illars or #illar,like su##orts*
Tenedos
+he inscri#tions +1B1 see( to sy(boli0e the island C+enedosD' 6@ (iles east of !e(nos* +enedos
bears a na(e hich is #re,Areek
6
* +he island as i(#ortant throughout classical anti>uity des#ite
its s(all si0e due to its strategic location at the entrance of the $ardanelles*
And +enedos itself' as Pliny infor(s us' as once called Phoinike* It ould see(' then' that in the
#re,histoy of the island e ha)e to reckon ith the Phoinikes' hose relations to the " /inoan"
culture ere of the closest*
Aristotle's “On the Government of Tenedos”
4
+he oldest )ersion of the story is #reser)ed in a frag(ent of Aristotle"s ork On the Government
of Tenedos:
"A certain king in +enedos (ade a la that he ho found adulterers should slay the(
both ith an a%e* And' hen it fell out that his son as found in adultery' he ordained
that the la should be ke#t e)en in the case of his on son* +he son ha)ing been slain'
the thing #assed into a #ro)erb' hich is used of cruel actions* 4ence too the coins of
Tenedos have stamped upon them an axe on the one side and two heads on the other,
to remind men of the fate of the king's son*"
+hus /akarios Chrysoke#halos (s* %i) A*$*5 a #ro#os of the #ro)erbial " +enedian a%e" says: " In the
island of +enedos ere dedicated to a%es' hich ere orshi##ed' and by (eans of the(
adulterers ere slain*" A#ostolios too' in e%#laining another #ro)erb' that of the "+enedian ad)ocate'"
refers to the sa(e alleged fact: "+he+enedians a(ong their dedicated ob2ects honour a cou#le of
a%es*"
If these allusions to the cult of two a%es in +enedos are trustorthy' they furnish an interesting #oint
of co(#arison ith Cretan #ractice* Eor here' as there' the to a%es (ight be taken to signify god
and goddess res#ecti)ely:
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Eurther e)idence ith regard to the +enedian a%e is forthco(ing in conne%ion ith another #ro)erb'
the "(an of +enedos*" Photios and Souidas ha)e the folloing #aragra#h:
" -yknos the son of Poseidon had begotten to children' 4e(ithea and +ennes' hen he
(arried again* +ennes as accused by his ste#,(other of (aking an atte(#t u#on her*
-yknos belie)ed her' #ut the young (an into a chest' and' since 4e(ithea chose to
share her brother"s danger' dro##ed the( both into the sea* +he chest floated to the
island that used to be called !euko#hrys but as afterards knon as +enedos' taking
its na(e fro( +ennes* 4e beca(e king of the island and (ade a la that behind those
ho bore false itness should stand the #ublic e%ecutioner' ith a%e u#raised so that' if
con)icted' they (ight instantly be #ut to death* +his fearful sight ga)e rise to the
#ro)erb' the F (an of +enedos'F hich is a##lied to #ersons of fearful as#ect*"
Tenedian axe
5
$ifferent again' at least in its concluding #ortions' is the account gi)en by Pausanias' ho (entions
certain +enedian a%es as a(ong the ob2ects dedicated at $el#hoi near the eastern end of A#ollon"s
te(#le***
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The Half-Man (tale)
6
+he 1#irote tale' entitled The Half-Man
Bisexual Janifor heads
!
Sil)er coins of the "Philisto,Arabian" series' struck during the fifth century B*C* at Aa0a /inda'
likeise re#resent a bise%ual =anifor( head (figs* &@:' &@75*
8ne s#eci(en' in the British /useu(' gi)es the (ale face a snub nose and a #ointed,ear' thereby
i(#arting a Satyric character to the head (fig* &?@5* Another' at Paris' turns the ,#rofile into a full
face ith broad nose (fig* &??5* +his )ery curious treat(ent suggests that the god is Bes' ho3
unlike the general run of 1gy#tian deities3co((only a##ears en face* +he suggestion is
strengthened by a third s#eci(en' also at Paris' hich shos a bearded head ith a (ask of Bes
attached to the back of it (fig* &?25* It is #ossible too that both god and goddess stood in so(e
relation to the lionG
"ybolis of the axe-head and the handle
#
+he a%e i(bedded in the trunk' there e (ust recognise the union of the sky,father ith the earth,
(other' a union essential to the fertility of (en and beasts and cro#s* +he a%e i(bedded in a tree is
the #rototy#e of the a%e i(bedded in a ooden colu(n or a stalactite #illar* Hlti(ately a hafted a%e
of the usual sort is found ser)ing as a sy(bol of the united deities' the a%e,head being the (ale' the
a%e,handle the fe(ale' ele(ent in their union*
& page 672
< page 674
: page 677
The yth of Myrrha$ dau%hter of &inyras
'
Another (yth that should be considered in this conne%ion is that of /yrrha' the daughter of
-inyras* According to one )ersion' she lo)ed her on father' (ade hi( drunk' and consorted ith
hi(* .hen he realised hat had ha##ened' he #ursued her ith a dran sord* 4ereu#on she as
changed into a " (yrrh ",tree* 4er father struck it ith his sord G and fro( the tree Adonis as
born*
It (ay be sus#ected that in this for( of the story the sord has taken the #lace of a double a%e*
A sa(#le of the rites fro( the 1ast Indies' =a#an' Ar(enia' South Sla)onia' Bulgaria'
!esbos' Sicily' the Abru00i' etc* ill ser)e:
" 8n Christ(as 1)e (any a South Sla)onian and Bulgarian #easant sings an a%e
threateningly against a barren fruit,tree' hile another (an standing by intercedes for
the (enaced tree' saying' F $o not cut it donG it ill soon bear fruit*F +hrice the a%e is
sung' and thrice the i(#ending blo is arrested at the entreaty of the intercessor* After
that the frightened tree ill certainly bear fruit ne%t year*"
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(nion of ale )ith feale
*+
If e take into account on the one hand the Scandina)ian rock,car)ings of the Bron0e Age' hich
re#resent an ithy#hallic (ale bearing an a%e (fig* &2:5' and on the other hand the car)ed slabs of the
sa(e age fro( the dol(en of Collorgues in Aard' hich re#resent a fe(ale bearing an a%e,handle
(fig* &275' e (ay be dis#osed to allo that blade #lus handle so(eti(es sy(bolised the union of
(ale ith fe(ale3a sy(bol that #robably arose in neolithic ti(es*
The axes of ,enelope
**
If in "/inoan" ti(es the hafted a%e thus denoted the union of (ale ith fe(ale' it is #ossible that
there as so(e such notion underlying the (arriage,test #ro#osed by Penelo#e*
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Burnin% -et (blac. aber)
*2
4e adds elsehere that the /agi in their a%e,di)ination (a%ino(antia5 set fire to a #iece of 2et (la#is
Aagates5 and' if this as not consu(ed' announced that the ishes of the orshi##er ould co(e
true* +he conne%ion beteen the a%e and the burnt 2et is not indicated and lea)es roo( for
con2ecture*
/eolithic 0li%htnin%-rod1 a%ainst the spear of 2eus
*3
Sebillot shos further that this rôle of acting as a (e%tre(ely dangerous5 lightning,rod #assed fro(
the neolithic celt to the iron a%e:
A(ong the Bas>ues' hen a stor( bursts' the best #reser)ati)e is to #lace so(e cutting
instru(ent' a%e or scythe' outside the house ith its edge turned to the sky* Peasants on
the far(s near Beu)ray in Saone,et,!oire' as soon as they hear the first ru(blings of
thunder and feel the first dro#s of rain' bring out into the yard and set u# near the
threshold of their house an iron a%e' ith its handle against the ground and its blade
u##er(ost' to #reser)e the #lace fro( lightning and hail* +his custo( is half,
Christianised in the district of Saint,Aaudens in 4aute,Aaronne' here an iron a%e'
blade in air' is #ut in a #late containing holy ater*
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The birth of 4thena fro the head of 2eus (Tina)
*5
A (agnificent (irror fro( Are00o' no in the /useu( at Bologna' re#resents (#i* %%i%5 the birth of
Athena fro( the head of Zeus (+ina5*
+he god is seated u#on the clouds of hea)en' holding a leaf,sha#ed lance in his right hand and a
sce#tre in his left* +o goddesses occu#y the #lace and #erfor( the duty of the 1ileithyiai* +hey are
na(ed +halna and +hanr res#ecti)ely*
?; Page <@7
The double axe and the labarum
15
E* !egge has recently dran attention to the 8#hite diagra( of the su#ra(undane region' hich
included to #airs of concentric circles' the one #air inscribed "Eather" and "Son'" the other #air
colored yello and blue' and beteen the( a barrier in the for( of a double a%e*
+he original ho(e of the 8#hites as PhrygiaG and there can be little doubt that in this' the central
#ortion of* their otherorld chart' they sought to co(bine old Phrygian beliefs ith ne Christian
teaching*
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6itual in7ocation of the 7ine
*6
+he folloing >uotations do contain so(e strange )oel se>uences EUA and EAOE EO EUEE hich
re(ind (e of the +he Voels A11I8I8 in the /ithras !iturgy
17
:
"+he hite )ine has other orderly and (ost char(ing effects' (aking a (an in his cu#s to be
not only sober but (erry as ell* +hus far -yranos* But fro( the aforesaid #oint' here (y
authorities di)erged' this is ho 4ar#okration continues:
FBlessed plant, leader of the gods, mistress of earth, sky, and air, tho that
rela!est the mind "y thy #lster-"earing drink, so loosening e$ery lim", and
#asest sleep, no one "y word, no healer "y potion, nay none shall pre$ail
against thee% "t tho "ringest to light all that is in the sols of mortal men,
and of them that ha$e mysti# thoghts in se#ret tho, o &ine, ha$ing knowledge
nltera"le wilt re$eal all that is wroght "y writings ni'e or so$ereign
remedies, yea all the hidden meaning of knife or do"le a!e(
!et these ords be said as the (ysteries of the Vine*F
It has also other orderly )irtues' so that a(ong (ortals its na(e (ust not be taken in )ain*
Be%t' the sacred account' as gi)en in the -yranis' saith as follos:
)Blessed *od-sent 'een, *od-sent #lster-"earing mother of e$ery di$ine
natre +EUA + tho that art foremost among plants of earth + EAOE EO
EUEE + "eing a deni,en of -lympos)
4a)ing said this into a cu#' e(#ty it into a 2ar' hence all drink and de#art ith good cheer'
no (an ha)ing co(e to ords*"
?& 4ar#okration"s allusion to "the hidden (eaning of knife or double a%e" as "the (ysteries of the Vine" in
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?< Co(#are these lines to the )oel se>uences #age ;' line 27: Ci((ortal brillianceD: !"# $%! "#$ %!" #$% !&$%
(' ()* A)( )*A )() *A) IA) 5
and #age ?<' (second last line of the (ain te%t5' unnu(bered: &% &$ " %" +# %&$ (<&95 CI ha)e consecrated you' that your
essence (ay be useful to (e' to JJJJJJJ alone' I) IA ) )) (* )IA' that you (ay #ro)e useful to (e aloneD*
The decoration of the double axe
*#
Red
.rther, the rods "ond rond the li#tor/s a!e "y means of a red leather stra# recall the bundle of di)ining rods
used e(g( by the Scythians and the Aer(ans&' and ere #erha#s in the far #ast e(#loyed for #ur#oses of
di)ination* Be that as it (ay' rods thus brought into contact ith a sacred a%e: and thereby charged ith
its )irtues ould doubtless be dee(ed of es#ecial )alue in e%#elling e)il fro( a (alefactor7*
Blue & green
And the (agnificent a%e,ha((ers of blue or green stone?9 found in the de"ris of the second city at +roy ha)e been
recognised by S* Reinach as cult,ob2ects?: it (ight e)en be held that they ere (ade of lapis la,li, 2adeite' etc*
2ust because the colors of these stones ere dee(ed suitable to the belongings of a sky,god*
Amber
Again' a #erforated a%e of a(ber' nearly fi)e inches long' fro( Bohuslan (fig* 9;:5 is described by 8* /ontelius
as a sy(bolic or )oti)e ea#on* +he sa(e (ight be said of a s(aller s#eci(en disco)ered by A* Pas>ui in a gra)e
of the 1arly Iron Age at Bisen0io* A(ber beads in the for( of double a%es and ha((ers (figs* 9;7' 99@5 ha)e
fre>uently co(e to light in the long barros of $en(ark and southern Seden: /* 4oernes and B* Schnittger take
the( to be sy(bols of the sky,god or thunder,godG and' re(e(bering that 2eelry in general often originates in
(agic' and that a(ber in #articular see(s to ha)e been associated ith the sun,god' e (ay readily grant that the
beads in >uestion had so(e such religious significance*
?:Page &69 in Zeus a Study in Ancient Religion Vol 2 Part I (1925) by Arthur Bernard Cook
8ldest traces of cult on the 4thenian 4.ropolis
*'
+he (arks beneath its northern #orch (fig* <9&5 co(#rise three s(all holes lying on a cur)e
together ith a fourth' larger and (ore irregular' at a little distance fro( the(* +hese (arks3 I a(
dis#osed to con2ecture3ere originally a series of neolithic "cu#,(arks*" If so' they are of #eculiar
interest as being the oldest traces of cult on the Athenian Akro#olis* +he e%act significance of "cu#,
(arks" is unknonGbut it is noticeable that' here)er this' that' or the other su#erhu(an #oer* P*
Sebillot has collected (any cases of such #o#ular inter#retations* Eor e%a(#le' at Pont,d"Aisy a
"cu#,(arked" stone is knon as "the Eairy"s -ettle" or "the -ettle of Aiant Aalaffre"G and at Eau%,la,
/ontagne the i(#ress of the $e)il"s s#oon and fork is yet )isible on a dol(en here he dined*
Si(ilarly the Areeks regarded these (ysterious (arks beneath the 1rechtheion as the traces left by
the trident of Poseidon' hen he struck the Akro#olis,rock and thereby created his "sea*"
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Blo)in% a .iss to his %od
2+
.hen a lightning,flash as seen' folk at once (ade a loud s(acking noise ith their li#s* .hyK
Pliny see(s to ha)e thought that the orshi##er as thus' so to s#eak' bloing a kiss to his god:
"the nations by co((on consent'" he says' "adore the !ightnings ith s(acking sounds*" /ore
#robably the sounds in >uestion ere #ro#hylactic and (eant to a)ert the danger of being struck by
the lightning*
+o the sa(e #ri(iti)e stage of for(less fear belongs one of the strange taboos by hich the ife of
the fla(en $ialis as bound* If she chanced to hear a #eal of thunder' she as inca#acitated for
duty till she had #acified the gods*
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("elected extracts of the) 6etrospect
2*

Zeus' "the Bright 8ne'" as originally nothing but the day,light Sky' concei)ed in 0oLstic fashion as
ali)e ith a life of its on G and traces of that #ri(iti)e conce#tion could be detected here and there
throughout the classical #eriod* But already in 4o(eric days' indeed long before 4o(er' the di)ine
Sky had de)elo#ed into the Sky,god' a eather,(aking ruler' ho delt in u##er glory (aither5* As
such he beca(e the recognised head of the 4ellenic #antheon' and in the 4ellenistic age as
brought into conne%ion ith other (anifestations of celestial brightness3sun' (oon' and stars
alike*
".y-prop 9 The :elphic 4%ye,spillar
Eurther consideration of the sky-.ro.' as e%e(#lified by the /0ana-.011ars of Italy and the A2ye,s-
.011ars of Areece' thre light on so(e #er#le%ing #heno(ena of #o#ular cult' e*g* the ooden
balusters of $iana Be(orensis and the dokana of the $ioskouroi* /oreo)er' the occurrence of an
AgyeMs,#illar set on an o(#halos at By0antion turned our thoughts to $el#hoi' here the o(#halos
lately disco)ered by E* Courby as seen to be the base of an AgyeMs,#ost co)ering the na)el,string
of Zeus' in accordance ith a custo( still traceable in )arious #arts of Areece' and safeguarded by
the eagles that betokened his #resence* +he $el#hic AgyeMs#illar as in a (anner du#licated by the
$el#hic tri#od ith its central ste( n* 8n this sat the Pythia as bride of A#ollon3a usage i(#lying
the caldron of a#otheosis' hich an 8r#hic (yth located at $el#hoi and connected ith the death of
$ionysos*
And here an atte(#t as (ade to deter(ine the stratification of this )ery co(#le% cult* It a##eared
that the first 4ellenic occu#ants of the oracular seat ere the sky,god Zeus A.hes0os (K5' "4e that
lets fly'" and the earth,goddess 3e 4hem0s (K5' "She that #roduces'" their res#ecti)e tokens being the
eagles and the o(#halos*
:ionysos
+hen folloed /0onysos' brought in by a a)e of +hracian i((igrants' ho told ho their god
as done to death by the +itans' boiled in the $el#hic tri#od' and buried beside it* +hus the sanctu(
sanctoru( in the Pythian te(#le contained' not only the o(#halos ith its eagles attesting the 2oint
orshi# of Zeus and Ae' but also the tri#od and to(b of $ionysos*
Einally' A#ollon to a large e%tent dis#laced $ionysos' ho hoe)er don to the close of anti>uity
retained at least the intry >uarter of the $el#hic year* +he latest co(er as fittingly affiliated to
Zeus as his #ro#hetess (if the one as A#hesios' the other as a#hetor5 and took o)er the #ro#erties
of his )arious #redecessors3the eagles of Zeus' the o(#halos of Ae' the tri#od of $ionysos3
i(#orting in addition his on +hessalian bay* 4is installation as co(#leted before the e#ic age*
$el#hoi is )ital* 4ere' if anyhere' e touch the )ery heart of Areek religion* And the gods ho(
the $el#hic succession associated ith Zeus de(and closer scrutiny than they ha)e yet recei)ed*
2eus ; <e
Zeus and Ae ere #urely 4ellenic* +heir counter#arts in the +hraco,Phrygian area #ro)ed to be a
sky,god $ios and an earthgoddess Ze(ela' hose son as knon as $ios 0ysos, that is $ios "the
Iounger*" Ero( inscri#tions and literary sources e learnt that these na(es ere Arecised as Zeus 1,os,
Se(ele' and $ionysos*
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Eurther' it as #ointed out that the +hraco,Phrygians concei)ed $ios the son to be a rebirth of $ios
the father* And this conce#tion' to hich #arallels could be adduced fro( (any backard races6' ser)ed
to e%#lain the odd fact that the youthful consort of -ybele as co((only called 2ttis, /$addy" or
3apas, /Pa#a"* It accounted also satisfactorily for a feature of old Anatolian' orshi# often noticed but
hitherto not fully understood3the constant grou#ing of the (other,goddess ith a youthful paredros, at
once her husband and her child* It e)en suggested a reason for the s#eed and success ith hich early
Christianity #er(eated the regions of Phrygia and +hrace*
2an = 2eus> ?an(us) = ?upiter
Akin to the +hracian Eather and Son ere the Sa(othracian -abeiroi or /egaloi +heoi'
consideration of ho( led to a discussion of the double Zeus and the $ioskouroi* After dealing
ith the Phrygian Zeus Tetrdotos4, the Celtic =anifor( god' lu#iter 2m"isagrs and lu#iter 1ians
at A>uileia' e #roceeded to e%a(ine the relationshi# of lanus to lu#iter* +he )ie here (aintained
is that an ancient Illyrian(K5 sky,god as orshi##ed on the est of the Adriatic as lanus or Ian' on
the east as Zan* lanus as in effect an older lu#iter' Zan an older Zeus* Beither Zan nor lanus as'
to begin ith' anthro#o(or#hic*
Zan as being the broad Sky had the title Megas4, but as left ithout an effigy* lanus as
re#resented as a )ault or archay ith four su##orting #illars3a (i(ic sky hich ga)e rise to the
Ro(an triu(#hal arch* .hen lanus beca(e iconic' he as figured as a double,faced deity standing
beneath his arch* +he double face' a characteristic of other sky,gods' shoed a tendency toards
differentiation (beardless $( bearded' blonde $( black,haired' etc*5 and #erha#s signified that the
di)ine Sky as bright by day and dark by night* A(ong differentiated ty#es as that of Virbius as
$ianus or lanus' the consort of $iana at Be(i: he as #lastered o)er ith oak,lea)es because she
as an oak,goddess' hose sacred tree' or a descendant of the sa(e' as subsisting as late as the
eighteenth century*
2eus and the T)ins - supports of the ".y
A section on Zeus and the +ins shoed first ho the su##orts of the Sky ere gradually
transfor(ed into its,su##orters' #assing through successi)e stages as #illars' #illars ith #ersonal
na(es' #illars ith indi)idual effigies' and #illars in the sha#e of the $ioskouroi* .hen the old
#o#ular belief in a flat earth o)erarched by a solid sky resting on side,#ro#s ga)e #lace to the
#hiloso#hic idea of a globe enclosed in a s#here half light' half dark' roo( as still found for the
$ioskouroi by a daring #ersonification of the to he(is#heres* Be%t it as contended that the Sky'
a##earing alternately as $ay and Bight' is essentially of a tin character* 4ence the sa)age notion
that tins in general are "Children of the Sky*" 4ence too the contrast beteen nu(erous (ythical #airs of
+ins' for instance -astor and Polydeukes' Ro(ulus and Re(us' Zetes and -alai"s' Zethos and A(#hion'
4erakles and I#hikles* A recurring feature in such cases is the co(#arati)e feebleness of one of the
+ins' a feebleness so(eti(es a(ounting to effe(inacy' hich therefore #a)es the ay for the
recognition of +ins (ale and fe(ale* !astly' in this conne%ion e in)estigated the su##osed tinshi# of
A#ollon and Arte(is*
@Minoan@ &ronos = Hellenic 2eus
.hen the Bron0e Age succu(bed to the Iron Age' the "/inoan" -ronos as succeeded by the
4ellenic Zeus' another stor(,god of like #rocli)ities' ho beca(e the inheritor of the double a%e
o)er a ide area of the ancient orld*
Tales of Tenedos
.e ne%t handled at so(e' length the difficult but interesting case of +enedos' and sa that to treat the
double a%e on its coins (erely as a barter,unit,in)ol)ed a )ery #artial and inade>uate hy#othesis'
contradicted alike by the coin,ty#es the(sel)es and by the e%#ress testi(ony of the ancients' ho record
a definite cult of to a%es in the island* Rather there as reason to su##ose that here the "/inoan"
ea#on had #assed into the hands of a $ionysiac Zeus or a Zeus,like $ionysos' #aired as usual ith
the earth,goddess* +heir local na(es ere +ennes and 4e(ithea' and their effigies ere co(bined in the
(ale,N,fe(ale head' hich a##eared on the ob)erse of the +enedian coins*
,enelope@s arria%e-test
Penelo#e"s (arriage,test #erha#s #resu##osed the sa(e set of half,forgotten ideas7*
Contents
+he double a%e and the !abyrinth********************************************************************************************************?
+he du#lication of the double a%e********************************************************************************************************?
Coins of +enedos**********************************************************************************************************************************6
+enedos********************************************************************************************************************************************6
Aristotle"s C8n the Ao)ern(ent of +enedosD**********************************************************************************6
+enedian a%e************************************************************************************************************************************;
+he 4alf,/an (tale5******************************************************************************************************************************9
Bise%ual =anifor( heads***********************************************************************************************************************9
Sy(bolis( of the a%e,head and the handle******************************************************************************************9
+he (yth of /yrrha' daughter of -inyras*******************************************************************************************&
Hnion of (ale ith fe(ale*******************************************************************************************************************<
+he a%es of Penelo#e****************************************************************************************************************************<
Burning 2et (black a(ber5*********************************************************************************************************************:
Beolithic Clightning,rodD against the s#ear of Zeus*****************************************************************************:
+he birth of Athena fro( the head of Zeus (+ina5********************************************************************************7
+he double a%e and the labaru(*********************************************************************************************************?@
Ritual in)ocation of the )ine***************************************************************************************************************??
+he decoration of the double a%e*******************************************************************************************************?2
Red*************************************************************************************************************************************************?2
Blue O green**********************************************************************************************************************************?2
A(ber********************************************************************************************************************************************?2
8ldest traces of cult on the Athenian Akro#olis*********************************************************************************?6
Bloing a kiss to his god********************************************************************************************************************?;
(Selected e%tracts of the5 Retros#ect *************************************************************************************************?9
Sky,#ro# N +he $el#hic AgyeMs#illar**************************************************************************************?9
$ionysos************************************************************************************************************************************?9
Zeus O Ae*********************************************************************************************************************************?9
Zan P ZeusG Ian(us5 P Iu#iter*************************************************************************************************?&
Zeus and the +ins , su##orts of the Sky*********************************************************************************?&
"/inoan" -ronos P 4ellenic Zeus*******************************************************************************************?&
+ales of +enedos************************************************************************************************************************?<
Penelo#e"s (arriage,test************************************************************************************************************?<

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