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ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY


SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM AND COMMUNICATION

Title of Program: Master of Arts in Journalism and Communication

1. Background

Journalism and Communication have a vital role to play in the efforts to bring about rapid
development. In fact, media have the prominent objectives of informing, educating and
entertaining. However, such potential have not been exploited in Ethiopia because of various
factors, mainly, the paucity of adequate resources and well trained journalists and communication
specialists. With a population of nearly 80 million, Ethiopia ranks the second most populous
country in Africa. However, it ranks very low (158 out of 162 countries) on the UNDPs 2001
Human Development Index.

In order to meet demands for trained journalists that would play a significant role in the
democratisation process in the country and in the creation and running of vibrant mass media, the
Graduate School of Journalism and Communication was established in 2004. The Graduate
School grew into a full-fledged faculty when it was decided the old Ethiopian Mass Media Training
Institute should merge with it in 2006. Currently, the School of Journalism and Communication has
both the undergraduate and postgraduate programs with more than one thousand students.

Initially, the Graduate Program was heavily dependent on the full support of NORAD funds, which
ran for four years, in the lining up expatriate professors and teaching-learning resource input
essential for the program. In fact, internal capacity to run the program was almost nil and the
program remained highly dependent on external support of manpower and resources. On
December 31 2007 NORAD decided to stop its support when the 4
th
batch of students was in the
pipeline. This decision brought about almost the closure of the program and had it not been for the
generous support of the University management and, specially, Professor Andreas Eshetie, the
University President, and other concerned individuals and the positive support from the US
embassy. The graduate program survived this and now it has 116 MA graduates working as
journalists in the industry, teaching in higher education institutions and in NGOs as communication
officers.

2. Rationale
In the past, the training of journalists and communication specialists was not a priority for the
Ministry of Education and the Addis Ababa University. The few number of journalists working in the
state media were trained abroad and the majority of the workforce had no formal training in
journalism and communication. But now, there is the recognition that nurturing journalists with
adequate skills and sound understanding of political and social processes, science and technology,
and the like is vital to bring about a robust media industry and realize rapid development through
mass media.

The School of Journalism and Communication, as per the vision and mission of Addis Ababa
University, aims to become the leading institution in the education of journalists and journalism
educators and it wants to become the focal point of Ethiopian communication research and media
study and criticism.
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The MA program, therefore, aims to equip students with academic knowledge of communication
theory, as well as the practical skills of journalism. The program particularly emphasizes the
integration of critical journalism with democratic theory underpinning media journalism education.
The graduate program is normally organized around three curricular lines of development.
Following a model suggested by UNESCO, these include:

A line comprising the norms, values, tools, standards, ethics, laws and practices
of journalism;
A line emphasizing the social, cultural, political, economic, scientific and technological
understanding of the profession inside and outside national borders; and
A line comprising knowledge of the worlds and journalisms intellectual challenges.

The curricula thus help students to practice journalism, as distinct from preparing students to study
how people and organizations communicate through the mass media. Coursework also helps
students to understand the context for the practice of journalism, including its history and ways in
which the news media function in a society. The immediate rationale behind the MA program in
journalism and communication education is thus to overcome, at the undergraduate and graduate
levels, the severe shortage of qualified human resource in journalism education and in the media
industry.

The other rationality is that qualified journalism/communication teachers are needed at all levels of
education in the country. Particularly, the newly-established regional colleges and universities have
started opening departments of journalism and communication. For example, regional universities
like Mekelle University, Bahirdar University, Arba Minch University, Dilla University, Jimma
University, etc, have adapted SJC journalism education syllabi. Other emerging universities
(private and state) are in the process of opening journalism and communication programs at a
degree level. Thus, the School of Journalism and Communication takes the training of journalism
educators as one of its primary functions. Consequently, the MA program in Journalism and
Communication aims to promote excellence and innovation in journalism teaching and learning,
research and public service.

3. Objectives
Guided by the AAU mission and vision, the School of Journalism and Communication has
designed its MA program with the following goals:
Develop within AAU self-reliant capacity in terms of man power and infrastructure and
make itself the centre of excellence in journalism and communication over a 5-year period
of time.
Strengthen quality teaching and research in journalism and communication and produce
media leadership and journalism communication education.
Improve staff competence and capacity through training and launching a PhD program as
a development of the Masters program.

The MA program in Journalism and Communication at AAU aims to equip students with knowledge
of media and mass communication theory as well as the skills of journalism. The initial emphasis is
on journalism, with students choosing between a Print and Web journalism and Radio/TV
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journalism concentrations
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. The program also emphasizes the integration of critical journalism with
media theory, democracy theory and development theory. In other words, the program aims to
equip learners with the knowledge of development communication, health communication and the
like. Moreover, the program gives learners an opportunity to practice academic writing, thus
providing a foundation for later PhD studies.

The programs long-term general objective is to develop AAUs capacity in both journalism and
communication. The specific objectives are to develop academic programs in journalism and
communication with extensive use of Information and Communication Technology, so that SJC
may contribute to the countrys development by providing professional development in the field.

To achieve this, the SJC endeavors to forge partnership with reputable international centres of
excellence in journalism and communication programs, offering bachelors, masters and doctoral
degrees in these and related fields. Initial discussions are planned with, among others, the
University of Missouris School of Journalism, and other universities in the United States, and the
University of KwaZulu Natal, in South Africa. The short-term goal, over the next two to three years,
is to develop key Ethiopian staff and comprehensive technical assistance for Journalism and
Communication and related Information and Communication Technology components. The long-
term goal, over three to five years, is to develop AAUs local capacity in manpower and
infrastructure.

Admittedly, managing a partnership could burden AAU at a time of rapid development. So
partnering with universities with more experience in international academic programs could be
helpful. Inevitably, extra support services such as temporary staff and short-term specialists may
be necessary. With these, the SJCs MA program will be able to produce professional
communicators and educators who can teach relevant journalism content at an appropriately-deep
level, conduct research in journalism, communication and media studies and apply findings to
improve teaching/ learning activities.

4. Graduate Profiles
The graduate program aims to train professional journalists/communicators and journalism
education teachers. Academic and practical components will provide an overview of the
professional journalism and communication landscape. Career opportunities after the training
includes mainly teaching and print journalism, new media work, radio and television journalism;
academic research, and development communication.
The graduate profile objectives are to:
teach journalism-communication courses in colleges and universities
conduct research on issues in journalism and media studies
serve as agents of change and development in the media industry by transforming from
traditional media approaches to research-based initiatives
design journalism education and communication curriculum based on research findings to
ensure that curricula meet national and international standards
develop partnerships with local news media via seminars, work with respected journalists,

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In this modular syllabus, an attempt has been made to merge the concentration areas. Thus, all students will be
exposed to all journalistic skills that would enable them to operate in any form of media house or become competent
journalism educators.
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faculty exchanges to news media outlets, and joint projects
5. Admission Requirements
Admission requirements for the MA program in Journalism and Communication are:
A bachelors degree (journalism and communication, social science, liberal arts, science,
technology, agriculture, etc.) from an accredited college or university.
A cumulative GPA of 2.0 or above in most recent studies.
A minimum score of 50% on the written Graduate Entrance Examination administered by
the SJC.
A minimum score of 50% on the interview Graduate Entrance Examination administered
by the SJC.
A minimum of two years service as teachers, journalists, public relation officers or other
related professions.
Letters of recommendation from employers and instructors testifying to applicants
academic ability for graduate work.
A sponsorship letter from the employer or a statement of self-sponsorship; and
A one- or two-page statement of the applicants goals and proposed specialization.

6. Modules: (course schedule)
In the last 5 years, the School of Journalism and Communication has been granting an MA in
journalism and communication with concentration in Print/Web and Broadcast (Radio/TV) media.
These categories were mandatory and candidates came from state and private media houses and
teachers and from higher institutions of learning. The program lasted two years, with three
semesters of course work and one semester devoted to thesis writing.

In the 2009/2010 A.Y, a major shift has been proposed in all the graduate programmes in Addis
Ababa University. This shift is to the modular syllabus and block teaching focusing on capacity
building - mainly training higher education institution teachers. Under the guide lines of the AAU
management and the BPR initiatives, therefore, the SJC graduate program is revised to be offered
in modular approaches with a series of block teaching units.

It is believed that journalism-communication teachers have to know the language and technology
of the vocation and therefore the new journalism and communication graduate program takes an
integrative approach to the learning of the skills needed in the industry reflecting current
professional practice. The practical activities provide the underpinning hands-on experience for
candidates and the exam and reflection papers based assessment tests candidates knowledge.

Accordingly, there are 8 modules (including Pedagogy and MA Thesis/ Ph D proposal work)
consisting of skill hands-on experience and the study of pertinent theoretical theses. These are
planned to be done within two semesters. The third semester will be devoted to MA thesis writing
or Ph D proposal work. This gives a total of 2545 students working loads in hours.

To enrich the practical side, an internship (or placement) at a news media outlet or other media
organizations and communication institutes will be set at the end of the second semester or during
the summer session. Alternatively, it can also be arranged for an intensive internship during the
semester break, that is, after the end of Semester 1. Also to enrich the teaching skills, candidates
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will practice a practicum-peer group teaching and actual teaching at the undergraduate division
whilst taking the pedagogy module. Considering students future academic pursuit, it is
recommended that MA thesis writing will be a stringent requirement of the program. An option for
this will be writing a PhD proposal and this will apply to those who are teachers. Students drawn
from media organizations will be required to submit a project/reflection on newsroom management
and leadership or other issues such as the practice of quality journalism, development journalism,
and other related topics of interest to the learners. The instructor will supervise the students while
teaching and the journalism instructor will facilitate the teaching inputs - relevant software/hardware
training and like In Design, Adobe Photoshop and Basics of Digital Photography, digital audio-
video editing. The SJC may arrange for seminars on site, at the media organization, with the aim
of giving students access to technology and information services not available on campus. Such
partnerships may narrow the gap between academic journalism programs and the industry.

Students will take part in seminars and workshops on: educational use of audio-visual
media/educational broadcasting, communications in groups and organizations, global media
impacts, information age of journalism and the new media. Below is the module schedule to be
offered in the 9 months period of time.

Module Codes, Nomenclature and Schedule

Semester Course No. Course Title Value/Credit hrs
1
st
semester 5
Modules

Jour 601 Fundamentals of Journalism 10% (3)
Jour 614 News Writing and Reporting 15% (4)
Jour 607 Communication Theory 10% (3)
2
nd
Semester
5 Modules

Jour 608 Media Management and Media and
Democracy
15% (4)
Jour 615 Production and Editing 15% (4)
Jour 618 Research Methods for media 10% (3)
CCPD Pedagogy 10% (3)
Break time* Internship (no credit but essential )
3
rd
Semester

Semester 3
JOUR 620 Master Thesis or Ph D Proposal 15%
Total Credit hours



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Categories of the above modules

GENERAL SUBJECT AREA
2 MODULES
25% No of
ECTS
No of hrs:
1 ECTS=25hrs
No of hrs:
1 ECTS= 30
Communication Theory 10% 7 175
Media Management & Media and Democracy 15% 10.5 315

SPECIALISED AREA 40%
Fundamentals of Journalism 10% 7 175
News Writing and Reporting 15% 10.5 315
Production and Editing 15% 10.5 315

OTHERS 35%
Research Methods for Media 10% 7 175 210
Pedagogy 10% 7 175
MA Thesis/ Ph D proposal 15% 30 750
TOTAL 89.5


Course Offerings
FIRST SEMESTER
Course
Code
Course Name % No of
ECTs
No of
hrs
JOUR 601 Fundamentals of Journalism 10 7 175
JOUR 614 News Writing and Reporting 15 10.5 315
JOUR 607 Communication Theory 10 7 175
Total 24.5 665
SECOND SEMESTER
JOUR 608 Media Management & Media and Democracy 15 10.5 315
JOUR 615 Production and Editing 15 10.5 315
JOUR 618 Research Methods for Media 10 7 175
CCPD 601 Pedagogy 10 7 175
Total 35 980
SUMMER BREAK
Internship
FIRST SEMESTER
JOUR 620 MA Thesis/ Ph D proposal 30 900








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MODULE TITLE: FUNDAMENTALS OF JOURNALISM
MODULE CODE: JOUR 601
CREDIT VALUE OF MODULE: 10% 7 ECTs (175 hrs)

I DESCRIPTION OF MODULE
This module will lay the foundation for all theoretical and practical courses in the program. It will
install in the student a basic understanding of the craft and skills of journalism. The course will
briefly examine medias role in society, including the role of media in Africa and Ethiopia and is
aimed at creating a basic understanding of the role of a free press in a democratic society. One
week will focus on critical thinking a skill crucial to journalistic practice and education. Two weeks
will focus on key principles defining the role of journalists. The closing week will examine the role of
mass media in international politics through Ethiopias diplomacy, foreign policy, and international
relations.

II LEARNING OUTCOMES
After the completion of the module, learners would be able to:
Define journalism
Identify contemporary journalism paradigms
State trends in journalism in the local, regional and global context
Research and produce journalism verifications in the local context
Produce code of conduct for journalism and media stations newsroom
Produce critic in development journalism: South-North journalists experience
Demonstrate the ability to think clearly and critically
Assimilate unfamiliar information quickly and scrutinize and evaluate information
Plan research and produce background and context to stimulate interest in issues of
importance to journalism

III CONTENT AREAS
Unit 1: General Issues in journalism
1.1. The meaning of journalism - Western and non-western philosophies and global media culture
1.2. Journalism verification, freedom and responsibility, press and democracy
1.3. The idea of south-north journalists - Is there a special journalism for Africa?
1.4. The information age of journalism/ Gate keeping theory, use of self-regulatory mechanisms
(codes of conduct, commissions, ombudsman, etc)

Unit 2: Issues of Importance to Journalism - the Ethiopian geopolitics
2.1 Diplomacy and its role in international relations/ Ethiopias diplomacy in brief: the historical
development of foreign policy, foreign policy distinguished from diplomacy
2.2 The role of mass media in international politics: media as gatekeeper, media as watchdog,
media as political institution

Unit 3: Critical thinking for journalists
3.1. What is critical thinking?
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3.2 The elements of thought
3.3 Checklists of reasoning

IV SCHEDULE OF DELIVERY
Two weeks each 5 days with a 2 hours block teaching; that is a total of 70 hrs block
teaching conducted in intervals of three parts as indicated in the contents. Each part could
be taken as an independent part handled by a particular professor; however, care is taken
not to mislead learners that this has three totally independent parts. It is recommended to
make this clear at the start.. So it could be assumed that each unit will have its own set of
block teaching, independent/self learning and collaborative learning sessions. [This pattern
applies to all the modules offered; that is, each module has related parts that are handled
by different professors. So presentations would be flexible: either block teaching
individual learning activities collaborative or group learning activities for each part (which
is what is familiar here) or entire block teaching followed by individual learning and
ultimately collaborative learning.
Independent/self learning for 40% of the remaining time of module session students
complete individual and group projects
Collaborative learning (20% of the remaining time of the module session) students
undertake group discussion based on the assignments

V TEACHING STRATEGY/ METHODS
The course will be taught by means of lectures, demonstrations, class discussions, assignments, a
term paper and an exam or a set of tests administered at different times. In other words, much of
this module will be a guided conversation among students in class and out, within text and
handouts, observing films about journalism and interpreting all in the African and Ethiopian
contexts. This course may also involve some traditional lectures, class discussions, in-class
exercises, and out-of-class assignments. Throughout, the course will provide the experience with
simple recorders, analogy and digital, required of print, online and radio journalists.

It is important to note that the parts of the module, although all will contribute to the module, will be
handled by different professors one acting as a head teacher as follows:
- first part to be handled by one or two professors; the second part one professor and the
third part by another
- Presentations will be characterised by sessions including brainstorming, question and
answer, individuals and group contributions, debates and discussions
- Presentations by students

VI INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS ROLES
The following are the general and specific roles of instructors:
Instructors roles
- Conduct block teaching
- Facilitate students individual and group activities
- Organize students field work, workshop practices, project work, presentations,
discussions
- Assess students performances
- Provide timely feedback
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- Undertake follow up on students progress in learning
- Keep students portfolios of evidence
- Plan and implement students consultation program
Students roles
- Regularly attend sessions
- Carry out individual and group tasks
- Present and discuss individual and group tasks
- Compile personal portfolio and submit to the instructor(s)
- Reflect on feedback
- Carry out reading assignments
- Actively participate in collaborative learning

As a matter of principle, it is essential that the instructor is responsible for editing students papers,
and should consult and assist students, make available the teaching inputs, inspire students to
read and debate as per the demands of the module. The students on the other hand should
complete the course work of the module and do the assignments.

Moreover, the student should participate in designing the practical tasks for which he/she is
assessed. The student will be involved in
Selecting a topic and writing a paper of about 1.200 - 1.500 words (This is optional as it is
to be decided by the concerned instructor). The paper must be submitted to the instructor
on set time
Selecting the activities to be incorporated in the practical tasks i.e.; the tasks may involve
one or a combination of learning activities that address the cognitive, affective and
psychomotor domains.
Deciding the items to be presented
Understanding the performance criteria required. This will involve the instructor and
candidates discussing the items to be presented and agreeing the addition of further
specific performance criteria on the standard assessment checklist in the record of the in-
course achievement.
Where elements of creativity are involved, students with the help of their instructor may identify
criteria for certain tasks against which their final performance will be assessed. The candidate
should be allowed to carry out each practical task when he/she feels confident to do so. The
coursework assessments are to be devised and carried out in a way they encourage repeated
practice of successfully completed tasks representing learning domains.

VII TEACHING SUPPORT AND INPUTS
- Handouts
- ICT and internet pools
- Journals, magazines, newspapers, CD ROMS
- Audio-visual units and facilities
- LCD and laptops

VIII MODULE REQUIREMENTS
The learners are required to meet the following:
Attend the block teaching classes for at least 80% of the time.
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Submit projects/assignments as scheduled
Participate fully in class discussions, seminars and workshops
Attend all modular sessions and discussions, participate in group activities-completion of
the requirements of the module
Do all reading assignments as required.

IX ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION MODALITIES
The theoretical and practical tasks undertaken are intended to provide the opportunity for taught or
instructed experience. Instructing/tutoring should be provided in practical applications from which
a general mastery of practical skills, cognitive skills, the necessary technology and, where
appropriate, background, is derived together with the communication, planning and checking lists
associated with problem-solving and efficient production. The entire engagement should focus on
the development of identified competences; that is, the combination of skills, knowledge, attitude
and experience required for successful performance in real life pertaining to the field of journalism
and communication. Assessment is to be continuous and it is designed to encourage learners to
participate in this process.

In general, the following assumptions are taken into consideration to label student total
performances in forms of letter grades as an option. However, this can also be applied in grades
submitted in the forms of numbers. The ability bands can apply in both situations;

Final grade:
The candidates final result for this module component will be determined by his/her performance in
each of the practical tasks and assignments. As much as possible, the criteria for grading are
submitted below. The letter grades can be designed to correspond to the one that is currently in
use in Addis Ababa University graduate studies.

Grading criteria

Fail (D less than 45%)
Candidate is unable to demonstrate a basic skill and understanding of the competence required for
the successful completion of the required outcomes

Pass (C 45%---59%)
Candidate is able to demonstrate a basic skill and understanding of the competence required.
research, plan and produce work to a competent standard fulfilling all requirements within
the record of in-course achievement booklets/references
participate in group work
show an awareness and understanding of the techniques of media production and
underpinning knowledge

Pass (B .60% to 70%)
Candidate is able to fulfil all the requirements for a pass grade but in addition:
Produce work of an accomplished standard which shows individuality, versatility and an in-
depth understanding of the techniques involved and underpinning knowledge
Demonstrate a wider range of techniques within their context
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Contribute fully to group work by taking an active and positive role whilst showing an
adaptability and good interpersonal skills
Evaluate the production process in group discussion and in written form

Distinction (A75% and above)
Demonstrate excellent ability in exploring and using appropriate techniques to produce
work which shows individuality, technical excellence, awareness of media forms
appropriate content and contextuality and which is acceptable to outside professional
organizations and to professors in academics
Demonstrate excellent inter-personal and management skill by leading group work ,
understanding group dynamics, communication and appropriate levels within the group
and with outside the organization and producing and fulfilling action plans pursuit of
excellence
Demonstrate excellent ability to analyze and evaluate the completed work in terms of
sustainability of purpose, target audience, content and style whilst exhibiting a broad
knowledge of media and contexts both in verbal and written form.

The students final result for this module will be determined by his or her performance in each of
the practical tasks and assignments.
Candidate should demonstrate excellent ability in exploring and using appropriate techniques to
produce work which shows individuality, technical excellence, awareness of media forms,
appropriate content and contextualise and which is acceptable to outside professional
organizations.
In other words, students assessments will be carried out on a continuous basis focussing on
individual projects, group projects and presentations, the portfolio of evidence and lastly the written
test. There will also be sessions of peer assessment and self assessment of project presentations
for improvement of work and for individual work evaluation that will go into the learners portfolio
respectively.

X MODULE CALENDAR

WEEK ONE: General Issues in Journalism
Day one
In class: (1) Introducing the course and course content.
(2) Truth: The First, Most Confusing Principle
Reading: Syllabus

In class: (1) Who Journalists Work For (2) Independence from Faction
Reading: (Basic press freedom issues)
Media and Democracy, by Leo Bogart
Opinion the New Authority, by Boutros Boutros-Ghali

(In class: The Paper
Assignment: One essay connecting any theme of lecture, readings, discussion, and movie).

In class: (1) Journalism of Verification (2) News Comprehensive Yet Proportional
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Reading:

Day Two
In class: (1) Monitor Power (2) Offer Voice to the Voiceless
Reading: The Hundred Flowers of Tiananmen, by Donald R. Shanor
They Dont Teach Survival Skills: Journalism Education in Africa, by Folo Ogundimu

In class: (1) Public Forum (2) Engagement and Relevance
Reading: The Electronic Republic, by Lawrence K. Grossman
Creating Public Knowledge, by Michael Schudson

Day Three
In class: (1) Censorship (2) Self-censorship
Russian Reporters Between a Hammer and an Anvil, by Iosif M. Dzyaloshinsky
Bribes and Bullets, by Adlai J. Amor
Indonesia Cracks in the Wall, by Vikram A. Parekh

(In class: Broadcast News
Out of class: One essay connecting any theme of lecture, readings, discussion, movie)

In class: (1) Responsibility to Conscience (2) And Beyond?
Reading: Who Has Guts? by James Boylan

Day Four
In class: (1) North-South Journalists. (2) Is there a special journalism for Africa?
Reading: Singlethink: Thoughts on the Havel Episode, by Janos Horvat and Jay Rosen
Songbirds of the System, by Vitaly Korotich
Third World Press, by George Krimsky

Day Five
The age of journalism/Gate keeping theory; The use of Self-regulatory Mechanisms (codes of
conduct, press commissions, ombudsman The use of Self-regulatory Mechanisms (cont.) the
use of Self-regulatory Mechanisms (cont)
Assignments/ project; presentation

Week 2: Issues of Importance to Journalism
Day 1
The foreign policy of a state/ Foreign policy of Ethiopia in brief: Nature, pattern determinants of
foreign policy; diplomacy and its role in international relations / Ethiopias diplomacy in brief: the
historical development of foreign policy, foreign policy distinguished from diplomacy; International
law in international relations, international law and conflict resolutions
Day 2
The role of mass media in international politics: media as gatekeeper, media as watchdog, media
as political institution
Assignments / reflections /term papers

Week 2: Critical Thinking for Journalists
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Day 3
Introductory remarks about critical thinking
The elements of thought
Check lists of reasoning
Day 4
Critical thinking and journalism
Day 5
Designing a project for critical thinking for journalist
Assignments/ reflections/term paper

XI READING MATERIALS/ REFERENCES

Boyd, B and Terki (ed) The Globalization Of News, London, Sage (1998)
Briggs, A and Burke, P A Social History of the Media, Cambridge: Polity Press, (2002)
Chomsky, N Media Control, Canada: Seven studies, Press (2002)
Curran, J and Gurevitch, M Mass Media And Society, London: Arnold (2000)
Curran, J and Myung-Jin Park Dewesternizing Media Studies, London: Rutledge (2000)
Curran, J Media And Power, London: Rutledge (2002)
Handouts, Essays About Elements of Journalism, Nieman Reports, The Nieman Foundation for
Journalism at Harvard University, Vol. 55, No. 2 Summer 2001 (Abridged Special Edition)
Herbert, J Practising Global Journalism Oxford: Reed Educational Publishing (2002)
Kovach, Bill and Tom Rosenstiel, The Elements of Journalism
Tumber, H News, A News Reader Oxford: Oxford University Press (1999)

Note: There will be given out some handouts throughout the course that the students are expected
to read. It is important to note that each professor should contribute to the development of the
course work by adding to the collection of materials in the form of reading lists and handouts. The
assessments of instructors and learners should also be included in the compiled materials for the
course.

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Module Title: News Writing and Reporting
Module Code: Jour 614
Credit Value of Module: 15% (270hrs)
I. DESCRIPTION OF THE MODULE
This module has two parts: Part one focuses on the journalistic discipline of reporting and writing
for print and online publishing. In this part students will explore the nature of news and how to
gather, analyze, organize and illustrate news. Practical exercises will address formats for
newspapers and online publishing. Students will learn basic shooting tactics for digital photography
and practice photojournalism and print/online thinking and writing. Part two focuses on broadcast
news, introducing students to planning and writing formats for radio and television. Learners will
first learn by recording with equipment, reporting and scripting news, and then by editing with
software. Learners will acquire the skills for producing formats for all types of media print,
broadcast and online. Learners will master researching as a basis for writing and reporting news
for all types of media.

II. LEARNING OUTCOMES
After the completion of the module, learners would be able to:

i) Cognitive and affective skills
report, write, evaluate and illustrate basic news stories in the media
write clear and interesting leads to all stories
apply accuracy and consistency to journalistic format and style
revise and edit ones own work and help to polish the work of others
make stories free of factual and stylistic errors
display the nature and dynamics of online publishing
display the basic techniques of broadcast writing
execute and practice convergence as is the practice in several media organizations
ii) Practical activities
make basic journalistic images with a digital camera
acquire the basic skills of capturing sound with digital voice recorder
publishing basic news stories online (specifically on the SJC Web site)
record and edit basic news stories for radio or television
acquire basic skills of capturing sound with microphone/digital voice recorder and/or of
recording images with a video camera
acquire basic skills of digital editing for radio or for television

III) CONTENT AREAS
Part one
Unit 1: Print /web news writing and reporting (5 days 4 hrs per day)
1.1. News writing basics, news reporting basics
1.2. Photojournalism
1.3. Covering the news
1.4. Online reporting
1.4.1. From print to web
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1.4.2. Media convergence
1.4.3. Online story telling options
1.4.2. Writing for online media
1.4.3. The future of News
Unit 2: Broadcast journalism: (5 days 4 hrs per day)
2.1. Broadcast news
2.2. Writing for broadcast
2.3. Radio news reporting
2.4. Television news reporting
Unit 3: Technology Workshops ;( 6 days with 4 hrs per day)
workshop for digital photography
Worksop for digital radio recording and editing
Workshop for digital video camera recording, sound, light and editing

IV SCHEDULE DELIVERY

1 Sixteen days (40%) (64 hours, 4 hrs a day intensive block teaching)
2. Independent/ self learning for 40%of the module session: students complete individual and
group projects
3. Collaborative learning 20% - students undertake group discussion based on the assignments.
This will take place the last few days of the allotted time for the module

V. TEACHING METHODS

- Team teaching approach (both general and subject area methods instructors will be
engaged)
- Instructor(s) presentation using interactive methods (brainstorming, questions and answer,
mind mapping, small group discussion, etc )
- Independent learning methods (reading, project presentation)
- Group project(s) method (display, discussion, debates, etc)
This course lasts for 5-6 weeks in a block teaching system. This combines lectures, discussion, in-
class exercises, out-of-class assignments, and workshops to develop technical skills. Most
reporting, writing and shooting will take place outside of class, with the AAU campus serving as a
lab. Workshops will focus on the technology essential to successful reporting. The course will be
taught by means of lectures, class discussions, assignments, a term paper and an open book
exam. Students will be in group while doing practical activities.

VI INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTSROLE
6.1 Instructors roles
- Conduct block teaching
- Facilitate students individual and group activities
- Organise students field work, laboratory work, workshop practices (if any) and project work
presentations) and discussion sessions
- Assess students performances (written and oral presentations)
- Provide timely feedback orally and in writing
- Make follow up on developments made
16
- Keep students portfolios of evidences
- Plan and implement students consultation program
6.2 Students roles
- Attend sessions
- Carry out individual and group tasks
- Present and discuss individual and group tasks
- Compile personal portfolio and submit to the instructor(s)
- Reflect on feedback and like actions

Because all media jobs require flexibility, because stories and story assignments change, because
even deadlines change, this will mirror media reality!

The instructor is responsible to assign project, edit students papers, consult and assist students,
make available the teaching inputs, inspire students to read and debate over controversial
paradigms as per to the demand of the syllabus. The students on the other hand should complete
the course work of the module, do the assignments and class participants.
Moreover, the candidate should participate in designing the practical tasks for which for which
he/she is assessed.
Selecting the competences to be incorporated in the practical tasks i.e the tasks may
involve one competence or a combination of competence.
Deciding the items to be presented
Understanding the performance criteria required. This will involve the instructor and
candidates discussing the items to be presented and agreeing the addition of further
specific performance criteria on the standard assessment checklist in the record of the in-
course achievement.

Where elements of creativity are involved, students in conjunction with their instructor may be
required to device their own criteria for certain tasks against which their final performance will be
assessed. The students should be allowed to carry out each practical task when he/she feels
confident to do so.

VII TEACHING SUPPORT AND INPUTS
The infrastructure of the program is well equipped with the necessary inputs and ICT facilities, and
modern library with various references in the field of study.
Photo digital cameras
Video digital cameras
Audio-recorder digital
Internet lab
Audio and video editing consoles
Library references
- Overhead projectors and transparencies
- LCDs and laptops
- TV and decks
- Photocopier and photocopy papers
- Projection screens
- Flip charts
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- Stationery (flashcards, markers, scotch tape, push pin, scissors, staples, stapler, etc)

VIII: MODULAR REQUIREMENTS
- Every student registered for the module is required to attend the block sessions for not less than
80% of the time given
- Read the assigned materials and accomplish the given tasks
- Work both individual and group assignments and submit on due dates
- Submit the portfolio on time
- Assess the personal and program achievements

The learners are required to fully meet the following:
Submit projects/assignments in time scheduled
Participate fully in class discussions, seminars and workshops
Attend all lectures and discussions, participate in group

IX ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
1 Students Assessment
Students assessment shall be done on continuous assessment basis with the following scheme of
work:
- Individual project (15%)
- Group project and presentation (30%)
- Portfolio of evidence (15%)
- Written test (40%)
Peer assessment shall be employed at the end of project presentation for improvement of
work. Reflections will be done by each student as self-assessment after the presentation,
which will go to his/her portfolio

2 Module Assessments
Each student will give his/her module assessment report to the instructors in writing as feedback
for the improvement of the module and delivery mechanisms
The outcomes for this (unit) will be assessed using evidence from:
Practical activities: they are listed for each outcome. The assessment will be by means of a set of
assignment for each unit.
Written examination: The underpinning knowledge requirements are listed for each of outcome.
They will be assessed by written examination/writing reflection paper covering the three outcomes.
To succeed as a journalist in any medium, you'll need experience in interviewing, sourcing
information, doing research online, drafting, self-editing, working with editors, and shaping story
ideas, story forms and story content. Youll also need some experience with the particular tools of
your preferred medium.

All assignments will be evaluated for the quality of the reporting, writing and form appropriate to
your preferred medium. At minimum, each assignment requires diligent attention to sourcing, news
judgment, objectivity, originality, completeness.

The essentials include accuracy and truthful expression. Improvement in writing and reporting is
possible; indeed, it is expected and will be weighed for borderline grades.
18
In other words, learners performances will be assessed on the following:
1. Attendance and class participation (10%). This means attend and speak in all classes. And
contribute resources such as media samples, etc.
2. A portfolio of reporting/writing exercises in class and out of class (40%). This portfolio will
contain some of your reporting and writing, according to your medium. Your final grade for the
portfolio will take into account voluntary revisions based on feedback. So please include all
versions and all feedback. Please include, in order completed:
In-class exercises with out-of-class writing to follow, including
Capturing audio and isolating five quotes youd like to use. Why?
Drafting/revising leads for in-class interview of media professional
Covering a sports event, and recapping in 500 word
Covering a photo conference, and recapping in 500 words
Out-of-class exercises, including:
Observing/sensing a campus locale. Five-sentence paragraph
Preparing 20 questions/doing research for an in-class interview
Profiling a media professional, from group interview (500 words)
3. Capturing still images. For print/online: Two journalistic digital photos, with accompanying
captions (10%).
4. Plan, report, edit. For broadcast: one radio story or one TV news story (30%). For
print/online: One online news story, 1000 words (20%).
5. A final exam (20%). Cover letters to prospective employer, with resume, references, work
samples (due at start of exam). Writing on deadline for online or broadcast. (Due by end of
exam period).
Note:
This class will move quickly, and so missing or arriving late for any sessions may affect
performance and grade. No make-ups are allowed for missed in-class work. And theres no extra
credit to bolster a low grade.
The learners credibility as a journalist depends upon his/her integrity and truthfulness, starting in
this academic setting. Academic misconduct includes, but is not limited to, extensive use of
materials from another source without citation, attribution or prior permission; extensive use of
materials from past assignments; extensive use of materials from assignments in other or current
classes; copying someone elses work during in-class exams or exercises when the assignment is
not collaborative. If one does this in class, one will fail the course. If one practices such misconduct
on the job, one may be fired.

Final grade:
The candidates final result for this module component will be determined by his/her performance in
each of the practical tasks and assignments ie pass in all practical tasks required. The final grade
must be agreed with the instructor before being submitted to the registrars office.

Final grades will reflect how well one understands and applies course material. Competence will
get one a B. For an A, one must go beyond that baseline. When possible, each assignment will be
judged according to whether it can be published on paper, online or on air.

Grading criteria
Fail (D=1 less than 45%)
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Candidate is unable to demonstrate a basic skill and understanding of the competence
required for the successful completion of the required outcomes
(D) Seriously flawed work. Not publishable or broadcast without major revision and
reporting. Major factual, structural, writing or usage flaws
(F): Un-publishable/Unacceptable work. Fails to meet even minimum standards for the
assignment Incoherent organization and/or filled with style errors and/or factual errors
and/or misspelled proper names and/or missed deadlines.
Pass (C+, 45%---59%)
Candidate is able to demonstrate a basic skill and understanding of the competence required.
to research, plan and produce work to a competent standard fulfilling all requirements
within the record of in-course achievement booklets/references
to participate in group work
to show an awareness and understanding of the techniques of media production and
underpinning knowledge
Passable work. Not publishable or broadcast without considerable revision and additional
reporting. Flawed with several errors in more than one category

Pass (B+ .60% to 70%)
Candidate is able to full fill all the requirements for a pass grade but in addition:
produce work of an accomplished standard which shows individuality, versatility and an in-
depth understanding of the techniques involved and underpinning knowledge
Demonstrate a wider range of techniques within their context
Contribute fully to group work by taking an active and positive role whilst showing an
adaptability and good interpersonal skills
is able to evaluate the production process in group discussion and in written form
Good work. Published or broadcast with more reporting and/or minor editing and revision.
Easily correctable errors
Distinction (A75% and above)
Demonstrate excellent ability in exploring and using appropriate techniques to produce
work which shows individuality, technical excellence, awareness of media forms
appropriate content and contextuality and which is acceptable to outside professional
organizations and to professors in academics.
Demonstrate excellent inter-personal and management skill by leading group work ,
understanding group dynamics, communication and appropriate levels within the group
and with outside the organization and producing and fulfilling action plans pursuit of
excellence
Demonstrate excellent ability to analyze and evaluate the completed work in terms of
sustainability of purpose, target audience, content and style whilst exhibiting a broad
knowledge of media and contexts both in verbal and written form.
Outstanding work. Published or broadcast with little or no editing. Few errors in grammar,
spelling or (for print) punctuation.

The students final result for this module will be determined by his or her performance in each of
the practical tasks and assignments.
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Candidates should demonstrate excellent ability in exploring and using appropriate techniques to
produce work which shows individuality, technical excellence, awareness, of media forms,
appropriate content and contextualise and which is acceptable to outside professional organize

X MODULAR CALENDER
- Block teaching (the first six working days of the month)
- Independent/ group tasks (2-4 weeks after block teaching)
- Submissions of individual and/ or group assignments (On the fourth week)
- Presentations and discussions on the projects 3 days of the fourth week - Final test and
assessment of the module
- Submission of the portfolio for assessment
4-6 weeks involving both theoretical and practical activities, intensive lectures and consultancy
works. All topics will be covered, but we may adjust order and time allotted. Because all media jobs
require flexibility, because stories and story assignments change, because even deadlines change,
this will mirror media reality!

XI: REQUIRED READING

For everyone: Harrower, Tim, Inside Reporting: A Practical Guide to the Craft of Journalism (New
York City: McGraw-Hill, 2007)

For print and online specialists: Kelly, Scott, The Digital Photography Handbook, (USA: Peachpit
Press, 2007)

For broadcast specialists: Tuggle, C.A.; Carr, Forrest; Huffman, Suzanne, Broadcast News
Handbook: Writing, Reporting and Producing in a Converging Media World, 3
rd
edition (New York
City: McGraw-Hill, 2006

American author Joseph Heller: "Success and failure are both difficult to endure. Along with
success come drugs, divorce, fornication, bullying, travel, meditation, medication, depression,
neurosis and suicide. With failure comes failure."

In class: Exam. Writing a story on deadline for your medium
Due: Job application letter, resume.
Reading: Broadcast Handbook, Chap. 15.
Afternoon: Playback and commentary on all online and broadcast stories.

WEEK 1: NEWSGATHERING
Day one:
Reporting and writing across media platforms

In class: (1) Introducing the courses people, paper, place. Converging news for print, online and
broadcast (2) Different media strengths and weaknesses
Reading: Syllabus.
Out of class: Choose a location on or near campus. Observe carefully. Takes lots of relevant notes
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in two formats (print/online OR radio/TV broadcast), describe the place in words only. Rely on each
of five senses. Identify the place last. Five sentences or 50 seconds Due: Start of class xxx
Day two:
Looking for news in all the right places
In class: (1) Whats new(s)? Who says so? Hard/ soft news Leads: Five (2) Profiling a person for
print and broadcast.
Reading: Harrower, p. 16-30, 120-122.
Handout: John Kriegers business card. It Takes A Town (published AP story)
Out of class: Start back grounding media professional to be profiled, Prepare 20 questions. Due:
Start of class xxxx Include what went right and what went wrong.
Due today: Five-sense description of campus locale. Include what went right, what went wrong?

Day three:
Finding news through questions
In class: (1) Knowing what to ask, and how. (2) Taking useful notes. Sorting it all out
Reading: Harrower, p. 66-82, Broadcast Handbook, p 63-83.
Screening: It Takes a Village. (CNN broadcast)
Out of class: Technology workshop on digital voice recording and radio minidisk recording
Attend 2 p.m., 2:45 p.m, 3:30 p.m., 4:15 p.m. (eight per session). Sign up before.
Due today: Twenty interview questions for media professional. What went right, what went
wrong

Day four:
Focusing and starting stories for print

In class: (1) Group interview of media professional. (2) Finding focus. Crafting a lead Five Ws-1H
Reading: Harrower, p. 34-50. Broadcast Handbook, p. 31-51. More back grounding of media
professional.
Out of class: Select five best quotes from digital voice recording, minidisk recording, and why.
Short review of print and broadcast stories about John Krieger which did you prefer, and why?
Both due xxxxx

Day five:
Proposing ideas across media platforms

In class: (1) Brainstorming beyond obvious ideas. Your story ideas for photos, online stories, radio
stories, TV stories due xxx (2) Shaping text for print: Inverted pyramid and other techniques.
Formatting text for radio and TV broadcast.
Reading: Harrower, p. 164-172. Handout: Hank Stuever ideas.
Due today: Profile of media professional. Outside reporting helpful For print portfolio: 500 words.
For broadcast portfolio: script 1.5 minutes. Also for all: short review of print and broadcast stories
about John Krieger. Five best quotes from digital voice recording, minidisk recording, and why.
Always note right, wrong




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WEEK 2: NEWSWRITING

American author Ernest Hemingway: "The most essential gift for a good writer is a built-in shock-
proof shit-detector.
Day one:
Shaping ideas for broadcast, online publishing

In class for print /online publishing 911 a.m.: Discussing ideas. Introducing SPJ Web site.
In class for broadcast, 2 4 p.m.: Discussing ideas. Viewing examples, and more.
Due today: For print/online: Your ideas for twp online news stories. For radio broadcast: your idea
for one radio news story. For TV broadcast, your idea for one TV news story.

Day two:
Crucial ABCs: accuracy, balance, clarity

In class: (1) Covering a sports event. (2) Choosing, checking facts. Pursuing clarity
Reading: Harrower, p. 90-110.
Out of class: Verify information by comparing/sharing with colleagues.
Due today: Five leads for in-class sports event, depending on medium and audience.

Day three:
Shaping story structure beyond the lead

In class: (1) Inverted pyramid and other traditional print techniques. (2) Highlighting differences
between print and broadcast.
Reading: Broadcast handbook, p. 1-14.
Out of class: Afternoon editing sessions regarding story structure,
Due today: Outline sports event story.

Day four:
Writing simply, clearly

In class: (1) Basic writing tactics: S-V-O short sentences, active voice for verbs; concrete, specific
language. Other tactics based on student patterns. (2) More complex patterns.
Reading: Harrower, p. 50-52, 58-59, 112-133.
Out of class: Final story on sports event.
Day five:
Moving stories online
In class: (1) Writing for online. Shaping layers, navigation.(2) Introducing SJC online
publishing/technology.
Reading: Handouts. Harrower, p. 154-162, Handouts
Out of class: Revise portfolios. Open door coaching sessions.


WEEK 3: PHOTOJOURNALISM/ BROADCAST STORIES
Day one:
Photojournalism: Practice
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In class: Story assignment TBA.
Reading: Digital Photography Handbook, p.
Out of class: Writing news story Due today: Portfolios.
Day two:
Photojournalism: Theory

In class: (1) Introducing news photography. (2) Ethical challenges.
Reading: Digital, Photography Handbook, p,
Out of class: Technology workshop on digital cameras. For online/print: Shooting two images, with
captions, due Due: Photo news story. 600 words. What went right, wrong?

Day three:
Photojournalism: Tasks
In class: (1) Whats the story? (2) Writing captions.
Reading: Digital Photography Handbook, p.
Out of class: Technology workshop on digital cameras. See above: Shooting two images, with
captions,
Day four:
Planning stories for radio

In class: (1) Introducing/analyzing radio news. Writing. (2) Shaping radio scripts.
Reading: Broadcast Handbook, p.83-98.
Out of class: Technology workshop.
Due today: From print/online: Two photojournalistic images, with captions.

Day five:
Planning stories for television
In class: (1) Introducing/analyzing TV news. writing. (2) Shaping TV scripts.
Reading: Broadcast Handbook, p. 99- 150, 221-236.
Out of class: Technology workshop.
Due today: From print/online: Two photojournalistic images, with captions.

WEEK 4: PRODUCING/PUBLISHING/AIRING STORIES
Day 1-5
This week will be devoted to reporting, writing, scripting, taping, capturing, editing, etc. For
broadcast students, well arrange a time for audio/recording OR shooting, plus time for capturing
and editing computer. For online students, well arrange a time for editing ad going online.
American author Joseph Heller: "Success and failure are both difficult to endure. Along with
success comes drugs, divorce, fornication, bullying, travel, meditation, medication, depression,
neurosis and suicide. With failure comes failure."
In class: Exam. Writing a story on deadline for your medium.
Due: Job application letter, resume.
Reading: Broadcast Handbook, Chap. 15.
Playback and commentary on all online and broadcast stories.



24
MODULE TITLE: COMMUNICATION THEORY
MODULE CODE: JOUR 607
CREDIT VALUE OF MODULE: 10% 175 hrs

I DESCRIPTION OF MODULE
Explores contemporary discussions within general communication theory and mass communication
theory; critique of communication models; an introduction to rhetoric, semantics; and semiotics;
and the role of the media in society from a communication theory point of view

II LEARNING OUTCOMES
In general, the following learning outcomes are anticipated after the completion of the module:
Identify and appreciate the various human communication theories specially those
pertaining to interpersonal communication
Explain and assess the various mass communication theories
Show the contrasts between the effect theories and the normative theories of mass
communication
Explain culture as context for mass communication
Demonstrate the implications of various communication theories

III CONTENT AREAS
Unit 1: Communication theories and models
Unit 2: Mass communication theory
Unit 3: Interpersonal communication theory, group/public communication theory and critical
communication theory
Unit 4: Cross-cultural communication theory

IV SCHEDULE OF DELIVERY
Ten days of 4 hours each block teaching (that is 40 hours of block teaching) = 40%
Individual and group work 40% of the remaining module session
Collaborative learning 20% of the remaining module session

V TEACHING STRATEGY/ METHODS
In general, the course will be delivered using lectures, class discussion, critical short papers and a
series of tests. The strategy will include block teaching, self study and collaborative learning.

VI INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS ROLES
The instructor is responsible for
Conducting the block teaching sessions
Assign individual and group work
Making clear the course and task requirements and criteria for evaluations in collaboration
with the learners
Setting deadline for turning in assignments
Helping in identifying topics for individual and collaborative work
Providing feedback, and assist learners
Making available learning inputs
25
Encouraging students to read and debate controversial paradigms as stipulated in the
syllabus.

The students are responsible for
Regularly attending the block sessions
Completing the course work of the module
Doing the assignments
Actively participating in the collaborative learning and in class discussions
Helping in defining the performance criteria required. This will involve the instructor and
candidates discussing the items to be presented and agreeing the addition of further
specific performance criteria on the standard assessment checklist in the record of the in-
course achievement. Where elements of creativity are involved, candidates in conjunction
with their instructor may be required to device their own criteria for certain tasks against
which their final performance will be assessed.

VII TEACHING SUPPORT AND INPUTS
The infrastructure of the program is well equipped with the necessary inputs such as ICT facilities,
and modern library with various references in the field of the study.
Internet Access
Audio and video clips/films
Library references materials

VIII MODULE REQUIREMENTS
The learner, in order to successfully complete the module, should
Submit projects/assignments as per the set deadlines
Participate fully in class discussions, seminars and workshops
Attend all lectures and discussions, participate in group activities

IX ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION MODALITIES

Student Assessment
There will be continuous assessment of students performances. The performances will focus on
individual learning as demonstrated in individual work; group assignments and various tests
including the final exam.

Module and its delivery evaluation will be conducted at the end of the session.

X MODULE CALENDAR

Week 1
Day one
Introduction to the module
Introduction to communication theories and models
Readings:
o Griffin ch. ? (Talk about communication) Chapter sent on e-mail to the students
o McQuail ch. 1 (Introduction)
26
o Communication in History

Focal points in mass communication:
o A Scientific approach to the study of media effects (Glen Sparks)
o A Brief History of Media Effects Research (Glen Sparks)
o Theory and research in Mass communication (Glen Sparks)
Readings:
Griffin ch. 27 (Cultivation theory)
Griffin ch. 28 (Agenda-setting theory)
Griffin ch. 29 (Spiral of Silence)
McQuail ch.17 (The Effect research tradition)

Day Two and Three
Mass communication theories
Spiral of silence (Griffin Media Imperialism thesis/cultural imperialism)
Social learning theory: Albert Bandura (Griffin)
Use and gratification theory and Audience reception theory
The impact of New media technologies (Sparks)/reading journal/
The media Equation ( Griffin)
Reinforcement theory
Agenda setting, theory (Griffin)
Cultivation theory (Griffin)

Day Four and Five
Media theories
Tony Schwartz media theories
McLuhans ideas about the media

Normative Media Theories
McQuail Ch. 7 (Normative theories of media and society)
Authoritative media theory: state or govt media VS public media VS commercial media
Free press theory
Social responsibility theory
Marxist Media Theory
Development Media theory

Week 2: Communication Theories
Day One
Interpersonal communication
Group and public communication Group decision-making (small group exercise):
Day Two
Critical theory of communication approach to organization (Griffin)
Public Rhetoric introduction in Griffin
- The art of persuasion: discussion and partner exercise

Day Three and Four
27
Mass communication: culture as a context to mass communication
- Semiotics & Cultural Studies: Discussion/expansion of assigned readings
- Lesson on Citations: Harvard Style HANDOUT
- Cultural conflict style questionnaire (HANDOUT)
Day Five
Cross cultural communication (continued)
Reflections
Submission of Assignments

XI READING MATERIALS/ REFERENCES
1. Em Griffin: A first look at communication theory, 6th edition (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005).
2. Denis McQuail: Mass communication theory, 5th edition (London: Sage, 2005).
3. Fred E. Jandt: An introduction to intercultural communication: Identities in a global community,
4th edition (London: Sage, 2003).
4. Various photocopied material

28
Module Title: Media Management and Media and Democracy
Module Code: Jour 608
Credit Value of Module: 15% (270 hrs)

I Description of Module
This module consists of the processes of media management and the relationships between media
and democracy. It explores the use of management theories in managing different media activities.
Major topics include management issues in the newsroom and media regulation (media law and
media ethics). Media law covers the freedom of the press in light of its constitutional guarantees
and limitations; history, principles and provisions of laws in libel, privacy, confidentiality, slander
and statutory restrictions on freedom of speech and expression; copyright laws and the nature or
literary property, contracts and other rights; and the relationship between state regulation and self-
regulation in the media with particular attention to the press law in Ethiopia. Media ethics deals with
ethical considerations pertaining to media practices, with a particular view to professional
journalism ethics. Topics like integrity, behaviour of the journalist, use of anonymous sources,
representation of different groups and the question of objectivity are discussed. The second major
part explores the relationships between media and democracy.

II Learning Outcomes
This module covers the following major issues:
Part 1 deals with managing the media with emphasis on the application of management theories to
the newsroom in particular and the media in general. This part will also include media regulation:
media law and media ethics. It includes the exploration of characteristics of media
companies/corporations, manufacturing of messages, structure and ownership of media industries
throughout the world, media responsibilities, media audience and public perception of the media.
Accordingly it is anticipated that the following will be achieved by the end of the course work.
Learners would be able to:

01. Management processes in the newsroom in particular and the media in general:
After covering this part, the learner would be able to:
Discern the management processes within the media
Apply management theories to media management
Identify and appreciate common issues that challenge the newsroom in particular and the
media in general

02. Media Ethics
This unit covers two learning outcomes: The candidate will be able to:
apply the media ethics principle in all his journalistic works
plan and research an produce a reflection paper on the current media ethics exercises of
the local media organizations
Understand the basic principles of journalistic ethics;
Understand systems of accountability used in various countries;
Be familiar with some of the major ethical debates in current journalism;
Be able to consider, argue and decide ethical problems that may arise in day-to-day
journalism
29
Reflect critically on ethical issues related to the practice of the journalist and the media as
a whole

03: Media Law
The candidate will be able to:

Examine, compare and contrast International and Ethiopian practices of media law
Acquire a critical understanding of media law processes in both an international and local
perspective

04 Media and Democracy
This unit covers issues of media and democracy. The relationship between the media and the
government in different political contexts is discussed. The classic fourth estate model is
discussed, as are alternative models, such as communitarianism. The course also covers
development communication and theoretical perspectives of human rights reporting. The main
emphasis of the course is on political issues, but the subject matter is also approached from a
technological, economic and cultural perspective.

After completing this part, the learner will be able to:
Identify the meaning and importance of press freedom and its link to other fundamental
human rights
Recognize the place and role of civic bodies in a democratic society
Identify the institutional and political bias of media and the role played by propaganda and
distortion, and the impact of content on medias credibility, survival and democracy, and
Articulate informed opinions in seminar-style debates, presentations and assignments on
issues outlined above and how they inter-relate to media and democracy.

III Content Areas
This module consists of
1. General processes in media management (decision making, organizational structures,
leadership and the workforce, motivation, planning and budgeting, marketing and market
analysis
2. Media regulation (media law, media ethics)
3. Media and democracy

Part One Management and the Media
Day 1 Introduction to the course
Day 2 Media organizational structures
Newsroom functions
Day 3 Newsroom Management
Day 4 Leadership
Day 5 Motivation
Day 6 Planning, Budgeting and Decision Making
Day 7 Planning, Budgeting and Decision Making
Day 8 Marketing Research and Market Analysis
Day 9 Marketing Research and Market Analysis
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Day 10 Media Management Processes

Part Two Media Law and Media Ethics
Day 1
1. Introducing Ethiopias Post-1991 Press Law
Art. 29 of the 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia; and, proclamations 6/1991, 34/1992, 113/1995
and 178/1999

2. The Elements of Expression under the Constitution
The Elements of Expression under the Constitution unpublished, Andargachew Tiruneh,
2006.

3 Interference under the Constitution (the Claw-back Clause)
Interference under the Constitution, unpublished, Andargachew Tiruneh, 2006.

Day 2
1 The Claw-back Clause under International Law
The Claw-back Clause under International Law, unpublished, Andargachew Tiruneh,
2006.

Day 3
4. Interference under Proclamations 34/1992 and 178/1999
4.1 Interference in the Details of Media Activities
4.2 Political and Administrative Interference
4.3 Interference by the Public Prosecutor
4.4 Judicial Interference
4.5 Civil and/or Criminal Sanctions for Media Activities

Interference under Procs. 34/1992 and 178/1999, unpublished,

Day 4
Why bother with ethics?
Approaches to decision making
(Reading: Franz Krger: Black, white and grey: ethics in South African journalism (Double Storey,
Cape Town, 2004), Ch 1)

Basic principles
Four principles: truth telling, independence, minimise harm, accountability
Ethics universal or not? African ethics?
Problem of objectivity
Day 5
Accountability and practical decision making
Media councils, codes in different countries
Admitting errors
31
The ethics roadmap (Reading: Krger (2004), Ch 3, appendix 1)
Issues in truth telling Accuracy as basic rule, methods of ensuring it:
Fairness the other side, limits to fairness: closing out groups
Context
Manipulation of images, fabrication, Plagiarism
The source with a motive
Reading: Krger (2004), Ch 5

Day 6: Issues in independence
Conflicts of interest: money, personal, politics
Marketing pressures: whats OK, what not
Co-operating with authorities
Paying sources
Reading: Krger (2004), Ch 6

Day 7: Issues in minimising harm
Social harm
Racism, gender issues
Causing offence
Harm to subject and source
Dealing with trauma: death, rape, children
Privacy
Deception
Protecting the source
Reading: Krger (2004), Ch 7,8, 10 & 11

Day 8: Ethics in new democracies
Relationship to a new democracy
Covering elections

Day 9

1 Introductory notes in journalism professional ethics
Where we begin and how we define media ethics within the greater context of media and
democracy, media and globalization, journalism practice, working in the field.
Censorship, normative theories of communication, publics, institutions like WFJ, IPI, Media Watch
and others UNESCO
Outline of the literature. Basic group assignments, and expected outcome. Examples and issues,
Africa and elsewhere
2 Journalism as a social institution of information flow and expressive freedom
What makes a journalist a journalist? And why are Plato and Aristotle ancient relatives? Why has
journalism come to represent a cornerstone in thought concerning political freedom?
A brief review of literature concerning free flow of information
An overview of current critical issues in contemporary African journalism - linking to previous
32
lectures

Day 10

Critical issue 1: Censorship
Censorship comes in many forms, while journalist institutions are mostly concerned with abject
political censorship. How ought we to think about self-imposed censorship in this context -- from
economic, cultural, and economic motivations - to everyday routines in the office?
State vs the market: Internal vs external impositions on media freedoms? Psychologies of silence

Critical issue 2: Human rights
Journalism is all about making the invisible visible, giving the unheard a voice: In your dreams, the
realists say? How do we descend from the clouds of idealism to an active journalism critique and
practice in the area of human rights reporting, journalist safety and collegial support?
Overview of cases concerning journalism and media coverage of human rights atrocities

Critical issue 3: New technologies of communication
New communication technologies enhance the outreach of the media, but also represent a threat
to the domain of journalism. Today, journalism is practiced in other institutions than the traditional
media while the traditional media also are looking for new ways to practice journalism. Here is
where the study of media law and ethics will have to work out an new, alternative future - is it not?

Part Three Media and Democracy

Day 1 Democratization theory
Democratization theory introduction
Journalism as a social institution

Theories and origins of contemporary democracy
Media, society and democracy

Media, democracy and development
UNESCO and NWICO: Past, present and future prospects

Day 2: Media, democracy and human rights

New Trends in Political Communication in the West
Barrie Axford and Richard Huggins (ed.): New Media and Politics, SAGE Publications Ltd,
2001

New Trends in Ethiopias Political Communication
Andargachew Tiruneh: New Trends in Ethiopias Political Communication, unpublished,
2006

The Problems of Ethiopias Post-1991 Journalism
Andargachew Tiruneh: The Problems of Ethiopias post-1991 Journalism, unpublished,
2006
33

Media and Human Rights
Chapter 3 (Arts. 13-44) of the 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia

Day 3: Media, democracy and development
Press Freedom and Democracy
Civic Society, Journalism and Democracy
Institutional and political bias
Propaganda and distortion
Media Content, Credibility and Democracy
Relations between national and international media

Day 4: Development Communication

Day 5: Development Communication

IV Schedule of Delivery
1 21 days of four hrs each day of block teaching
2. Independent/ self learning for 40% of the module session: students complete individual and
group projects
3. Collaborative learning (20%) students undertake group discussion based on the assignments.
This will take place the last few days of the allotted time for the module

V Teaching Strategy/ Methods
This module features lectures, field research, case studies, class discussion, in-class exercises,
out-of-class assignments, and films addressing ethical dilemmas. Attendance is mandatory.
Academic misconduct includes, but is not limited to, extensive use of materials from another
source without citation, attribution or prior permission; extensive use of materials from past
assignments; extensive use of materials from assignments in other or current classes; copying
someone elses work during in-class exams or exercises when the assignment is not collaborative.

The course will be carried out as a mixture of lectures, assignments and discussions in plenary
sessions. Instructor presentations will be characterised by various types of interactive activities and
demonstrations. Active participation by the students is expected. Further, students will be given
assignments to reflect on and take notes from on their own. These may include reading, mini-
research work presentation and the like. Besides the individual assignments, students will be
encouraged to work in groups in displays, discussion, debates, etc.

VI Instructors and Students Roles
6.1 Instructors roles
- Conduct block teaching
- Facilitate students individual and group activities
- Organise students field work, studio work, workshop practices (if any) and project work
presentations) and discussion sessions
- Assess students performances (written and oral presentations)
- Provide timely feedback orally and in writing
- Make follow up on developments made
34
- Keep students portfolios of evidences
- Plan and implement students consultation program
6.2 Students roles
- Attend sessions
- Carry out individual and group tasks
- Present and discuss individual and group tasks
- Compile personal portfolio and submit to the instructor(s)
- Reflect on feedback and like actions
- Carry out reading assignments
- Engage in mini research work and report results

VII Teaching Support and Inputs
- Overhead projectors and transparencies
- LCDs and laptops
- TV and decks
- Photocopier and photocopy papers
- Projection screens
- Flip charts
- Stationery (flashcards, markers, scotch tape, push pin, scissors, staples, stapler, etc)

In fact, the infrastructure of the program is well equipped with the necessary inputs and ICT
facilities, and modern library with various references in the field of study.
Photo digital cameras
Video digital cameras
Audio-recorder digital
Internet lab
Audio and video editing consoles
Library references
So these resources could be used by the instructor and the students as needed.

VIII Module Requirements
Every student registered for the module is required to
8.1 Attend the block sessions for not less than 80% of the time given
8.2 Read the assigned materials and accomplish the given tasks
8.3 Work both individual and group assignments and submit on due dates
8.4 Submit the portfolio on time
8.5 Assess the personal and program achievements

IX Assessment and Evaluation Modalities
9.1 Students Assessment
Students assessment will be conducted on continuous assessment basis with the following
possible scheme of work
2
:
- Individual project (25%)

2
Since it is assumed that the course is going to be handled by different professors, depending on their choices and the
nature of their parts, the assigned percentages may vary; however, the hear professor is supposed to monitor the
process.
35
- Group project and presentation (30%)
- Portfolio of evidence (15%)
- Written test (30%)
Peer assessment shall be employed at the end of project presentation for improvement of work.
Reflections will be done by each student as self-assessment after the presentation, which will go to
his/her portfolio

Final grade:
The candidates final result for this module component will be determined by his/her performance in
each of the practical tasks and assignments and written tests. The grades for the different tasks will
be accumulated in a transparent way and learners should have the same record on their
performances. The grading system will follow the guidelines of the University. The following is
assumed to follow those guidelines:
Fail (D 1 less than 45%)
Candidate is unable to demonstrate a basic skill and understanding of the competence required for
the successful completion of the required outcomes
Pass (C 45% - 59%)
Candidate is able to demonstrate a basic skill and understanding of the competence required.
to research, plan and produce work to a competent standard fulfilling all requirements
within the record of in-course achievement booklets/references
to participate in group work
to show an awareness and understanding of the techniques of media production and
underpinning knowledge
Pass (B 60% - 70%)
Candidate is able to fulfil all the requirements for a pass grade but in addition:
produce work of an accomplished standard which shows individuality, versatility and an in-
depth understanding of the techniques involved and underpinning knowledge
Demonstrate a wider range of techniques within their context
Contribute fully to group work by taking an active and positive role whilst showing an
adaptability and good interpersonal skills
is able to evaluate the production process in group discussion and in written form
Distinction (A 75% and above)
Demonstrate excellent ability in exploring and using appropriate techniques to produce
work which shows individuality, technical excellence, awareness of media forms
appropriate content and contextuality and which is acceptable to outside professional
organizations and to professors in academics
Demonstrate excellent inter-personal and management skill by leading group work ,
understanding group dynamics, communication and appropriate levels within the group
and with outside the organization and producing and fulfilling action plans pursuit of
excellence
Demonstrate excellent ability to analyze and evaluate the completed work in terms of
sustainability of purpose, target audience, content and style whilst exhibiting a broad
knowledge of media and contexts both in verbal and written form.

The students final result for this module will be determined by his or her performance in each of
the practical tasks and assignments. Candidate should demonstrate excellent ability in exploring
36
and using appropriate techniques to produce work which shows individuality, technical excellence,
awareness of media forms and appropriate content

9.2 Module Assessment
Each student will give his/her module assessment report to the instructors in writing as feedback
for the improvement of the module and delivery mechanisms

X Module Calendar
10.1 Block teaching
10.2 Independent/ group tasks
10.3 Submissions of individual and/ or group assignments
10.4 Presentations and discussions on the projects
10.5 Final test and assessment of the module
10.6 Submission of the portfolio for assessment

Week One: Management processes
Lectures, demonstrations, speeches, activities, field work, etc

Week Two: Management Processes
Lectures, demonstrations, speeches, activities, field work, etc

Week Three: Media Law and Media Ethics
Lectures, demonstrations, speeches, activities, field work, etc

Week Four: Media Law and Media Ethics
Lectures, demonstrations, speeches, field work, etc

Week Five: Media and Democracy
Lectures, demonstrations, speeches, field work, etc

XI Reading Materials/ References
3.1 Media Management
Core Book
Jan Le Blanc Wicks, et al. 2004 Media Management: A Casebook Approach. Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates, Inc. Publishers
Others
Robert H. Giles. 1991. Newsroom Management: A Guide to Theory and Practice. Media
Management Books, Inc.

3.2 Media law
Art. 29 of the 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia; and,
proclamations 6/1991, 34/1992, 113/1995 and 178/1999.
The Elements of Expression under the Constitution unpublished, Andargachew Tiruneh, 2006.
Interference under the Constitution, unpublished, Andargachew Tiruneh, 2006.
Interference under Procs. 34/1992 and 178/1999, unpublished, Andargachew Tiruneh, 2006

3.3 Media Ethics
37
Core text book
Franz Krger: Black, white and grey: ethics in South African journalism (Cape Town: Double
Storey, 2004)
Copies of the book available in library for every 2 students. Must be returned after the course is
over.

Others
Christians, Clifford, etal. Media Ethics: Cases and Moral Reasoning, 3
rd
ed. New York: Longman,
1991.
Kruger, Franz, Black, White and Grey: Ethics in South African Journalism, Cape Town: Double
Storey, 2004.
Patterson, Philip, and Lee Wilkins, Media Ethics: Issues and Cases, 5
th
ed. New York: McGraw-
Hill, 2005.
Various authors/organizations, Nieman Reports: Essays About The Elements of Journalism,
Boston: Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University, Summer 2001.
Various authors, Nieman Reports: to promote and elevate the standards of journalism, Boston:
Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University, Winter 1999-Spring 2000.
Various authors, Ethic codes.

3.4 Media and Democracy
- Core references to parts of the course
Democratization theory:
Robert A. Dahl: On Democracy (Yale University Press, 2000)
John Keane: The media and democracy (Polity Press, 1991)
Media, democracy and human rights:
Andargachew Tiruneh: The legal protection of human rights in Ethiopia. With particular
reference to freedom of expression (unpublished paper, 2005/06)
Barrie Axford and Richard Huggins (eds): New media and politics (Sage Publications Ltd,
2001)
Media, democracy and development:
Jan Servaes: Communication for development (Gresskill, New Jersey: Hampton Press,
1999)
Gran Hydn, Michael Leslie and FoIu F. Ogundimu (eds.): Media and democracy in
Africa (Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2002)
Michael Bruun Andersen (ed.): Media and democracy (Oslo University Press: Department
of Media and Communication)
Britha Mikkelsen: Methods for development work and research: A new guide for
practitioners (London: Sage, 2005)

- Readings and references
Dahl, Robert A. On Democracy (Yale University Press, 2000)
Hyden, Gran, Michael Leslie and FoIu F. Ogundimu (eds.): Media and democracy in
Africa (Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2002).
Keane, John: The media and democracy (Polity Press, 1991)
Nyamnjoh, F., (2006) Africas Media: Democracy and the Politics of Belonging. London:
Zed Books
38
Ronning, Helge: African Journalism and the Struggle for Democratic Media in H.de Burgh
(ed.) Making Journalists (diverse models, global issues. (London, Routledge, 2005).
Servaes, Jan: Communication for development (Gresskill, New Jersey: Hampton Press,
1999) Book available for students in groups of two.
Zelizer, Allan & Barbie Zelizer (eds): Reporting war. Journalism in wartime (2004).

- Journal articles:
Tetty, W., (2001) The media and democratization in Africa: contributions, constraints and
concerns of the private press`. In Media, Culture & Society, Vol 23: 5-31

Berger, G., (1998) Media and Democracy in Southern Africa In Review of African Political
Economy, No. 78: 599-610


39
Module Title: Production and Editing
Module Code: Jour 615
Credit Value of Module: 15% (270 hrs)


I. COURSE DESCRIPTION

This module consists two major parts: Feature and editorial writing and radio/TV documentary
production. Feature and Editorial Writing offers the student the opportunity to practice newspaper
writing and production, mostly through self-study. For this module In-depth reporting techniques will
be used, and each student will develop and produce a solid newspaper reportage consisting of up
to four tabloid pages with text and pictures. The same story should also be prepared for web
publishing. Personal advisory is provided.

In the second part, students will complete a Radio/TV television documentary working primarily on
their own as if they were making a report for a professional broadcasting organisation. They will be
responsible for coming up with their own idea and seeing it through the various production stages
to completion.

II: LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this course, students should be able to:

Produce full newspaper reportage of high quality, including research, writing and
presentation.
Know the fundamentals of editorial writing.
Produce a Radio/TV documentary of high quality; including research and editing.

III. CONTENT AREAS
Part 1: Feature and editorial writing
1.1. In-design news paper production
1.2 Feature production
1.3 Editorial writing
In-design workshop
Part 2: Radio/TV documentary production
2.1. What is TV documentary?
2.3 Styles of documentary/ Analysis of documentary formats radio and TV.
2.4 Radio /TV documentary Production process or stages and the skills
2.5 Camera work, sound, light, editing and scripting /workshops

IV SCHEDULE OF DELIVERY
1. Ten days (4 hrs daily intensive block teaching)
2. Independent/ self learning for 50% of the module session: students complete individual and
group projects
3. Collaborative learning (50%) students undertake group discussion based on the assignments.
This will take place the last few days of the allotted time for the module
40

V. TEACHING METHODS
The teaching in the course is mainly through individual learning and personal supervision. Students
will work on extensive newspaper reportage and are responsible for the process from the initial
stages through to the final product. Editorial writing will be taught through conventional lectures and
assignments.

And in the second part, the teaching in the course takes place mainly through group learning and
personal supervision. During this course you will learn a lot about the principles and procedures
about how to make a documentary. It is also very practical and hands on. There will be plenty of
opportunity to learn from one anothers practical work in group discussions and reviews. You will
also have to provide a number of key documents during the documentary-making process.

VI INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTSROLE
Instructors roles
- Conduct block teaching
- Facilitate students individual and group activities
- Organise students field work, laboratory work, workshop practices (if any) and project work
presentations) and discussion sessions
- Assess students performances (written and oral presentations)
- Plan and implement students consultation program
The instructor is responsible to assign edit students papers, consult and assist students, make
available the teaching inputs, inspire students to read and debate over controversial paradigms as
per to the demand of the syllabus. The students on the other hand should complete the course
work of the module, do the assignments and class participants.

Students role:
- Attend sessions
- Carry out individual and group tasks
- Present and discuss individual and group tasks
- Reflect on feedback and like actions
Moreover, the student should participate in designing the practical tasks for which for which he/she
is assessed.
Selecting the competences to be incorporated in the practical tasks ie the tasks may
involve one competence or a combination of competence.
Deciding the items to be presented
Understanding the performance criteria required. This will involve the instructor and
candidates discussing the items to be presented and agreeing the addition of further
specific performance criteria on the standard assessment checklist in the record of the in-
course achievement.
Where elements of creativity are involved, candidates in conjunction with their instructor may be
required to device their own criteria for certain tasks against which their final performance will be
assessed. The candidate should be allowed to carry out each practical task when he/she feels
confident to do so..
41
I. Project one: feature and editorial writing
Feature and Editorial Writing, every student produces reportage for print and web. This is the final
journalistic product done by the student in the programme, and there are high expectations to the
professional standard. The reportage shall represent a solid piece of journalistic work both in terms
of research, writing and presentation. There are also high expectations regarding the use of
sources and the application of journalism ethics. Projects using only one or two sources will not be
considered.

INDIVIDUAL WORK: The production is done on an individual basis, and the student is responsible
for the research, writing and presentation (using InDesign and the SJC web paper).

SCOPE OF WORK: The total amount of work put into the project is expected to be 5-6 weeks full-
time work.

Details and Requirements

The student chooses a topic for the reportage and makes one version for print and one for the web.
The genre of the production should be within either:
a) News genres (for instance investigative journalism), or
b) Feature genres
Commentary genres may not be used for this production.
The reportage should be suitable for an Ethiopian newspaper.
The following requirements apply to the different media:
Print:
3 or 4 tabloid pages produced in InDesign
both text and pictures/illustrations to be produced by the student
no specific requirement as regards the number of words, but the length of the articles and
the size of the pictures should be appropriate for the number of pages
the production may be black/white or colour
Web:
reportage to be published on SJC web paper (www.aau.ac.et/webnews)
no specific requirement as regards the number of words, but there should be at least 5
different pages linked together
pictures and illustrations should be used, and video or sound clips may also be used (keep
video clips short; usually less than 1 minute)
the text for the web may be the same as for the print version, but should preferably be
edited to fit the internet medium (shorter articles, clever use of pictures etc.)

PICTURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS: The student is expected to take the pictures himself/herself,
but there are cases where the candidate has to use pictures from other photographers (for instance
when using historic material). The student must however have shot at least one picture
himself/herself. Illustrations (such as diagrams, info graphics) may also be used.




42
Proposal and Supervision
The student writes a project proposal at the commencement of the course (due the first week of the
project). The project proposal must be approved by the supervisor before the student starts the
work.

The project proposal must include the following:
Reason for choosing the project
Short description of how the project will be carried out
List of potential sources
Explanation of how the reportage will be organized in the printed version
Explanation of how the reportage will differ in the web version
The project proposal is expected to be 1-2 pages.

SUPERVISION: The student meets the instructor for 1/2 hour consultancy after having submitted
the project proposal.
The student works individually outside of class, but is free to contact the supervisor on e-mail
Submission and Assessment
The newspaper pages shall be submitted as a pdf document (exported in InDesign). One hard
copy of the newspaper pages shall also be submitted to the SJC administration. The web project
shall be submitted as an online publication on the SJC web paper.

REPORT: The student shall write a self-evaluation report which accompanies the reportage. The
report must include the following items:
Why did the student choose the particular topic
Short description of the work process
Reflection on obstacles underway, including ethical considerations
Self-evaluation of the final product (what is satisfactory, what is not)
List of references if the student has used books or written documents as background
material

The length of the report is expected to be about 4-6 pages (Times New Roman, 1,5 space). The
report shall be put on Class Fronter, and shall also be handed in to the SJC administration together
with the newspaper pages.

PENALTY FOR LATE SUBMISSION:
The penalty for late submission will be one partial step on the grade directory each day (for
instance, 0-24 hours late means decreased grade from B+ to B; 24-48 hours late means penalty
from B+ to C+ and so forth). Both weekdays and holidays count.

PUBLICATION: The student is encouraged to get the project published in a local newspaper. The
student must contact the lead instructor if he/she wishes to publish the project before the grade
judgment has been made.
II. Project Two: Radio/ TV documentary production
For the first part of the course all students will be together in one class to go through some
important theory. It is vital that you attend all these classes otherwise you will be at a big
43
disadvantage when it comes to working on your own. You will also be expected to work on your
own outside class to research and develop your idea.

PRODUCTION PERIOD
Group research work and Consultation
Discussion of treatment template
Viewing of TV documentaries and discussion
Discussion of recording schedules and editing structure
Reminder of shooting techniques Decide filming groups.
Scripting for television
Discussion of treatment documents continued
Setting up filming schedule
Finalising filming schedule

MAIN RECORDING PERIODS FOR MAIN TV DOCUMENTARIES
Production shall students in groups (7 students in one group: writer/producer, camera person,
editor, director, light, sound recorder, presenter)
Students will have to share cameras and should liaise throughout this period with others in their
group.

POST PRODUCTION PERIOD
The television editing will detail the timetable for achieving a rough-cut, fine-cut and adding the
voice track. The learner should produce an edit structure to discuss with supervisor. After the
supervisor has approved it the learner can start editing. One should aim to produce a rough-cut for
the supervisor first to view the television documentaries should be finished.

IMPORTANT
When all programs are finished there will be a playback.

VII TEACHING SUPPORT AND INPUTS
The infrastructure of the program is well equipped with the necessary inputs and ICT facilities, and
modern library with various references in the field of study.
Photo digital cameras
Video digital cameras
Audio-recorder digital
Internet lab
Audio and video editing consoles
Library references
- Overhead projectors and transparencies
- LCDs and laptops
- TV monitors and decks
- Photocopier and photocopy papers
- Projection screens
- Flip charts
- Stationery (flashcards, markers, scotch tape, push pin, scissors, staples, stapler, etc)

44
VIII: MODULE REQUIRMENTS
- Every student registered for the module is required to attend the block sessions for not less than
80% of the time given
- Read the assigned materials and accomplish the given tasks
- Work both individual and group assignments and submit on due dates
- Submit the portfolio on time
- Assess the personal and program achievements
The learners are required to fully meet the following.
Submit projects/assignments in time scheduled
Participate fully in class discussions, seminars and workshops
Attend all lectures and discussions, participate in group

IX ASSESSMENTS AND EVALUATIONS

Student Assessment: Evaluating Students project

The grade in the module is based on the final feature product and radio/TV program handed. For
part one the product will be assessed by one internal and one external examiner.
The examiners will look at the following:
The project idea and the quality of the research
Ethical reflection and journalistic maturity
Quality of writing
Quality of pictures and presentation

Part two:
Below are the questions the examiners will be asking about your documentary when marking it.
More weight will be given to assessing the overall impact of the final documentary rather than the
production processes leading up to it.

1. What is the quality of the story idea? How clear is the storyline? How original is it?
2. How well was the story researched?
3. What was the quality of the treatment document? How appropriate was it for the story?
4. How effectively planned was the schedule?
5. How imaginative were the filming sequences?
6. How well is the story structured? How convincing is the opening and how logical is the visual
Narrative?
7. How well is the script written? Is the script written in simple, clear, conversational language? Do
the scripts match the pictures?
8. What is the quality of the interviewees? How appropriate are they to tell the story? Are the
chosen sound bites clear and informative? How well-chosen is the visual background?
9. How well thought out are the edited sequences? Are there enough pictures? Is there a variety
of pictures? Are there any outstanding shots?
10. What is the technical quality of the editing? How well are the pictures edited together?
11. How well is the final script delivered? Is the reporter confident? How good is the diction and
pronunciation?
45
12. How much insight does the production reflection note give? How well are any ethical dilemmas
explored? How much evidence is there of an intelligent editorial brain at work?
13. How much care was taken in the post-production phase? Did the student give enough attention
to detail in polishing the final piece?
14. What is the overall impression of the piece? Does it hang together? How memorable is it?
A total grade will be given for the print and the web version together and documentary. The grade
will be accompanied with a written comment.
- Individual project and presentation: part one (40%)
- Group project and presentation: part two (40%)
- Portfolio of evidence (20%)
Final grade:
The students final result for this module component will be determined by his/her performance in
each of the practical tasks and assignments ie pass in all practical tasks required. The final grade
must be agreed with the instructor before being transmitted to the assistant deans office and the
registrar office. It is letter grading as stipulated in the legislation of the university.
The learners final grade will reflect how well one understands and applies course material
competence will get one a B. For an A, one must go beyond that baseline. When possible, each
assignment will be judged according to whether it can be published on paper, online or on air.

Grading criteria
Fail (D=1 less than 45%)
Candidate is unable to demonstrate a basic skill and understanding of the competence
required for the successful completion of the required outcomes
(D) Seriously flawed work. Not publishable or broadcast without major revision and
reporting. Major factual, structural, writing or usage flaws
(F): Un-publishable/Unacceptable work. Fails to meet even minimum standards for the
assignment Incoherent organization and/or filled with style errors and/or factual errors
and/or misspelled proper names and/or missed deadlines.
Pass ( C+, 45%---59%)
Candidate is able to demonstrate a basic skill and understanding of the competence required.
to research, plan and produce work to a competent standard fulfilling all requirements
within the record of in-course achievement booklets/references
to participate in group work
to show an awareness and understanding of the techniques of media production and
underpinning knowledge
Passable work. Not publishable or broadcast without considerable revision and additional
reporting. Flawed with several errors in more than one category
Pass (B+ .60% to 70%)
Candidate is able to full fill all the requirements for a pass grade but in addition:
produce work of an accomplished standard which shows individuality, versatility and an in-
depth understanding of the techniques involved and underpinning knowledge
Demonstrate a wider range of techniques within their context
Contribute fully to group work by taking an active and positive role whilst showing an
adaptability and good interpersonal skills
is able to evaluate the production process in group discussion and in written form
46
Good work. Published or broadcast with more reporting and/or minor editing and revision.
Easily correctable errors
Distinction (A75% and above)
Demonstrate excellent ability in exploring and using appropriate techniques to produce
work which shows individuality, technical excellence, awareness of media forms
appropriate content and contextuality and which is acceptable to outside professional
organizations and to professors in academics.
Demonstrate excellent inter-personal and management skill by leading group work ,
understanding group dynamics, communication and appropriate levels within the group
and with outside the organization and producing and fulfilling action plans pursuit of
excellence
Demonstrate excellent ability to analyze and evaluate the completed work in terms of
sustainability of purpose, target audience, content and style whilst exhibiting a broad
knowledge of media and contexts both in verbal and written form.
Outstanding work. Published or broadcast with little or no editing. Few errors in grammar,
spelling or (for print) punctuation.

The students final result for this module will be determined by his or her performance in each of
the practical tasks and assignments. Students should demonstrate excellent ability in exploring and
using appropriate techniques to produce work which shows individuality, technical excellence,
awareness, of media forms, appropriate content and contextualise and which is acceptable to
outside professional organize.

X: MODULAR CALENDER
- Block teaching (the first six working days of the month)
- Independent/ group tasks (3-5 weeks after block teaching)
- Submissions of individual and/ or group assignments (On the fifth week)
- Presentations and discussions on the projects 3 days of the fourth week Tuesday through
Thursday)
- Final test and assessment of the module
- Submission of the portfolio for assessment
- weeks involving both theoretical and practical activities, intensive lectures and consultancy
works. All topics will be covered, but we may adjust order and time allotted. Because all media jobs
require flexibility, because stories and story assignments change, because even deadlines change,
this will mirror media reality
XI: REQUIRED READING

Rosenthal, A. (2002), Writing, Directing and Producing Documentary Films and Videos, USA:
Southern Illinois University Press
The emphasis in this book is on what to say and what to show.
It gives a lot of space to scripting/writing.

Other books

Buckland, W.(2003) teach yourself film studies, London: Hodder Education
47
Focuses mainly on film criticism and studies but has an excellent chapter on non-fiction films or
documentaries pp 130-150

Hampe, B.(1997), Making Documentary Films and Reality Videos, New York: Heny Holt
Very practical book with a large emphasis on using visual techniques

Holden, T.(2005), teach yourself film making, London: Hodder Arnold
Focuses mainly on practical film-making but many of the principles can be applied to TV
documentaries

Millerson, G.(2001), Video Production Handbook, Oxford: Focal Press
Big focus on techniques of camerawork and editing. (2 copies in library)
But Chapter 10 has a useful summary how to organise your production

Nichols, B.(2001), Introduction to Documentary, Bloomington: Indiana University Press
More analytical and poses abstract questions about the documentary

Rabiger, M. (2004), Directing the Documentary, Oxford: Elsevier
This book is an intelligent mixture of the theoretical and the practical. Rabiger talks movingly about
role of documentary-maker.

OTHER BOOKS WITH GOOD SECTIONS ON DOCUMENTARIES

1. Casey, B, Casey, N, Calvert, B, French, L, Lewis, J.(2002) Television Studies, The Key
Concepts, London: Routledge pp 67-70
2. Herbert, J. (2000), Journalism in the Digital Age: Focal Press pp 268-280
3. Gripsrud, J.(Ed) (1999), Television and Common Knowledge, London: Routledge pp71-
90
4. Kilborn, R. and Izod, J. (1997), An Introduction to Television Documentary: Manchester
University Press pp 57-87
5. Macdonald, K. and Cousins, M. (1996), Imagining Reality: The Faber Book of
Documentary, London: Faber and Faber pp364-381
Holland, P. (1997), The Television Handbook, Lo




48
Module Title: Research Methods for Media
Module Code: Jour 618
Credit Value of Module: 10% (180 hrs)

I Description of Module
The course gives an introduction to research methodology in communication and media studies
focusing on historical, survey, field, and experimental research methods. The first part of the
course is general, while the second part is media specific. The first part of the course covers
fundamental philosophical issues related to science and research, in particular epistemology
different views of the foundation of knowledge. It also discusses the value-basis of research and
the relationship between different strands of research with a particular emphasis on social science
research and humanities. The second part of the course covers theoretical approaches within
media research; dominating paradigms, taxonomies and models; various methodological
approaches including functionalism, existentialism, semiology, phenomenology and symbolic
interactionism; various research methods including audience research, reception studies, content
analysis, discourse analysis and textual analysis. During the second part of the course, the
student will formulate a topic for his or her master thesis and suggest a research design for the
project. In addition to foundations of research and media research, the course covers practical
research topics like formulation and organisation of a thesis.

II Learning Outcomes
After the module is completed, the students would be able to:
- investigate philosophical issues related to science and research
- identify the value basis of research in media studies
- identify and apply various methodological approaches
- prepare preliminary research design for a selected topic in media studies and
communication

III Content Areas
Part 1a: Foundations of Research (Weeks 1-2)
Week One
Day 1
introduction
a brief history of science and research

Day 2
demarcation issues: differences between research within the natural sciences, social
sciences and human sciences ( humanities)
fundamental philosophical issues: ontology an epistemology

Day 3
basic approaches to research: positivism, realism, and idealism

Day 4
existentialism, functionalism, phenomenology, critical theory

49
Week Two

Day 1
the position of the researcher ( issues to do with objectivity and subjectivity)

Day 2
values in science and research

Day 3
quantitative and qualitative research, in depth

Day 4
student assignments, presentations

Part 1b: Research tools and research organisation (week 3)
Week Three
Day 1
formulating a masters thesis
structuring the thesis
Day 2
retrieving and processing information
critical assessment of sources (Internet, etc)
Day 3
critical assessment of sources (Internet etc)
Day 4
Introduction to media research
Part 2a: research (Weeks 4 -6)
Week Four
Day 1
Student presentations: project on philosophy of science
Day 2
Student presentations: project on philosophy of science
Day 3
AAU rules and regulations
Day 4
formal procedures and planning
Part 2b: Media research (Weeks 5-6)
Week Five
Day 1
history of media research
Day 2
functionalist media research vs. media studies
Day 3
dominating paradigms of media research, including taxonomies and models
Day 4
50
qualitative research methods (field observations, focus groups, intensive interviews,
discourse analysis, ethnographic methods)
content analysis
survey research
longitudinal research (in brief)
experimental research (in brief)
Week Six
Day 1
methods contd
Day 2
writing a masters thesis
proposal formulation
Day 3
individual guidance on proposal
Day 4
exercise and exam

IV Schedule of Delivery
1 Two weeks of four days four hrs at the beginning and the fourth week of four days four hours of
block teaching.
2. Independent/ self learning for 40% of the module session: students complete individual and
group projects
3. Collaborative learning (20%) students undertake group discussion based on the assignments.
This will take place the last few days of the allotted time for the module

V Teaching Strategy/ Methods
The course will be carried out as a mixture of lectures, assignments and discussions in plenary
sessions. Instructor presentations will be characterised by various types of interactive activities and
demonstrations. Active participation by the students is expected. Further, students will be given
assignments to reflect on and take notes from on their own. These may include reading, mini-
research work presentation and the like. Besides the individual assignments, students will be
encouraged to work in groups in displays, discussion, debates, etc.

VI Instructors and Students Roles
6.1 Instructors roles
- Conduct block teaching
- Facilitate students individual and group activities
- Organise students field work, studio work, workshop practices (if any) and project work
presentations) and discussion sessions
- Assess students performances (written and oral presentations)
- Provide timely feedback orally and in writing
- Make follow up on developments made
- Keep students portfolios of evidences
- Plan and implement students consultation program
6.2 Students roles
- Attend sessions
51
- Carry out individual and group tasks
- Present and discuss individual and group tasks
- Compile personal portfolio and submit to the instructor(s)
- Reflect on feedback and like actions
- Carry out reading assignments
- Engage in mini research work and report results

VII Teaching Support and Inputs
- Overhead projectors and transparencies
- LCDs and laptops
- TV and decks
- Photocopier and photocopy papers
- Projection screens
- Flip charts
- Stationery (flashcards, markers, scotch tape, push pin, scissors, staples, stapler, etc)

VIII Module Requirements
8.1 Every student registered for the module is required to attend the block sessions for not less
than 80% of the time given
8.2 Read the assigned materials and accomplish the given tasks
8.3 Work both individual and group assignments and submit on due dates
8.4 Submit the portfolio on time
8.5 Assess the personal and program achievements

IX Assessment and Evaluation Modalities
9.1 Students Assessment
Students assessment will be conducted on continuous assessment basis with the following
scheme of work:
- Individual project (25%)
- Group project and presentation (30%)
- Portfolio of evidence (15%)
- Written test (30%)
Peer assessment shall be employed at the end of project presentation for improvement of work.
Reflections will be done by each student as self-assessment after the presentation, which will go to
his/her portfolio
9.2 Module Assessment
Each student will give his/her module assessment report to the instructors in writing as feedback
for the improvement of the module and delivery mechanisms
X Module Calendar
10.1 Block teaching (the first six working days of the month)
10.2 Independent/ group tasks (two weeks after block teaching)
10.3 Submissions of individual and/ or group assignments (On Monday of the fourth week)
10.4 Presentations and discussions on the projects 3 days of the fourth week Tuesday through
Thursday)
10.5 Final test and assessment of the module
10.6 Submission of the portfolio for assessment

52
XI Reading Materials/ References
Core text book
Deacon, David, et al. Researching Communications: A practical guide to Methods in Media
and Cultural analysis

Other sources
Hansen, Anders et al Mass Communication Research
Jansen, Nerina 1996. Philosophy of Mass Communication Research
Wimmer, Roger D. and Joseph R. Dominick 1997







53
Module Title: Pedagogy
Module Code: CTPD 601
Credit Value of Module: 10% (175 hrs)

I Description of Module
This module provides the opportunity to acquire basic theoretical knowledge related to the teaching
and learning processes in higher education institutions, and develop skills of planning, organising,
directing (teaching) using appropriate instructional methods, techniques, supervising students
activities, managing the processes. It also treats issues related to preparing and making use of
instructional media and different assessment methods for higher education institutions and subject
areas.

II Learning Outcomes
After the module is completed, the trainees would be able to:
- understand the nature and process of teaching learning in higher education
- identify the nature and interactions between and among teachers, students and the
curriculum
- know the missions and goals of higher education in Ethiopia
- distinguish the major qualities and responsibilities of higher education staff
- recognize the basic principles of teaching in higher education
- apply varieties of methods and techniques of teaching in the subjects they teach
- prepare and utilize appropriate instruction materials
- organise and manage instruction activities in their respective subjects
- construct and apply varieties of assessment techniques
- design and implement instructional projects in their field of specialization
- evaluate the current practices in relation to other fields, methods of teaching, materials and
assessment techniques
- appreciate that teaching is a profession

III Content Areas
Part I: General Pedagogy
Unit 1: Learning and Teaching in Higher Education
1.1 Teaching
1.1.1 Understanding Higher Education
1.1.2 Missions and goals of higher education in Ethiopia
1.1.3 The higher education instructors, students and the curriculum
1.1.4 Theories of Teaching in higher education
1.1.5 Working in higher education
1.1.5.1 Designing (courses and lessons )
1.1.5.2 Teaching
1.1.5.3 Supervising (Project, thesis, dissertation)
1.1.5.4 Innovating (teaching with new technology)
1.1.5.5 Assessing and evaluating (students, teaching and courses)
1.1.5.6 Conducting research and community service
1.2 Learning and related issues
1.2.1 Strategies and styles to learning
1.2.2 Learning from students perspective
54
1.2.3 Learning tasks
1.2.4 Common learning theories
1.3 Teaching as a profession
1.3.1 Profession and its requirements
1.3.2 Teachers professional codes of ethics
Unit 2: Expected qualities of instructors
2.1 Professional qualities
2.2 Preparation
2.3 Presentation skills
Unit 3 Principles, Methods and Techniques of Teaching in Higher Education
3.1 Principles of Teaching: the concept and the common principles
3.2 Methods and Techniques of Teaching: concepts, classification, the methods and their
applications
Unit 4 Preparation, Utilization and Preservation of Instructional Materials
4.1 Production of instructional materials
4.2 Utilization and preservation techniques
4.3 Searching instructional resources from technological sources
Unit 5 Classroom organisation and management of the instructional activities in
higher education
5.1 Organisation of activities, materials and students
5.2 Management of the instructional activities (contents, methods and materials, space,
time, students behaviour)
Unit 6 Assessment techniques and the current practices
6.1 Meaning, types and benefits
6.2 Planning, constructing, administering, scoring, grading and item analysis
6.3 Students assessment practices in higher education in Ethiopia
6.4 Continuous assessment, instruments and its application
6.5 What should be done to improve the practice?

Part II Subject Area Methods in teaching Specialised Disciplines (related Areas)
1 Introduction to subject area methods of teaching
2 The nature, stages of development, place of the subject area in relation to other fields
(curriculum), its actual practices and trends in the teaching and learning activity of the
subject area in higher education
3 methods of teaching, materials and assessment techniques applicable in the subject
area
4 Requirements in teaching the subject area and possible project areas

IV Schedule of Delivery
1 Six days (24 hours block teaching /four days for general pedagogy and two days for subject area
methods with project arrangement) at the beginning of the module session
2. Independent/ self learning for 40% of the module session: students complete individual and
group projects
3. Collaborative learning (20%) students undertake group discussion based on the assignments.
This will take place the last few days of the allotted time for the module

V Teaching Strategy/ Methods
55
- Team teaching approach (both general and subject area methods instructors) will be
employed
- Instructor(s) presentation using interactive methods (brainstorming, questions and answer,
mind mapping, small group discussion, etc )
- Independent learning methods (reading, project presentation)
- Group project(s) method (display, discussion, debates, etc)

VI Instructors and Students Roles
6.1 Instructors roles
- Conduct block teaching
- Facilitate students individual and group activities
- Organise students field work, laboratory work, workshop practices (if any) and project
work presentations) and discussion sessions
- Assess students performances (written and oral presentations)
- Provide timely feedback orally and in writing
- Make follow up on developments made
- Keep students portfolios of evidences
- Plan and implement students consultation program
6.2 Students roles
- Attend sessions
- Carry out individual and group tasks
- Present and discuss individual and group tasks
- Compile personal portfolio and submit to the instructor(s)
- Reflect on feedback and like actions
- Carry out reading assignments

VII Teaching Support and Inputs
- Overhead projectors and transparencies
- LCDs and laptops
- TV and decks
- Photocopier and photocopy papers
- Projection screens
- Flip charts
- Stationery (flashcards, markers, scotch tape, push pin, scissors, staples, stapler, etc)

VIII Module Requirements
8.1 Every student registered for the module is required to attend the block sessions for not less
than 80% of the time given
8.2 Read the assigned materials and accomplish the given tasks
8.3 Work both individual and group assignments and submit on due dates
8.4 Submit the portfolio on time
8.5 Assess the personal and program achievements

IX Assessment and Evaluation Modalities
9.1 Students Assessment
Students assessment shall be done on continuous assessment basis with the following scheme of
work:
56
- Individual project (15%)
- Group project and presentation (30%)
- Portfolio of evidence (15%)
- Written test (40%)
Peer assessment shall be employed at the end of project presentation for improvement of
work. Reflections will be done by each student as self-assessment after the presentation,
which will go to his/her portfolio
9.2 Module Assessment
Each student will give his/her module assessment report to the instructors in writing as feedback
for the improvement of the module and delivery mechanisms

X Module Calendar
10.1 Block teaching (the first six working days of the month)
10.2 Independent/ group tasks (two weeks after block teaching)
10.3 Submissions of individual and/ or group assignments (On Monday of the fourth week)
10.4 Presentations and discussions on the projects 3 days of the fourth week Tuesday through
Thursday)
10.5 Final test and assessment of the module
10.6 Submission of the portfolio for assessment

XI Reading Materials/ References
Aggarwal, J.C. (1996) Principles, Methods and Techniques of Teaching. New Delhi: Vikas.
Aggarwal, J.C. (1996) Teaching of Social Studies. New Delhi: Vikas
Barbara, J., Susan E.G. and Deborah, EA (2001)The Power of Problem-based Learning: Virginia:
Stylus
Barnett, R. (1997) Higher Education: A Critical Business. Buckingham: The Society for Research
into Higher Education and Open University Press
Borich, G (1988) Effective Teaching Methods. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company
Carin, A.A., Bass, J.E. and Contant, T.L. (2005) Methods for Teaching Science as Inquiry (9
th
ed)
Darge Wole (2001) Notes on Teaching and Learning: Perspectives and Strategies. A.A. (IER
unpublished material)
Dhand, H (2004) Techniques of Teaching. New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House
Ellington, H. et al (1993) Handbook of Educational Technology. London: Kegan Page Ltd.
Heinich R et al (1991) Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning. New Jersey: Prentice
Hall
Knight, Peter T. (2002) Being a Teacher in Higher Education. Buckingham: The Society for
Research in to Higher Education and Open University Press
Kochhar, S.K. (1992) Methods and Techniques of Teaching. New Delhi: Sterling Publisher.
Light, G. and Cox, R. (2002). Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: The Reflective
Professional. London: Paul Chapmen Publishing.
MOE (2008/09) HDP Handbook. Addis Ababa (unpublished)
Monk, M. and Jonathan, O. (2000) Good Practice in Science Teaching.What Research Has to Say.
Buckingham: Open University Press
Obanya, P., Shebang, J. and Okebakola (1996). Guide to Teaching and Learning in Higher
Education: Towards Improved Delivery of Higher Education in Africa. Paris: UNESCO
Ramsden, P (2003) Learning To Teach in Higher Education. 2
nd
ed). London: Rutledge Flamer
57
UNESCO (1996) UNESCO Guide to Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. AAU
(unpublished material)
Wellington, J (2000) Teaching and Learning Secondary Science: Contemporary Issues and
Practical Approaches. Oxon: Rutledge

58
Module Title: MA Thesis / Ph D Proposal
Module Code: Jour 620
Credit Value of Module: 15% (180 hrs)

I Description