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The glasses you choose for your

bar are a reflection of how you use
and your needs. There are many
types of glasses available to build
a bar to match your tastes.

You can use
these for
mixing almost
any drink. A
good stand-in
for similar

Glass /
Lowball /
For shots of
alcohol over
ice primarily,
also for
smaller drinks
like singles
and doubles.

Red Wine
Use for red or
white wine (if
you don't
have a white
wine glass),
or water.

Shot Glass
Shot Glasses
are for a
single shot
drink. Might
buy a few
extra of
these, they
tend to break
and get lost.

Beer Mug
For beer or

Beer Pilsner
This is
for beer, but
works well for
serving large
and the like.

Snifter is for

The best way
to serve
The bowls
allow the
fizziness to
escape too
worse than

You can use
this for
serving many
cocktails. In a
pinch, you
can also use
it for serving
martinis, but
you should
really get true
glasses (no

For drinks
that require
something a
bit larger
than an old
glass. These
look good
when frosted

Generally for

Irish Coffee
This makes
almost any
coffee or
other hot
drink look
garnish with
cream and
shavings or

Similar to the
Irish coffee
glass, is
used for
drinks with
ice cream or
fruit in them.

Cafe Glass
Usually used
for layered

Sherry Glass
are used to

serve sherries.

Sour Glass
Sour Glass
are used for

White Wine
A bit smaller
than red wine
glasses with a
shape to the
Source: Mark Miller's Bar Man and

pho to

Beer mug: The typical size is a 16 ounce tall mug with a
handle. Resembles a coffee mug but taller.
Brandy snifter: Squatty, stemmed glass with a pear type
shape which allows the aroma to concentrate at the top of
the glass while your hands warm the bowl of the glass
holding the brandy. They can come in various sizes but the
average size is 17.5 ounces.

Champagne flute: A tulip shaped glass allows the bubbles
of the wine to dance against the side of the glass and
escape to tickle your nose. The saucer shaped champagne
glasses that are so common at wedding and catered events
are actually considered unsuitable for champagne and
drinks with bubbles as the shape results in the bubbles
dissipating quickly and the drink going flat. Typical Size: 6

Collins glass: A taller, skinner version of the highball glass.
Commonly used for soft drinks and tropical drinks such as
Mai Tai's. Typical Size: 14 oz.

Cordial glass: Small, stemmed glasses typically used for
after dinner drinks. Typical Size: 2 oz.

Highball glass / Cocktail glass: Used for many types of
mixed drinks whether neat or on the rocks. Typically
straight sided and about 12- 14 ounces

Lowball glass: A shorter version of the highball. Size is
typically 8 to 10 ounces.

Margarita/coupette glass: Broad rimmed to enable the
glass to better support items like salt or sugar on the rim.

Martini Glass: The bowl is triangle shaped usually with a
long stem. Usually used for neat drinks like Martinis,
Manhattans and Gimlets. Size varies but anywhere from
about 4-12 ounces

Old-fashioned glass/Rocks glass: Short and typically round.
Usually used for cocktails or liquor served on the rocks, or
"with a splash". Typical Size: 8-10 ounces

Port/Sherry glass: Similar to white wine glass but smaller
and with a more narrow taper to enhance the aroma of the
beverage. Typical Size: 2 ounces

photo by Annacia

Pousse-cafe glass: Narrow in shape to allow easier layering
of ingredients. Typically used for dessert type drinks of
about 6 ounces

Red wine glass: Stemmed with a round bowl that tapers
inward at the rim. Typical Size: 8 ounces

Shot glass: Typically 1.5 oz and used for small amounts of
liquors or a mixture of spirits which may be layered. One of
the most collectable of all glasses and can come in a wide
range of shapes and designs.

Whiskey sour / Delmonico glass: Stemmed with a wide
opening. Looks very similar to a white wine glass but
smaller. Typical Size: 5 ounces

photo by ncmysteryshopper

White wine glass: Stemmed with an elongated oval bowl
that taper inward at the rim. Typical Size: 8 ounces


Vodka (Russian: , Polish: wdka) is a
distilled liquor.
Vodka, one of the world's most popular liquors, is
composed solely of water and ethanol with possible
traces of impurities and flavorings. Vodka is made from
any one of these fermented substances: grain, rye,
wheat, potatoes, or sugar beet molasses.
Vodkas alcoholic content usually ranges between 35 to
50 percent by volume; the standard Russian,
Lithuanian, and Polish vodkas are 40 percent
alcohol by volume (80 proof).
Historically, this alcoholic-proof standard derives from
the Russian vodka quality standards established by Tsar
Alexander III in 1894.
The Muscovite Vodka
Museum reports that chemist Dmitri Mendeleev
determined the ideal alcohol content as 38 percent;
however, because in that time distilled spirits were taxed
per their alcoholic strength, that percentage was rounded
upwards to 40 percent for simplified taxation calculations.
For such a liquor to be denominated vodka,
governments establish a minimal alcohol content; the
European Union established 37.5 percent alcohol by
volume as the minimal alcohol content for European

Vodka is traditionally drunk neat in the vodka belt
Eastern Europe and Nordic countries
and elsewhere. It is also commonly used in cocktails
and mixed drinks, such as the bloody Mary, the
screwdriver, the White Russian, the vodka
tonic, and the vodka martini.
1 Etymology
2 History
o 2.1 Russia
o 2.2 Poland
o 2.3 Ukraine
3 Today
4 Production
o 4.1 Distilling and filtering
o 4.2 Flavoring
o 4.3 Other processing
5 Vodka and the EU
6 Health
7 See also
8 Notes
9 References
10 External links
[edit] Etymology
The name "vodka" is a diminutive form of the Slavic
word voda (water), interpreted as little water: root -
(vod-) [water] + -- (-k-) [ diminutive suffix, among
other functions]) + -a [ postfix of feminine
gender ].

The word "vodka" was recorded -for the first time in
[6][dubious discuss]
in the court documents from the
Palatinate of Sandomierz in Poland; at these
times the word referred to medicines and
[citation needed]
A number of Russian
pharmaceutical lists contain the terms "vodka of
bread wine" ( vodka khlebnovo
vina) and "vodka in half of bread wine" (
vodka polu khlebnovo vina).
As alcohol
had long been used as a basis for medicines, this implies
that the term vodka could be a noun derived from the verb
vodit, razvodit (, ), "to dilute with
Bread wine was a spirit distilled from alcohol made from
grain (as opposed to grape wine) and hence "vodka of
bread wine" would be a water dilution of a distilled grain
While the word could be found in manuscripts and in
lubok (, pictures with text explaining the plot, a
Russian predecessor of the comic), it began to appear in
Russian dictionaries in the mid-19th century.
Another possible connection of "vodka" with "water" is
the name of the medieval alcoholic beverage aqua
vitae (Latin, literally, "water of life"), which is
reflected in Polish "okowita", Ukrainian , or
Belarusian . (Note that whisky has a similar
etymology, from the Irish/Scottish Gaelic uisce
People in the area of vodka's probable origin have names
for vodka with roots meaning "to burn": Polish:
gorzaa; Ukrainian: , horilka;
Belarusian: , harelka; Slavic: arielka;
Lithuanian: degtin; Samogitian: degtn, is also
in use, colloquially and in proverbs
); Latvian:
degvns; Finnish: paloviina. In Russian during 17th
and 18th century (goryashchee vino,
"burning wine") was widely used. Compare to German
"Branntwein", Danish; brndevin; Dutch:
brandewijn; Swedish: brnnvin; Norwegian:
brennevin (although the latter terms refer to any strong
alcoholic beverage).
Another Slavic/Baltic archaic term for hard liquors was
"green wine" (Russian: zelyonoye vino,
alias vynas).
[edit] History
Encyclopedia Britannica writes that Vodka originated in
Russia during the 14th century, but exact origins of
vodka cannot be traced definitively. It is believed to have
originated in the grain-growing region that now embraces
Poland, western Russia, Belarus, Lithuania,
Ukraine. It also has a long tradition in
For many centuries beverages contained little alcohol. It
is estimated that the maximum amount was about 14% as
only this amount is reachable by means of natural
fermentation. The still allowing for distillation the
"burning of wine" was invented in the 8th century.

[edit] Russia

The "vodka belt" countries of Northern, Central and
Eastern Europe are the historic home of vodka, and also
have the highest vodka consumption in the world
The name "vodka" is a diminutive of the Russian voda
It was not originally called vodka instead,
the term bread wine ( ; khlebnoye vino) was
A type of distilled liquor close to the one that would
later become generally designated by the Russian word
vodka came to Russia in the late XIV century. In
1386 the Genoese ambassadors brought the first aqua
vitae ("the living water") to Moscow and presented it to
Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy, who previously
had defeated Tatar-Mongols and their Genoese
mercenaries in the remarkable large-scale Battle of
Kulikovo in 1380. The Genoese likely got this
beverage with the help of the alchemists of
Provence, who used the old Arab-variety of
distillation apparatus and their alchemy
techniques to convert grape must into alcohol. Al-
Rahzi, in his book Kitab al-Asrar (The Book of
Secrets) described the production of alcohol and its use as
an anesthetic. The Muslim physician
Albucasis described using alcohol as a solvent for
drugs in his writings as well. In Europe this medicinal
tincture of the Muslim alchemists, aqua vitae, became
the predecessor of all modern distilled alcohols, including
brandy, cognac, whiskey, schnapps and
Russian vodka. The liquid that was got as a result of
distillation of grape must was thought to be a concentrate
and a "spirit" of wine (spiritus vini in Latin), from
where came the name of this substance in many European
languages (like English spirit, or Russian spirt).
According to a legend, around 1430 a monk called
Isidore from Chudov Monastery inside the
Moscow Kremlin made a recipe of the first Russian
Having a special knowledge and distillation
devices he became an author of the new type of alcoholic
beverage of a new, higher quality. This "bread wine" as it
was initially known, was produced for a long time
exclusively in the Grand Duchy of Moscow and
in no other principality of Rus' (this situation persisted
until the era of industrial production). That's why this
bevarage for a long time was associated with Moscow.
Until mid-18th century, it remained relatively low on
alcohol content, not exceeding 40% by volume. It was
mostly sold in taverns and was quite expensive. At the
same time, the word vodka was already in use, but it
described herbal tinctures (similar to absinthe),
containing up to 75% by volume alcohol, and made for
medicinal purposes.
The first written usage of the word vodka in an official
Russian document in its modern meaning is dated by the
decree of Empress Elizabeth of June 8, 1751,
which regulated the ownership of vodka distilleries. The
taxes on vodka became a key element of government
finances in Tsarist Russia, providing at times up to 40%
of state revenue.
By the 1860s, due to the government
policy of promoting consumption of state-manufactured
vodka, it became the drink of choice for many Russians.
In 1863, the government monopoly on vodka production
was repealed, causing prices to plummet and making
vodka available even to low-income citizens. By 1911,
vodka comprised 89% of all alcohol consumed in Russia.
This level has fluctuated somewhat during the 20th
century, but remained quite high at all times. The most
recent estimates put it at 70% (2001). Today, some
popular Russian vodka producers or brands are (amongst
others) Stolichnaya and Russian Standard.

[edit] Poland
In Poland, vodka (Polish: wdka) has been produced
since the early Middle Ages. In these early days, the
spirits were used mostly as medicines. Stefan Falimierz
asserted in his 1534 works on herbs that vodka could
serve "to increase fertility and awaken lust". Around 1400
it became also a popular drink in Poland. Wdka lub
gorzaa (1614), by Jerzy Potaski, contains valuable
information on the production of vodka. Jakub Kazimierz
Haur, in his book Skad albo skarbiec znakomitych
sekretw ekonomii ziemiaskiej (A Treasury of Excellent
Secrets about Landed Gentry's Economy, Krakw, 1693),
gave detailed recipes for making vodka from rye.
Some Polish vodka blends go back centuries. Most
notable are ubrwka, from about the 16th century;
Goldwasser, from the early 17th; and aged Starka
vodka, from the 16th. In the mid-17th century, the
szlachta (nobility) were granted a monopoly on
producing and selling vodka in their territories. This
privilege was a source of substantial profits. One of the
most famous distilleries of the aristocracy was established
by Princess Lubomirska and later operated by her
grandson, Count Alfred Wojciech Potocki. The
Vodka Industry Museum, now housed at the headquarters
of Count Potocki's distillery, has an original document
attesting that the distillery already existed in 1784. Today
it operates as "Polmos acut."
Large-scale vodka production began in Poland at the end
of the 16th century, initially at Krakw, whence spirits
were exported to Silesia before 1550. Silesian cities
also bought vodka from Pozna, a city that in 1580 had
498 working spirits distilleries. Soon, however, Gdask
outpaced both these cities. In the 17th and 18th centuries,
Polish vodka was known in the Netherlands,
Denmark, England, Russia, Germany,
Austria, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine,
Bulgaria and the Black Sea basin.
Early production methods were primitive. The beverage
was usually low-proof, and the distillation process had to
be repeated several times (a three-stage distillation
process was common). The first distillate was called
"brantwka," the second"szumwka," the third
"okowita" (from "aqua vitae"), which generally contained
7080% alcohol by volume. Then the beverage was
watered down, yielding a simple vodka (3035%), or a
stronger one if the watering was done using an
alembic. The exact production methods were described
in 1768 by Jan Pawe Biretowski and in 1774 by
Jan Chryzostom Simon. The beginning of the
19th century inaugurated the production of potato vodka,
which immediately revolutionized the market.

Monopolowa vodka by J. A. Baczewski
The end of the 18th century marked the start of the vodka
industry in Poland (eastern part of Poland was part of
Russian empire at that time). Vodkas produced by the
nobility and clergy became a mass product. The first
industrial distillery was opened in 1782 in Lww by J.
A. Baczewski. He was soon followed by Jakub
Haberfeld, who in 1804 established a factory at
Owicim, and by Hartwig Kantorowicz, who
started producing Wyborowa in 1823 at Pozna.
The implementation of new technologies in the second
half of the 19th century, which allowed the production of
clear vodkas, contributed to their success. The first
rectification distillery was established in 1871. In 1925
the production of clear vodkas was made a Polish
government monopoly.
After World War II, all vodka distilleries were taken
over by Poland's communist government. During the
1980s, the sale of vodka was rationed. After the victory of
the Solidarity movement, all distilleries were
privatized, leading to an explosion of brands.
[edit] Ukraine
Main article: Horilka
Horilka (Ukrainian: ) is the Ukrainian term for
"vodka", the word came from Ukrainian "" means -
"to burn".
Horilka may also be used in a generic sense
in the Ukrainian language to mean
moonshine, whisky or other strong spirits.
Among East Slavic peoples, the term horilka is
used to stress the Ukrainian origin of a vodka, for
example, in Nikolai Gogol's historic novel Taras
Bulba: "and bring us a lot of horilka, but not of that
fancy kind with raisins, or with any other such things
bring us horilka of the purest kind, give us that demon
drink that makes us merry, playful and wild!".

A pertsivka or horilka z pertsem (pepper vodka) is a
vodka with whole fruits of capsicum put into the
bottle, turning horilka into a sort of bitters. Horilkas
are also often made with honey, mint, or even milk,
latter not typical of vodkas of other origins. Some claim
that horilka is considered stronger and spicier than typical
Russian vodka.

[edit] Today

A large selection of vodkas at an Auchan hypermarket
near Nizhny Novgorod
Vodka is now one of the world's most popular spirits. It
was rarely consumed outside Europe before the 1950s.
By 1975, vodka sales in the United States overtook
those of bourbon, previously the most popular hard
liquor and the native spirit of the country. In the second
half of the 20th century, vodka owed its popularity in part
to its reputation as an alcoholic beverage that "leaves you
breathless", as one ad put it no smell of liquor remains
detectable on the breath, and its neutral flavor allows it to
be mixed into a wide variety of drinks, often replacing
other liquors (particularly Gin) in traditional drinks, such
as the Martini.
According to The Penguin Book of Spirits and Liqueurs,
"Its low level of fusel oils and congeners
impurities that flavour spirits but that can contribute to the
after-effects of heavy consumption led to its being
considered among the 'safer' spirits, though not in terms
of its powers of intoxication, which, depending on
strength, may be considerable."

Russian culinary author William Pokhlebkin
compiled a history of the production of vodka in Russia
during the late 1970s as part of the Soviet case in a
trade dispute; this was later published as A History of
Vodka. Pokhlebkin claimed that while there was a
wealth of publications about the history of consumption
and distribution of vodka, virtually nothing had been
written about vodka production. Among his assertions
were that the word "vodka" was used in popular speech in
Russia considerably earlier than the middle of the 18th
century, but the word did not appear in print until the
[edit] Production

Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka
Shatsk, Russia
Vodka may be distilled from any starch/sugar-rich
plant matter; most vodka today is produced from grains
such as sorghum, corn, rye or wheat. Among
grain vodkas, rye and wheat vodkas are generally
considered superior. Some vodka is made from
potatoes, molasses, soybeans, grapes,
sugar beets and sometimes even byproducts of oil
refining or wood pulp processing. In some Central
European countries like Poland some vodka is produced
by just fermenting a solution of crystal sugar and yeast. In
the European Union there are talks about the
standardization of vodka, and the Vodka Belt
countries insist that only spirits produced from grains,
potato and sugar beet molasses be allowed to
be branded as "vodka", following the traditional methods
of production.

[edit] Distilling and filtering

Historic vodka still in Ukraine
A common property of vodkas produced in the United
States and Europe is the extensive use of filtration prior to
any additional processing, such as the addition of
flavourants. Filtering is sometimes done in the still
during distillation, as well as afterwards, where the
distilled vodka is filtered through charcoal and other
media. This is because under U.S. and European law
vodka must not have any distinctive aroma, character,
colour or flavour. However, this is not the case in the
traditional vodka producing nations, so many distillers
from these countries prefer to use very accurate
distillation but minimal filtering, thus preserving the
unique flavours and characteristics of their products.
The "stillmaster" is the person in charge of distilling the
vodka and directing its filtration. When done correctly,
much of the "fore-shots" and "heads" and the "tails"
separated in distillation process are discarded. These
portions of the distillate contain flavour compounds such
as ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate (heads) as
well as the fusel oils (tails) that alter the clean taste of
vodka. Through numerous rounds of distillation, or the
use of a fractioning still, the taste of the vodka is
improved and its clarity is enhanced. In some distilled
liquors such as rum and baijiu, some of the heads and
tails are not removed in order to give the liquor its unique
flavour and mouth-feel.
Repeated distillation of vodka will make its ethanol level
much higher than is acceptable to most end users, whether
legislation determines strength limits or not. Depending
on the distillation method and the technique of the
stillmaster, the final filtered and distilled vodka may have
as much as 95-96% ethanol. As such, most vodka is
diluted with water prior to bottling. This level of
distillation is what truly separates a rye-based vodka (for
example) from a rye whisky; while the whisky is
generally only distilled down to its final alcohol content,
vodka is distilled until it is almost totally pure alcohol and
then cut with water to give it its final alcohol content and
unique flavour, depending on the source of the water.

[edit] Flavoring

A set of vodkas in chocolate and caramel flavors.
Main article: Vodka infusion
Apart from the alcoholic content, vodkas may be
classified into two main groups: clear vodkas and
flavored vodkas. From the latter ones, one can separate
bitter tinctures, such as Russian Yubileynaya (anniversary
vodka) and Pertsovka (pepper vodka).
While most vodkas are unflavored, many flavored vodkas
have been produced in traditional vodka-drinking areas,
often as home-made recipes to improve vodka's taste or
for medicinal purposes. Flavorings include red pepper,
ginger, fruit flavors, vanilla, chocolate (without
sweetener), and cinnamon. In Russia and Ukraine,
vodka flavored with honey and pepper (Pertsovka, in
Russian, Z pertsem, in Ukrainian) is also very popular.
Ukrainians produce a commercial vodka that includes
St John's Wort. Poles and Belarusians add the
leaves of the local bison grass to produce
ubrwka (Polish) and Zubrovka (Belarusian) vodka,
with slightly sweet flavor and light amber color. In
Poland, a famous vodka containing honey is called
Krupnik. In the United States bacon vodka has
been introduced.
This tradition of flavoring is also prevalent in the
Nordic countries, where vodka seasoned with
herbs, fruits and spices is the appropriate strong drink for
midsummer seasonal festivities. In Sweden, there
are forty-odd common varieties of herb-flavored vodka
(kryddat brnnvin). In Poland there is a separate category,
nalewka, for vodka-based spirits with fruit, root,
flower, or herb extracts, which are often home-made or
produced by small commercial distilleries. Its alcohol
content is between 15 to 75%.
Polish distilleries make a very pure (95%, 190 proof)
rectified spirit (Polish language: spirytus
rektyfikowany). Technically a form of vodka, it is
sold in liquor stores, not pharmacies. Similarly, the
German market often carries German, Hungarian, Polish,
and Ukrainian-made varieties of vodka of 90 to 95%
alcohol content. A Bulgarian vodka, Balkan 176, is
88% alcohol.
[edit] Other processing
Due to the low freezing point of alcohol, vodka can
be stored in ice or a freezer without any crystallization of
water. In countries where alcohol levels are generally low
(the USA for example, due to alcohol taxes varying with
alcohol content), individuals sometimes increase the
alcohol percentage by a form of freeze distillation.
If the alcohol level is low enough and the freezer cold
enough (significantly below the freezing point of water),
solid crystals will form which are mostly water (actually a
dilute solution of alcohol). If these "ice" crystals are
removed, the remaining vodka will be enriched in alcohol.
[edit] Vodka and the EU
The recent success of grape-based vodka in the
United States has prompted traditional vodka
producers in the Vodka Belt countries of Poland,
Finland, Lithuania and Sweden to campaign for
EU legislation that will categorize only spirits made
from grain or potatoes as "vodka" rather than spirits made
from any ethyl alcohol provided, for example, by
apples and grapes.
This proposition has provoked
heavy criticism from south European countries, which
often distill used mash from wine-making into spirits;
although higher quality mash is usually distilled into some
variety of pomace brandy, lower-quality mash is
better turned into a neutral-flavoured spirits instead. Any
vodka then not made from either grain or potatoes would
have to display the products used in its production. This
regulation was adopted by the European
Parliament on June 19, 2007.

[edit] Health
Alcohol and Health
Short-term effects of alcohol
Long-term effects of alcohol
Alcohol and cardiovascular disease
Alcoholic liver disease
Alcoholic hepatitis
Alcohol and cancer
Alcohol and weight
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Recommended maximum intake
Wine and health
Vodka - because of its low cost - is often abused.
Excess consumption can be lethal by inducing respiratory
failure or unguarded inhalation of vomit by a comatose
drunk person. In addition, the effects of alcohol are
responsible for many traumatic injuries such as falls and
vehicle accidents. Consumption of alcohol above 0.1
Blood alcohol content can cause dehydration,
digestive irritation, and other symptoms associated with
alcohol intoxication and hangover, and the
chronic effects can include liver failure due to cirrhosis,
and it is associated with many GI cancers (particularly
oral cavity). In addition to ethanol, methanol, fusel
oils (not present in pure vodka), and esters can
contribute to hangovers.
[citation needed]

In some countries black-market vodka or
"bathtub" vodka is widespread because it can be
produced easily and avoid taxation. However, severe
poisoning, blindness, or death can occur as a result of
dangerous industrial ethanol substitutes being added by
black-market producers.
In March 2007, BBC News
UK made a documentary to find the cause of severe
jaundice among imbibers of a "bathtub" vodka in
The cause was suspected to be an industrial
disinfectant (Extrasept) - 95% ethanol but also
containing a highly toxic chemical - added to the vodka
by the illegal traders because of its high alcohol content
and low price. Death toll estimates list at least 120 dead
and more than 1,000 poisoned. The death toll is expected
to rise due to the chronic nature of the cirrhosis that is
causing the jaundice

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Rum (disambiguation).

A selection of rum offered at a liquor store in
Decatur, Georgia.

Government House rum, manufactured by the Virgin
Islands Company distillery, circa 1941.
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made
from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and
sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and
distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is then
usually aged in oak and other barrels.
The majority of the world's rum production occurs in and
around the Caribbean and in several Central
American and South American countries, such
as Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela,
Guyana, Puerto Rico, and Brazil. There are also
rum producers in places such as Australia, Fiji, the
Philippines, India, Reunion Island,
Mauritius, and elsewhere around the world.
Light rums are commonly used in cocktails,
whereas golden and dark rums are also appropriate for
drinking straight, or for cooking. Premium rums are also
available that are made to be consumed straight or with
Rum plays a part in the culture of most islands of the
West Indies, and has famous associations with the
Royal Navy (See: Grog) and piracy (See:
Bumbo). Rum has also served as a popular medium of
exchange that helped to promote slavery along with
providing economic instigation for Australia's Rum
Rebellion and the American Revolution.

1 Etymology
2 History
o 2.1 Origins
o 2.2 Colonial America
o 2.3 Naval Rum
o 2.4 Colonial Australia
3 Categorization
o 3.1 Regional variations
o 3.2 Grades
4 Production method
o 4.1 Fermentation
o 4.2 Distillation
o 4.3 Aging and blending
5 In cuisine
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
o 8.1 Further reading
9 External links
[edit] Etymology
The origin of the word rum is generally unclear. Rum is a
blunt, Anglo-Saxonlike name. In an 1824 essay
about the word's origin, Samuel Morewood, a British
etymologist, suggested that it might be from the
British slang term for "the best," as in "having a rum
time." He wrote that
"As spirits, extracted from molasses, could not well be
ranked under the name whiskey, brandy, or arack, it
would be called rum, to denote its excellence or superior
quality." -Samuel Morewood

Given the harsh taste of early rum, this is unlikely.
Morewood later suggested another possibility: that it was
taken from the last syllable of the Latin word for sugar,
saccharum, an explanation that is commonly heard
It should be noted though, that the -um is a very
common noun ending in Latin, and plenty of Latin word
roots end in r, so in reality, one could apply this logic to a
plethora of Latin words to draw the link.
Other etymologists have mentioned the Romani word
rum, meaning "strong" or "potent." These words have
been linked to the ramboozle and rumfustian,
both popular British drinks in the mid-seventeenth
century. However, neither was made with rum, but rather
eggs, ale, wine, sugar, and various spices. The most
probable origin is as a truncated version of rumbullion or
Both words surfaced in English about
the same time as rum did, and were slang terms for
"tumult" or "uproar." This is a far more convincing
explanation, and brings the image of fractious men
fighting in entanglements at island tippling houses,
which are early versions of the bar.

Another claim is that the name is from the large drinking
glasses used by Dutch seamen known as rummers, from
the Dutch word roemer, a drinking glass.
options include contractions of the words saccharum,
Latin for sugar, or arme, French for aroma.

Regardless of the original source, the name was already in
common use by May 1657 when the General Court
of Massachusetts made illegal the sale of strong
liquor "whether knowne by the name of rumme, strong
water, wine, brandy, etc."

In current usage, the name used for a rum is often based
on the rum's place of origin. For rums from Spanish-
speaking locales the word ron is used. A ron aejo
indicates a rum that has been significantly aged and is
often used for premium products. Rhum is the term used
for rums from French-speaking locales, while rhum vieux
is an aged French rum that meets several other
Some of the many other names for rum are Nelson's
Blood, Kill-Devil, Demon Water, Pirate's Drink, Navy
Neaters, and Barbados water.
A version of rum from
Newfoundland is referred to by the name
Screech, while some low-grade West Indies rums
are called tafia.

[edit] History
[edit] Origins
The precursors to rum date back to antiquity.
Development of fermented drinks produced from
sugarcane juice is believed to have first occurred either in
ancient India or China,
and spread from there. An
example of such an early drink is brum. Produced by the
Malay people, brum dates back thousands of years.

Marco Polo also recorded a 14th-century account of a
"very good wine of sugar" that was offered to him in what
is modern-day Iran.

The first distillation of rum took place on the sugarcane
plantations of the Caribbean in the 17th century.
Plantation slaves first discovered that molasses, a
by-product of the sugar refining process, can be
fermented into alcohol.
Later, distillation of these
alcoholic by-products concentrated the alcohol and
removed impurities, producing the first true rums.
Tradition suggests that rum first originated on the island
of Barbados.
A 1651 document from Barbados stated, "The chief
fuddling they make in the island is Rumbullion, alias Kill-
Divil, and this is made of sugar canes distilled, a hot,
hellish, and terrible liquor".

[edit] Colonial America

Pirates carrying rum to shore to purchase slaves as
depicted in The Pirates Own Book by Charles Ellms
After rum's development in the Caribbean, the drink's
popularity spread to Colonial North America. To
support the demand for the drink, the first rum distillery
in the British colonies of North America was set up in
1664 on present-day Staten Island. Boston,
Massachusetts had a distillery three years later.

The manufacture of rum became early Colonial New
England's largest and most prosperous industry.
England became a distilling center due to the superior
technical, metalworking and cooperage skills and
abundant lumber; the rum produced there was lighter,
more like whiskey, and was superior to the character and
aroma of the West Indies product.
[citation needed]

Rhode Island rum even joined gold as an accepted
currency in Europe for a period of time.
Estimates of
rum consumption in the American colonies before the
American Revolutionary War had every man,
woman, or child drinking an average of 3 Imperial
gallons (13.5 liters) of rum each year.

To support this demand for the molasses to produce rum,
along with the increasing demand for sugar
in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries, a labor
source to work the sugar plantations in the Caribbean was
needed. A triangular trade was established between
Africa, the Caribbean, and the colonies to help support
this need.
The exchange of slaves, molasses, and rum
was quite profitable, and the disruption to the trade caused
by the Sugar Act in 1764 may have even helped cause
the American Revolution.

The popularity of rum continued after the American
Revolution, with George Washington insisting on
a barrel of Barbados rum at his 1789 inauguration.

Rum started to play an important role in the political
system, since the outcome of an election usually
depended on the candidates generosity with rum. The
people would vote for incompetent candidates simply
because they provided more rum. They would attend the
election to see which candidate appeared less stingy with
their rum. The candidate was expected to drink with the
people to show that he was independent and truly a
republican. In a Mississippi election, one candidate
poured his drinks and socialized with the people. He was
more personal and it appeared as if he was going to win.
The other candidate announced that he would not be
pouring their drinks and they could have as much as they
wanted; because he appeared more generous, he won.
This shows that colonial voters were not concerned with
what the candidate represented or stood for; they were
merely looking for who would provide the most rum.

Eventually the restrictions on rum from the British islands
of the Caribbean, combined with the development of
American whiskey, led to a decline in the drink's
[edit] Naval Rum

WRNS serving rum to a sailor from a tub inscribed 'THE
Rum's association with piracy began with English
privateers trading on the valuable commodity. As
some of the privateers became pirates and buccaneers,
their fondness for rum remained, the association between
the two only being strengthened by literary works such as
Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure

The association of rum with the Royal Navy began in
1655 when the British fleet captured the island of
Jamaica. With the availability of domestically
produced rum, the British changed the daily ration of
liquor given to seamen from French brandy to rum.

While the ration was originally given neat, or mixed with
lime juice, the practice of watering down the rum began
around 1740. To help minimize the effect of the alcohol
on his sailors, Admiral Edward Vernon directed that
the rum ration be watered down before being issued, a
mixture which became known as grog. While it is
widely believed that the term grog was coined at this time
in honor of the grogram cloak Admiral Vernon wore
in rough weather,
the term has been demonstrated to
predate his famous orders, with probable origins in the
West Indies, perhaps of African etymology (see Grog).
The Royal Navy continued to give its sailors a daily rum
ration, known as a "tot," until the practice was abolished
after July 31, 1970.
Today the rum ration (tot) is still
issued on special occasions by H.M. Queen Elizabeth II
order "Splice the mainbrace"! Such recent
occasions have been Royal marriages/Birthdays, special
anniversaries. Splice the main brace in the days of the
daily ration meant double rations that day.
A story involving naval rum is that following his victory
at the Battle of Trafalgar, Horatio Nelson's
body was preserved in a cask of rum to allow transport
back to England. Upon arrival, however, the cask was
opened and found to be empty of rum. The pickled body
was removed and, upon inspection, it was discovered that
the sailors had drilled a hole in the bottom of the cask and
drunk all the rum, in the process drinking Nelson's blood.
Thus, this tale serves as a basis for the term Nelson's
Blood being used to describe rum. It also serves as the
basis for the term "Tapping the Admiral" being used to
describe drinking the daily rum ration. The details of the
story are disputed, as many historians claim the cask
contained French brandy whilst others claim instead
the term originated from a toast to Admiral Nelson.

It should be noted that variations of the story, involving
different notable corpses, have been in circulation for
many years.

The Royal New Zealand Navy is the last naval
force left in the world that still gives its sailors a free tot
of rum.
[edit] Colonial Australia

Beenleigh Rum Distillery, on the banks of the Albert River
near Brisbane, Australia, circa 1912
See Also: Rum Rebellion
Rum became an important trade good in the early period
of the colony of New South Wales. The value of
rum was based upon the lack of coinage among the
population of the colony, and due to the drink's ability to
allow its consumer to temporarily forget about the lack of
creature comforts available in the new colony. The value
of rum was such that convict settlers could be induced to
work the lands owned by officers of the New South Wales
Corps. Due to rum's popularity among the settlers, the
colony gained a reputation for drunkenness even though
their alcohol consumption was less than levels commonly
consumed in England at the time.

When William Bligh became governor of the colony
in 1806, he attempted to remedy the perceived problem
with drunkenness by outlawing the use of rum as a
medium of exchange. In response to this action, and
several others, the New South Wales Corps marched, with
fixed bayonets, to Government House and placed Bligh
under arrest. The mutineers continued to control the
colony until the arrival of Governor Lachlan
Macquarie in 1810.

[edit] Categorization
Dividing rum into meaningful groupings is complicated
by the fact that there is no single standard for what
constitutes rum. Instead rum is defined by the varying
rules and laws of the nations that produce the spirit. The
differences in definitions include issues such as spirit
proof, minimum aging, and even naming standards.
Examples of the differences in proof is Colombia,
requiring their rum possess a minimum alcohol content of
50 ABV, while Chile and Venezuela require only a
minimum of 40 ABV. Mexico requires rum be aged a
minimum of 8 months; the Dominican Republic,
Panama and Venezuela require two years. Naming
standards also vary. Argentina defines rums as white,
gold, light, and extra light. Barbados uses the terms
white, overproof, and matured, while the United
States defines rum, rum liqueur, and flavored rum.

In Australia Rum is divided into Dark Rum (Under Proof
known as UP, Over Proof known as OP, and triple
distilled) and White Rum.
Despite these differences in standards and nomenclature,
the following divisions are provided to help show the
wide variety of rums that are produced.
[edit] Regional variations

The Bacardi building in Havana, Cuba
Within the Caribbean, each island or production area has
a unique style. For the most part, these styles can be
grouped by the language that is traditionally spoken. Due
to the overwhelming influence of Puerto Rican rum, most
rum consumed in the United States is produced in
the Spanish-speaking style.
Spanish-speaking islands and countries traditionally
produce light rums with a fairly clean taste. Rums
from Guatemala, Cuba, Panama, the
Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Puerto
Rico, Colombia and Venezuela are typical of
this style. Rum from the U.S. Virgin Islands is also of
this style.
English-speaking islands and countries are known
for darker rums with a fuller taste that retains a
greater amount of the underlying molasses flavor.
Rums from Barbados, Belize, Bermuda,
Saint Kitts, Trinidad & Tobago the Demerara
region of Guyana, and Jamaica are typical of
this style.
French-speaking islands are best known for their
agricultural rums (rhum agricole). These rums, being
produced exclusively from sugar cane juice, retain a
greater amount of the original flavor of the sugar
cane and are generally more expensive than
molasses-based rums. Rums from Hati,
Guadeloupe, Marie-Galante and
Martinique are typical of this style.
Cachaa is a spirit similar to rum that is produced in
Brazil. (Some countries, including the United States,
classify cachaa as a type of rum.) Seco, from Panama, is
also a spirit similar to rum, but also similar to vodka,
since it is triple distilled. The Indonesian spirit
Batavia Arrack, or Arrak, is a spirit similar to rum that
includes rice in its production.
Mexico produces a
number of brands of light and dark rum, as well as other
less expensive flavored and unflavored sugar cane based
liquors, such as aguardiente de caa and charanda. In
some cases cane liquor is flavored with mezcal to
produce a pseudo-tequila-like drink.
[citation needed]

A spirit known as Aguardiente, distilled from
molasses and often infused with anise, with additional
sugarcane juice added after distillation, is produced in
Central America and northern South

In West Africa, and particularly in Liberia, cane juice
(also known as Liberian rum
or simply CJ within
Liberia itself,
is a cheap, strong spirit distilled from
sugar cane, which can be as strong as 86 proof.
refined cane spirit has also been produced in South
Africa since the 1950s.
Within Europe, a similar spirit made from sugar beet
is known as tuzemk (from tuzemsk rum, domestic rum)
in the Czech Republic and Kobba Libre on the land
[citation needed]

In Germany, a cheap substitute of genuine dark rum is
called Rum-Verschnitt (literally: blended rum). This
distilled beverage is made of genuine dark rum (often
from Jamaica), rectified spirit, and water. Very
often, caramel coloring is used, too. The relative
amount of genuine rum it contains can be quite low since
the legal minimum is at only 5 percent, but the taste of
Rum-Verschnitt is still very similar to genuine dark rum.
In Austria, a similar rum called Inlnderrum or
domestic rum is available. However, Austrian
Inlnderrum is always a spiced rum, (brand example:
Stroh) German Rum-Verschnitt, in contrast, is never
spiced or flavored.
[edit] Grades

Example of dark, spiced, and light rums.
The grades and variations used to describe rum depend on
the location that a rum was produced. Despite these
variations the following terms are frequently used to
describe various types of rum:
Light Rums, also referred to as silver rums and white
rums. In general, light rum has very little flavor aside
from a general sweetness, and serves accordingly as
a base for cocktails. Light rums are sometimes
filtered after aging to remove any color. The
Brazilian Cachaa is generally this type, but some
varieties are more akin to "gold rums". The majority
of Light Rum comes out of Puerto Rico. Their
milder flavor makes them popular for use in mixed-
drinks, as opposed to drinking it straight.
Gold Rums, also called amber rums, are medium-
bodied rums which are generally aged. These gain
their dark color from aging in wooden barrels
(usually the charred white oak barrels that are the
byproduct of Bourbon Whiskey). They have more
flavor, and are stronger tasting than Silver Rum, and
can be considered a midway-point between
Silver/Light Rum and the darker varieties.
Spiced Rum: These rums obtain their flavor through
addition of spices and, sometimes, caramel. Most
are darker in color, and based on gold rums. Some
are significantly darker, while many cheaper brands
are made from inexpensive white rums and
darkened with artificial caramel color.
Dark Rum, also known as black rum, classes as a
grade darker than gold rum. It is generally aged
longer, in heavily charred barrels. Dark rum has a
much stronger flavor than either light or gold rum,
and hints of spices can be detected, along with a
strong molasses or caramel overtone. It is used to
provide substance in rum drinks, as well as color. In
addition to uses in mixed drinks, dark rum is the type
of rum most commonly used in cooking. Most Dark
Rum comes from areas such as Jamaica, Haiti,
and Martinique, though two Central American
countries, Nicaragua and Guatemala, produced two
of the most award-winning dark rums in the world:
Flor de Caa and Ron Zacapa
Centenario, respectively.

Flavored Rum: Some manufacturers have begun to
sell rums which they have infused with flavors of
fruits such as mango, orange, citrus,
coconut or lime. These serve to flavor similarly
themed tropical drinks which generally comprise less
than 40% alcohol, and are also often drank neat
or on the rocks.
Overproof Rum is rum which is much higher than
the standard 40% alcohol. Most of these rums bear
greater than 75%, in fact, and preparations of 151 to
160 proof occur commonly.
Premium Rum: As with other sipping spirits, such as
Cognac and Scotch, a market exists for
premium and super-premium rums. These are
generally boutique brands which sell very aged and
carefully produced rums. They have more character
and flavor than their "mixing" counterparts, and are
generally consumed without the addition of other
[edit] Production method
Unlike some other spirits, such as Cognac and
Scotch, rum has no defined production methods.
Instead, rum production is based on traditional styles that
vary between locations and distillers.
[edit] Fermentation

Sugarcane is harvested to make sugarcane juice and
Most rum produced is made from molasses. Within the
Caribbean, much of this molasses is from Brazil.
notable exception is the French-speaking islands where
sugarcane juice is the preferred base ingredient.

Yeast and water are added to the base ingredient to start
the fermentation process. While some rum producers
allow wild yeast to perform the fermentation, most use
specific strains of yeast to help provide a consistent taste
and predictable fermentation time.
Dunder, the
yeast-rich foam from previous fermentations, is the
traditional yeast source in Jamaica.
"The yeast
employed will determine the final taste and aroma
profile," says Jamaican master blender Joy Spence.

Distillers that make lighter rums, such as Bacardi,
prefer to use faster-working yeasts.
Use of slower-
working yeasts causes more esters to accumulate
during fermentation, allowing for a fuller-tasting rum.

[edit] Distillation
As with all other aspects of rum production, there is no
standard method used for distillation. While some
producers work in batches using pot stills, most rum
production is done using column still distillation.

Pot still output contains more congeners than the
output from column stills and thus produces a fuller-
tasting rum.

[edit] Aging and blending
Many countries require that rum be aged for at least one
year. This aging is commonly performed in used
bourbon casks,
but may also be performed in
stainless steel tanks or other types of wooden casks. The
aging process determines the coloring of the Rum. Rum
that is aged in oak casks becomes dark, whereas Rum that
is aged in stainless steel tanks remains virtually colorless.
Due to the tropical climate common to most rum-
producing areas, rum matures at a much faster rate than is
typical for Scotch or Cognac. An indication of this
faster rate is the angels' share, or amount of product
lost to evaporation. While products aged in France
or Scotland see about 2% loss each year, rum
producers may see as much as 10%.
After aging, rum is
normally blended to ensure a consistent flavor. Blending
is the final step in the Rum making process.
As part of
this blending process, light rums may be filtered to
remove any color gained during aging. For darker rums,
caramel may be added to the rum to adjust the color of
the final product.
[edit] In cuisine

Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on

Rum grog.
Besides rum punch, cocktails such as the Cuba Libre
and Daiquiri have well-known stories of
their invention in the Caribbean. Tiki culture in
the US helped expand rum's horizons with inventions
such as the Mai Tai and Zombie. Other well-known
cocktails containing rum include the Pia Colada, a
drink made popular by Rupert Holmes' song
"Escape (The Pia Colada Song)",
and the
Mojito. Cold-weather drinks made with rum include the
Rum toddy and Hot Buttered Rum.
addition to these well-known cocktails, a number of local
specialties utilize rum. Examples of these local drinks
include Bermuda's Dark 'N' Stormy (Gosling's
Black Seal rum with ginger beer), and the
Painkiller from the British Virgin Islands.
Rum may also be used as a base in the manufacture of
liqueurs. Spiced Rum is made by infusing rum with a
combination of spices. Another combination is
jagertee, a mixture of rum and black tea.
Rum may also be used in a number of cooked dishes. It
may be used as a flavoring agent in items such as rum
balls or rum cakes. Rum is commonly used to macerate
fruit used in fruitcakes and is also used in
marinades for some Caribbean dishes. Rum is also
used in the preparation of Bananas Foster and some
hard sauces. Rum is sometimes mixed in with ice
cream often together with raisins.
Ti Punch is short for "petit punch", little punch. This is
a very traditional drink in the French-speaking region of
the Caribbean.
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A selection of Gin offered at a liquor store in
Decatur, Georgia.
This article is about the beverage. For other uses, see
Gin (disambiguation).
Gin is a spirit whose predominant flavor is derived
from juniper berries (Juniperus communis).
Whereas several different styles of gin have existed since
its origins, gin is broadly differentiated into two basic
legal categories. Distilled gin is crafted in the traditional
manner, by re-distilling neutral spirit of agricultural
origin with juniper berries and other botanicals.
Compound gin is made by simply flavoring neutral spirit
with essences and/or other 'natural flavorings' without re-
distillation, and is not as highly regarded. The minimum
bottled alcoholic strength for gin is 37.5% ABV in the
E.U., 40% ABV in the U.S.

There are several distinct styles of gin, with the most
common style today being London dry gin, a type of
distilled gin. In addition to the predominant juniper
content, London dry gin is usually distilled in the
presence of accenting citrus botanicals such as lemon and
bitter orange peel, as well as a subtle combination of
other spices, including any of anise, angelica root
and seed, orris root, licorice root, cinnamon,
cubeb, savory, lime peel, grapefruit peel,
dragon eye, saffron, baobab,
frankincense, coriander, nutmeg and cassia
bark. London dry gin may not contain added sugar or
colorants, water being the only permitted additive.

Some legal classifications of gin are defined only as
originating from specific geographical areas (e.g.
Plymouth gin, Ostfriesischer Korngenever,
Slovensk borovika, Kraki Brinjevec,
etc.), while other common descriptors refer to classic
styles that are culturally recognized but not legally
defined (e.g. Old Tom gin).
1 History
2 Cocktails with gin
3 Brands of gin
o 3.1 Notable brands
o 3.2 Historical brands
4 See also
5 References
6 External links
[edit] History
Juniper berries were recognized from ancient times as
possessing medicinal properties. By the 11th century,
Italian monks were flavoring crudely distilled spirits with
juniper berries. During the bubonic plague, this
drink was used, although ineffectively, as a remedy. As
the science of distillation advanced from the middle ages
into the renaissance period, juniper was one of many the
botanicals employed by virtue of its perfume, flavor, and
medicinal properties.
The name gin is derived from either the French
genivre or the Dutch jenever, which both mean
A common misconception is that the word is
derived from the Swiss city Geneva. The Dutch
physician Franciscus Sylvius is credited with the
invention of gin.
By the mid 1600s, numerous small
Dutch distillers (some 400 in Amsterdam alone by 1663)
had popularized the re-distillation of malt spirit or wine
with juniper, anise, caraway, coriander, etc.
, which were
sold in pharmacies and used to treat such medical
problems as kidney ailments, lumbago, stomach
ailments, gallstones, and gout. It was found in
Holland by English troops who were fighting against the
Spanish in the Eighty years war and where the term
Dutch courage came from. Gin emerged in England
in varying forms as of the early 17th century, and at the
time of The Restoration enjoyed a brief resurgence.
It was only when William of Orange, ruler of the
Dutch Republic, seized the British throne in what
has become known as the Glorious Revolution that
gin became vastly more popular
, particularly in crude,
inferior forms, where it was more likely to be flavored
with turpentine.

Hogarth's Gin Lane
Gin became popular in England after the government
allowed unlicensed gin production and at the same time
imposed a heavy duty on all imported spirits. This
created a market for poor-quality grain that was unfit for
brewing beer, and thousands of gin-shops sprang up
throughout England. By 1740 the production of gin had
increased to six times that of beer
[citation needed]
, and
because of its cheapness it became popular with the poor.
Of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London, over
half were gin-shops. Beer maintained a healthy reputation
as it was often safer to drink the brewed ale than unclean
plain water. Gin, though, was blamed for various social
and medical problems, and it may have been a factor in
the higher death rates which stabilized London's
previously growing population.
The reputation of the
two drinks was illustrated by William Hogarth in his
engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane (1751). This
negative reputation survives today in the English
language, in terms like "gin-mills" or "gin-joints" to
describe disreputable bars or "gin-soaked" to refer to
drunks, and in the phrase "Mother's Ruin," a common
British name for gin.
The Gin Act 1736 imposed high taxes on retailers
and led to riots in the streets. The prohibitive duty was
gradually reduced and finally abolished in 1742. The Gin
Act 1751 was more successful, however. It forced
distillers to sell only to licensed retailers and brought gin-
shops under the jurisdiction of local magistrates.
Gin in
the 18th century was produced in pot stills, and was
somewhat sweeter than the London gin known today.
In London in the early eighteenth century, gin sold on
the black market was prepared in illicit stills (of
which there were 1500 in 1726) and was often adulterated
with turpentine and sulfuric acid.
As late as
1913, Webster's Dictionary states without further
comment that 'common gin' is usually flavored with

Dutch gin, also known as jenever or genever, evolved
from malt wine spirits, and is a distinctly different drink
from later styles of gin. Jenever is distilled at least
partially from barley malt (and/or other grain) using a
pot still, and is sometimes aged in wood. This typically
lends a slightly malty flavor and/or a resemblance to
whisky. Schiedam, a city in the province of
South Holland, is famous for its jenever producing
history. Jenever is typically lower in alcohol content and
distinctly different from gins distilled strictly from neutral
spirits (e.g. London dry gin). The 'oude' (old) style of
Jenever, remained very popular throughout the 19th
century, where it was referred to as "Holland Gin" or
"Geneva Gin" in popular pre-prohibition bartender
. The column still was invented in 1832,
making the distillation of neutral spirits practical. This
invention would enable the creation of the "London dry"
style, which was developed later in the 19th century.
In tropical British colonies, gin was used to mask the
bitter flavor of quinine, which was the only effective
anti-malarial compound. The quinine was dissolved in
carbonated water to form tonic water, the resulting
mix becoming the origin of today's popular gin and
tonic combination, although modern tonic water
contains only a trace of quinine as a flavoring.
Gin is a popular base spirit for many classic mixed
drinks, including the martini. Secretly produced
"bathtub gin" was commonly available in the
speakeasies and "blind pigs" of Prohibition-
era America due to the relative simplicity of the
production method. Gin remained popular as the basis of
many cocktails after the repeal of Prohibition.
Sloe gin is traditionally described as a liqueur made by
infusing sloes (the fruit of the blackthorn) in gin,
although modern versions are almost always compounded
from neutral spirits and flavorings. Similar infusions are
possible with other fruits, such as damsons (See
Damson gin).
The National Gin Museum is in Hasselt, Belgium.
[edit] Cocktails with gin
Perhaps the best-known gin cocktail is the Martini,
traditionally made with gin and dry vermouth. Other
gin-based drinks include:
Allen - Gin
with lemon
juice and
The Last
Mule, the
gin version of
Ramos gin fizz
Salty Dog
Dead Baby
Boy - gin and
tonic water,
with an olive
tied to a
sugar cube
with string
or a
and served
in a highball
Gimlet -
gin and lime
Gin and
Juice - gin
and orange
Gin and
Tonic- gin
and tonic
a Moscow

Blossom -
Plymouth gin

Pink Gin
Tom Collins
White Lady
Gin and
Gin Fizz- gin,
lemon juice,
sugar, and
served in a
highball glass
with two ice
Gin and L&P
- gin and
Lemon &
Popular in
Gin Rickey -
gin, lime
juice and
Gin is often combined with a number of other mixers.
[edit] Brands of gin
[edit] Notable brands
Beefeater - First
produced in 1820
BOLS Damrak
Amsterdam - Dutch
Bluecoat - American
Gin distilled in

Sapphire -
distilled with ten
Boodles British
Booth's - first
produced in 1740 by
Sir Felix Booth
Bulldog Gin - a
London Dry Gin
infused with Poppy
and Dragon Eye
Cork Dry Gin -
First distilled at the
G'vine - based on an
Ugni Blanc base spirit and
infused with green grape
Hendrick's Gin -
Made in Scotland, infused
with cucumber and rose
Plymouth Gin - first
distilled in 1793
Sacred Gin distilled in one
of London's 2 new micro-

Seagram's Gin
South Gin - from New
Zealand using New
Zealand-native manuka
berries and kawa kawa
Tanqueray - First
Distillery in Cork City
in 1793.
Damrak - Sweet
candied citrus
aromas with a spicy
licorice and a juniper
Gilbey's Gin

Ginebra San
Miguel - produced
in the
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation).

Cognac brandy in a typical brandy snifter
Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutch
brandewijn"burnt wine")
is a spirit produced by
distilling wine, the wine having first been produced
by fermenting grapes. Brandy generally contains
36%60% alcohol by volume and is typically taken
as an after-dinner drink. While some brandies are aged in
wooden casks, most are coloured with caramel colouring
to imitate the effect of such aging.
Brandy can also be made from fermented fruit (i.e., other
than grapes) and from pomace.

Types of brandy
There are three main types of brandy. The term "brandy"
denotes grape brandy if the type is not otherwise
Grape brandy
Grape brandy is produced by the distillation of fermented

Brandy de Jerez barrels aging
American grape brandy is almost always from
Popular brands include Christian
Brothers, Coronet, E&J, Korbel, Paul Masson
and J. Bavet.
Armagnac is made from grapes of the Armagnac
region in Southwest of France (Gers, Landes, Lot-et-
Garonne). It is single-continuous distilled in a copper
still and aged in oaken casks from Gascony or
Limousin. Armagnac was the first distilled spirit in
France. Armagnacs have a specificity: they offer
vintage qualities. Popular brands are Darroze,
Baron de Sigognac, Larressingle,
Delord, Laubade, Glas and Janneau.
Cognac comes from the Cognac region in
and is double distilled using pot stills.
Popular brands include Hine, Martell, Rmy
Martin, Hennessy, Ragnaud-Sabourin,
Delamain and Courvoisier.
Brandy de Jerez is a brandy that originates
from vineyards around Jerez de la Frontera
in southern Spain.
It is used in some sherries
and is also available as a separate product. It has a
Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). The
traditional production method has three
characteristics: (1) Aged in American oaken casks
with a capacity of 500 litres, previously having
contained sherry. (2) The use of the traditional aging
system of Criaderas and Soleras. (3) Aged exclusively
within the municipal boundaries of Jerez de la
Frontera, El Puerto de Santa Mara, and
Sanlcar de Barrameda in the province of

Pisco is produced in Peru and Chile.
Portugal: Lourinh, located in western
Portugal, is one of the few brandy-making areas,
besides Cognac, Armagnac and Jerez, that have
received appellation status.
South African grape brandies are, by law, made
almost exactly as in Cognac, using a double-
distillation process in copper pot stills
followed by aging in oak barrels for a minimum of
three years. Because of this, South African brandies
are of a very high quality.

Other countries: Grape brandy is also produced in
many other countries, including Armenia,
Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Germany,
Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Mexico,
Moldova, Romania, and Ukraine. Cyprus
brandy differs from other varieties in that its alcohol
concentration is only 32% ABV.
The European Union legally enforces Cognac as
the exclusive name for brandy produced and distilled in
the Cognac area of France, and Armagnac from
the Gascony area of France, using traditional techniques.
Since these are considered PDO, they refer not just to
styles of brandy but brandies from a specific region, i.e. a
brandy made in California in a manner identical to the
method used to make cognac, and which tastes similar to
cognac, cannot be so called in Europe as it is not from the
Cognac region of France.
Grape brandy is best when it is drunk at room temperature
from a tulip-shaped glass or a snifter. Often it is
slightly warmed by holding the glass cupped in the palm
or by gently heating it. However, heating it may cause the
alcohol vapor to become too strong, so that the aromas are
[citation needed]

Brandy, like whisky and red wine, has more
pleasant aromas and flavors at a lower temperature, e.g.,
16 C (61 F). In most homes, this would imply that
brandy should be cooled rather than heated for maximum
enjoyment. Furthermore, alcohol (which makes up 40%
of a typical brandy) becomes thin as it is heated (and
more viscous when cooled). Thus, cool brandy produces a
fuller and smoother mouthfeel and less of a "burning"

[edit] Fruit brandy

A bottle of Calvados, a French fruit brandy made from
Fruit brandies are distilled from fruits other than grapes.
Apples, plums, peaches, cherries, eldberberries,
raspberries, blackberries, and apricots are the most
commonly used fruits. Fruit brandy usually contains 40%
to 45% ABV. It is usually colorless and is customarily
drunk chilled or over ice.
Applejack is an American apple brandy, made
from the distillation of hard cider. It is often
freeze distilled.
Buchu brandy is South African and flavoured with
extracts from Agathosma species.
Calvados is an apple brandy from the French
region of Lower Normandy.
It is double
distilled from fermented apples.
Damassine is a prune (the fruit of the
Damassinier tree) brandy from the Jura
Mountains of Switzerland
Coconut brandy is a brandy made from the sap
of coconut flowers.
Eau-de-vie is a general French term for fruit brandy
(or even grape brandy that is not qualified as
Armagnac or Cognac, including pomace brandy).
German Schnaps is fruit brandy produced in
Germany or Austria.
Kirschwasser is a fruit brandy made from cherries.

Kukumakranka brandy is South African and flavoured
with the ripe fruit of the Kukumakranka.
Plinka is a traditional Hungarian fruit brandy.
can only be made of fruits from Hungary, such as
plums, apricots, peaches, elderberries, pears, apples
or cherries.
Poire Williams (Williamine) is made from
Bartlett pears (also known as Williams pears).
Rakia is a type of fruit brandy produced in Albania,
Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro,
and Serbia; it may be made from plums, apples,
quinces, pears, apricots, cherries, mulberries,
grapes, or walnuts.
Slivovice is a strong fruit brandy made from plums;
by law, it must contain at least 52% ABV. It is
produced in Serbia, Slovakia, the Czech
Republic, and Poland.
Slivovitz is a fruit brandy made from plums.
It is
a traditional drink in Bulgaria, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Croatia. Macedonia,
Serbia, and Slovenia.
livka (pronounced: Shlyeewca) is plum fruit
brandy made in Macedonia.
ljivovica (pronounced: Shlyeewoweetza) is plum
fruit brandy made in Serbia.
Tuica is a clear Romanian fruit brandy made from
plums, apples, pears, apricots, mulberries, peaches,
quinces, or mixtures of these. Romania and
Moldova also produce a grape brandy called vin
ars (burnt wine) or divin.
[edit] Pomace brandy
Pomace brandy is produced by fermentation and
distillation of the grape skins, seeds, and stems that
remain after grapes have been pressed to extract their
juice (which is then used to make wine). Examples
Italian grappa
French marc
Portuguese aguardente Bagaceira
Serbian komovica
Bulgarian grozdova
Georgian chacha
Hungarian trklyplinka
Cretan tsikoudia
Cypriot Zivania

Spanish orujo
Macedonian komova
Most of the pomace brandies are neither aged, nor
[edit] Distillation
A batch distillation typically works as follows:
Wine with an alcohol concentration of 8% to 12% ABV
and high acidity is boiled in a pot still. Vapors of
alcohol, water, and numerous aromatic components
rise and are collected in a condenser coil, where they
become a liquid again. Because alcohol and the
aromatic components vaporize at a lower temperature
than water, the concentration of alcohol in the condensed
liquid (the distillate) is higher than in the original
After one distillation, the distillate, called "low wine,"
will contain roughly 30% alcohol (ethanol) by volume.
The low wine is then distilled a second time. The first 1%
or so of distillate that's produced, called the "head," has an
alcohol concentration of about 83% and an unpleasant
odor, so it is discarded (generally, mixed in with another
batch of low wine for future use). The distillation process
continues, yielding a distillate of approximately 70%
alcohol (called the "heart"), which is what will be
consumed as brandy. The portion of low wine that
remains after distillation, called the "tail," will be mixed
into another batch of low wine for future use.
Distillation does not simply enhance the alcohol content
of wine. The heat under which the product is distilled and
the material of the still (usually copper) cause chemical
reactions to take place during distillation. This leads to the
formation of numerous new volatile aroma
components, changes in relative amounts of aroma
components in the wine, and the hydrolysis of
components such as esters.
[edit] Aging
Brandy is produced using one of three aging methods:
No aging: Most pomace brandy and some fruit
brandy is not aged before bottling. The resulting
product is typically clear and colourless.
Single barrel aging: Brandies with a natural golden
or brown color are aged in oak casks. Some
brandies have caramel color added to simulate the
appearance of barrel aging.
Solera process: Some brandies, particularly those
from Spain, are aged using the solera system.
[edit] Labelling
Brandy has a rating system to describe its quality and
condition; these indicators can usually be found near the
brand name on the label:
A.C.: aged two years in wood.
V.S.: "Very Special" or 3-Star, aged at least three
years in wood.
V.S.O.P.: "Very Superior Old Pale" or 5-Star, aged at
least five years in wood.
X.O.: "Extra Old", Napoleon or Vieille Reserve, aged
at least six years, Napoleon at least four years.
Vintage: Stored in the cask until the time it is bottled
with the label showing the vintage date.
Hors d'age: These are too old to determine the age,
although ten years plus is typical, and are usually of
great quality.
In the case of Brandy de Jerez Regulatory Council
classifies it according to:
Brandy de Jerez Solera one year old.
Brandy de Jerez Solera Reserva three years old.
Brandy de Jerez Solera Gran Reserva ten years old.
[edit] Pot stills vs. tower stills
Cognac and South African pot still brandy are examples
of brandy produced in batches using pot stills (batch
distillation). Many American brandies use fractional
distillation in tower stills to perform their distillation.
Special pot stills with a fractionation section on top
are used for Armagnac.
[edit] European Union definition
The European Union has established its own legal
definition of the term brandy:

5. Brandy or Weinbrand
(a) Brandy or Weinbrand is a spirit drink:
(i) produced from wine spirit, whether or not wine
distillate has been added, distilled at less than 94.8%
vol., provided that that distillate does not exceed a
maximum of 50% of the alcoholic content of the
finished product,
(ii) matured for at least one year in oak receptacles
or for at least six months in oak casks with a capacity
of less than 1000 litres,
(iii) containing a quantity of volatile substances equal
to or exceeding 125 grams per hectolitre of 100%
vol. alcohol, and derived exclusively from the
distillation or redistillation of the raw materials used,
(iv) having a maximum methanol content of 200
grams per hectolitre of 100% vol. alcohol.
(b) The minimum alcoholic strength by volume of
brandy or Weinbrand shall be 36%.
(c) No addition of alcohol as defined in Annex I(5),
diluted or not, shall take place.
(d) Brandy or Weinbrand shall not be flavoured. This
shall not exclude traditional production methods.
(e) Brandy or Weinbrand may only contain added
caramel as a means to adapt colour.
This definition formally excludes fruit brandy, pomace
brandy, and even unaged grape brandy. The same
European Union regulation defines the names of these
excluded spirits as fruit spirit, grape marc spirit, and wine
spirit. The German term Weinbrand is equivalent to the
English term brandy, but outside the German-speaking
countries it is used only for brandy from Austria and
Germany. In Poland, brandy is sometimes called
winiak, from wino (wine).
[edit] History
The origins of brandy are clearly tied to the development
of distillation. Concentrated alcoholic
beverages were known in ancient Greece and
Rome and may have a history going back to ancient
Babylon. Brandy, as it is known today, first began to
appear in the 12th century and became generally popular
in the 14th century.
Initially wine was distilled as a preservation method
and as a way to make the wine easier for merchants
to transport. It was also thought that wine was originally
distilled to lessen the tax which was assessed by volume.
The intent was to add the water removed by distillation
back to the brandy shortly before consumption. It was
discovered that after having been stored in wooden
casks, the resulting product had improved over the
original distilled spirit.
In addition to removing water,
the distillation process leads to the formation and
decomposition of numerous aroma compounds,
fundamentally altering the composition of the distillate
from its source. Non-volatile substances such as
pigments, sugars, and salts remain behind in the still. As a
result, the taste of the distillate may be quite unlike that of
the original source.
As described in the 1728 edition of Cyclopaedia, the
following method was used to distill brandy:
A cucurbit was filled half full of the liquor from
which brandy was to be drawn and then raised with
a little fire until about one sixth part was distilled, or
until that which falls into the receiver was entirely
flammable. This liquor, distilled only once, was called
spirit of wine or brandy. Purified by another
distillation (or several more), this was then called
spirit of wine rectified. The second distillation was
made in balneo mariae and in a glass cucurbit, and
the liquor was distilled to about one half the
quantity. This was further rectifiedas long as the
operator thought necessaryto produce brandy.

To shorten these several distillations, which were long
and troublesome, a chemical instrument was invented that
reduced them to a single distillation. To test the purity of
the rectified spirit of wine, a portion was ignited. If the
entire contents were consumed without leaving any
impurity behind, then the liquor was good. Another, better
test involved putting a little gunpowder in the bottom
of the spirit. If the gunpowder took fire when the spirit
was consumed, then the liquor was good.

As most brandies are distilled from grapes, the regions of
the world producing excellent brandies have roughly
paralleled those areas producing grapes for viniculture. At
the end of the 19th Century, the western European
marketand by extension their overseas empireswas
dominated by French and Spanish brandies, and eastern
Europe was dominated by brandies from the Black Sea
region, including Bulgaria, the Crimea, and Georgia. In
1880, David Saradjishvili founded his Cognac Factory in
Tbilisi, Georgia (then part of the Russian Empire) which
was a crossroads for Turkish, Central Asian, and Persian
traderoutes. Armenian and Georgian brandies (always
called cognacs in the era) were considered some of the
best in the world, often beating their French competitors
at the International Expositions in Paris and Brussels in
the early 1900s. The storehouses of the Romanov Court in
St. Petersburg were regarded as the largest collections of
cognacs and wines in the worldmuch of it from the
Transcaucasus region of Georgia. During the October
Revolution of 1917, upon the storming of the Winter
Palace, the Bolshevik Revolution actually paused for a
week or so as the rioters engorged on the substantial
stores of cognac and wines. The Russian market was
always a huge brandy-consuming region, and while much
of it was homegrown, much was imported. The patterns
of bottles follow that of western European norm.
Throughout the Soviet era, the production of brandy
remained a source of pride for the communist regime, and
they continued to produce some excellent varietiesmost
famously the Jubilee Brandies of 1967, 1977, and 1987.
Remaining bottles of these productions are highly sought
after, not simply for their quality, but for their historical
[edit] Usage
Brandy serves a variety of culinary uses.
[edit] Cooking
Flavored brandy is added to desserts, including cake
and pie toppings, which enhances the flavor of the
dessert .
Flavored brandy is also commonly added to apple
Brandy is a common deglazing liquid in making
pan sauces for steak or other meats
[edit] Beverages
Brandy may be served neat (by itself) or on the rocks
(with ice). It is often added to other beverages to create
several popular mixed drinks. Examples of mixed
drinks with brandy include a "Brandy Alexander",
a "Sidecar (cocktail)", a "Brandy Sour", "Old
fashioned", and a "Blackbird" (blackberry brandy mixed
with Coca-Cola).
[edit] See also
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation).

A glass of whisky
Whisky or whiskey is a type of alcoholic
beverage distilled from fermented grain
mash. Different grains are used for different varieties,
including barley, malted barley, rye, malted rye,
wheat, and maize (corn). Most whiskies are aged
in wooden casks, made generally of oak, the
exception being some corn liquors.
Whisky is a strictly regulated spirit worldwide with many
competing denominations of origin and many classes and
types. The unifying characteristics of the different classes
and types are the fermentation of grains, and the practice
of distilling the spirit down to a maximum of 80% alcohol
for corn and 90% alcohol for other grains, prior to adding
water, so as to retain some of the flavor of the grain used
to make the spirit and prevent it from being classified as
grain neutral spirits or vodka.
Whisky gains
as much as 60% of its flavor from the type of cask used in
its aging process.
[citation needed]
Therefore further
classification takes place based upon the type of wood
used and the amount of charring or toasting done to the
Bourbon whiskey for example is legally
required to be aged in charred new oak barrels, whereas
quality Scotch whiskies often used the partially spent
barrels from Bourbon production to induce slower

1 Etymology
2 History
3 Types
o 3.1 American whiskeys
o 3.2 Canadian whiskies
o 3.3 Finnish whiskies
o 3.4 German whiskies
o 3.5 Indian whiskies
o 3.6 Irish whiskeys
o 3.7 Japanese whiskies
o 3.8 Scotch whiskies
o 3.9 Welsh whiskies
o 3.10 Other whiskies
4 Names and spellings
5 Chemistry
o 5.1 Flavours from distillation
o 5.2 Flavours from oak
6 See also
7 References
8 External links
[edit] Etymology
Whisky is a shortened form of usquebaugh, which
English borrowed from Gaelic (Irish uisce beatha and
Scottish uisge beatha). This compound descends from
Old Irish uisce, "water", and bethad, "of life" and
meaning literally "water of life". It meant the same thing
as the Latin aqua vtae which had been applied to distilled
drinks since early 14th century. Other early spellings
include usquebea (1706) and iskie bae (1583). In the Irish
Annals of Clonmacnoise in 1405, the first written
record of whiskey appears describing the death of a
chieftain at Christmas from "taking a surfeit of aqua
vitae". In Scotland, the first evidence of whisky
production comes from an entry in the Exchequer Rolls
for 1494 where malt is sent "To Friar John Cor, by order
of the king, to make aquavitae".

[edit] History
The art of distillation began with the Babylonians in
Mesopotamia (in what is now Iraq) from at least
the 2nd millennium BC
, with perfumes and
aromatics being distilled long before potable spirits. It is
possible that the art of distillation was brought from
the Mediterranean regions to Ireland by Irish
missionaries between the 6th century and 7th century.
Distillation was brought from Africa to Europe by the
and its use spread through the
largely for medicinal purposes, such
as the treatment of colic, palsy, and smallpox.

Between 1100 and 1300, distillation spread to Ireland and
with monastic distilleries existing in
Ireland in the 12th century. Since Britain had few grapes
with which to make wine, barley beer was used instead,
resulting in the development of whisky.
In 1494, as
noted above, Scotlands Exchequer granted the malt to
Friar John Cor; this was enough malt to make about 1500
bottles, so the business was apparently thriving by that
King James IV of Scotland (r. 1488-1513)
reportedly had a great liking for Scotch whisky, and in
1506 the town of Dundee purchased a large amount of
Scotch from the Guild of Surgeon Barbers, which held the
monopoly on production at the time. Between 1536 and
1541, King Henry VIII of England dissolved
the monasteries, sending their monks out into the
general public. Whisky production moved out of a
monastic setting and into personal homes and farms as
newly-independent monks needed to find a way to earn
money for themselves.

The distillation process at the time was still in its infancy;
whisky itself was imbibed at a very young age, and as a
result tasted very raw and brutal compared to todays
versions. Renaissance-era whisky was also very potent
and not diluted, and could even be dangerous at times.
Over time, and with the happy accident of someone
daring to drink from a cask which had been forgotten for
several years, whisky evolved into a much smoother

In 1707, the Acts of Union merged England and
Scotland, and thereafter taxes on it rose dramatically.

After the English Malt Tax of 1725, most of Scotlands
distillation was either shut down or forced underground.
Scotch whisky was hidden under altars, in coffins, and in
any available space to avoid the governmental
Scottish distillers, operating out of
homemade stills, took to distilling their whisky at night,
where the darkness would hide the smoke rising from the
stills. For this reason, the drink was known as
At one point, it was estimated that
over half of Scotlands whisky output was illegal.

In America, whisky was used as currency during the
American Revolution. It also was a highly coveted
sundry and when an additional excise tax was levied
against it, the 1794 Whiskey Rebellion took

In 1823, the UK passed the Excise Act, legalizing the
distillation (for a fee), and this put a practical end to the
large-scale production of Scottish moonshine.

In 1831, Aeneas Coffey invented the Coffey still,
allowing for cheaper and more efficient distillation of
whisky. In 1850, Andrew Usher mixed traditional whisky
with that from the new Coffey still, and in doing so
created the first Scottish blended whisky. This new
grain whisky was scoffed at by Irish distillers, who
clung to their malt whisky. Many Irish contended that the
new mixture was, in fact, not whisky at all.

By the 1880s, the French brandy industry was
devastated by the phylloxera pest that ruined much of
the grape crop; as a result, whisky became the primary
liquor in many markets.

Written records have been uncovered in Arbroath which
document whiskey production and consumption in
Scotland in the 2nd century AD. This is the earliest know
record of whiskey production and unequivocally shows
that whiskey was invented in and first produced in
[edit] Types

Copper Pot stills at Auchentoshan Distillery
in Scotland
Whisky or whisky-like products are produced in most
grain-growing areas. They differ in base product,
alcoholic content, and quality.

Malted barley is an ingredient of some whiskies.
Malt is whisky made entirely from malted
barley and distilled in an onion-shaped pot still.
Grain is made from malted and unmalted barley
along with other grains, usually in a continuous
"patent" or "Coffey" still. Until recently it
was only used in blends, but there are now some
single grain scotches being marketed.
Malts and grains are combined in various ways
Vatted malt is blended from malt whiskies from
different distilleries. If a whisky is labelled "pure
malt" or just "malt" it is almost certain to be a vatted
whisky. This is also sometimes labelled as "blended
malt" whisky.
Single malt whisky is malt whisky from a
single distillery. However, unless the whisky is
described as "single-cask" it will contain whisky from
many casks, and different years, so the blender can
achieve a taste recognisable as typical of the
distillery. In most cases, the name of a single malt
will be that of the distillery (The Glenlivet,
Bushmills, Yoichi), with an age statement and
perhaps some indication of some special treatments
such as maturation in a port wine cask.
Pure pot still whiskey refers to a whiskey
distilled in a pot-still (like single malt) from a mash of
mixed malted and unmalted barley. It is exclusive to
Blended whiskies are made from a mixture of malt
and grain whiskies. A whisky simply described as
Scotch Whisky or Irish Whiskey is most likely to be a
blend in this sense. A blend is usually from many
distilleries so that the blender can produce a flavour
consistent with the brand, and the brand name (e.g.,
Chivas Regal, Canadian Club) will usually
not therefore contain the name of a distillery.
Jameson Irish Whiskey is an exception and
comes from only one distillery. However, "blend"
can (less frequently) have other meanings. A mixture
of malts (with no grain) from different distilleries
(more usually called a vatted malt) may sometimes
be referred to as a "blended malt", and a mixture of
grain whiskies with no malts will sometimes carry
the designation "blended grain".
Cask strength whiskies are rare and usually
only the very best whiskies are bottled in this way.
They are usually bottled from the cask undiluted.
Rather than diluting, the distiller is inviting the
drinker to dilute to the level of potency most
palatable (often no dilution is necessary, such is the
quality of single cask whiskies). Single cask whiskies
are usually bottled by specialist independent
bottlers, such as Duncan Taylor, Master of Malt,
Gordon & MacPhail and Cadenhead amongst others.
Whiskies do not mature in the bottle, only in the cask,
so the "age" of a whisky is the time between distillation
and bottling. This reflects how much the cask has
interacted with the whisky, changing its chemical makeup
and taste. Whiskies which have been in bottle for many
years may have a rarity value, but are not "older" and will
not necessarily be "better" than a more recently made
whisky matured in wood for a similar time. Most whiskies
are sold at or near an alcoholic strength of 40% abv.
[edit] American whiskeys
Main article: American whiskey
American whiskey is distilled from a fermented mash of
cereal grain. It must have the taste, aroma, and other
characteristics commonly attributed to whiskey.
The most common types listed in the federal
Bourbon whiskey, which is made from mash
that consists of at least 51% corn (maize).
Rye whiskey, which is made from mash that
consists of at least 51% rye.
Corn whiskey, which is made from mash that
consists of at least 80% corn (maize).
Straight whiskey, (without naming a grain) is a
whiskey which has been aged in charred new oak
containers for 2 years or more and distilled at not
more than 80 percent alcohol by volume but is
derived from less than 51% of any one grain.
The "named types" of American whiskey must be distilled
to not more than 80 percent alcohol by volume.
"Named types" must then be aged in charred new oak
containers, excepting corn whiskey. Corn whiskey does
not have to be aged but, if it is aged, it must be in new un-
charred oak barrels or used barrels. The aging for corn
whiskey usually is brief, e.g., six months.
If the aging for a "named type" reaches 2 years or beyond,
the whiskey is then additionally designated "straight" e.g.,
"straight rye whiskey". "Straight whiskey" (without
naming a grain) is a whiskey which has been aged in
charred new oak containers for 2 years or more and
distilled at not more than 80 percent alcohol by volume
but is derived from less than 51% of any one grain.
American blended whiskeys combine straight whiskey
with un-aged whiskey, grain neutral spirits, flavorings and
Important in the marketplace is Tennessee
whiskey, of which Jack Daniel's is the leading
example. During distillation, it is identical to bourbon
whiskey in almost every important respect including
the sour mash process, which is generally unique to
North America, but Tennessee whiskey is charcoal
filtered prior to barrel aging. The most recognizable
differences are that Tennessee whiskey is filtered
through sugar maple charcoal, giving it a unique
flavor and aroma. The other major difference is the reuse
of barrels which is not allowed in bourbon whiskey
production. Though not defined by regulations, the
Government of the United States of America
officially recognized Tennessee whiskey as a
separate style in 1941.
[edit] Canadian whiskies

Various Canadian whiskies
Main article: Canadian whisky
Canadian whiskies are usually lighter and smoother
than other whisky styles. Another common characteristic
of many Canadian whiskies is their use of rye that has
been malted, which provides a fuller flavour and
smoothness. By Canadian law,
Canadian whiskies must
be produced in Canada, be distilled from a fermented
mash of cereal grain, "be aged in small wood for not less
than 3 years", and "possess the aroma, taste and character
generally attributed to Canadian whisky". The terms
"Canadian Whisky", "Canadian Rye Whisky" and "Rye
Whisky" are legally indistinguishable in Canada and do
not denote any particular proportion of rye or other grain
used in production.
[edit] Finnish whiskies
Main article: Finnish whisky
In the last few years Finnish whisky culture has
developed strongly and it is still in progress of evolving.
Finnish whisky culture now lives a very strong growth
through the rising standard of living and general culinary
trend. The sales figures and the quantity of devotees of
whisky have risen very powerfully. Currently, there are
two working distilleries in Finland and a third one is
under construction. Whisky retail sales in Finland are
controlled solely by the state alcohol monopoly Alko
and advertisement of strong alcoholic beverages is
banned. However, the monopoly status of Alko and the
advertising prohibition do not stop people from taking
interest in whiskies, even though they can make it more

[edit] German whiskies
Main article: German whisky
German whisky is made from grains traditionally
associated with the production of whisky. The distillation
of German-made whisky is a relatively recent
phenomenon having only started in the last 30 years. The
styles produced resemble those made in Ireland, Scotland
and the United States: single malts, blends, and bourbon
styles. There is no standard spelling of German whiskies
with distilleries using both "whisky" and "whiskey" and
one even using "whessky", a play on the word whisky and
Hessen, the state in which it is produced. There are
currently ten distilleries in Germany producing whisky.

[edit] Indian whiskies
Main article: Indian whisky
Indian whisky is an alcoholic beverage that is labelled as
"whisky" in India. Much Indian whisky is distilled from
fermented molasses, and as such would be considered
a sort of rum outside of the Indian subcontinent.

90% of the "whisky" consumed in India is molasses
based, although India has begun to distill whisky from
malt and other grains.

Kasauli Distillery is set in the Himalaya mountains and
opened in the late 1820s. The main whisky brand is a
single malt named "Solan No. 1". This was named after
the town nearby called Solan. It was the best selling
Indian whisky till recently, but has declined since the
early 1980s because of the stiff competition from the
larger distilleries. Other whiskies this distillery produces
are Diplomat Deluxe, Colonel's Special, Black Knight and
Summer Hall.

[edit] Irish whiskeys

Various Irish whiskeys
Main article: Irish whiskey
Most Irish whiskeys are distilled three times,
there are exceptions. Though traditionally distilled using
the pot still method, in modern times a column still is
used to produce the grain whiskey used in blends. By law,
Irish whiskey must be produced in Ireland and aged in
wooden casks for a period of no less than three years,
although in practice it is usually three or four times that
Unpeated malt is almost always used, the
main exception being Connemara Peated Malt whiskey.
There are several types of whiskey common to Ireland:
single malt, single grain, blended whiskey and
uniquely to Ireland, pure pot still whiskey. The
designation "pure pot still" as used in Ireland generally
refers to whiskey made of 100% barley, mixed malted and
unmalted, and distilled in a pot still made of copper. The
"green" unmalted barley gives the traditional pure pot still
whiskey a spicy, uniquely Irish quality. Like single malt,
pure pot still is sold as such or blended with grain
whiskey. Usually no real distinction is made between
whether a blended whiskey was made from single malt or
pure pot still.
[edit] Japanese whiskies
Main article: Japanese whisky
The model for Japanese whiskies is the single malt
Scotch, although there are also examples of Japanese
blended whiskies. The base is a mash of malted barley,
dried in kilns fired with a little peat (although
considerably less than is the case in Scotland), and
distilled using the pot still method. For some time exports
of Japanese whisky suffered from the belief in the West
that whisky made in the Scotch style, but not produced in
Scotland, was inferior, and until fairly recently, the
market for Japanese whiskies was almost entirely
domestic. In recent years, Japanese whiskies have won
prestigious international awards and now enjoys a
deserved reputation for a quality product.

[edit] Scotch whiskies

Various Scotch whiskies
Main article: Scotch whisky
Scotch whiskies are generally distilled twice, though
some are distilled a third time.
International laws
require anything bearing the label "Scotch" to be distilled
in Scotland and matured for a minimum of three years
and one day in oak casks, among other, more specific
If Scotch whisky is from more than one cask,
and if it includes an age statement on the bottle, it must
reflect the age of the youngest whisky in the blend. Many
cask-strength single malts omit the age as they use
younger elements in minute amounts for flavouring and
mellowing. The basic types of Scotch are malt and grain,
which are combined to create blends. Many, though not
all, Scotch whiskies use peat smoke to treat their malt,
giving Scotch its distinctive smoky flavour. While the
market is dominated by blends, the most highly prized of
Scotch whiskies are the single malts. Scotch whiskies are
divided into five main regions: Highland, Lowland,
Islay, Speyside and Campbeltown.
[edit] Welsh whiskies
Main article: Welsh whisky
In 2000, Penderyn Distillery started production of the
Penderyn single malt Welsh whisky in Wales,
the first Welsh whisky since all production ended in 1894.
The first bottles went on sale on 1 March 2004, Saint
David's Day, and the whisky is now sold throughout
the world. Penderyn Distillery is situated in the Brecon
Beacons National Park and is considered the smallest
distillery in the world.

[edit] Other whiskies
In Brittany, France, five distilleries (Distillerie des
, Guillon
, Glann ar Mor
, Kaerilis
) produce whisky using techniques similar
to those in Scotland.
One whisky is produced on the French island of
Corsica: Pietra & Mavella (P&M) is a coproduction of
the brewery Pietra and the distillery Mavella. The mash
is enriched with chestnut flour. P&M is matured in
muscat casks (Domaine Gentile).
[31][not in citation given]

Manx Spirit from the Isle of Man is, like some
Virginia whiskeys in the USA, actually distilled
elsewhere and re-distilled in the country of its nominal
In Spain there is a distillery named DYC, started at
1948. It makes 3 type of whiskys, 2 blended, and one pure
malt. A limited edition is also, called 50 aniversary, it's a
pure malt.
In Sweden a new distillery (Mackmyra
), started
selling its products in 2006.
Recently at least two distilleries in the traditionally
brandy-producing Caucasus region announced their
plans to enter the Russian domestic market with whiskies.
The Stavropol-based Praskoveysky distillery bases its
product on Irish technology, while in Kizlyar,
Dagestan's "Russian Whisky" announced a Scotch-
inspired drink in single malt, blended and wheat

In Taiwan, the King Car company built a whisky
distillery in the city of Yilan, and has recently begun
marketing Kavalan Single Malt Whisky.

Australia produces single malt whiskey at Australian
Spirit distilling Company in Gerringong, New
South Wales. It is aged in new American oak barrels.
Production started in 2004. New distillery equipment have
recently increased production of Australian style
"Stockmans Whiskey" and "Gun Alley" sour mash

Production of whisky started in Norfolk, England in
late 2006 and the first whisky (as opposed to malt spirit)
was made available to the public in November 2009. This
is the first English single malt in over 100 years. It was
produced at St George's Distillery by the English Whisky
Previously Bristol and Liverpool were
centres of English whisky production. East Anglia is a
source of much of the grain used in Scotch whisky.
[edit] Names and spellings
The word "whisky" is believed to have been coined by
soldiers of King Henry II who invaded Ireland in the 12th
century as they struggled to pronounce the native Irish
words uisce beatha [k bah], meaning "water of life".
Over time, the pronunciation changed from "whishkeyba"
(an approximation of how the Irish term sounds) to
"whisky". The name itself is a Gaelic calque of the
Latin phrase aqua vitae, meaning "water of life".

At one time, all whisky was spelled without the "e", as
"whisky". In around 1870, the reputation of Scottish
whisky was very poor as Scottish distilleries flooded the
market with cheaper spirits produced using the Coffey
still. The Irish and American distilleries adopted the
spelling "whiskey", with the extra "e", to distinguish their
higher quality product. Today, the spelling whisky (plural
whiskies) is generally used for whiskies distilled in
Scotland, Wales, Canada, and Japan, while
whiskey is used for the spirits distilled in Ireland and
America. Even though a 1968 directive of the
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms
specifies "whisky" as the official US spelling, it allows
labeling as "whiskey" in deference to tradition and most
U.S. producers still use the historical spelling. Exceptions
such as Early Times, Maker's Mark, and
George Dickel are usually indicative of a Scottish

In the late Victorian era, Irish whiskey was the
world's most popular whisky. Of the Irish whiskeys,
Dublin whiskeys were regarded as the grands crus of
whiskeys. In order to differentiate Dublin whiskey from
other whiskies, the Dublin distilleries adopted the spelling
"whiskey". The other Irish distilleries eventually followed
suit. The last Irish "whisky" was Paddy, which adopted
the "e" in 1966.

"Scotch" is the internationally recognized term for
"Scotch whisky" however it is rarely used in
Scotland, where blended whisky is generally referred to
as "whisky" and single or vatted malt whisky as "malt".

In many Latin-American countries, whisky (wee-
skee) is used as a photographer's cue to smile, supplanting
English "cheese". The Uruguayan film Whisky got its
name because of this.
[edit] Chemistry
Whiskies and other distilled beverages such as
cognac and rum are complex beverages containing a
vast range of flavouring compounds, of which some 200
to 300 can be easily detected by chemical analysis. The
flavouring chemicals include "carbonyl compounds,
alcohols, carboxylic acids and their esters,
nitrogen- and sulphur-containing compounds, tannins
and other polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, and
oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds"
and esters of fatty acids.
The nitrogen compounds
include pyridines, picolines and pyrazines.

[edit] Flavours from distillation
The flavouring of whisky is partially determined by the
presence of congeners and fusel oils. Fusel oils
are higher alcohols than ethanol, are mildly toxic,
and have a strong, disagreeable smell and taste. An excess
of fusel oils in whisky is considered a defect. A variety of
methods are employed in the distillation process to
remove unwanted fusel oils. Traditionally, American
distillers focused on secondary filtration using
charcoal, gravel, sand, or linen to subtract
undesired distillates. Canadian distillers have traditionally
employed column stills which can be controlled to
produce an almost pure (and less flavourful) ethanol
known as neutral grain spirit or grain neutral spirit
Flavour is restored by blending the neutral
grain spirits with flavouring whiskies.

Acetals are rapidly formed in distillates and a great
many are found in distilled beverages, the most prominent
being acetaldehyde diethyl acetal (1,1-diethoxyethane).
Among whiskies the highest levels are associated with
malt whisky.
This acetal is a principal flavour
compound in sherry, and contributes fruitiness to the

The diketone diacetyl (2,3-Butanedione) has a buttery
aroma and is present in almost all distilled beverages.
Whiskies and cognacs typically contain more than
vodkas, but significantly less than rums or

[edit] Flavours from oak
Whisky lactone (3-methyl-4-octanolide) is found in all
types of oak. This lactone has a strong coconut
Whisky lactone is also known as quercus

Commercially charred oaks are rich in phenolic
compounds. One study discriminated 40 different
phenolic compounds. The coumarin scopoletin is
present in whisky, with the highest level reported in
Bourbon whiskey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation).

Leffe, a Belgian beer, served in its own branded

Schlenkerla Rauchbier straight from the cask
Beer is the world's oldest
and most widely consumed

alcoholic beverage and the third most popular
drink overall after water and tea.
It is produced by
the brewing and fermentation of starches,
mainly derived from cereal grainsmost commonly
malted barley, although wheat, maize (corn), and
rice are widely used. Most beer is flavoured with hops,
which add bitterness and act as a natural
preservative, though other flavourings such as herbs
or fruit may occasionally be included.
Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the
production and distribution of beer: the Code of
Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer
and "The Hymn to Ninkasi," a prayer to the
Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer
and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a
culture with few literate people.
Today, the brewing
industry is a global business, consisting of several
dominant multinational companies and many
thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to
regional breweries.
The basics of brewing beer are shared across national and
cultural boundaries. Beers are commonly categorized into
two main typesthe globally popular pale lagers,
and the regionally distinct ales,
which are further
categorised into other varieties such as pale ale,
stout and brown ale. The strength of beer is usually
around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (abv.) though may
range from less than 1% abv., to over 20% abv. in rare
Beer forms part of the culture of beer-drinking nations
and is associated with social traditions such as beer
festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving
activities like pub crawling and pub games such
as bar billiards.
1 History
2 Brewing
3 Ingredients
4 Varieties
o 4.1 Ale
o 4.2 Lager
o 4.3 Colour
5 Alcoholic strength
6 Related beverages
7 Brewing industry
8 Serving
o 8.1 Draught
o 8.2 Packaging
o 8.3 Serving temperature
o 8.4 Vessels
9 Beer and society
o 9.1 Social context
o 9.2 International consumption
o 9.3 Health effects
10 Environmental impact
11 Notes
o 11.1 References
Main article: History of beer

Egyptian wooden model of beer making in ancient Egypt,
Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, San Jose,
Beer is one of the world's oldest prepared beverages,
possibly dating back to the early Neolithic or 9000
BC, and is recorded in the written history of ancient
Egypt and Mesopotamia.
The earliest Sumerian
writings contain references to a type of beer. A prayer to
the goddess Ninkasi, known as "The Hymn to
Ninkasi", serves as both a prayer as well as a method of
remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few
literate people.
A beer made from rice, which, unlike
sake, didn't use the amylolytic process, and was
probably prepared for fementation by mastication or
was made in China around 7,000 BC.

As almost any substance containing carbohydrates,
mainly sugars or starch, can naturally undergo
fermentation, it is likely that beer-like beverages were
independently invented among various cultures
throughout the world. The invention of bread and beer has
been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to
develop technology and build civilisation.
earliest known chemical evidence of beer dates to circa
35003100 BC from the site of Godin Tepe in the
Zagros Mountains of western Iran.

Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and
Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC,
and it was
mainly brewed on a domestic scale.
The product that
the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as
beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch
source, the early European beers might contain fruits,
honey, numerous types of plants, spices and other
substances such as narcotic herbs.
What they did
not contain was hops, as that was a later addition first
mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian
and again in 1067 by Abbess Hildegard of

Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution
continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale,
although by the 7th century AD, beer was also being
produced and sold by European monasteries. During the
Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from
artisanal manufacture to industrial
manufacture, and domestic manufacture ceased to be
significant by the end of the 19th century.
development of hydrometers and
thermometers changed brewing by allowing the
brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge
of the results.
Today, the brewing industry is a global business,
consisting of several dominant multinational companies
and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from
brewpubs to regional breweries.
As of 2006,
more than 133 billion liters (35 billion gallons), the
equivalent of a cube 510 metres on a side, of beer are sold
per year, producing total global revenues of $294.5 billion
(147.7 billion).

Main article: Brewing
The process of making beer is known as brewing. A
dedicated building for the making of beer is called a
brewery, though beer can be made in the home and has
been for much of its history. A company that makes beer
is called either a brewery or a brewing company. Beer
made on a domestic scale for non-commercial reasons is
classed as homebrewing regardless of where it is
made, though most homebrewed beer is made in the
home. Brewing beer is subject to legislation and taxation
in developed countries, which from the late 19th century
largely restricted brewing to a commercial operation only.
However, the UK government relaxed legislation in 1963,
followed by Australia in 1972 and the USA in 1979,
allowing homebrewing to become a popular hobby.

A 16th-century brewery
The purpose of brewing is to convert the starch source
into a sugary liquid called wort and to convert the wort
into the alcoholic beverage known as beer in a
fermentation process effected by yeast.

Diagram illustrating the process of brewing beer
Hot Water Tank
Mash Tun
Add Yeast to
Cask or Keg
The first step, where the wort is prepared by mixing the
starch source (normally malted barley) with hot water, is
known as "mashing". Hot water (known as "liquor" in
brewing terms) is mixed with crushed malt or malts
(known as "grist") in a mash tun.
The mashing
process takes around 1 to 2 hours,
during which the
starches are converted to sugars, and then the sweet wort
is drained off the grains. The grains are now washed in a
process known as "sparging". This washing allows the
brewer to gather as much of the fermentable liquid from
the grains as possible. The process of filtering the spent
grain from the wort and sparge water is called wort
separation. The traditional process for wort separation is
lautering, in which the grain bed itself serves as the
filter medium. Some modern breweries prefer the use of
filter frames which allow a more finely ground grist.

Most modern breweries use a continuous sparge,
collecting the original wort and the sparge water together.
However, it is possible to collect a second or even third
wash with the not quite spent grains as separate batches.
Each run would produce a weaker wort and thus a weaker
beer. This process is known as second (and third)
runnings. Brewing with several runnings is called parti
gyle brewing.

The sweet wort collected from sparging is put into a
kettle, or "copper", (so called because these vessels were
traditionally made from copper)
and boiled, usually
for about one hour. During boiling, water in the wort
evaporates, but the sugars and other components of the
wort remain; this allows more efficient use of the starch
sources in the beer. Boiling also destroys any remaining
enzymes left over from the mashing stage. Hops are
added during boiling as a source of bitterness, flavour and
aroma. Hops may be added at more than one point during
the boil. The longer the hops are boiled, the more
bitterness they contribute, but the less hop flavour and
aroma remains in the beer.

After boiling, the hopped wort is now cooled, ready for
the yeast. In some breweries, the hopped wort may pass
through a hopback, which is a small vat filled with hops,
to add aromatic hop flavouring and to act as a filter; but
usually the hopped wort is simply cooled for the
fermenter, where the yeast is added. During fermentation,
the wort becomes beer in a process which requires a week
to months depending on the type of yeast and strength of
the beer. In addition to producing alcohol, fine
particulate matter suspended in the wort settles
during fermentation. Once fermentation is complete, the
yeast also settles, leaving the beer clear.

Fermentation is sometimes carried out in two stages,
primary and secondary. Once most of the alcohol has
been produced during primary fermentation, the beer is
transferred to a new vessel and allowed a period of
secondary fermentation. Secondary
fermentation is used when the beer requires long storage
before packaging or greater clarity.
When the beer has
fermented, it is packaged either into casks for cask
ale or kegs, aluminium cans, or bottles for other
sorts of beer.


Malted barley before roasting
The basic ingredients of beer are water; a starch source,
such as malted barley, able to be fermented
(converted into alcohol); a brewer's yeast to produce the
fermentation; and a flavouring such as hops.
mixture of starch sources may be used, with a secondary
starch source, such as maize (corn), rice or sugar, often
being termed an adjunct, especially when used as a lower-
cost substitute for malted barley.
Less widely used
starch sources include millet, sorghum and
cassava root in Africa, potato in Brazil, and agave
in Mexico, among others.
The amount of each starch
source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill.
Beer is composed mostly of water. Regions have water
with different mineral components; as a result, different
regions were originally better suited to making certain
types of beer, thus giving them a regional character.

For example, Dublin has hard water well suited to
making stout, such as Guinness; while Pilzen has
soft water well suited to making pale lager, such as
Pilsner Urquell.
The waters of Burton in
England contain gypsum, which benefits making
pale ale to such a degree that brewers of pale ales will
add gypsum to the local water in a process known as

Starch source
Main articles: Malt and Mash ingredients
The starch source in a beer provides the fermentable
material and is a key determinant of the strength and
flavour of the beer. The most common starch source used
in beer is malted grain. Grain is malted by soaking it in
water, allowing it to begin germination, and then
drying the partially germinated grain in a kiln. Malting
grain produces enzymes that convert starches in the grain
into fermentable sugars.
Different roasting times and
temperatures are used to produce different colours of malt
from the same grain. Darker malts will produce darker

Nearly all beer includes barley malt as the majority of the
starch. This is because of its fibrous husk, which is not
only important in the sparging stage of brewing (in which
water is washed over the mashed barley grains to form
the wort), but also as a rich source of amylase, a
digestive enzyme which facilitates conversion of
starch into sugars. Other malted and unmalted grains
(including wheat, rice, oats, and rye, and less frequently,
corn and sorghum) may be used. In recent years, a few
brewers have produced gluten-free beer made with
sorghum with no barley malt for those who cannot
consume gluten-containing grains like wheat, barley,
and rye.

Main article: Hops
Flavouring beer is the sole major commercial use of
The flower of the hop vine is used as a flavouring
and preservative agent in nearly all beer made today. The
flowers themselves are often called "hops".

Hop cone in a Hallertau, Germany, hop yard
Hops were used by monastery breweries, such as Corvey
in Westphalia, Germany, from 822 AD,
though the
date normally given for widespread cultivation of hops for
use in beer is the thirteenth century.
Before the
thirteenth century, and until the sixteenth century, during
which hops took over as the dominant flavouring, beer
was flavoured with other plants; for instance,
Glechoma hederacea. Combinations of various
aromatic herbs, berries, and even ingredients like
wormwood would be combined into a mixture known as
gruit and used as hops are now used.
Some beers
today, such as Fraoch' by the Scottish Heather Ales
and Cervoise Lancelot by the French
Brasserie-Lancelot company,
use plants other than
hops for flavouring.
Hops contain several characteristics that brewers desire in
beer. Hops contribute a bitterness that balances the
sweetness of the malt; the bitterness of beers is measured
on the International Bitterness Units scale.
Hops contribute floral, citrus, and herbal aromas and
flavours to beer. Hops have an antibiotic effect that
favours the activity of brewer's yeast over less desirable
microorganisms, and hops aids in "head retention",

the length of time that a foamy head created by
carbonation will last. The acidity of hops is a

Main articles: Brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces
cerevisiae, and Saccharomyces uvarum
Yeast is the microorganism that is responsible for
fermentation in beer. Yeast metabolises the sugars
extracted from grains, which produces alcohol and
carbon dioxide, and thereby turns wort into beer. In
addition to fermenting the beer, yeast influences the
character and flavour.
The dominant types of yeast
used to make beer are ale yeast (Saccharomyces
cerevisiae) and lager yeast (Saccharomyces uvarum);
their use distinguishes ale and lager.

Brettanomyces ferments lambics,
Torulaspora delbrueckii ferments Bavarian
Before the role of yeast in fermentation
was understood, fermentation involved wild or airborne
yeasts. A few styles such as lambics rely on this method
today, but most modern fermentation adds pure yeast

Clarifying agent
Main article: Finings
Some brewers add one or more clarifying agents to
beer, which typically precipitate (collect as a solid) out of
the beer along with protein solids and are found only in
trace amounts in the finished product. This process makes
the beer appear bright and clean, rather than the cloudy
appearance of ethnic and older styles of beer such as
wheat beers.

Examples of clarifying agents include isinglass,
obtained from swimbladders of fish; Irish moss, a
seaweed; kappa carrageenan, from the seaweed
Kappaphycus cottonii; Polyclar (artificial); and
If a beer is marked "suitable for Vegans", it
was clarified either with seaweed or with artificial

See also: Vegetarianism and beer
Main article: Beer style

Kriek, a variety of beer brewed with cherries
While there are many types of beer brewed, the basics of
brewing beer are shared across national and cultural
The traditional European brewing
regionsGermany, Belgium, the United Kingdom,
Ireland, Poland, the Czech Republic, Scandinavia, the
Netherlands and Austriahave local varieties of
beer. In some countries, notably the USA, Canada, and
Australia, brewers have adapted European styles to
such an extent that they have effectively created their own
indigenous types.

Despite the regional variations, beer is categorised into
two main types based on the temperature of the brewing
which influences the behaviour of yeast used during the
brewing processlagers, which are brewed at a low
temperature, and the more regionally distinct ales,
brewed at a higher temperature.
Ales are further
categorised into other varieties such as pale ale, stout
and brown ale.
Michael Jackson, in his 1977 book The World
Guide To Beer, categorised beers from around the world
in local style groups suggested by local customs and
Fred Eckhardt furthered Jackson's work in
The Essentials of Beer Style in 1989.
The most common method of categorising beer is by the
behaviour of the yeast used in the fermentation process. In
this method, beers using a fast-acting yeast which leaves
behind residual sugars are termed "ales", while beers
using a slower-acting yeast, fermented at lower
temperatures, which removes most of the sugars, leaving
a clean, dry beer, are termed "lagers". Differences
between some ales and lagers can be difficult to
categorise. Steam beer, Klsch, Alt, and some
modern British Golden Summer Beers use elements of
both lager and ale production. Baltic Porter and Bire
de Garde may be produced by either lager or ale
methods or a combination of both. However, lager
production results in a cleaner-tasting, drier and lighter
beer than ale.

Main article: Ale

Cask ale hand pumps with pump clips detailing the
beers and their breweries
An ale is commonly defined by the strain of yeast used
and the fermenting temperature. Ales are normally
brewed with top-fermenting yeasts (most commonly
Saccharomyces cerevisiae), though a number of British
brewers, including Fullers and Weltons,
use ale
yeast strains that have less-pronounced top-fermentation
characteristics. The important distinction for ales is that
they are fermented at higher temperatures and thus
ferment more quickly than lagers.
Ale is typically fermented at temperatures between 15 and
24C (60 and 75F). At these temperatures, yeast
produces significant amounts of esters and other
secondary flavour and aroma products, and the result is
often a beer with slightly "fruity" compounds resembling
apple, pear, pineapple, banana, plum, or prune, among

A pint of ale in a dimpled glass jug or mug.
Typically ales have a sweeter, fuller body than lagers.
Before the introduction of hops into England from the
Netherlands in the 15th century, the name "ale" was
exclusively applied to unhopped fermented beverages, the
term beer being gradually introduced to describe a brew
with an infusion of hops. This distinction no longer
The word ale may come from the Old
English ealu, in turn from the Proto-Indo-
European base *alut-, which holds connotations of
"sorcery, magic, possession, intoxication".

Real ale is the term coined by the Campaign for
Real Ale (CAMRA) in 1973
for "beer brewed from
traditional ingredients, matured by secondary
fermentation in the container from which it is
dispensed, and served without the use of extraneous
carbon dioxide". It is applied to bottle conditioned
and cask conditioned beers.
Lambic, a beer of Belgium, is naturally fermented using
wild yeasts, rather than cultivated. Many of these are not
strains of brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and
may have significant differences in aroma and sourness.
Yeast varieties such as Brettanomyces
bruxellensis and Brettanomyces lambicus
are common in lambics. In addition, other organisms such
as Lactobacillus bacteria produce acids which
contribute to the sourness.

Stout and porter are dark beers made using roasted
malts or roast barley, and typically brewed with slow
fermenting yeast. There are a number of variations
including Baltic porter, dry stout, and Imperial stout. The
name Porter was first used in 1721 to describe a dark
brown beer popular with the street and river porters of
This same beer later also became known as
stout, though the word stout had been used as early as
The history and development of stout and porter
are intertwined.


German wheat beer
Wheat beer is brewed with a large proportion of
wheat although it often also contains a significant
proportion of malted barley. Wheat beers are usually
top-fermented (in Germany they have to be by
The flavour of wheat beers varies considerably,
depending upon the specific style.
Main article: Lager
Lager is the English name for cool fermenting beers of
Central European origin. Pale lagers are the most
commonly consumed beers in the world. The name lager
comes from the German lagern for "to store", as brewers
around Bavaria stored beer in cool cellars and caves
during the warm summer months. These brewers noticed
that the beers continued to ferment, and to also clear of
sediment, when stored in cool conditions.

Lager yeast is a cool bottom-fermenting yeast
(Saccharomyces pastorianus) and typically
undergoes primary fermentation at 712 C (4554 F)
(the fermentation phase), and then is given a long
secondary fermentation at 04 C (3239 F) (the
lagering phase). During the secondary stage, the lager
clears and mellows. The cooler conditions also inhibit the
natural production of esters and other byproducts,
resulting in a "cleaner"-tasting beer.

Modern methods of producing lager were pioneered by
Gabriel Sedlmayr the Younger, who perfected dark brown
lagers at the Spaten Brewery in Bavaria, and Anton
Dreher, who began brewing a lager (now known as
Vienna lager), probably of amber-red colour, in
Vienna in 18401841. With improved modern yeast
strains, most lager breweries use only short periods of
cold storage, typically 13 weeks.
Beer colour is determined by the malt.
The most
common colour is a pale amber produced from using pale
malts. Pale lager and pale ale are terms used for beers
made from malt dried with coke. Coke was first used for
roasting malt in 1642, but it was not until around 1703
that the term pale ale was used.

Paulaner dunkel - a dark lager
In terms of sales volume, most of today's beer is based on
the pale lager brewed in 1842 in the town of Pilsen in
the present-day Czech Republic.
The modern pale lager
is light in colour with a noticeable carbonation (fizzy
bubbles) and a typical alcohol by volume content
of around 5%. The Pilsner Urquell, Bitburger, and
Heineken brands of beer are typical examples of pale
lager, as are the American brands Budweiser,
Coors, and Miller.
Dark beers are usually brewed from a pale malt or lager
malt base with a small proportion of darker malt added to
achieve the desired shade. Other colourantssuch as
caramelare also widely used to darken beers. Very dark
beers, such as stout, use dark or patent malts that have
been roasted longer. Some have roasted unmalted

Alcoholic strength
Beer ranges from less than 3% alcohol by volume
(abv) to around 14% abv, though this strength has been
increased to around 20% by re-pitching with champagne
and to 41% abv by the freeze-distilling
The alcohol content of beer varies by local
or beer style. The pale lagers that most
consumers are familiar with fall in the range of 46%,
with a typical abv of 5%.
The customary strength of
British ales is quite low, with many session beers
being around 4% abv.
Some beers, such as table beer
are of such low alcohol content (1%4%) that they are
served instead of soft drinks in some schools.

The alcohol in beer comes primarily from the metabolism
of sugars that are produced during fermentation. The
quantity of fermentable sugars in the wort and the variety
of yeast used to ferment the wort are the primary factors
that determine the amount of alcohol in the final beer.
Additional fermentable sugars are sometimes added to
increase alcohol content, and enzymes are often added to
the wort for certain styles of beer (primarily "light" beers)
to convert more complex carbohydrates (starches) to
fermentable sugars. Alcohol is a byproduct of yeast
metabolism and is toxic to the yeast; typical brewing
yeast cannot survive at alcohol concentrations above 12%
by volume. Low temperatures and too little fermentation
time decreases the effectiveness of yeasts and
consequently decreases the alcohol content.
Exceptionally strong beers
The strength of beers has climbed during the later years of
the 20th century. Vetter 33, a 10.5% abv (33 degrees
Plato, hence Vetter "33"), doppelbock, was listed in
the 1994 Guinness Book of World Records as
the strongest beer at that time,
though Samichlaus,
by the Swiss brewer Hrlimann, had also been listed by
the Guinness Book of World Records as the strongest at
14% abv.

Since then, some brewers have used champagne
yeasts to increase the alcohol content of their beers.
Samuel Adams reached 20% abv with
and then surpassed that amount to 25.6%
abv with Utopias. The strongest beer brewed in Britain
was Baz's Super Brew by Parish Brewery, a 23% abv
The beer that is claimed to be the strongest yet
made is Sink The Bismarck!, a 41% abv IPA,
made by
BrewDog, who also made Tactical Nuclear Penguin, a
32% abv Imperial Stout, using the eisbock method of
freeze distilling - in November 2009 the brewery
freeze distilled a 10% ale, gradually removing the ice
until the beer reached 32% abv.
The German
brewery Schorschbru's Schorschbocka 31% abv
and Hair of the Dog's Davea
29% abv barley wine made in 1994, both used the
same freeze distilling method.

Related beverages
See also: Category:Types of beer
Around the world, there are a number of traditional and
ancient starch-based beverages classed as beer. In Africa,
there are various ethnic beers made from sorghum or
millet, such as Oshikundu
in Namibia and
Tella in Ethiopia.
Kyrgyzstan also has a beer
made from millet; it is a low alcohol, somewhat porridge-
like drink called "Bozo".
Bhutan, Nepal, Tibet
and Sikkim also use millet in Chhaang, a popular
semi-fermented rice/millet drink in the eastern
Further east in China are found
Huangjiu and Choujiutraditional rice-based
beverages related to beer.
The Andes in South America has Chicha, made from
germinated maize (corn); while the indigenous
peoples in Brazil have Cauim, a traditional
beverage made since pre-Columbian times by chewing
manioc so that enzymes present in human saliva can
break down the starch into fermentable sugars;
this is
similar to Masato in Peru.

Some beers which are made from bread, which is linked
to the earliest forms of beer, are Sahti in Finland,
Kvass in Russia and the Ukraine, and Bouza in
Brewing industry

Cropton, a typical UK microbrewery
The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of
several dominant multinational companies and
many thousands of smaller producers ranging from
brewpubs to regional breweries.
More than 133
billion liters (35 billion gallons) are sold per year
producing total global revenues of $294.5 billion (147.7
billion) in 2006.

A microbrewery, or craft brewery, is a modern brewery
which produces a limited amount of beer.
maximum amount of beer a brewery can produce and still
be classed as a microbrewery varies by region and by
authority, though is usually around 15,000 barrels (18,000
hectolitres/ 475,000 US gallons) a year.
A brewpub is
a type of microbrewery that incorporates a pub or other
eating establishment.
SABMiller became the largest brewing company in the
world when it acquired Royal Grolsch, brewer of Dutch
premium beer brand Grolsch.
InBev was the
second-largest beer-producing company in the world,

and Anheuser-Busch held the third spot, but after the
merger between InBev and Anheuser-Busch, the new
Anheuser-Busch InBev company is the largest brewer in
the world.

Main articles: Draught beer, Keg beer, and Cask

Draught beer keg fonts at the Delirium Caf in
Draught beer from a pressurised keg is the most
common method of dispensing in bars around the world.
A metal keg is pressurised with carbon dioxide
) gas which drives the beer to the dispensing tap or
faucet. Some beers may be served with a nitrogen/carbon
dioxide mixture. Nitrogen produces fine bubbles,
resulting in a dense head and a creamy mouthfeel.
Some types of beer can also be found in smaller,
disposable kegs called beer balls.
In the 1980s, Guinness introduced the beer widget, a
nitrogen-pressurised ball inside a can which creates a
dense, tight head, similar to beer served from a nitrogen
The words draft and draught can be used as
marketing terms to describe canned or bottled beers
containing a beer widget, or which are cold-filtered rather
than pasteurised.

A selection of cask beers
Cask-conditioned ales (or cask ales) are unfiltered and
unpasteurised beers. These beers are termed "real ale"
by the CAMRA organisation. Typically, when a cask
arrives in a pub, it is placed horizontally on a frame called
a "stillage" which is designed to hold it steady and at
the right angle, and then allowed to cool to cellar
temperature (typically between 1214 degrees Celsius /
5457 F),
before being tapped and venteda tap is
driven through a (usually rubber) bung at the bottom of
one end, and a hard spile or other implement is used to
open a hole in the side of the cask, which is now
uppermost. The act of stillaging and then venting a beer in
this manner typically disturbs all the sediment, so it must
be left for a suitable period to "drop" (clear) again, as well
as to fully conditionthis period can take anywhere from
several hours to several days. At this point the beer is
ready to sell, either being pulled through a beer line with a
hand pump, or simply being "gravity-fed" directly into the
Main articles: Beer bottle and Beverage can

Bottles of beer from the Spoetzl Brewery
Most beers are cleared of yeast by filtering when
packaged in bottles and cans.
However, bottle
conditioned beers retain some yeasteither by being
unfiltered, or by being filtered and then reseeded with
fresh yeast.
It is usually recommended that the beer be
poured slowly, leaving any yeast sediment at the bottom
of the bottle. However, some drinkers prefer to pour in the
yeast; this practice is customary with wheat beers.
Typically, when serving a hefeweizen, 90% of the
contents are poured, and the remainder is swirled to
suspend the sediment before pouring it into the glass.
Alternatively, the bottle may be inverted prior to opening.
Glass bottles are always used for bottle conditioned beers.
Many beers are sold in cans, though there is considerable
variation in the proportion between different countries. In
Sweden in 2001, 63.9% of beer was sold in cans.

People either drink from the can or pour the beer into a
glass. Cans protect the beer from light (thereby preventing
"skunked" beer) and have a seal less prone to leaking
over time than bottles. Cans were initially viewed as a
technological breakthrough for maintaining the quality of
a beer, then became commonly associated with less
expensive, mass-produced beers, even though the quality
of storage in cans is much like bottles.
Plastic (PET)
bottles are used by some breweries.

Serving temperature

douard Manet's The Waitress showing a woman
serving beer
The temperature of a beer has an influence on a
drinker's experience; warmer temperatures reveal the
range of flavours in a beer; however, cooler temperatures
are more refreshing. Most drinkers prefer pale lager
to be served chilled, a low- or medium-strength pale
ale to be served cool, while a strong barley wine or
imperial stout to be served at room temperature.

Beer writer Michael Jackson proposed a five-level
scale for serving temperatures: well chilled (7 C/45 F)
for "light" beers (pale lagers); chilled (8 C/46 F) for
Berliner Weisse and other wheat beers; lightly
chilled (9 C/48 F) for all dark lagers, altbier and
German wheat beers; cellar temperature (13 C/55 F) for
regular British ale, stout and most Belgian specialities;
and room temperature (15.5 C/59.9 F) for strong dark
ales (especially trappist beer) and barley

Drinking chilled beer is a social trend that began with the
development of artificial refrigeration and by the
1870s, was spread in those countries that concentrated on
brewing pale lager.
Chilling below 15.5 C (59.9 F)
starts to reduce taste awareness
and reduces it
significantly below 10 C (50 F);
while this is
acceptable for beers without an appreciable aroma or taste
profile, beers brewed with more than basic refreshment in
mind reveal their flavours more when served unchilled
either cool or at room temperature.
Cask Marque, a
non-profit UK beer organisation, has set a temperature
standard range of 12-14C (53-57F) for cask ales to be

Main article: Beer glassware
Beer is consumed out of a variety of vessels, such as a
glass, a beer stein, a mug, a pewter tankard, a
beer bottle or a can. The shape of the glass from which
beer is consumed can influence the perception of the beer
and can define and accent the character of the style.

Breweries offer branded glassware intended only for
their own beers as a marketing promotion, as this
increases sales.

The pouring process has an influence on a beer's
presentation. The rate of flow from the tap or other
serving vessel, tilt of the glass, and position of the pour
(in the centre or down the side) into the glass all influence
the end result, such as the size and longevity of the head,
lacing (the pattern left by the head as it moves down the
glass as the beer is drunk), and turbulence of the beer
and its release of carbonation.

Beer and society
Social context

Inside a tent at Munich's Oktoberfestthe world's
largest beer festival
See also: Category:Beer culture
Various social traditions and activities are associated with
beer drinking, such as playing cards, darts, bags, or
other pub games; attending beer festivals, or visiting
a series of different pubs in one evening; joining
an organisation such as CAMRA; or rating beer.

Various drinking games, such as beer pong, flip
cup and quarters are also popular.

International consumption
See also: Beers of the world and Beer consumption by
Beer is considered to be a social lubricant in many
and is consumed in countries all over the
world. There are breweries in Middle Eastern countries
such as Lebanon, Iraq, and Syria, as well as African
countries (see African beer). Sales of beer are four times
that of wine, the second most popular alcoholic
In Russia, consumption is on the rise as
younger generations are choosing beer over vodka.
most societies, beer is the most popular alcoholic
Health effects
Alcohol and Health
Short-term effects of alcohol
Long-term effects of alcohol
Alcohol and cardiovascular disease
Alcoholic liver disease
Alcoholic hepatitis
Alcohol and cancer
Alcohol and weight
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Recommended maximum intake
Wine and health
The main active ingredient of beer is alcohol, and
therefore, the health effects of alcohol apply to beer. The
moderate consumption of alcohol, including beer, is
associated with a decreased risk of cardiac disease, stroke
and cognitive decline.
The long-term
effects of alcohol abuse, however, include the risk
of developing alcoholism and alcoholic liver

Overview of possible long-term effects of ethanol.
Click to expand.
Brewer's yeast is known to be a rich source of nutrients;
therefore, as expected, beer can contain significant
amounts of nutrients, including magnesium,
selenium, potassium, phosphorus, biotin,
and B vitamins. In fact, beer is sometimes referred to
as "liquid bread".
Some sources maintain that filtered
beer loses much of its nutrition.

A 2005 Japanese study found that low alcohol beer may
possess strong anti-cancer properties.
Another study
found nonalcoholic beer to mirror the cardiovascular
benefits associated with moderate consumption of
alcoholic beverages.
However, much research
suggests that the primary health benefit from alcoholic
beverages comes from the alcohol they contain.

It is considered that overeating and lack of muscle tone is
the main cause of a beer belly, rather than beer
consumption. A recent study, however, found a link
between binge drinking and a beer belly. But with
most overconsumption, it is more a problem of improper
exercise and overconsumption of carbohydrates than the
product itself.
Several diet books quote beer as having
the same glycemic index as maltose, a very high
(and therefore undesirable) 110; however, the maltose
undergoes metabolism by yeast during fermentation
so that beer consists mostly of water, hop oils and only
trace amounts of sugars, including maltose.

Environmental impact
Draught beer's environmental impact can be 68% lower
than bottled beer due to packaging differences.

Home brewing can reduce the environmental impact of
beer via less packaging and transportation.

A life cycle study of one beer brand, including grain
production, brewing, bottling, distribution and waste
management, shows that the CO
emissions from a 6-pack
of micro-brew beer is about 3 kilograms (6.6 pounds).

The loss of natural habitat potential from the 6-pack of
micro-brew beer is estimated to be 2.5 square meters (26
square feet).

Downstream emissions from distribution, retail, storage
and disposal of waste can be over 45% of a bottled micro-
brew beer's CO

Where legal, the use of a refillable jug, reusable bottle or
other reusable containers to transport draught beer from a
store or a bar, rather than buying pre-bottled beer, can
reduce the environmental impact of beer consumption.

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Beer portal
Archeological Parameters For the
Origins of Beer. Thomas W. Kavanagh.
The Complete Guide to World Beer, Roger Protz.
ISBN 1-84442-865-6.
The Barbarian's Beverage: a history of beer in
ancient Europe, Max Nelson. ISBN 0-415-
The World Guide to Beer, Michael Jackson. ISBN
The New World Guide to Beer, Michael Jackson.
ISBN 0-89471-884-3
Beer: The Story of the Pint, Martyn Cornell. ISBN
Beer and Britannia: An Inebriated History of Britain,
Peter Haydon. ISBN 0-7509-2748-8
The Book of Beer Knowledge: Essential Wisdom for
the Discerning Drinker, a Useful Miscellany, Jeff
Evans. ISBN 1-85249-198-1
Country House Brewing in England, 15001900,
Pamela Sambrook. ISBN 1-85285-127-9
Ale, Beer and Brewsters in England: Women's Work
in a Changing World, 13001600 , Judith M. Bennett.
ISBN 0-19-512650-5
A History of Beer and Brewing, I. Hornsey. ISBN 0-
Beer: an Illustrated History, Brian Glover. ISBN 1-
Beer in America: The Early Years 15871840Beer's
Role in the Settling of America and the Birth of a
Nation, Gregg Smith. ISBN 0-937381-65-9
Big Book of Beer, Adrian Tierney-Jones. ISBN 1-
Gone for a Burton: Memories from a Great British
Heritage, Bob Ricketts. ISBN 1-905203-69-1
Farmhouse Ales: Culture and Craftsmanship in the
Belgian Tradition, Phil Marowski. ISBN 0-
The World Encyclopedia of Beer, Brian Glover.
ISBN 0-7548-0933-1
The Complete Joy of Homebrewing, Charlie Papazian
ISBN 0-380-77287-6 (This is the seminal
work on home brewing that is almost universally
suggested to new hobbyist)
The Brewmaster's Table, Garrett Oliver. ISBN 0-
Vaughan, J. G.; C. A. Geissler (1997). The New Oxford
Book of Food Plants. Oxford University
Press. ISBN 0-19-854825-7.
Bacchus and Civic Order: The Culture of Drink in Early
Modern Germany, Ann Tlusty. ISBN 0-8139-
v d e
Styles of beer


British and Irish beer
(England Ireland Scotland Wales)


Belgian beer


German beer


American beer



v d e
Beers of the world

v d e
Alcoholic beverages


History and production

History of alcohol
History of alcohol History
of beer History of

Champagne History of
wine History of French
wine History of Rioja

Brewing Distilling


Alcoholic beverages

Fermented beverage
Beer (types) Wine
(types) Cider
(category) Mead
(category) Rice
wine (category)
Other fermented

Distilled beverage
(category) Gin
(category) Rum

Fortified wine (category)
Madeira wine
(category) Marsala
wine Port wine


Distilled beverages by ingredients

Barley: Irish whiskey Japanese
whisky Scotch whisky Maize:
Bourbon whiskey Corn whiskey
Tennessee whiskey Rice: Awamori
Rice baijiu Soju Rye: Rye whiskey
Sorghum: Baijiu (Kaoliang)

Apple: Applejack Calvados Cashew
Apple: Fenny

Coconut: Arrack

Armagnac Brandy Cognac Pisco
Plum: Slivovitz uic

Pomace: Grappa
Marc Orujo Tsikoudia Tsipouro
Zivania Chacha

Various/other fruit: Eau

de vie Kirschwasser Palinka Rakia

Agave: Mezcal Tequila
Sugarcane/molasses: Aguardiente
Cachaa Clairin Guaro Rum Seco
Herrerano Tharra Various cereals and
potato: Akvavit Baijiu Canadian
whisky Poitin Shch Vodka Whisky