Annual

Cooling Energy
kWh/m
2
kWh/m
2
°C
log(lux)
Annual
Heating Energy
Average
Air Temp. + Daylight
40
7
18
218
136
103
22
3870
S U S T A I N A B L E D E S I G N
+
Max C. Doelling, Dipl.-Ing.
A P P L I E D R E S E A R C H
Entry Stairs; The Hive, Kotagiri, India. A Kundoo + M C Doelling, 2008 - 2012
Interactive Spatial Thermal +
+ Daylight Visualization
Custom Software.
M C Doelling 2013 - 14
2.848
10.5
6.2
2.7
2.7
8
.9
4
. 7
6
.3
2.7
2.7
2.7
2
2
.0
2 . 7
2 . 7
4.4
4.5
3
. 3
3.7
4.5
3.7
4.5
7
. 0
4
. 5
3
. 8
3
. 1
B
5
2
6
1
4
3
2
1
S
P
6
A
B
C
C
A
3
5
4
2
S U S T A I N A B L E D E S I G N
+
Selected Projects, Papers + Presentations
A P P L I E D R E S E A R C H
Project Client
Publication Venue
South Florida Wildlife Center Redevelopment
Ft. Lauderdale, FL, USA
The Humane Society
of the United States
The Hive, Honey and Coffee Manufactory
Kotagiri, Tamil Nadu, India
The Keystone Foundation
Post Suburbia
Cape Cod, MA, USA
Independent study
Space-based Thermal Metrics Mapping for
Conceptual Low - Energy Architectural Design
University College London (UCL), UK.
Building Simulation and Optimization 2014
Parametric Design: a Case Study in
Design - Simulation Integration
Institut Nationale de l’Énergie Solaire
(INES), France. Building Simulation 2013
Hybrid Daylight Models in
Architectural Design Education +
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT), MA, USA. DIVA Day 2012.
+ Prototyping Daylight National University of Singapore (NUS).
CAADRIA 2013.
Setting Out Plan on Contours; The Hive ............
p. 3 - 15
Accepted proposal
16 - 27
Built design
28 - 37
38 - 50
Peer-reviewed paper
51 - 60
Peer-reviewed paper
61 - 66
Invited presentation +
+ Peer-reviewed paper
Background/Opposite:
Aerial Perspective; South Florida Wildlife Center, Final Restructuring Phase
M
y real-world thesis project helped the Humane Society to
develop a phased rehabilitation plan for the South Florida
Wildlife Center (SFWC), where injured native species and the
occasional domestic animal are treated, rehabilitated and then
released back into the wild or adopted. The center primarily relies
on core veterinary, rehabilitation staff and countless volunteers.
As a volunteer designer, I was tasked with developing a no holds
barred redevelopment plan to accommodate future operational
growth and inspire upcoming development drives.
The resultant pays gives special attention to the unique programme
demands, site sustainability considerations, the subtropical
climate’s influence on building morphology and related energy use.
Tropical building rule guides, solar geometry inputs and selective
performance simulation were also used to shape the architecture,
building on previous typology experiences in India.
For this portfolio, I created several new drawings and reworked
existing ones to tell the design story in a compact format.
Additionally, extensive multi-zone thermal and daylight simulations
of the final design state were run and visualized with custom
software developed by me and not available when the project
was first completed. The new holistic simulations show that the
intended design indeed lives up to its original performance intent
previously not calculated on a whole-building level.
S O U T H F L O R I D A W I L D L I F E
p. 3 | for the Humane Society of the United States
Ft. Lauderdale, FL, USA. 2009 - 2010, 2014
C E N T E R R E D E V E L O P M E N T
animal
habitats
protected
wetlands
new wildlife care
center building
S O U T H F L O R I D A
p. 4 | Location + Original Site Impressions
T
he SFWC site is wedged between a public park, an industrial
area and Ft. Lauderdale International Airport. The initial
task was to develop an overview of the site and its operational
structure, both previously undocumented.
Snyder Park
2 Native Animal Rehabilitation Habitats
1 Current Wildlife Hospital
1
2
W I L D L I F E C E N T E R
Raptors in Flight Cage
D
ocumenting the site revealed a scattered distribution of animal
treatment and rehabilitation activities that grew over the years
in an ad-hoc fashion. In combination with detailed staff interviews,
the main design challenges became clear:
• Develop detailed functional programme requirements
• Understand key needs of separate animal groups
• Re-organize the site to improve caretaking operations
• Account for future growth and improve outreach facilities
• Redevelopment must not cause operational interruptions
Opposite, top:
Site and Architectural Programming,
based on staff interviews
Opposite, bottom:
Adaptable Structure Sketches
Bottom, left:
Existing Site Layout
S O U T H F L O R I D A
p. 5 | Challenges + Functional Programming
W I L D L I F E C E N T E R
Maintenance
Intern Apartment
Break Room / Kitchen
Offices
Animal Feed Kitchen
Animal Hospital
Domestic Animal Pens
Nursery
Wild Animal Habitats
Restrooms + Showers
Small Domestics Trailer
Material + Feed Storage
S O U T H F L O R I D A
p. 6 | Phased Development
W I L D L I F E C E N T E R
S
haped by the programme requirements, a convoluted access
situation, interlocking development goals and the presence of
protected wetlands at the site’s center, a plan to in three phases
erect an eventually joined, multi-use building was proposed.
The structure would in its final state form an enclosure around the
domestic animal and adoption functions open to the public, seclude
the private wild animal facilities to minimize human imprinting and
offer new, properly distributed site positions for all key facilities.
Creating the plan was a challenge since caretaking functions
should be interrupted as little as possible; only structures whose
functions were addressed in each phase could be relocated, also
causing intermittent repurposing of existing facilities.
Phase 1:
New Animal Hospital
• Hospital & office functions in new building
• Domestics adoptions moved to old hospital
• Begin limiting public access to wild part
• Old admin trailer now education/outreach
• North wetlands site remains untouched
Phase 3:
Public Functions & Adoptions
• Enclosed structure holds final functions:
• Lobby, edu. room, café and exibition area
• Adoptions center and thrift shop
• New administration staff offices
• Enclosed maintenance yard, workshops
Phase 2:
New Nursery
• Nursery redeveloped at secluded site
• Minimized wild animal exposure to noise
• Created new functions (e.g. lab) in nursery
• Maintenance takes over old nursery trailer
• New domestic animal pens at site center
Maintenance
Intern Apartment
Break Room / Kitchen
Animal Feed Kitchen
Animal Hospital
Domestic Animal Pens
Wild Animal Habitats
Restrooms + Showers Small Domestics
Material & Feed Storage
Café
Administration (2nd floor)
Thrift Shop
Feed/Biomass Production
Agriculture Aquaponics
Seminar Room (2nd floor)
Main Lobby
Exhibition / Multi-Use
Lab
Sustainability Office (2nd floor)
Souvenir Shop
Animal Hospital Lobby
Offices
Nursery
W I L D L I F E C E N T E R
S O U T H F L O R I D A
p. 7 | View from Hospital towards
Adoptions, Main Entrance + Nursery
W I L D L I F E C E N T E R
S O U T H F L O R I D A
p. 8 | Ground Floor Plan +
Section / Elevation A
3.9 Work + Prep Area
3.10 Baby Racoons
3.11 Adolescent Racoons
3.12 Baby Opossums
3.13 Adolescent Opossums
3.14 Work + Prep Area
3.15 Baby Squirrels
3.16 Adolescent Squirrels
3.17 Other Animals / Work Area
4.1 Science Office
5.1 Lobby
5.2 Exhibition + Multi-Purpose Room
5.3 Visitor + Staff Cafeteria
5.4 Souvenir Shop
5.5 Storage Cafe/Shop
6.1 Storage External Facilities
6.2 Storage Exhibition
7.1 Domestic Animal Habitats
7.2 Adoptions Desk
7.3 Examination Room
7.4 Thrift Shop
7.5 Animal Feed Kitchen
7.6 Storage Feed Kitchen
8.1 Storage External Facilities
8.2 Workshop
8.3 General Storage
8.4 Building Services
8.5 Workshop Yard
1.1 Animal Hospital Lobby
1.2 Admissions Desk + Offices
1.3 General Triage
1.4 Triage Wild Animals
1.5 Triage Domestic Animals
1.6 Triage Isolation
1.7 Main Treatment Area
with Wet Cell
1.8 Auxiliary Treatment Room
1.9 Auxiliary Treatment Room
1.10 Intensive Care Unit
1.11 Surgery
1.12 Surgery Preparation
1.13 Radiology Office
1.14 Radiology
1.15 Pharmacy
1.16 Lab
1.17 Animal Feed Kitchen
1.18 Feed Kitchen Storage
1.19 Cages + Equipment Storage
1.20 Building Services
1.21 Morgue
1.22 Delivery + Disinfection Yard
1.23 Isolation Ward
1.24 Reptiles Ward
1.25 Domestics Ward
1.26 Wild Animals Ward
1.27 Veterinarian’s Office 1
1.28 Veterinarian’s Office 2
1.29 Staff Office
1.30 Staff Tea Kitchen
1.31 Staff Break Room
2.1 Meeting + Break Room,
Administrative Areas
2.2 Library
2.3 Server Room
3.1 Animal Feed Kitchen
3.2 General Storage
3.3 Treatment Area
3.4 Baby Bird Room
3.5 Baby Bird Incubator
3.6 Work + Prep area
3.7 Bird Terrace
3.8 Specialised Incubator
5.1 Lobby
2.5 Administration: Public Functions 5.6 Education + Seminar Room
5.2 Exhibition + Multi-Purpose Room 7. Domestic Adoptions + Service Areas, Thrift Shop
7.7 Adoptions Staff Break Room, Intern Apartment
8.5 Workshop + Yard
8.6 Maintenance Office
2. Admin Meeting + Library
2.4, 1. Main + Hospital Administration
3. Nursery 1. Animal Hospital + Lobby
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
6.1
7.2
7.5
7.1
6.2
7.6
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
7.3
7.4
8.5
3.1
3.2
3.4 3.5 3.6
3.7
3.8
3.10 3.11
3.12 3.13
3.15 3.16
3.8
3.17
3.3
4.1
3.8
3.9
3.14
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.4
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13 1.14
1.15 1.16
1.17 1.18 1.19
1.20
1.6
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
1.27
1.28
1.29
1.30
1.31
2.1
2.3
1.21
2.2
1.22
Section C
Section A
Section B Section D
S O U T H F L O R I D A
p. 9 | 1st Floor Plan +
Section / Elevation B
W I L D L I F E C E N T E R
1.32 Changing Rooms (male staff)
1.33 Changing Rooms (female staff)
1.34 Hospital Office
2.4 Main Administration
2.5 Administration: Public Functions
2.6 Meeting Area
2.7 Office Storage
8.6 Office + Maintenance Personnel
3.18 Nursery Office
3.19 Nursery Office
3.20 Nursery Staff Break Room
3.21 Changing Rooms (male staff)
3.22 Changing Rooms (female staff)
3.23 Storage
4.2 Lab: Research
5.6 Education + Seminar Room
5.7 Education Lobby + Observation Deck
6.3 Education Equipment Storage
7.7 Adoptions Staff Break Room
7.8 Changing Rooms (male staff)
7.9 Changing Rooms (female staff)
7.10 Storage
9 Veterinary Intern Apartments
Public Areas (education, domestics + adoption)
Private Administrative / Service Areas
Private Wild Animal Care Areas (hospital + nursery)
5.1 Lobby
2.6 Administration: Meeting Area
5.2 Exhibition + Multi-Purpose Room 7. Domestic Adoptions + Service Areas, Thrift Shop
7.7 Adoptions Staff Break Room, Intern Apartment
8.5 Workshop + Yard
8.6 Maintenance Office
2. Admin Meeting + Library
2.4, 1. Main + Hospital Administration
1.1 Animal Hospital Lobby
2.5 Administration: Public Functions
1.1 Animal Hospital 1.22 Delivery + Disinfection Yard
Section B
5.6
6.3
2.5
2.7
2.6
7.8
7.9
7.10 9
7.7
2.4
1.32
1.33
1.34
8.6
9
3.21 3.22
3.23
3.19
4.2
3.20
3.18
5.7
7 Adoptions 2.1 Meeting + Break Room, Main Admin 1.16 / 19 / 20 Lab,
Storage, Services
1.21 Morgue
3.1/2 Baby Racoons
+ Baby Opossums
3.14 Work / Prep Area 3.17 Other
Animals + Work Area
4.2 Science Lab
5.1 Lobby
2.5 Admin: Public Functions
3.15 Baby Squirrels
4.1 Science Office
3.2 Staff 5.7. Obs. Deck 5.6 Edu / Seminar Room
5.4 / 3 Café,
Souvenir Shop
1.14 Radiology 1.7 Main Treatment Area 1.4 Triage 1.1 Hospital Lobby
1.34 Hospital Admin 2.4 Main Admin
8.5 Workshops +
Building Services
8.6 Maintenance Offices 9 Intern Apartments
S O U T H F L O R I D A
p. 10 | Section / Elevation C, D +
Control System / Geometry I
W I L D L I F E C E N T E R
I
n order not to overwhelm the site with excess building volume
and provide an envelope adapted to the new program, the
section continuously changes over the length of the building.
To retain control over this movement, a parametric system reads
input curves to define the building outline, the structural grid, roof
monitor positions etc. After shape definition, a secondary script
divides the facade into bays of identical width sets and positions
the individually shaped frames that form the building’s spine.
Care was also taken to study rationalization; despite its sweeping
shape, few facade bays are truly unique; the roof elements are
tessellated flat (albeit still geometrically complex) and simple infill
panels compensate for gradual roof line changes before the facade
units need to step up or down. Many of the frames, however,
remain singular, custom elements.
diagrid height
control
5m 6m
4m
unique
3.63m 3.57m
3.1m 3.09m 3.04m 3.03m
diagrid pattern
control
main outline
control
monitor height
control
horizontal
monitor line
control
overhang + roof
height / pitch control
Opposite:
Frame + Facade Bay
Rationalization System,
Control Curves
Left:
Section / Elevation C, D +
Section Location Indicators
W I L D L I F E C E N T E R
S O U T H F L O R I D A
p. 11 | View towards Main Entrance
S O U T H F L O R I D A
p. 12 | Performance Section +
Schematic Frame Variations
W I L D L I F E C E N T E R
T
he building section’s rationale is to keep the structure as thin
as possible to allow for cross-ventilation, use the roof monitors
to achieve deeper daylighting in wider parts of the building and to
minimize afternoon glare if the facade louvers were to be closed,
especially at the east and west-facing orientations on ground level.
As already apparent from the plans, many permanent occupancy
zones, e.g. offices, are floating under the roof at the second
building level; since they then do not necessarily border both
outside ground floor facades, the roof monitors in these cases
effectively become a third side daylighting and ventilation window
line through their change in location, size and orientation.
The schematic outlines of all frames are drawn on this page to
give a further appreciation of the structure’s movement. At the
lower left is the first frame of the nursery, which is the widest and
squattest building section.
Opposite: Complete Frame Sections
Below: Environmental Section
through Main Entrance Hall
S O U T H F L O R I D A
p. 13 | Conceptual Design Simulation:
Daylight + Energetic Performance
W I L D L I F E C E N T E R
S
simulations for daylight (Daysim), energy use (EnergyPlus)
and facade irradiation (Radiance) checked performance during
design and at the end of the conceptual ideation phase. Energy
and daylight visualizations were created with my software Mr.Comfy.
Annual daylight performance, especially on the upper floor, is very
good (~ 75% of occ. time illumination between 300 - 1500 lux) -
in part due to the roof projection, which shields the upper facades,
as visible in the irradiation image. Appropriate intensity daylight in
offices reduces lighting energy use, here a sustainability goal.
Relative cooling energy demand of the 1st floor office spaces
is surprisingly uniform, given the multiple orientations. This is in
part due to different adjacency conditions to variedly used ground
floor zones, some of which are semi-exterior and non-conditioned.
However, natural ventilation with coupled mixed-mode changeover
mechanical cooling reduces conditioning energy demand by ~35%.
Generally, the zoning concept of moving office spaces to the first
floor and using a generous shading overhang works well, as do
the roof monitors for deeper daylighting and good cross-ventilation.
The original environmental design intent (also see previous page)
is confirmed as feasible through the simulations; however, a final
design iteration would still have room for improvements: secondary
overhangs at the ground floor would again reduce cooling loads,
as would e.g. a further (daylight-conscious) glazing area reduction.
Ground Floor Daylight Distribution
Annual Cumulative Facade Irradiation
Daylight 300 - 1500 lux (frequency)
Annual Cooling Energy Use
6733 382 log(lux)
log(lux)
kWh/m
2
% of occ. hours
0 16910
0 111
0 100
02 Annual Total Cooling Energy Use
+ Daylight Frequency 300 - 1500 lux
South(West) facing offices show similar
cooling use patterns; the apartments
require less conditioning due to lower
occupancy. Seminar and nursery offices
receive higher solar gains due to East/
West orientation, and experience higher
loads, even though daylight is well
controlled on most of the floor. Abso-
lute energy use values only valid for
geometric sensitivity testing, mediated
by ground floor adjacency conditions:
01 Annual Facade Irradiation + log of
Avrg. Ground Floor Illumination (lux)
East- and west-facing facade areas
and south-oriented, tilted roof sections
receive highest solar gains. The roof
projection successfully shields upper
facade sections on all orientations, co-
responsible for good 1st floor daylight
performance. The ground floor is also
well daylit (dot overlay), but shows
partially undesirable peak intensities.
Cumulative Annual Air Changes air changes 203 87085
kWh/m
2
2100 0
Front
Offices
Seminar
Room
Intern
Apartments
Nursery
Offices
Hospital +
Main Administration
Conditioned zone floor adjacency
Semi-exterior/unconditioned adj.
03 Annual Cumulative Air Changes (E+
AirFlow Network natural ventilation)
Natural ventilation was used in conjunc-
tion with mixed-mode changeover artifi-
cial cooling; spaces with fewest internal
obstructions and openings on several
sides fare best, e.g. most offices. The
apartments, internal storage and service
spaces show comparatively reduced
ventilation rates due to lower transient
occupancy, which was set to directly
control window operation.
Overall, natural ventilation is triggered
frequently enough to significantly reduce
cooling energy demand.
W I L D L I F E C E N T E R
S O U T H F L O R I D A
p. 14 | View from Lobby towards
Interior Yard + Multi-Use Space
Page 1 of 2


To Whom It May Concern:
Max Christian Dölling , born 01/24/82, served as an architectural design volunteer at the South Florida
Wildlife Center for one year, beginning in September 2009.

The South Florida Wildlife Center, founded in 1969, is one of the largest wildlife trauma hospitals and
rehabilitation centers in the nation, admitting nearly 13,000 animals spanning over 255 species,
annually. As a proud affiliate of the Humane Society of the United States, we serve the South Florida tri-
county region of Broward, Palm Beach, and Miami-Dade. It is our mission to protect wildlife through
rescue, rehabilitation, and education.

The recovery habitats on our leased 4.1 acre property in Ft. Lauderdale, which house up to 875 animals
at any given time, are upgraded, replaced, or added in order to keep up with a growing diversity of
species and rehabilitative care demands in South Florida, which is partially a result of urban sprawl
encroaching on natural habitats.

Max set himself the task of creating a comprehensive case study on how the center might accomplish its
growth and reorganization goals over the next few decades. In the analysis stage, he spent several days
familiarizing himself with the way we work, conducting interviews with our crew, observing animal care
and sketching as well as photographing the entire site. In the process, Max exhibited a wonderful ability
to collaborate with our staff in order to learn of our precise requirements. Additionally, he studied the
influence Florida's subtropical climate has on our activities and how to best utilize and control the
combined impact of the prevailing winds, sun movement, building air flow and site topography. All those
concerns were impressively addressed in the final design.

Based on his initial site analysis, further literature research on animal care and rehabilitation, as well as
our continuous guidance, Max envisioned a multi-phase site restructuring concept that would allow key
functions to be gradually moved to more appropriate locations on our property while maintaining care
operations during the entire process, a concern that is very important to us and extremely difficult to
achieve. The envisioned phasing scheme and final intended functional layout show great insight into the
way we work and are highly imaginative, especially as additional educational spaces are proposed to
further our community outreach mission, as well as achieving the clear spatial separation of domestic
and wild animals. Throughout the entire concept, comfort requirements for the well-being of the
animals, as well as the staff providing all manner of care of them, were fulfilled and even greatly
improved upon, as compared to the status quo.

Page 2 of 2

The phasing plan and the proposed flexible building structure to accommodate it have minimum
volumetric impact and tread very lightly by not impinging on a residual patch of wetlands at the center
of our site, which is undergoing a restoration presently. We were especially impressed by the clever
consideration of natural environmental advantages to keep the structure as green as possible and to
reduce lighting, cooling and other electrical needs, which is one of our major operational cost factors.
Despite offering much more space than currently available to us, the designed building does not
overwhelm the site and appears light and airy. Max used the factors of building orientation, layout and
structure to their fullest effect, delivering a creative, stellar design that is as beautiful as it is functional.
He presented the outstanding final product to our executive staff in September 2010 and received
unanimous praise.

Through the case study we were able to enhance our own understanding of the interrelationship
between our care activities, the overall site organization and the possible benefits of improving our
building stock. The knowledge thus gained continues to influence us to this day, for which we would like
to thank Max. Working with him was a breeze, and his commitment to making the built environment a
greener place, for humans and animals alike, is truly inspirational and very close to our own mission.

We wish Max all the best for his future and believe that if all of society acted in unison, as demonstrated
by this project, the harmony of man and environment might someday be fully achieved.

Sincerely,
Sherry L. Schlueter
Executive Director, South Florida Wildlife Center
sschlueter@humanesociety.org
t 954-524-7464 f 954-343-0760
South Florida Wildlife Center
3200 S.W. 4th Avenue Fort Lauderdale, FL 33315




S O U T H F L O R I D A
p. 15 | Client Recommendation Letter
W I L D L I F E C E N T E R
T H E H I V E : H O N E Y + C O F F E E
M A N U F A C T O R Y B U I L D I N G
p. 16 | for the Keystone Foundation, Kotagiri,
Nilgiris, India. 2008 - 2010, 2012 (completion)
Background/Opposite:
View towards the Hive, South-East facade of Built Design Variant
J
ointly designed by Anupama Kundoo and me working together
in Berlin, the new “Hive” building for India’s NGO they
Keystone Foundation finished construction in 2012.
Nicknamed such by Keystone’s staff, the structure’s main purpose
is to contain the processing and packaging of local cliff bee honey
(very tasty, very dangerous to collect) harvested by indigenous
people in Southern India’s Nilgiri mountains, plus packaging and
shipping of locally grown coffee.
The design was challenging due to the extremely steep slope
Keystone’s campus is situated on; a form had to be found that
would be constructable by a local general contractor at minimum
cost, while still maintaining good design, minimizing land use
impact and taking into account logistical production demands.
Environmental concerns of passive heating potential and natural
lighting also played a major part in shaping the architecture; as the
campus slope faces roughly North-East, capture of morning solar
gains and provision of well daylit working spaces was enabled by
relatively large facade apertures necessitating a concrete frame
structure, which is clad with local stone on the lower floors and
uses rammed earth construction on the upper building levels.
The Hive has been in use for a few years now, and Keystone are
satisfied with how the design provides a good working environment.
It is a very happy feeling to know that our contribution has made
a difference to help preserve the region’s unique ecosystem,
part of the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves, and
aspects of its indigenous way of life.
T H E H I V E : H O N E Y + C O F F E E
M A N U F A C T O R Y B U I L D I N G
p. 17 | Site Overview, Design Development 01
D
ue to rapid operational growth, the Keystone campus required
a larger building to replace the original Hive structure. A
new parcel of land (upper right) was originally intended as its
location, yet unforeseen permissions aspects forced a late move
of the structure to be integrated into the main campus. The partial
reworking meant that select aspects of the building’s intended
layout were changed, however it proved a blessing in disguise to
have the new structure closer to existing campus functions.
Background/Opposite:
Keystone Campus Site Plan, Kotagiri, Nilgiris, India.
Original Hive Building Site Location (upper right) and Redesign
Location (center) indicated (red outlines)
Survey: M.Ghandi, adapted by Author
South-West View towards Meeting Hall (center), prior to New Hive Construction
T H E H I V E : H O N E Y + C O F F E E
M A N U F A C T O R Y B U I L D I N G
p. 18 | Design Development 02
T
he building’s shape was developed from conceptual sketches
by Anupama and volumetric 3d models created by me, which
tested many roof geometry and on-slope positioning ideas.
Using a digital site surface model helped check cutout volume,
which we tried to minimize; to create a building that spans over
slope sections would have increased construction difficulty and
cost. For this and access reasons, a form closely following the
contours was chosen, with vertically nested functions.
Early Digital Massing Study +
Roof Form Exploration
(Author)
Slope-spanning/”Hovering”
Design Massing Sketch
(Author)
Initial Programme Stacking + Distribution Sketches (A. Kundoo)
Sketch Floor Plate +
Section Geometries
(Author)
2.848
1
0
.5
6
.2
2
.7 2
.7
8.9
4
.7
6.3
2
.7
2
.7
2
.7
22.0
2
.7
2
.7
4
.4
4
.5
3.3
3
.7
4
.5
3
.7
4
.5
7.0
4.5
3.8
3.1
B
5
2
6
1
4
3 2
1
SP
6
A
B
C
C
A
3
5
4
2
Office = + 10,1m
Dispatch = + 6.4m
Coffee Floor = + 3,2m
Honey Floor = 0
T H E H I V E : H O N E Y + C O F F E E
M A N U F A C T O R Y B U I L D I N G
p. 19 | Final Design Variant Plans 01
T
est iterations led to a final design variant that precisely conforms to site
contours and features main access stairs to the North-West facade, outside
of the building itself. Individual floors are vertically stacked and only partially
overlap horizontally; by not extending roofs to touch the facade of the level
on top, balconies are carved out which are directly accessible from each floor.
In effect, a shed roof typology is formed, which equipped with roof monitor
windows allows for deeper daylighting and improved ventilation.
Note that due to the late-stage site change and construction of the building by
an independent general contractor, design changes were introduced in the built
version, but luckily overall design intent was retained.
Honey Floor, 118 sqm
on Setting Out Plan
Coffee Floor
75 sqm
Dispatch + Storage
120 sqm
Offices
46 sqm
South-East
Elevation
Lateral (a)
Main Section
a
a
N
N
T H E H I V E : H O N E Y + C O F F E E
M A N U F A C T O R Y B U I L D I N G
p. 20 | Completed Structure on New Site, Dec. 2013
Note “tree courtyard” and modif ied roof detailing
Photo: Keystone Foundation
T H E H I V E : H O N E Y + C O F F E E
M A N U F A C T O R Y B U I L D I N G
p. 21 | View of Honey Floor Work Stations, Dec. 2013
Photo: Keystone Foundation
T H E H I V E : H O N E Y + C O F F E E
M A N U F A C T O R Y B U I L D I N G
p. 22 | Staff Member at Work, Honey Floor
Photo: Keystone Foundation
T H E H I V E : H O N E Y + C O F F E E
M A N U F A C T O R Y B U I L D I N G
p. 23 | Dispatch Floor, December 2013
Staff packaging local produce
Photo: Keystone Foundation
0m
3,2m 6,4m
10,1m
T H E H I V E : H O N E Y + C O F F E E
M A N U F A C T O R Y B U I L D I N G
p. 24 | Final Design Variant Plans 02
A
central feature of the conceptual and built structure is the outside staircase
linking production floors. While the dumb waiter indicated in the original
plans was not included after the site move, the stairs remained as an important
design element; how they connect to the land in part determined floor heights
and entrance positions. The axonometric drawings shown on this page were
used by the general contractor to better understand and adapt the (by local
standards) unusual building geometry.
North-West
Elevation
Stair Plan +
Section Lines
Cutout +
Foundations
Wall + Column
Foundations
Reinforced
Concrete Struct.
Rammed Earth +
Stone Wall Infill
Section 1
2
3
4
5
6
1 2 3 4 5 6
T H E H I V E : H O N E Y + C O F F E E
M A N U F A C T O R Y B U I L D I N G
p. 25 | Final Design Variant View
C
omparing the original design variant with the constructed building shows
that main spatial concepts were retained; In the final drawings, the
material definition of the outer walls was left open to be discussed with the
contractor, who also served as structural engineer. Hence, adapting the building
to use rammed earth on the upper floors proved easy and was anticipated.
Fundamental changes during construction are not unheard of in India, hence I
am grateful to the Keystone for sticking closely to the original vision.
Perspective View of Final Design Variant,
showing four-floor configuration and
full-height NE-facade windows
T H E H I V E : H O N E Y + C O F F E E
M A N U F A C T O R Y B U I L D I N G
p. 26 | Completed Structure on New Site, Dec. 2013
Opposed views along main access stairs
Photos: Keystone Foundation
12
th
May, 2012

We are an environmental NGO working in the Western Ghats in India, more specifically in the
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. We engage with issues concerning conservation of resources and
livelihoods of indigenous people and have over the years several programmes in these hills. See
www.keystone-foundation.org
We have since 2000 been developing our campus in the hills and work with Anupama Kundoo as
our architect for both office and residential premises. The several small units in the campus
represent different aspects of our work. Since 2009-10 we have worked on expanding our
facilities to help indigenous people value add and market their produce for better returns. This
new building was designed by Anupama and Max Doelling, and with a few adaptations, is now
complete.
This letter is to appreciate the effort taken in the design to adapt to our needs and make necessary
changes quickly. The design was made keeping in mind our steep mountain terrain and cold
weather. The 3 floors now have cascade effect giving us open sunny terraces and large windows
facing the morning sun. This has made our working areas bright and warm saving on costs
concerning lighting and heating. The spaces are large and well ventilated and have given the
team working there flexibility to adapt their work spaces as per their needs. The upper floor uses
rammed earth walls – like the rest of the campus buildings, and blends well both with the
existing structures and the landscape. The lower floor use of local stone for cladding walls has
also made the building beautiful and easy to maintain.
We now use the building to its maximum capacity and would like to appreciate the work done by
the architects to design it well to enable a comfortable working environment for us.
Snehlata Nath
Director, Programs
Keystone Centre, Gro·es lill Road, P B No. 35, Kotagiri 643 21¯, Nilgiris ,1.N.,, INDIA
Phone : 91 - 4266 - 2¯22¯¯, 2¯29¯¯ lax : 91 - 4266 - 2¯22¯¯ e: kí¸keystone-íoundation.org
12
th
May, 2012

We are an environmental NGO working in the Western Ghats in India, more specifically in the
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. We engage with issues concerning conservation of resources and
livelihoods of indigenous people and have over the years several programmes in these hills. See
www.keystone-foundation.org
We have since 2000 been developing our campus in the hills and work with Anupama Kundoo as
our architect for both office and residential premises. The several small units in the campus
represent different aspects of our work. Since 2009-10 we have worked on expanding our
facilities to help indigenous people value add and market their produce for better returns. This
new building was designed by Anupama and Max Doelling, and with a few adaptations, is now
complete.
This letter is to appreciate the effort taken in the design to adapt to our needs and make necessary
changes quickly. The design was made keeping in mind our steep mountain terrain and cold
weather. The 3 floors now have cascade effect giving us open sunny terraces and large windows
facing the morning sun. This has made our working areas bright and warm saving on costs
concerning lighting and heating. The spaces are large and well ventilated and have given the
team working there flexibility to adapt their work spaces as per their needs. The upper floor uses
rammed earth walls – like the rest of the campus buildings, and blends well both with the
existing structures and the landscape. The lower floor use of local stone for cladding walls has
also made the building beautiful and easy to maintain.
We now use the building to its maximum capacity and would like to appreciate the work done by
the architects to design it well to enable a comfortable working environment for us.
Snehlata Nath
Director, Programs
Keystone Centre, Gro·es lill Road, P B No. 35, Kotagiri 643 21¯, Nilgiris ,1.N.,, INDIA
Phone : 91 - 4266 - 2¯22¯¯, 2¯29¯¯ lax : 91 - 4266 - 2¯22¯¯ e: kí¸keystone-íoundation.org
T H E H I V E : H O N E Y + C O F F E E
M A N U F A C T O R Y B U I L D I N G
p. 27 | Acknowledgements & Recommendation Letter
I
would like to thank Anupama Kundoo for giving me the chance to work on
an ambitious design and granting me great influence on its intended and built
form- it was an interesting challenge that influenced my career.
The Keystone foundation deserves huge credit for accepting a challenging
geometry and never giving up on the project despite at times seemingly
insurmountable difficulties- Matthew and Sneh, thank you!
Kanika Puri’s contribution to keep the project on track after the site change is
not forgotten; without her, I am sure even less of the intended design would
have been saved or even built at all, for which she has my deep gratitude.
Finally, Keystone’s Aritra Bose took many of the pictures that made it into this
portfolio- thank you for going through all that trouble!
Area of further study
P O S T S U B U R B I A
p. 28 | Independent Urban Design Study
Cape Cod, MA, USA. 2008 - 2009, 2014
C
ape Cod exemplifies many archetypical housing and urban
development phenomena present in the US to this day, and
thus holds a special place in the collective understanding of how
(sub)urban life is shaped and influences human life in return.
Due to my own history in the US (albeit in Florida, not New England)
and a great interest in the intersection of natural ecosystems and
man’s desire to shape the environment in ways beneficial to
contemporary (and contested) modes of living, I conducted a
case study that investigated the impact of suburbanization on
Cape Cod, and developed a phased, participatory master plan to
test ideas on how to remedy perceived (and very real) problems
caused by low-density land use.
The planning narrative approaches the problem in three stages:
• analysis of suburbanization impact on land + ecosystem
• Explore conceptual urban design ideas based on analysis
• Adapt core concepts for possible real-world implementation
The planning site eventually chosen is shown in the highlight
below; after mapping the peninsula, efforts were concentrated on
applying what was learned at a smaller suburban scale.
Unlike the Wildlife Care Center and Hive projects, this study has
a purely academic target audience, which is a big limitation; I
believe, though, that it still holds up to scrutiny, mainly due to the
rigor with which the initial impact data was collected and the way
it influenced the phasing study.
Background/Opposite:
Ecosystem + Land Use Map,
Cape Cod, MA, USA
Data: MassGIS
Mapping: Author
P O S T S U B U R B I A
p. 29 | Mapping Ecosystem Impacts with
Geographic Information System Data
L
ow-density residential use dominates Cape Cod, which has
approached complete build-out; note that almost all dark-green
land shown on the map is protected free space. GIS-mapping of
publicly available ecosystem and land use data reveals an intricate
pattern of spatial hierarchies; 1/4th to larger than 1/2 acre lots
are concentrated on the shore, with higher densities and multi-
family housing typically located closer to inland commercial strips.
This also a landscape of social stratification, visible e.g through
the differentiation between private and public beaches.
Core animal habitats are highly fragmented due to development,
but it is not only the animals suffering from adverse environmental
impacts; many inland lakes and bays are usage-impaired due to
water pollution, mainly caused by a lack of sewer systems and
non-point source runoff from the significant portion of surface
area now sealed on the Cape. Red symbols on the map indicate
pollution sources, with drinking water wells often close nearby.
The issues of use-impairing pollution, social stratification and
environmental habitat degradation - all of which negatively affect
human habitation - were hence identified as major aspects to
tackle in the planning case study performed on a small part of the
Cape, shown in the main map to the right at the bottom center.
The site was picked because it has almost uniform housing
density; as such, it exemplifies the majority of spatial patterns on
Cape Cod, unfortunately including environmental impacts. Also,
since it is a peninsula within a peninsula, it gives the observer an
almost fractal sense of zooming in towards spatial principles that
repeat on the macro as well as micro scale.
Background/Opposite:
Ecosystem + Land Use Map,
Cape Cod, MA, USA
Data: MassGIS
Mapping: Author
P O S T S U B U R B I A
p. 30 | Site Analysis Maps 01 + 02
Territories + Ecosystem Interlacing
A
t Cape Cod’s shoreline, a sensitive coastal ecosystem meets sprawling low-density
urban growth. Forests and non-overbuilt natural open spaces are only saved when
explicitly protected from development, as also shown by the regional GIS study- In effect,
man-made and natural systems are fused into one totality.
The analysis maps isolate and show this interlacing; a homogenous fabric of housing
developments abuts and interrupts ecosystem features such as wetlands and barrier
beaches, carving out individual territories extended into the water through private piers.
Functional differentiation of the urban fabric is low, as is democratized water access. If
one were to consider the site a town, and not just an agglomeration of dwellings, what
operations could increase its urbanity, social inclusiveness and overall sustainability?
The question of course assumes a desire to move development along these lines, which
I posit in this study but is not unrealistic considering growing sustainability awareness.
Map Legend (both)
Forest
Wetlands
Barrier Beaches
Hydrological Features
Accessor’s Parcels
Priority Natural Habitats
Empty Lots
Ambivalent Coastal Zone
1 3
2 4
5
6
Analysis Map 01 : Figure Ground Plan, Ecosystem, Priority Natural Habitats Analysis Map 02 : Housing + Private Piers : Territorialization
50 100 150m
p. 31 | Phase 0 | Concept Engineering
Experiments in Streetscape + Land Use Volumetrics
B
efore confronting the intricacy of creating a plan limited
by existing conditions, the conceptual phase freely tested
concepts derived from the situational and environmental impact
mapping. Not all of the more far-fetched concepts made it into the
final plan but are in part shown here, such as radically modifying
the linear street scape or even introducing new topography.
However, several initial ideas made it into the phasing as
underlying design intent; especially the introduction of de-paved
play streets leading to the water and the concept of a central
green boulevard “spine” were influenced by ideas developed
herein, as was the introduction of mixed-use functions alongside
it. Spatially, a density gradient from peninsula center to the coast,
with new and larger central lot building volumes inspired by solar
envelopes, was tested and featured in the final iteration.
P O S T S U B U R B I A
Variant Concept Sketches
1: Density Gradient Sketch, Lateral Peninsula Section (implemented as density gradient falloff in final plan)
2: FIrst Site Cross Section Modification Sketch (concept not pursued due to ground water levels + scale)
3: Radical “Green Band” Superstructure Sketch (not used, since extremely large blocks break local scale)
Bottom: Mixed-use Solar Envelope Blocks (implemented as higher-density structures in final plan)
Right: “Sinuous Band” Streetscape + New Locations of Additional Urban Functions
(partially implemented)
1
2
3
Phase 1 & 2
Phase 1 negotiate for
multi - use scenario
Phase 2 assemble
ocean lots to repurpose
as urban squares
All shown urban open spaces
are intentional only, unless
already negotiated
50 100 150m
Map Legend (left inset)
Land Use
Single - Family Residential
Multi - Family Residential
Forest
Other (see next map for details)
Agriculture / Open Space
Urban Open (none)
Roads
1 3
2 4
5
6
Map Legend (background)
Urban Open (intended)
Empty Lot : reused
Empty Lot: left vacant
Urban Park (intended)
Public Beach (intended)
Ambivalent Coastal Zone
Main Boulevard
Play Streets: Pathways,
reduced Traffic (intended)
Public Transport Link
Unmodified Streets
Central Redevelopment
Area Open Spaces (to be
defined architecturally)
1 3
2 4
5
6
1 3
2 4
5
6
p. 32 | Phase 1 + 2 | Negotiating Space
Streetscape Activation + Water Access + Multi-Use
T
o function as a town, a balance of multiply usable street spaces, public access to
natural amenities such as the waterfront and a mix of local functions needs to be
present, which the analysis map shows is currently not the case. In an existing fabric, it
is not easy to achieve fast change; phase 1 and 2 therefore intend to carefully negotiate
multi-use rezoning to the North of the peninsula and creation of public spaces for partial
water access in the South. Beach access is focused in the East, as there existing lots
are farther removed from the shore and impinge less on an “ambivalent zone” that would
exist once greater public diffusion occurs into this once solely private realm.
In the intervention map, permeably repaved side “play” streets now lead up to ocean
blocks that are assumed to have been successfully negotiated and will form public shore
access anchorages; where exactly these were positioned would in reality not be so clear-
cut, hence the plan only describes one possible formal outcome.
P O S T S U B U R B I A
Analysis Map 03 : Land Use A, Roads, Coastal Outline Intervention Map 01 : Speculative Public Open Spaces & Streetscape Modification
Map Legend (background
+ left insert)
Land Use
Single - Family Residential
Multi - Family Residential
Commercial Strip
Transportation
Waste Disposal
Nurseries
Cranberry Bog
Agriculture / Open Space
Cemetary
1 3
2 4
5
6
Additional Land Use (background)
Public Institutional + Cultural
Social / Educational Services
Urban Park
Ecological Infrastructure /
Urban Agriculture
Multi-Use: low level commercial
& multi-family residential
Community Center
Local Commercial
Urban Squares
Empty Lot : reused (white outline)
Empty Lot: vacant
Uniform Density
1 3
2 4
5
6
1 3
2 4
5
6
1 3
2 4
5
6
50 100 150m
Phase 3
Negotiate
usages adjacent to
beach squares & inland
(unless lot is already empty)
Proximity to greater quality
urban open space will
encourage higher density and
diverse functions
p. 33 | Phase 3 | Negotiating Functions
Multi-Use Scenarios for Beach Squares and the North Quarter
I
f water access were successfully negotiated as in the previous steps, the resultant
beach squares would become focal points for a variety of urban functions. The analysis
map shows that most commercial and agricultural functions are currently clustered along
strip developments to the North; negotiating and inserting a mixed-use fabric would
cut down motorized traffic towards these aggregations and build a community-oriented
structure that offers local employment and the urban space needed to service it.
Lots adjacent to the new beach squares would be ideal candidates for further renegotiation,
spurred on by a possible increase in land value due to added local amenities. Select
empty lots are in this scenario reprogrammed as ecological infrastructure or even urban
agriculture; the percentage of multi-family housing is increased and often coupled to local
commercial zoning to allow for smarter land use along the central spine boulevard, which
could terminate in the South of the peninsula with new public and cultural functions.
P O S T S U B U R B I A
Analysis Map 04 : Land Use B, Roads, Coastal Outline Intervention Map 02 : Speculative Modified Land Use Pattern
Map Legend (background only)
Qualitative Density Graduation
Ecological Architecture
Development Sites
Empty Lot / Ambivalent Terrain
Ecological Infrstructure /
Urban Agriculture
Urban Forest / Habitat
Houses affected by Phase 1
Development
1 3
2 4
5
6
1 3
2 4
5
6
1 3
2 4
5
6
1 3
2 4
5
6
50 100 150m
Phase 4
Renaturalization
Inclusion as new “Suburb”
Typological Modification
Incorporation into City Fabric
/ Redensification
p. 34 | Phase 4 | Future Inclusive Growth
Density Gradients + Typological Modif ications + Green Infrastructure
T
he Cape’s continuing demand for urban space will either lead to a further decimation
of natural habitat or to densification; this plan follows the densification narrative. In
the conceptual stage, the idea of gradually limiting lot volumes from spine to coast was
introduced and is here taken up as a qualitative mix of density falloff and solar envelop
gradients that would soften the impact of higher density developments on neighboring
structures. Growth and functional enrichment would also essentially turn the peninsula
into a center itself, then possibly gaining surrounding communities as true suburbs.
As the analysis map again shows, urban impact through e.g. water pollution and wetland
destruction is a very real concern. Wetland restoration at the interface of suburb and new
center, as well as the possible remediation of the East shoreline are given as goals in
the plan, as would be the formation of ecological architecture development sites to act as
prototypes for the remaining space, e.g. in terms of improved on-site waste management.
P O S T S U B U R B I A
Analysis Map 05 : Uniform Density, Natural Boundaries, Wetlands, Water Pollution Intervention Map 03 : Density graduation, Ecological Infrastructure, Impact Assessment
Further Symbology (background
+ left insert)
Uniform Density
Agriculture / Open Space
Forest
Wetlands
Category 5 Water Pollution
Barrier Beaches
Eeelgrass Aquatic Ecosystem
p. 35 | Composite Plan, Phases 1 - 4
Summary + Evaluation + Outlook
P O S T S U B U R B I A
T
he planning state regarded as “final” in this case study shows
simultaneous operations already taken place or in process of
changing the suburban fabric into the beginning of a town. Of the
many strategies mentioned, these are they key ones:
• Introduce main “green” central axis / boulevard + side streets
• Negotiate + open public shore access around public squares
• Negotiate multi-use zoning in squares and North Quarter
• Develop community hub at peninsula center
• Introduce prototypical ecological architecture development sites
• Improve local waste management services to limit pollution
• Retain free lots, some as urban agriculture, some as open space
• Rebuild select wetlands and barrier beach sections
• Connect new center to “suburbs” and natural amenities
What makes the plan “realistic” in its urbanization intent is the
respect for the fabric it might grow from, intervening within a
negotiated framework to activate functions that would build a town.
Questions in need of answering if this study were to move ahead
further are what exact density is the target, what precise mix
of functions is needed to service it and what architectural and
technological sustainability measures, including their impact on
local ecosystem capacity, could modify this ratio.
Parallels of this plan to contemporary “Smart Growth” or “New
Urbanist” ideas are not coincidental; indeed walkability, individual
transit reduction, local amenity creation and streetscape activation
are important in these planning principles.
The greater question of how suburban America will develop into
the 21st century remains open; it will certainly not stay as it is,
but a move towards dense urbanization seems equally improbable.
The concepts presented herein therefore stay on middle ground,
hybridizing aspects of low- and high density planning.
Qualitative Density Graduation
1 3
2 4
5
6
1 3
2 4
5
6
Uniform Density
Agriculture / Open Space
Forest / Habitat
Wetlands
Category 5 Water Pollution
Barrier Beaches
Map Legend
Land Use
Single - Family Residential
Multi - Family Residential
Commercial Strip
Transportation
Waste Disposal
Nurseries
Cranberry Bog
Agriculture / Open Space
Cemetary
1 3
2 4
5
6
Public Institutional + Cultural
Social / Educational Services
Urban Park
Ecological Infrastructure /
Urban Agriculture
Multi-Use: low level commercial
& multi-family residential
Community Center
Local Commercial
Urban Squares
Empty Lot : reused (white outline)
Empty Lot / Ambivalent Terrain
1 3
2 4
5
6
1 3
2 4
5
6
1 3
2 4
5
6
Renaturalization
Annexation as new “Suburb”
Typological Modification
Incorporation into City Fabric
/ Redensification
1 3
2 4
5
6
p. 36 | Composite View, Phases 1 - 4
Functional Massing + Natural Space
P O S T S U B U R B I A
1,9
2,7
3,7
5,6
6,1 6,1
5,4
4,3
3,0
1,9
1,5
3,7
3,0
2,9
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
7,0
4,2
4,7
5,5
5,5
5,1
4,3
Photosynthetically Active Radiation (MicroEinsteins)
artificial shading required in summer
[lat. +15° = 55°] [Horizontal Surface] [Vertical Surface]
all incl. uncertainty factor of 9% (shaded bands)
Insolation [latitude tilt] (all in W/m^2/day)
5
5,3
5,6
3,1
3,4
3,9
3,1
2,8
2,6
2,8
3,1
3,5
3,6
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
231 230 237 185 192 208 203 188 192 209 216 233
temp. peak cooling cooling heating heating
max/min temperature
range
peak wind speed
Precipitation (mm) Mean Temp. (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Humidity (%) Wind Direction (degrees)
Cape Cod Climate : Yearly Overview for ~40°lat. / -70°long.
Weather Data (incl. PAR): Waquoit Bay Station, National Estuarine Research Reserve System
(3-year averages from 2005/06/07)
Insolation Data: National Renewable Resource Data Center Redbook
(30-year averages from 1961 - 1990)
Statistics, Analysis and Plots/Graphics: Author
3,60
4,30
4,60
4,70
4,80
4,90
5,00
4,90
4,40
3,30
3,10
4,70
insolation peak
Precipitation (mm)
Mean Temp. (°C)
Wind Speed (m/s)
Humidity (%)
Wind Direction
(degrees)
Cape Cod Climate : Monthly Overview
218 221
168
151
195
206
278
186
251
269
215
201
188 193
240
250
269
234
255
276
290
185
240
268
294
276
264
239
260
199
170
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
234
174
164
149
221 217
281
269 267 266
241 240
262
183
236
223
253
279
303
250
154
210
245
260
240
224
237
168
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
246 239 236
289 287
271 273
258
221 226
213 211
243
252
273
199
253
272 273
288
256 264
228
107
139
204
190
205
278
249
203
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
250
300
350
185
158
145
184
254
232
171
246
176
243
166
199
230
183
123
177
267
143
196
168
152
143
155
189 197
181
139
188
203
151
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
182
192
206
231
196
139
212
233
176
208
157
125
168 173 171
220
172
151
241 235
213 214
245
163
140
205
183
216 208
194
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
213 220
187
206 205
172 167
223
156
214
241
189
164 160
268
201
234
196
212 216
250 250
224
238
217
206
192 192
206
228
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
207
236
216
199
225
234
276
160
225 231
203
195
185
215
201
165
141
177 181
192
213
183 181
246
207
195
220
196
234
196
144
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
184
208 214
187
201
176
187
218
205
174
242
213
239
228 230
184 190
199
168
135
196 188
152
190 190
176
149
140
149
132
175
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
228
187
214 218
195 188
207
225
235
169
154
219
169
137
148
135
155
167 165
208 206 200
240
199
208
230
209
164
212
176
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
139
201
134
192
202
179
140
207
217
138
94
166
212
197
258 251
225
234 228
247
276
195
243
221
172
230
244 246
276
285
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
209
222
251
264
234
208
226 219
202
261 260
233
174
206
151
209
267 269
241
255
191
140
211
240
219
189 190
149
160
225
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
272
262 257
267
293
252
233
299
247
225
269
245
213
191
147
166
234
279
239
265
199
182 186
253
208
200
257
239
220
236
220
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
January: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, additional heating, protect from cold W winds
mechanically redistribute thermal mass indirect gains to direct gain areas
February: see above
March: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, protect from cold W winds, redistr. mass gains
April: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, allow some cross ventilation
May: begin limiting solar gains by (partial) shading of glazing & cross-ventilation
June: see above
July: minimize solar gains, shield thermal mass, maximum cross-ventilation
August: see above & stack ventilation
September: see above & stack ventilation
October: start allowing partial gains, start limiting night ventilation
November: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, protect from cold W winds, redistr. mass gains
December: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, protect from cold W winds, redistr. mass gains
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
1,9
2,7
3,7
5,6
6,1 6,1
5,4
4,3
3,0
1,9
1,5
3,7
3,0
2,9
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
7,0
4,2
4,7
5,5
5,5
5,1
4,3
Photosynthetically Active Radiation (MicroEinsteins)
artificial shading required in summer
[lat. +15° = 55°] [Horizontal Surface] [Vertical Surface]
all incl. uncertainty factor of 9% (shaded bands)
Insolation [latitude tilt] (all in W/m^2/day)
5
5,3
5,6
3,1
3,4
3,9
3,1
2,8
2,6
2,8
3,1
3,5
3,6
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
231 230 237 185 192 208 203 188 192 209 216 233
temp. peak cooling cooling heating heating
max/min temperature
range
peak wind speed
Precipitation (mm) Mean Temp. (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Humidity (%) Wind Direction (degrees)
Cape Cod Climate : Yearly Overview for ~40°lat. / -70°long.
Weather Data (incl. PAR): Waquoit Bay Station, National Estuarine Research Reserve System
(3-year averages from 2005/06/07)
Insolation Data: National Renewable Resource Data Center Redbook
(30-year averages from 1961 - 1990)
Statistics, Analysis and Plots/Graphics: Author
3,60
4,30
4,60
4,70
4,80
4,90
5,00
4,90
4,40
3,30
3,10
4,70
insolation peak
1,9
2,7
3,7
5,6
6,1 6,1
5,4
4,3
3,0
1,9
1,5
3,7
3,0 2,9
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
7,0
4,2
4,7
5,5
5,5
5,1
4,3
Photosynthetically Active Radiation (MicroEinsteins)
artificial shading required in summer
[lat. +15° = 55°] [Horizontal Surface] [Vertical Surface]
all incl. uncertainty factor of 9% (shaded bands)
Insolation [latitude tilt] (all in W/m^2/day)
5
5,3
5,6
3,1
3,4
3,9
3,1
2,8
2,6
2,8
3,1
3,5
3,6
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
231 230 237 185 192 208 203 188 192 209 216 233
temp. peak cooling cooling heating heating
max/min temperature
range
peak wind speed
Precipitation (mm) Mean Temp. (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Humidity (%) Wind Direction (degrees)
Cape Cod Climate : Yearly Overview for ~40°lat. / -70°long.
Weather Data (incl. PAR): Waquoit Bay Station, National Estuarine Research Reserve System
(3-year averages from 2005/06/07)
Insolation Data: National Renewable Resource Data Center Redbook
(30-year averages from 1961 - 1990)
Statistics, Analysis and Plots/Graphics: Author
3,60
4,30
4,60
4,70
4,80
4,90
5,00
4,90
4,40
3,30
3,10
4,70
insolation peak
Precipitation (mm)
Mean Temp. (°C)
Wind Speed (m/s)
Humidity (%)
Wind Direction
(degrees)
Cape Cod Climate : Monthly Overview
218 221
168
151
195
206
278
186
251
269
215
201
188 193
240
250
269
234
255
276
290
185
240
268
294
276
264
239
260
199
170
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
234
174
164
149
221 217
281
269 267 266
241 240
262
183
236
223
253
279
303
250
154
210
245
260
240
224
237
168
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
246 239 236
289 287
271 273
258
221 226
213 211
243
252
273
199
253
272 273
288
256 264
228
107
139
204
190
205
278
249
203
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
250
300
350
185
158
145
184
254
232
171
246
176
243
166
199
230
183
123
177
267
143
196
168
152
143
155
189 197
181
139
188
203
151
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
182
192
206
231
196
139
212
233
176
208
157
125
168 173 171
220
172
151
241 235
213 214
245
163
140
205
183
216 208
194
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
213 220
187
206 205
172 167
223
156
214
241
189
164 160
268
201
234
196
212 216
250 250
224
238
217
206
192 192
206
228
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
207
236
216
199
225
234
276
160
225 231
203
195
185
215
201
165
141
177 181
192
213
183 181
246
207
195
220
196
234
196
144
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
184
208 214
187
201
176
187
218
205
174
242
213
239
228 230
184 190
199
168
135
196 188
152
190 190
176
149
140
149
132
175
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
228
187
214 218
195 188
207
225
235
169
154
219
169
137
148
135
155
167 165
208 206 200
240
199
208
230
209
164
212
176
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
139
201
134
192
202
179
140
207
217
138
94
166
212
197
258 251
225
234 228
247
276
195
243
221
172
230
244 246
276
285
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
209
222
251
264
234
208
226 219
202
261 260
233
174
206
151
209
267 269
241
255
191
140
211
240
219
189 190
149
160
225
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
272
262 257
267
293
252
233
299
247
225
269
245
213
191
147
166
234
279
239
265
199
182 186
253
208
200
257
239
220
236
220
-15,00
-10,00
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
January: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, additional heating, protect from cold W winds
mechanically redistribute thermal mass indirect gains to direct gain areas
February: see above
March: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, protect from cold W winds, redistr. mass gains
April: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, allow some cross ventilation
May: begin limiting solar gains by (partial) shading of glazing & cross-ventilation
June: see above
July: minimize solar gains, shield thermal mass, maximum cross-ventilation
August: see above & stack ventilation
September: see above & stack ventilation
October: start allowing partial gains, start limiting night ventilation
November: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, protect from cold W winds, redistr. mass gains
December: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, protect from cold W winds, redistr. mass gains
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
S
SW
W
NW
p. 37 | Appendix | Climate Data
P O S T S U B U R B I A
Background/Opposite:
Annual Hourly Map of All-Zone Average Air Temperatures (excerpt),
Sample Building, Climate: Berlin
S P A C E - B A S E D T H E R M A L
p. 38 | Cognition Support for Low-Energy
Conceptual Architectural Design
M E T R I C S V I S U A L I Z A T I O N
• Custom software developed based on design/sim experiments
• Tested and evaluated in specialized design optimization classes
• Publication: Building Simulation & Optimization 2014, London

B
ased on integrated design/simulation workflow observations
from interdisciplinary classes held by colleagues and me,
a new process model empirically developed from them and the
insight that hybrid design/performance representations shape
cognition in low-energy architectural design, I developed a spatial
thermal and climate-based daylight data analysis/visualization
plugin for Rhinoceros3d/Grasshopper3d, dubbed Mr.Comfy.
Instead of using charts or tabular formats, energy consumption,
comfort, illuminance levels and any other available performance
report variable are directly displayed through color-coded surfaces
(and numeric values) where they occur – in the individual spaces
of a design. Mr.Comfy bridges the gap between sustainable
designers’ need to analyze data spatially but still retain numeric
precision and multiple data representation modes as typically
exposed through traditional graphing.
The tool’s features and user case studies are published in several
project publications and invited presentations, most notably at
Building Simulation and Optimization 2014 in London, at the École
Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland and the NYC
IBPSA chapter, USA.
All publications are available in full on my visualization software
website: http://mrcomfy.org/?page_id=116
S P A C E - B A S E D T H E R M A L
p. 39 | Rhinoceros/Grasshopper3d Integration
for Improved Design-Analysis Interaction
M E T R I C S V I S U A L I Z A T I O N
B
y color-mapping and visually reinforcing differences between
zone behaviors, designers and engineers can more easily
diagnose which parts of a building use more energy and answer
fine-grained analysis questions. Mr.Comfy’s features include:
• Spatial color-mapping of EnergyPlus *.csv zone report variables
• Spatial co-mapping of Daysim daylight and irradiation results
• Automatic generation of fitted or custom gradient display bounds
• Interactive hourly scheduling & custom report time ranges
• Generate average, sum report maps and discover data extremes
• Map percentages of hours that meet custom conditions
• Custom report variable creation through component instantiation
Shown to the right is a custom mapping scenario for one floor of
a circular sample office building in Berlin, Germany:
01: Custom Search, Zone Highest Monthly Cooling Energy Use
kWh/m
2
: month timecode; Schedule: 24 hrs.
02: Same as previous, but for heating energy use
03: Average of Total Daytime Zone Internal Latent Gains, kJ/m
2

Illuminance Distribution, log(lux), Schedules: 8 - 20 hrs.
To analyze the interplay of internal and external gains and how
they are mediated through the building fabric (e.g. glazing areas,
shown dotted to the right) is a first step to understand where
specific load scenarios occur- and how to reduce their severity.
Avrg. of Total Internal Lat. Gains
Log. of Avrg. Illuminance
Cooling Energy Use
Heating Energy Use
6733 382 log(lux)
kJ/m
2
kWh/m
2
kWh/m
2
3.93 9.32
8.54 28.7
2.22 22.17
01
02
03
S P A C E - B A S E D T H E R M A L
p. 40 | Animation, Multi-Timestep Mapping
for Seasonal Performance Analysis
M E T R I C S V I S U A L I Z A T I O N
Illuminance 300 - 2000 lux
Zone Average Radiant Temperature
Illuminance 2000 - 100,000 lux % set hrs.
°C
0 100
0 100
14 31
Jan
Apr
Jul
Oct
Feb
May
Aug
Nov
Mar
Jun
Sep
Dec
% set hrs.
T
he combination of several data mapping types with temporal
animation can reveal a surprising amount of building
behavioural information that is not always easy to understand
through traditional means; Mr.Comfy’s zone-based display makes
it easier to attain an overview and focused explorations of what is
happening in both thermal and daylight domains.
Through instantiating several Mr.Comfy components it is also
possible to create custom metrics; the monthly overview map of
the sample building’s first floor (right) simultaneously overlays
mean radiant temperature display with two daylight metrics.
Black to white dots show the percentage of selected hours when
zone illuminance is within 300 to 2000 lux- an acceptable range;
white to red inset display sensor nodes show the frequency
of overlit hours. In effect, when overlit tends towards null and
illuminance is in a usable range, the contrast between metrics is
diminished (white on white) and a quick daylight check possible.
A recommendation to improve the sample building’s performance
would be to reduce part of the yard’s north-facing glazing area,
include window shading on its south-facing part and introduce
overhangs to the south office windows. Both winter heat loss
and summer solar gains are problematic in this building; the high
incidence of summer overlit areas indicates that there is leeway
to improve thermal performance and daylight utilization, by e.g.
reconsidering the window-to-wall ratio (esp. in the yard).
S P A C E - B A S E D T H E R M A L
p. 41 | Academic Performance Mapping +
Optimization of Student Designs

M E T R I C S V I S U A L I Z A T I O N
T
o explore the use of the tool in actual design scenarios, a
class was held during my tenure at the TU Berlin in which
student designers mapped and optimized already energy-conscious
buildings created in previous simulation-integrated studios.
Testing the tool in unconstrained use allowed for many improvements
to be added on the fly, new features to be prototyped and design
process observations to be made, which will influence integration
model concepts in upcoming studies and classes.
Surprisingly, almost all participants managed to again improve the
performance of their designs; a zone-based approach facilitated to
finally gain a spatial understanding of simulation results, which is
a first step to optimize further. Some of the resulting explorations
are shown in the following pages.
Finally, a survey was held to exactly discover users’ thoughts
about the tool and its underlying spatial mapping principles, results
of which are published in a paper presented at Building Simulation
and Optimization 2014, London, UCL.
Background/Opposite:
Student Sophie Barker presents Mapping Case Study of Waratah Bay House,
Winter 2013/2014, TU Berlin, Germany
+24,00
+20,00
+14,00
+10,00
+6,00
+0,00
4,35 9,00 3,35
1 2 3 4
01.12.
01.06.
Exhibition
Multi-Purpose
Research Center
Exhibition
Event
Section North-South 1:200
Section North-South 1:200
Elevation Friedrichstraße 1:200
Elevation Puttkamerstraße 1:200
Section East-West 1:200 Floor plan
Light studies / Opening North and South UDI 100-2000 Lux UDI 100-2000 Lux Sommer UDI 100-2000 Lux Winter
Daylight Avilability 500 Lux
10 20 30 40 50 60
OPENINGS [%]
10
11
12
13
14
15
C
hiller [kW
h/m
2]
16
17 SOUTH
NORTH
114
113
112
111
110
109
108
107
106
OPENINGS [%]
60 50 40 30 20 10
H
EAT G
EN
ER
ATIO
N
[kW
h/m
2]
SOUTH
NORTH
10 20 30 40 50 60
OPENINGS [%]
10
11
12
13
14
15
C
hiller [kW
h/m
2]
16
17 SOUTH
NORTH
114
113
112
111
110
109
108
107
106
OPENINGS [%]
60 50 40 30 20 10
H
EAT G
EN
ER
ATIO
N
[kW
h/m
2]
SOUTH
NORTH
Daylight studies for alternating contrast situations
Cross
Sections
Lateral
Section
Intended interior
daylight volumetrics
(greyscale) vs.
simulation results
Window to wall
ratio effect on
heating energy
use studies
00
01 Exhibition
02 Exhibition
03 Multi-
Purpose
04 Research,
Administration
01
02
03
04
00 Events
UDI 100 - 2000 Lux D. Availability 500 Lux
100%
0%
occ.
hrs.
N
Climate: Berlin,
Germany
S P A C E - B A S E D T H E R M A L
p. 42 | ROBUST Studio Design Reoptimization
Design: C. Sitzler, L. de Pedro; Sim. Prof.: Author

M E T R I C S V I S U A L I Z A T I O N
A
design from the simulation-integrated ROBUST studio also
featured in this portfolio, students were in the mapping class
tasked with once again improving design performance aided
through visualizations created with Mr.Comfy.
As the ROBUST designs were already highly energy-conscious,
this served as a good proving ground to discover whether cognition
can be further enhanced by new mapping technologies.
The design shown here, by Christopher Sitzler and Laura de Pedro,
already performed comparatively well; its concept of using infra -
lightweight concrete to form structural bays of alternating zones of
dark and light was through simulations convincingly shown to work
as intended; however, as discovered in the following, performance
deficits remained and were discovered through mapping.
A
n all-zone mapping of the ROBUST design especially revealed
problems on the top building floor, where staff offices are to
be located. Some concerns about this configuration had already
been raised during the initial studio, but were delegated to a low
priority and did not skew the overall positive energy balance of
the original scheme. Re-mapping of whole-building performance,
however, made the top floor problems hard to ignore:
• East/West-facing office plate glass is overdimensioned
• Discontinuous office layout increases exposed total facade area
• Shading was tested, but performance problems remained
• Summer PMV slightly uncomfortable, high cooling energy use
• High winter heating energy use due to fabric losses
• Spaces largely overlit, especially in summer, with glare risk
Based on the analysis maps, students implemented a number of
geometric changes to get energy use and comfort under control:
• Merge top floor into one continuous space, facing south
• Reduce overall glazing area, offer shielded balconies, overhangs
• Improve north-facing glass U-values, add low-e coating on south
The measures improved thermal comfort, more than halved
cooling energy consumption and reduced heating energy use by a
projected 100 kWh/m
2
; daylight availability was brought from an
almost entirely overlit state to more than 80% of the redesigned
space being lit by daylight alone during the summer.
S P A C E - B A S E D T H E R M A L
p. 43 | ROBUST Studio Design Reoptimization
Design: C. Sitzler, L. de Pedro; Sim. Prof.: Author

M E T R I C S V I S U A L I Z A T I O N
Opposite (this and next page):
Multi-Metric Mapping of ROBUST Design Top Floor Base State + Optimization
Simulations: C. Sitzler + Author; Simulation Checking, Maps: Author
Source: Building Simulation & Optimization 2014 paper (see bibliography)
S P A C E - B A S E D T H E R M A L
p. 44 | ‘ROBUST’ Studio Design Reoptimization
Design: C. Sitzler, L. de Pedro; Sim. Prof.: Author

M E T R I C S V I S U A L I Z A T I O N
A
part from the (literally) glaring problems on the top floor,
intermediate floors also had some improvement potential.
The explorations here especially focused on heating energy use
reduction; cooling was checked but found to be by far the lowest
energy use factor. To lower heating energy demand, students
combined geometric and material tweaks:
• Change ground floor lobby glazing amount
• Add unconditioned lobby buffer space
• Reduce north-facing “picture window” area
• Improve U-Value of remaining north glazing
While not as dramatic as the top floor performance improvements,
overall heating energy consumption was still lowered considerably
- especially in the lobby spaces - while touching few of the south
windows important for daylighting. The design’s concept to have
dark and daylit spaces alternate when traversing the building on
the long axis made the optimizations more straight-forward.
In the maps, combined geometric and material improvements
show as greater “jumps” in scale than the linear improvements
made through material changes only. Compound changes like
these often occur in design and are hard to track, since zones
are mutually influential; being able to locally, visually pin down
performance effects of complex changes is one reason why
spatial performance mapping, as found in class, is highly useful
in conceptual design. Furthermore, error checking in large models
becomes easier, too, since when zones behave radically different
from similar ones, something tends to be amiss, and is easily
visible in performance maps.
(w/nat. vent., unconditioned, ed. Note) (No nat. vent., unconditioned, ed. Note)
S P A C E - B A S E D T H E R M A L
p. 45 | Waratah Bay House Performance Mapping
Modeling, Simulations: S. Barker; Sim. Prof.: Author

M E T R I C S V I S U A L I Z A T I O N
O
ne of the first studies performed, Sophie Barker mapped the performance
of an existing structure in South Australia (near Melbourne). Due to her
lived experience in the structure, she was able to calibrate the energy model
until it corresponded with her real-world subjective thermal assessments.
The visualization/analysis strategy followed several steps:
• Map seasonal air temperatures, with and without natural ventilation
• Use different occupation schedules for bedroom and living room blocks
• Use energy mapping to discover zones with highest total demand
• Peak mapping to understand when highest demand occurs
(Unconditioned, ed. Note)
S P A C E - B A S E D T H E R M A L
p. 46 | Waratah Bay House Performance Mapping
Modeling, Simulations: S. Barker; Sim. Prof.: Author

M E T R I C S V I S U A L I Z A T I O N
T
he analysis visualization showed many of the effects already observed in
real life; during summer, the building performs adequately if unconditioned
and natural ventilation is employed- for both daytime and nighttime schedules.
Only in winter there is heating energy demand, especially in the bedroom
zones. As is apparent from the maps, the comparative lack of thermal solar
gains in the bedroom block (which is oriented South, facing the sea) tends to
cause colder nighttime air temperatures. The peak heating wattage maps show
when this occurs and can be used to size on-demand heating equipment,
which is slated to be included in the structure. Optimization mapping was not
part of this particular case study; as the first actual test of the tool, we instead
focused on first understanding what mapping can do to improve analysis.
S P A C E - B A S E D T H E R M A L
p. 47 | Sweden Urban Housing Design Exploration
Design: B. Wittik, F. Wich; Studio + Sim. Prof.: Author

M E T R I C S V I S U A L I Z A T I O N
B
jörn Wittik’s and Franziska Wich’s design for Östersund,
Sweden (Köppen climate class. Dfc), was created in the
“Performative Design” class cycle, which dealt with energy-efficient
(sub)urban housing typologies; both urban layouts and modular
housing types were developed and tested in their interplay, which
is challenging due to unit overshadowing and the influence of
housing layout on what can or cannot be achieved on an urban
level. After the first class iteration, both students enrolled in the
spatial mapping class to gain an even greater understanding of
how their design performed.
Their overall workflow followed a rough staging regime:
• Create locally inspired minimalist housing design language
• Develop conceptual passive conditioning idea (sunspace)
• Test housing unit overshadowing & facade irradiance
• Detailed performance mapping & house typology modifications
However, the actual design process included many subvariants,
experimental changes, failures, errors, recovery and renewed
understanding through experiencing the above; the narrative
presented here is retrospectively condensed for clarity.
The spatial language of the development is inspired by
contemporary Nordic housing design and vernacular typologies.
Östersund’s subarctic climate (Köppen class Dfc) requires the
capture of solar gains for passive conditioning, therefore a south
facade tilt and relatively large row spacing of the houses, which
sit shoulder to shoulder to reduce fabric losses, were chosen and
tested through irradiation simulations (right).
Opposite:
01 Design Development Phasing, Final Iteration Site Plan
02 Row Housing Overshadowing Distance Study
03 Combined Overshadowing + Facade Tilt Irradiation Studies
01
02
03
S P A C E - B A S E D T H E R M A L
p. 48 | Sweden Urban Housing Design Optimization
Design: B. Wittik, F. Wich; Studio + Sim. Prof.: Author

M E T R I C S V I S U A L I Z A T I O N
T
he overall unit development was staged and always
seen in relation to the overall urban scheme:
• Test sunspace vs. no sunspace performance
• Reduce north facade areas by tilting units
• Minimize unit size to improve surface/vol. ratio
• Tilt upper south facade to increase gains
• Balance seasonal behaviour (glazing area, shading)
The impact of building fabric changes was generally
measured with the simplified metric zone air temperature;
this limited approach gave students an “intuitive” metric
to work with, compared to comfort indices sensitive to
different variables and not always usable in unconditioned
buildings, as the test geometries generally were.
In the first step (right), students through frequency and
peak mapping compared unit performance with and without
sunspaces; the former was found to be preferable, with
a measurable increase of hours held in an acceptable
air temperature range of 18 - 25°C and a reduction
in severity of both minimum and maximum hourly air
temperature peaks- albeit both remained severe.
Based on the tests, the sunspace typology was selected
and further developed to balance seasonal performance.
Opposite:
Peak, Frequency Mapping Comparison of Base Design State with and
without Sunspace, Unconditioned
Version Floor Plans,
Conceptual Rendering (lower right)
S P A C E - B A S E D T H E R M A L
p. 49 | Sweden Urban Housing Design Optimization
Design: B. Wittik, F. Wich; Studio + Sim. Prof.: Author

M E T R I C S V I S U A L I Z A T I O N
C
apturing solar gains can come with a penalty during summer; in the chosen design,
overheating turned out to be an issue difficult to rectify with e.g. mere fixed overhangs
due to low solar angles; correspondingly, extreme daylight overprovision also occurred.
To gain a degree of control over summer behaviour (and incidentally also reduce winter
losses), students increased the outer and inner sunspace opaque mass wall area and
allowed shading plus sunspace/all-house cross-ventilation, triggered by high zone air
temperatures. Maxima peaks and frequency readings were improved greatly (right), as
was daylight utilization, which finally exhibited fewer overlit hours.
Opposite: Final Design State with vs. without Shading + Natural Ventilation Comparison, Unconditioned
Bottom Right: Final vs. Base State Daylight Availability Comparison, No Shading
Below: Conceptual Sectional Rendering + Elevation, Pre-final Design State
S P A C E - B A S E D T H E R M A L
p. 50 | Sweden Urban Housing Design Optimization
Design: B. Wittik, F. Wich; Studio + Sim. Prof.: Author

M E T R I C S V I S U A L I Z A T I O N
C
omparing the base state and final design iteration average monthly air temperatures
through seasonal maps (right) and a traditional line chart (below), the modification
effects already visible in the previous peak and frequency readings become more readable
in their temporal localization. Both minima and maxima peaks are reduced; however it
remains visible that problems with overheating in summer months continue to persist.
The class terminated at this improvement milestone, however it was clear to both students
and me that more work would be necessary to bring down air temperatures to an even
greater acceptability level, and in the process to investigate detailed comfort metrics.
Opposite: Base (top) vs. Final (below) Monthly Average Zone Air Temperatures, Unconditioned
Bottom: Base vs. Final Design State Daily Whole-Building Average Air Temperatures, Unconditioned
P A R A M E T R I C D E S I G N :
p. 51 | Design-Driven Performance Simulation
A C A S E S T U D Y I N D E S I G N -
S I M U L A T I O N I N T E G R A T I O N
• Series of 7 simulation-integrated design classes (incl. studio)
• Building performance cognition and design process research
• Publications: e.g. Building Simulation 2013, eCAADe 2012, etc.
F
rom 2011 to early 2014, colleagues and I at the TU Berlin
researched the integration of dynamic daylight (Daysim
+ Radiance) and thermal (EnergyPlus) building performance
simulation into freely structured design processes. Four different
class formats with more than 100 MArch. students served as
test environments, dealing with the low-energy design of office
buildings, community centers, housing with its interplay of
individual units and urban layout, as well as spatial performance
mapping with custom developed software (Mr.Comfy). In each
class, typologies were created for several climate zones and
mainly geometric sensitivity tests performed, leading to building
morphologies that reacted to specific climatic conditions.
The successfully completed project had three main goals:
• Investigate integrated design + simulation process formats
• Research morphological impact on building performance
• Develop cognition/simulation support tools to facilitate integration
From design + simulation activities, emprical observations were
made and developed into a dynamic integrated design/simulation
process model, which was used to create performance design
guidelines in new classes and to develop custom spatial analysis
software to enhance free-form performance ideation and analysis.
Results were published widely, most notably at Building Simulation
2013 at the French Institut Nationale d’Énergie Solaire and at
DIVA Day 2013. See http://mrcomfy.org/?page_id=116
Background/Opposite:
Students R. Georgieva + C. Castillo presenting class designs + simulations
Parametric Design Class, Winter 2011/2012
P A R A M E T R I C D E S I G N :
p. 52 | Class Types Overview 2011 - 2014
A C A S E S T U D Y I N D E S I G N -
S I M U L A T I O N I N T E G R A T I O N
A : Parametric Design
Climates : 1, 2, 4
C : ‘Robust’ Studio Integration
5
B : Performative Design
1, 3, 4
Community Center & Offices
(mechanically conditioned)
Multi - Use Exhibition & Office building
(mechanically conditioned)
1 Hollywod, FL, USA
Climate.: Am (Köppen class)
2 Hashtgerd, Iran
Climate: BSk
3 Yazd, Iran
Climate: BWk
4 Östersund, Sweden
Climate: Dfc
5 Berlin, Germany
Climate: Dfb
Strategies:
Geometric optimizations
Fixed materials & setpoints
Balance thermal & daylight
Geometric & material optimization
Fixed setpoints & U-Val., custom mat.
Thermal performance focus
Geometric & material optimization
Custom setpoints, mat. & behavior
Individualized performance tests
R. Canihuante,
M. El-Soudani
Office Bldg. (FL site)
O. A. Pearl,
D. Gkougkoudi
Housing units (SWE site)
B. Suazo, M. Silva
Mixed-Use Exhibition Building (Berlin site)
Housing Units & Urban Design
(passive & mechanical conditioning)
D : Performance Mapping
1 - 5
Spatial Thermal Performance Visualization
+ Optimization with Custom Software
F. Wich, B. Wittik
Housing Development (SWE site)
Comfort and energy use behaviour
discovery & optimization visualization of
new and previous class designs
Design Climate Zones
P A R A M E T R I C D E S I G N :
p. 53 | Combined Design + Performance Development
A C A S E S T U D Y I N D E S I G N -
S I M U L A T I O N I N T E G R A T I O N
P
erformance intent is often not an integral part of design
processes, despite the early ideation stage’s fundamental
influence on later energy use and occupant comfort. To counteract
this disconnect, the interplay of form and performance was in our
classes studied in great detail, primarily to develop a new process
model and to test the conceptual use of whole-building simulation.
The graphics to the right chart the combined performance and
design development of two buildings of the same programme, but
for different climate zones (Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, top; Hashtgerd,
Iran, bottom); optimization is not linear but steadily progresses in
unison with architectural decisions. As summarized in the abstract
for my Building Simulation 2013 paper:
“[...] With initiatives now aiming at bringing energy simulation
into the mainstream of environmental design, the applicability of
state-of-the-art simulations in formally non-constrained creative
production needs to be re-evaluated. To this end, a teaching
experiment that includes multi-domain simulations as drivers into
the early architectural design process has been conducted; Master
of Architecture students create a community centre with low
energy use and high daylight utilization, presented in case studies.
Performance increases are achieved by making appropriate
morphological choices only; form and energy are thus linked in
a tectonic fashion. A novel design-simulation process model that
acknowledges both creative and analytic thinking is derived and
discussed in the context of on-going integration attempts.”
The developed integration model was also tested in advanced
architectural design studios such as ‘Robust’ (see following).
Opposite: Combined Daylight + Thermal Building Performance Design Development
Community Center, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, USA (top) + Hashtgerd, Iran (bottom)
Students: I. Crego, D. Cepeda + T. Merickova, M. Potrzeba, Parametric Design Class
Studio, Simulation Prof., Simulation Validation + Performance Graphics: Author
Design
A
B
D
C
Intent
S
C
O
P
E PR
O
C
E
S
S

S
C
O
P
E PR
O
C
E
S
S


R
E
P
R
E
S
E
NTA
B
I
L
I
T
Y

R
E
P
R
E
S
E
NTA
B
I
L
I
T
Y
Building Performance Modeling in Non-simplified Architectural Design
Procedural & Cognitive Challenges in Education
Dr. Farshad Nasrollahi, GtE (Prof. C. Steffan)
Dipl.-Ing. Max Dölling, DigiPro (Prof. H. Schwandt)
The 30th International Conference on Education and
Research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe
September 12th - 14th, 2012, Prague, Czech Republic
A
B
C
D
N
n
n
n
n
04 Multi-Domain Decision-Making & Representability
How are design decisions made in a multi-representational
domain that includes parametric performance models?
Individual domain-specific types of knowledge (A
n
etc.) are
synthesized by utilizing the semiotic flexibility their multivalent
representations (e.g. derived from digital models) enable, and
thus continuously update global design intent (N). In return,
the field of intent, newly enriched with additional cross-
domain knowledge, permanently influences the originally
contributing domains, forming a nonlinear knowledge flow
framework that relies less on direct hybridization of design
and engineering methods, but instead draws potential from
the synergistic possibilities rooted in the multivalence of their
respective models’ representability.
Multivalent representations encode quantitative descriptors
spatially, relate form to projected performance and should
be regarded as articulating one possible state of synthesis
among many. The shown sections, daylight plans, radiation
images and printed daylight models all partially fulfill these
requirements.
Florida design conceptual section
showing known thermal and daylighting
behavior of overhangs / light shelves
and ventilated double roof performance.
Daylight map (UDI 100 - 2000) of
final design variant as multivalent
representation that clearly relates
performance to form.
Design Problem Interlinks
(Chermayeff / Alexander)
Domains of Inquisition
and Representation in
Design Synthesis
“The focus of simulation is to
solve design dilemmas. [...]
The identification of three main
design stages is not neccessarily
a reproduction of the [design]
process. ” (Venancio et al.)
systems. Depending on the type of assessment,
available information can be ignored (gray bullets) or
used as inputs (red bullets) in the simulation model.
Simplified simulations involve abstractions or even
the stipulation of unknown information. The level of
simplification depends on the specific dilemma and
the stage of design development. A dilemma would
not be pertinent if relevant design definitions,
directly related to the dilemma, are unavailable. For
instance, the quantification of the insulation impact
on heating loads should be compromised if the
geometry of the building is completely unknown.

Figure 2 Representation of designerly simulation.
The simulation of a design dilemma should adopt
information that is used in the formulation of design
problems. This information is strictly related to
design constraints (Lawson, 2006) that can be
pragmatic or abstract (Figure 2). Both types of
dilemma constraints are intended to reduce the scope
of the analysis.
Information generated by pragmatic constraints is
easier to implement in simulation models as it can be
directly input in the model.
The use of abstract constraints, on the other hand, is
indirectly transferred to the model. This information
should be processed by the designer and translated to
be used in the model. Some examples of this
translation process can be mentioned:
¥ Cost constraints related to a given dilemma
allows the elimination of solutions that would be
too expensive. In a similar way, the definition of
performance goals or design ambitions can lead
to a range of acceptable solutions.
¥ An abstract conjecture, concept or design
intention, such as ‘transparency’, for instance,
can generate pragmatic inputs. A ‘transparent’
wall would have a high WWR (window-to-wall-
ratio). Similarly, the design of shading devices
according to the premise of ‘transparency’ would
have to implement specific features. This
concept would, as a consequence, eliminate
solutions that block the visual contact between
exterior and interior spaces.
Even though the process of transforming abstract
constraints into pragmatic inputs is complex to
describe or fully represent, similar techniques are
widely used in architectural design. Architects
intuitively deal with several conjectures in order to
formulate problems and identify parameters for
acceptable solutions.
During this process, designers can use information as
‘shortcuts’ to facilitate the translation of abstract
constraints. In design practice, this information is
often related to previous experiences of the architect
and is rarely based on quantitative criteria.
In designerly simulation, information used as a
‘shortcut’ should allow the identification of some
inputs. The concern of using misleading precedents is
minimized as they can improve using simulation.
Two types of information are approached:
¥ Design principles: the use of guidelines can
reduce considerably the scope of analysis. Such
information can be used to focus on specific
design strategies.
¥ Precedent solutions: the analogy with specific
features extracted from precedent solutions can
be useful in the process of transforming abstract
intentions into pragmatic definitions.
The process of transferring information from these
sources to the model depends highly on what is
intended by the designer and how the information
used as a ‘shortcut’ represents the intention.
Of course, the process of designerly simulation has a
strong human component. This is clearly related to
cognitive processes and assumptions that are an
inherent part of any design activity.
EXAMPLES OF DESIGN DILEMMAS
The proposed concept was used to tackle design
dilemmas extracted from different case studies. In
this paper, we present two examples of dilemmas that
were investigated using simulation tools.
The case studies presented are more influenced by
pragmatic constraints, as both have high performance
goals. Processes with more abstract constraints
should be approached in future works.
Example 1: residence in Zwolle, the Netherlands
The first case study was an ongoing design with high
performance goals. The residence, located in Zwolle,
the Netherlands, was intended to generate its own
energy using PV panels connected to a smart grid and
solar collectors for water heating.
The leading architect Jamie van Lede (Origins
architecten, Rotterdam) was interested in using
simulation methods to support the design
development. Firstly, simulation tools were used to
answer general questions from the design team
Proceedings of Building Simulation 2011:
12th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Sydney, 14-16 November.
- 525 -
R. Venancio,
A. Pedrini, A.C. van der
Linden, E. van den Ham & R. Stouffs:
Think Designerly! Using Multiple Simulation
Tools to Solve Architectural Dilemmas,
(Building Simulation ‘11)
Chermayeff & Alexander (‘63):
Design Factor Interdependencies
“An integrated process is
a dynamic field of related
design states and should not
be represented linearly.”
M. C. Doelling & F. Nasrollahi
Dynamic Field Design/Simulation
Process Integration Model
(Building Simulation’13)
Integrated Design Process Model,
Development Context
Most notably, Chermayeff and
Alexander already described
in 1963 that design is a
wicked problem with myriad
interdependencies (pictured) that
do not allow for truly linear or
iterative processes to develop.
Experiments in integrated class
formats held during the author’s
research project reaffirmed this
and led to the development of
an adapted field process model
(above), which accepts design as
a non-linear, explorative activity
that chiefly relies on the interplay
of mutually influential knowledge
states from related domains.
In the model, design intent
encapsulates all knowledge
domains (A, B etc.), which are
mutually influential, create design
synthesis through overlapping
decision states and subsequently
modify design intent, for the entire
process to begin anew until it is
frozen at a satisfactory moment
or all domains are exhausted in
their contribution potential.
P A R A M E T R I C D E S I G N :
p. 54 | Integrated Process Model Development
A C A S E S T U D Y I N D E S I G N -
S I M U L A T I O N I N T E G R A T I O N
I
ntegrated workflows in architectural design are amongst many
factors dependent on individual project idiosyncrasies, climate
influences and learned process histories. In pursuit of capturing
these dependencies, a large body of building simulation literature
attempts to identify “ideal” workflows; yet the now greater diffusion
of simulation into academic and professional design has invalidated
many simplified and purely iterative process models, as they fail to
capture the non-linear nature of design thinking- as also apparent
from the discussed class examples and their ideation history.
Shown on this page are several snapshots of how the development
of integration thinking has progressed, including a novel model by
the author (top right, description see inset text, right). It is by
now accepted that high-performance building design is a discipline
in its own right, with the influence of architectural thinking on its
concepts no longer underemphasized. The model is used by the
author to improve pedagogy and to test if new design support
technologies, such as spatial thermal metrics mapping also
discussed in this portfolio, fit into fluid design process schemes.
W. J. Batty & B. Swann: Integration of Computer Based
Modelling and an Inter-Disciplinary Based Approach to Building Design [...],
(Building Simulation ‘97)
“The basic procedures
involved in the design
of a commodity are the
same whether it be
a toaster, supersonic
passenger aircraft or a
building.”
P A R A M E T R I C D E S I G N :
p. 55 | ‘ROBUST’ Interdisciplinary Studio
A C A S E S T U D Y I N D E S I G N -
S I M U L A T I O N I N T E G R A T I O N
B
uilding on previous experiences, the author and colleagues
in summer 2013 participated in an interdisciplinary MArch
studio held by the department of Prof. R. Leibinger. The theme
“robust” underpinned the investigation of flexible structures built
out of modular, high-volume spatial elements. The program brief,
adapted from the 2013 Egon Eiermann competition requirements,
called for multi-use exhibition, event and administration spaces;
the downtown Berlin site chosen in consultation with the author
was elongated along an east-west axis and opened the main
facade stretch towards the south, easing seasonal performance
optimization in Berlin’s heating-dominated climate.
Students performed design-centric daylight (Daysim + Radiance)
and thermal (EnergyPlus) performance simulations in class, which
were introduced and guided by the author and colleagues, who
also acted as design/performance consultants. The simulation
scope was unique per project, however performance assessments
played a major part in shaping design decisions, following a fluid
didactic and design-centric process model.
Demonstrating the quality of the resultant designs, the first prize of
the 2013 Egon Eiermann competition was claimed by ‘ROBUST’
studio students (right). Its main design/performance interplay
was to analyze facade versions, resulting in a double-walled
glass facade with interior louvers adjusted according to thermal
simulations, irradiation and daylight studies.
Two successful studio results are shown next; the first used
simulations to shape a design with various zones of daylight
contrast while minimizing heating energy use; the second studied
deep facade geometries to control seasonal irradiation, related
energy use and natural light. Both designs were further optimized
in the performance mapping class also found in this portfolio.
1st Prize Winner of Egon Eiermann Architectural Competition 2013
Translation of jury verdict: “The work’s great quality results from extending the concept of ‘Smart Skin’ [competition theme] to become a holistic system
that shapes space. The light concrete pillars’ contribution to thermal performance is believingly described and construction concepts that allow geometric
variability are investigated in detail. The interplay of transparent facade and climatically active pillars creates a convincing, flexible and powerful space”.
Source & image credits: Eternit AG. Egon Eiermann Preis 2013: Smart Skin, ein Haus der Materialforschung. Stuttgart: Karl Krämer Verlag, 2013.
Programme Sol. Protection
1st / 2nd floor
East Section + Elev.
Studio
Leaders
Coop.:
Structural
Design
Coop.:
Author
Exhibition
Atrium
1st Prize
Design Chair
+24,00
+20,00
+14,00
+10,00
+6,00
+0,00
4,35 9,00 3,35
1 2 3 4
01.12.
01.06.
Exhibition
Multi-Purpose
Research Center
Exhibition
Event
Section North-South 1:200
Section North-South 1:200
Elevation Friedrichstraße 1:200
Elevation Puttkamerstraße 1:200
Section East-West 1:200 Floor plan
Light studies / Opening North and South UDI 100-2000 Lux UDI 100-2000 Lux Sommer UDI 100-2000 Lux Winter
Daylight Avilability 500 Lux
10 20 30 40 50 60
OPENINGS [%]
10
11
12
13
14
15
C
hiller [kW
h/m
2]
16
17 SOUTH
NORTH
114
113
112
111
110
109
108
107
106
OPENINGS [%]
60 50 40 30 20 10
H
EAT G
EN
ER
ATIO
N
[kW
h/m
2]
SOUTH
NORTH
10 20 30 40 50 60
OPENINGS [%]
10
11
12
13
14
15
C
hiller [kW
h/m
2]
16
17 SOUTH
NORTH
114
113
112
111
110
109
108
107
106
OPENINGS [%]
60 50 40 30 20 10
H
EAT G
EN
ER
ATIO
N
[kW
h/m
2]
SOUTH
NORTH
(Seasonal) UDI
100 - 2000 lux
& DAv 500 lux
daylight studies
for alternating
interior contrast
situations
Cross
Sections
Lateral
Section
Intended interior
daylight volumetrics
(greyscale) vs.
simulation results
P A R A M E T R I C D E S I G N :
p. 56 | ‘ROBUST’ Studio Class Result Sample
Design: C. Sitzler, L. de Pedro; Sim. Prof.: Author
A C A S E S T U D Y I N D E S I G N -
S I M U L A T I O N I N T E G R A T I O N
Window to wall
ratio effect on
heating energy
use studies
00
01 Exhibition
02 Exhibition
03 Multi-
Purpose
04 Research,
Administration
01
02
03
04
00 Events
UDI 100 - 2000 Lux UDI 100 - 2k (summer) UDI 100 - 2k (winter) D. Availability 500 Lux
100%
0%
occ.
hrs.
N
Climate: Berlin,
Germany
P A R A M E T R I C D E S I G N :
p. 57 | ‘ROBUST’ Studio + Performance Mapping Results
Design: A. Patrick, P. Cárdenas; Sim. Prof.: Author
A C A S E S T U D Y I N D E S I G N -
S I M U L A T I O N I N T E G R A T I O N
WiSe 13_Mr Confy_ Alan Patrick
RESULTS COMPARISON / HEATING ENERGY CONSUMPTION / ANNUAL / ALL HOURS
01: Foyer / Exhibition
02: Main Exhibition
03: Offices / Auditorium
04: Exhibition
05: Events
01: Foyer / Exhibition
02: Main Exhibition
03: Offices / Auditorium
04: Exhibition
05: Events
Total Heating
Energy Use (kWh/m²)
Metrics Display: All Year, 24 hours
0.0 15.0
Base Design Adapted Design
Results
The direct comparison of the results on the same scale shows how each individual change affects to the performance of the building. We can clearly
observe how the results vary, and how much the changes affect, not only the modifed zone, but also the nearby ones. After the simulation and mod-
ifcation process we managed to reduce the energy consumption of the building in approx. 16% while maintaining its architectural appearance and
intentions.
Total Heating Energy Consumption = 220518 kWh Total Heating Energy Consumption = 258173 kWh
Adapted Design_04: Exhibition
Base Design_04: Exhibition
Adapted Design_01: Foyer / Exhibition
Base Design_01: Foyer / Exhibition
Original roof opening
Adapted roof opening
Total Heating
Energy Use (kWh/m²)
Metrics Display: All Year, 24 hours
0.0 15.0
Heating + Cooling Energy Requirement
Energy Use (kW/m²)
Metrics Display: All Year, 24 hours
0.0 60.0
WiSe 13_Mr Confy_ Alan Patrick
Bathroom
Bathroom
Bathroom
1
5
4
3
2
5
4
3
2
1
A B C D E F G H I J K H
H K J I H G F E D C B A
Elev. Box
Elev. Box
Stair Box
Stair Box
Elev. Box Elev. Box
Austellung
Service Corridor
6.52
18.25
1.70 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 1.00
1.00
4.50
1.50
1.50
4.50
1.50
4.50
4.50
1.27
48.20 19.00 67.20
1.25
5.00
0.50
5.50
0.50
5.25
1.00
19.00
1
5
4
3
2
5
4
3
Service Hallway
Stair Box
Elev. Box Elev. Box
Service Corridor
Stair Box
2
1
A B C D E F G H I J K H
H K J I H G F E D C B A
Cocina Service Room Service Room
Event - Meeting Room
Mini Austellung
Base Plan +-13.5
Bathroom
4.50
1.50
1.50
4.50
1.50
4.50
4.50
1.27
24.77
6.52
18.25
1.25
67.20 19.00 48.20
1.00 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.70
1.00
1
5
4
3
2
5
4
3
2
1
A B C D E F G H I J K H
H K J I H G F E D C B A
Service Room Kitchen Exposition Office Office Office Office Office
Stair Box
Elev. Box
Elev. Box
43 M2 23 M2 23 M2 23 M2 23 M2
Waiting Space
Stair Box
Elev. Box Elev. Box
Service Corridor
Exposition Room
Exposition Room
1.70 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 1.00
1.00
4.50
1.50
1.50
4.50
1.50
4.50
4.50
1.27
48.20 19.00 67.20
24.77
6.52
18.25
1.25
5.00
0.50
5.50
0.50
5.25
1.00
19.00
Café
B.Room
1
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
1
A B C D E F G H I J K H
H K J I H G F E D C B A
PREDIAL LIMIT
PREDIAL LIMIT PREDIAL LIMIT PREDIAL LIMIT
291.0 M2 Backjard
Exhibition Room 1
Stair Box
Elev. Box Elev. Box
Bathroom 10.23 M2
8.41 M2 Bathroom
Stair Box
Elev. Box
Elev. Box
61.7 M2 Store 2
Reception x M2
58.95 M2 Store 1
xM2
1.00
5.25
0.50
2.65
0.20
2.65
0.50
5.00
1.25
1.70 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 1.00
1.00
4.50
1.50
1.50
4.50
1.50
4.50
4.50
1.27
48.20 19.00 67.20
24.77
6.52
18.25
1
5
4
3
2
5
4
3
2
1
A B C D E F G H I J K H
H K J I H G F E D C B A
Elev. Box
Elev. Box
Stair Box
Bathroom 8.41 M2
10.23 M2 Bathroom
Elev. Box Elev. Box
Stair Box
Service Corridor
Exposition Room 753.3 M2
19.00
1.00
5.25
0.50
5.50
0.50
5.00
1.25
67.20 19.00 48.20
1.00 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.50 4.50 1.70
18.25
6.52
24.77
1.27
4.50
4.50
1.50
4.50
1.50
1.50
4.50
1.00
5.50
0.50
5.25
0.50
5.00
48.00 0.55 3.40 0.55 1.50 0.55
4.50
3.00
5.50
2.20
16.75
Robust Exhibition Building
Robust SS 2013 Fachgebiet Prof. Leibinger Ismael Cárdenas
Hochbau ll Alan Patrick
In frame of nowadays architectural needs, it’s required that new buildings are built to last, a building that’s not able to change and adapt with time, according to the
user’s needs will not be able to accomplish that purpose.
The project consists on a robust envelope and strugtural grid, that works as a structuraly independent system, which doesn’t need the inner divisions (horizontal
and vertical) for being able to stand, this robustness allows the building to change in program, reorganizing the non-load bearing components, according to the new
requirements.
The usage of monolythic materials, will ensure, that the ammount of maintenance needed by the building is very low, and the lack of insulation materials is compensated
by the usage of 1+ meter wide ultra light concrete walls.
The facade’s components shift according to solar radiation, incrementing thermal gains and decreasing losses in winter, while keeping a good shadowing in summer,
and a good natural lighting. These components are designed as precast panels, which can also be changed through the life of the building, according to the way its
enviroment changes.
The inner program works as one open space where all parts of the building interact with each other through a lighting opening that cuts through all foor plans, andeach
program is placed according to it’s architectural requirements, aswell as using light simulations to place them according to their individual requirements.
Performance Sketches + Annual Irradiation Distribution on Elevation
Main View of South Facade Thermal Reoptimization Map (from followup class)
WiSe 13_Mr Confy_ Alan Patrick
RESULTS COMPARISON / HEATING ENERGY CONSUMPTION / ANNUAL / ALL HOURS
01: Foyer / Exhibition
02: Main Exhibition
03: Offices / Auditorium
04: Exhibition
05: Events
01: Foyer / Exhibition
02: Main Exhibition
03: Offices / Auditorium
04: Exhibition
05: Events
Total Heating
Energy Use (kWh/m²)
Metrics Display: All Year, 24 hours
0.0 15.0
Base Design Adapted Design
Results
The direct comparison of the results on the same scale shows how each individual change affects to the performance of the building. We can clearly
observe how the results vary, and how much the changes affect, not only the modifed zone, but also the nearby ones. After the simulation and mod-
ifcation process we managed to reduce the energy consumption of the building in approx. 16% while maintaining its architectural appearance and
intentions.
Total Heating Energy Consumption = 220518 kWh Total Heating Energy Consumption = 258173 kWh
Adapted Design_04: Exhibition
Base Design_04: Exhibition
Adapted Design_01: Foyer / Exhibition
Base Design_01: Foyer / Exhibition
Original roof opening
Adapted roof opening
Total Heating
Energy Use (kWh/m²)
Metrics Display: All Year, 24 hours
0.0 15.0
Heating + Cooling Energy Requirement
Energy Use (kW/m²)
Metrics Display: All Year, 24 hours
0.0 60.0
Daylight Availability, 500 lux 100% 0% occ. hrs.
N
P A R A M E T R I C D E S I G N :
p. 58 | A. Patrick + I. Cardenas presenting,
f inal crit of ‘ROBUST’ Studio
A C A S E S T U D Y I N D E S I G N -
S I M U L A T I O N I N T E G R A T I O N

Eloy Bahamondes E.
Architect Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
M.Sc. Architektur Technische Universität Berlin
eloy@grupocactus.cl
Letter of recommendation
To whom it may concern,
during the whole academic period of my architecture student life, I was always very attracted to two
specific branches of the discipline: Parametric design and sustainability. Mostly, both branches are
always seen independently, which makes these knowledge areas incomplete and hollow: parametric
design was just an architecture stream defined by curved surface and complex organic forms where
the main target was to achieve an impact sculpture type of architecture, and the sustainability
architecture was reduced to construct with bottles.
During the academic summer term of 2011 in Berlin as a double degree program student, I got into
a class which broke all these preconceptions. Parametric Design’s aim was, for first time in my
academic life, not to achieve forms, but to achieve efficiency. The inputs where not geometrical, but
energy efficiency related. The output was not a sculptural cool shape, but the optimized geometry
instead. Of course, this didn’t happened by itself, and Max Dölling had the major responsibility of
it.
It was not just the technical knowledge (which solved an issue in a couple of minutes because of
understanding a problem from the root) that made him the main character of this successful class,
but also his architectural understanding of the problematic involved in each of the studied cases,
which always brought out solutions full of architecture and spatial features. This is a very important
point, since in lots of classes related to sustainability are presented by engineers who isolate these
variables, which gives architecture its particularity.
I would recommend Max to any class related to Parametric Design and energy efficiency concepts,
or even a workshop, that with no doubt would have visionary projects as results.


Eloy Bahamondes E.
Architect

Eloy Bahamondes E.
Architect Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
M.Sc. Architektur Technische Universität Berlin
eloy@grupocactus.cl
Letter of recommendation
To whom it may concern,
during the whole academic period of my architecture student life, I was always very attracted to two
specific branches of the discipline: Parametric design and sustainability. Mostly, both branches are
always seen independently, which makes these knowledge areas incomplete and hollow: parametric
design was just an architecture stream defined by curved surface and complex organic forms where
the main target was to achieve an impact sculpture type of architecture, and the sustainability
architecture was reduced to construct with bottles.
During the academic summer term of 2011 in Berlin as a double degree program student, I got into
a class which broke all these preconceptions. Parametric Design’s aim was, for first time in my
academic life, not to achieve forms, but to achieve efficiency. The inputs where not geometrical, but
energy efficiency related. The output was not a sculptural cool shape, but the optimized geometry
instead. Of course, this didn’t happened by itself, and Max Dölling had the major responsibility of
it.
It was not just the technical knowledge (which solved an issue in a couple of minutes because of
understanding a problem from the root) that made him the main character of this successful class,
but also his architectural understanding of the problematic involved in each of the studied cases,
which always brought out solutions full of architecture and spatial features. This is a very important
point, since in lots of classes related to sustainability are presented by engineers who isolate these
variables, which gives architecture its particularity.
I would recommend Max to any class related to Parametric Design and energy efficiency concepts,
or even a workshop, that with no doubt would have visionary projects as results.


Eloy Bahamondes E.
Architect
P A R A M E T R I C D E S I G N :
p. 59 | Select Student Reviews of Author’s Classes
A C A S E S T U D Y I N D E S I G N -
S I M U L A T I O N I N T E G R A T I O N

Higher School of Architecture
University of Seville, Spain



To whom it may concern:
I was Max Dölling’s student in “Parametric Design” at the TU Berlin, Germany, in the winter
term of 2011/12 and I can responsibly affirm that he was a trained, committed and a dedicated
professor.
He had a good performance as professor, standing out extraordinary skills in performing ideas
and explaining them in different languages, the interesting content of his lessons, his
mathematical, architectural and
disposition to work make him a valuable team player.
In addition, he has an interesting curriculum as researcher and he could include our design
investigations in several international publications of design and simulation seminar
which was presented at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
I recommend very strongly Max Dölling as researcher and professor, as he has demonstrated
an excellent analytical ability and capacity to grasp and explain new
success. His motivation and passion for his work, together with his intellectual capacity are the
perfect combination to achieve excellent results.
I also believe he would be a good candidate for a vacancy, as he would go the extra
deliver his best performance and honour the institution that gives him that chance.
Yours faithfully,


Architect - David Cepeda del Toro
Seville, 16
th
January, 2014


David Cepeda del Toro · arquitecto
0034/606206781 · davidcepe@hotmail.com
Avda. de Kansas City 32E, 11A, 41007, Sevill
Higher School of Architecture
I was Max Dölling’s student in “Parametric Design” at the TU Berlin, Germany, in the winter
term of 2011/12 and I can responsibly affirm that he was a trained, committed and a dedicated
He had a good performance as professor, standing out extraordinary skills in performing ideas
and explaining them in different languages, the interesting content of his lessons, his
mathematical, architectural and informatics knowledges and his upbeat character and good
disposition to work make him a valuable team player.
In addition, he has an interesting curriculum as researcher and he could include our design
investigations in several international publications of design and simulation seminar
which was presented at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
I recommend very strongly Max Dölling as researcher and professor, as he has demonstrated
an excellent analytical ability and capacity to grasp and explain new concepts necessary for
success. His motivation and passion for his work, together with his intellectual capacity are the
perfect combination to achieve excellent results.
I also believe he would be a good candidate for a vacancy, as he would go the extra
deliver his best performance and honour the institution that gives him that chance.

David Cepeda del Toro
arquitecto
@hotmail.com
Sevilla
I was Max Dölling’s student in “Parametric Design” at the TU Berlin, Germany, in the winter
term of 2011/12 and I can responsibly affirm that he was a trained, committed and a dedicated
He had a good performance as professor, standing out extraordinary skills in performing ideas
and explaining them in different languages, the interesting content of his lessons, his
upbeat character and good
In addition, he has an interesting curriculum as researcher and he could include our design
investigations in several international publications of design and simulation seminars, one of
which was presented at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
I recommend very strongly Max Dölling as researcher and professor, as he has demonstrated
concepts necessary for
success. His motivation and passion for his work, together with his intellectual capacity are the
I also believe he would be a good candidate for a vacancy, as he would go the extra mile to
deliver his best performance and honour the institution that gives him that chance.

Higher School of Architecture
University of Seville, Spain



To whom it may concern:
I was Max Dölling’s student in “Parametric Design” at the TU Berlin, Germany, in the winter
term of 2011/12 and I can responsibly affirm that he was a trained, committed and a dedicated
professor.
He had a good performance as professor, standing out extraordinary skills in performing ideas
and explaining them in different languages, the interesting content of his lessons, his
mathematical, architectural and
disposition to work make him a valuable team player.
In addition, he has an interesting curriculum as researcher and he could include our design
investigations in several international publications of design and simulation seminar
which was presented at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
I recommend very strongly Max Dölling as researcher and professor, as he has demonstrated
an excellent analytical ability and capacity to grasp and explain new
success. His motivation and passion for his work, together with his intellectual capacity are the
perfect combination to achieve excellent results.
I also believe he would be a good candidate for a vacancy, as he would go the extra
deliver his best performance and honour the institution that gives him that chance.
Yours faithfully,


Architect - David Cepeda del Toro
Seville, 16
th
January, 2014


David Cepeda del Toro · arquitecto
0034/606206781 · davidcepe@hotmail.com
Avda. de Kansas City 32E, 11A, 41007, Sevill
Higher School of Architecture
I was Max Dölling’s student in “Parametric Design” at the TU Berlin, Germany, in the winter
term of 2011/12 and I can responsibly affirm that he was a trained, committed and a dedicated
He had a good performance as professor, standing out extraordinary skills in performing ideas
and explaining them in different languages, the interesting content of his lessons, his
mathematical, architectural and informatics knowledges and his upbeat character and good
disposition to work make him a valuable team player.
In addition, he has an interesting curriculum as researcher and he could include our design
investigations in several international publications of design and simulation seminar
which was presented at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
I recommend very strongly Max Dölling as researcher and professor, as he has demonstrated
an excellent analytical ability and capacity to grasp and explain new concepts necessary for
success. His motivation and passion for his work, together with his intellectual capacity are the
perfect combination to achieve excellent results.
I also believe he would be a good candidate for a vacancy, as he would go the extra
deliver his best performance and honour the institution that gives him that chance.

David Cepeda del Toro
arquitecto
@hotmail.com
Sevilla
I was Max Dölling’s student in “Parametric Design” at the TU Berlin, Germany, in the winter
term of 2011/12 and I can responsibly affirm that he was a trained, committed and a dedicated
He had a good performance as professor, standing out extraordinary skills in performing ideas
and explaining them in different languages, the interesting content of his lessons, his
upbeat character and good
In addition, he has an interesting curriculum as researcher and he could include our design
investigations in several international publications of design and simulation seminars, one of
which was presented at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
I recommend very strongly Max Dölling as researcher and professor, as he has demonstrated
concepts necessary for
success. His motivation and passion for his work, together with his intellectual capacity are the
I also believe he would be a good candidate for a vacancy, as he would go the extra mile to
deliver his best performance and honour the institution that gives him that chance.
P A R A M E T R I C D E S I G N :
p. 60 | Select Student Reviews of Author’s Classes
A C A S E S T U D Y I N D E S I G N -
S I M U L A T I O N I N T E G R A T I O N
H Y B R I D D A Y L I G H T M O D E L S
p. 61 | Data-Embedded Physical Performance Models
I N A R C H . D E S I G N E D U C A T I O N
+ D A Y L I G H T P R O T O T Y P E S
• Hybrid design + performance representation research
• 3d printing of novel color-embedded iteration prototypes
• Publications: e.g. CAADRIA 2013, DIVA Day 2012, etc.
A
s one component of the research into design-integrated
daylight and thermal building performance simulation
performed during my tenure at the TU Berlin, I made extensive
use of rapid prototyping techniques to output design performance
artefacts such as the daylight and irradiation models shown on the
next pages, resulting from a series of simulation studios.
Models play a vital role in architectural design, but it is not
always easy to reconcile projective on-screen representations of
simulation data with model-centric modes of design manipulation.
The artefacts created by students under my guidance thus
presented tests into how irradiation, daylight data and even
thermal performance can be physically output as color-coded
models easy to understand and to literally grasp, with the ultimate
aim to enhance design processes. This was achieved by using
the models as demonstrator objects in new classes and through
them discussing performance design aspects in ongoing seminars.
The models were featured in several project publications, most
notably at MIT for my 2012 DIVA Day presentation and in 2013 at
the CAADRIA conference at the National University of Singapore.
See http://mrcomfy.org/?page_id=116 to access them.
Background/Opposite:
UDI 100 - 2000 lux Daylight Metric-Embedded, Physically Rapid-Prototyped
Daylight Model, disassembled. Design: T. Merickova, M. Potrzeba
Studio, Simulation Prof. + Prototyping: Author
2
3
1
2
4
5
5
5
Florida Office Bldg; Students:
R. Canihuante, M. El-Soudany
1 Continuous shading balcony
2 Horizontal louvers
3 Large windows (comfort vent.)
4 Shielded interior courtyard
5 Short, opaque E/W facades
H Y B R I D D A Y L I G H T M O D E L S I N A R C H . D E S I G N
p. 62 | Off ice Building + Community Center Performance
Studio, Simulation Prof. + Prototyping: Author
E D U C A T I O N + D A Y L I G H T P R O T O T Y P E S
G
ood climate-based daylight and thermal performance tend
to be correlated in many different climate zones. The major
model type produced in our studios therefore were disassemblable
daylight models that capture a design’s physical layout and how it
affects all-year daylight performance of the final design state, with
intermediate artefacts printed during the ideation process.
The right-hand image shows an conceptual office building design
for the climate of Ft. Lauderdale, South Florida. It is the model
of the final design variant, with the design performance of the
first iteration shown in contrast. The daylight metrics UDI 100 -
2000 for general spaces and Daylight Availability at 300 lux for
office spaces are included to show a fine-grained appreciation
for different daylight demands; both UDI and DAv are above
80%, which is a good result. Cooling energy use was reduced
by a projected 39 kWh/m
2
, which considering Florida’s tendency
to penalize higher daylight utilization through increased cooling
demand is astonishing. The result was achieved through careful
shading design and changes in the original design’s morphology.
The bottom strip of images shows related buildings from the same
and alternate climate zones: Florida, Iran (Hashtgerd), Sweden
(Östersund) and once more Iran, all of which exhibited similar
performance increases through smart geometric design choices.
All facing facades are oriented South.
DAv
20 %
UDI
66 %
UDI
90 %
C.
103
H. 2
L. 6
C.
64
L. 4
DAv
84 %
H. .1
DAv 300 lux,
UDI 100 - 2000 lux
Heating, cooling,
lighting energy use development
(kWh/m
2
)
Primary energy demand
Initial Variant
275 kWh/m
2
Final Variant
170 kWh/m
2
Below: I.V. de Crego, D. Cepeda + T. Merickova, M. Potrzeba + C. Castillo, R. Georgieva + E. Bahamondes, L. Vasquez
100% 0% occ. hrs.
N
H Y B R I D D A Y L I G H T M O D E L S I N A R C H . D E S I G N
p. 63 | D. Cepeda, I. Crego presenting, winter 2011/12
E D U C A T I O N + P A R A M E T R I C D E S I G N
H Y B R I D D A Y L I G H T M O D E L S
p. 64 | Urban Performance Design Models
I N A R C H . D E S I G N E D U C A T I O N
+ I R R A D I A T I O N P R O T O T Y P E S
I
n addition to the daylight models, physical irradiation models
played a special part in a retooled urban + housing design
studio, as in this instance unit overshadowing, urban layout and
individual unit designs closely interlocked. The resultant small-
scale models, of which many were produced during a given design
process, offer another mode of performance understanding and
extend on what was originally written in the paper for CAADRIA
2013 published at the National University Singapore:
“The increasing use of building performance simulation in
architectural design enriches digital models and derived
prototyping geometries with performance data that makes them
analytically powerful artefacts serving sustainable design. [...]
Simulation metrics are merged with prototyping geometries to be
output on a colour-capable Zprinter; the resultant hybrid artefacts
simultaneously allow three-dimensional formal as well as whole-
year daylight performance evaluation [and] embody a specific
epistemological type that we [...] posit to be an example of
multivalent representation, a formal class that aids knowledge
accretion in performance-based design workflows.”
The following sheets show the performance of two housing
class designs compared throughout the ideation process, and
use the irradiation models as combined design and performance
repositories. Both works were created in Östersund, Sweden’s
climate; yet as in other classes, multiple climate zones were also
used in the urban design seminars.
Background/Opposite:
Annual Irradiation, Physically Rapid-Prototyped Urban Design Models. Design:
D. Gkougkoudi, O.A. Pearl + T. Merickova, P. Jardzioch + O. Ritter, W. Sutcliffe
+ C. Kollmeyer, R. Kölmel + N. Vitusevych, W. Fischer
Studio, Simulation Prof. + Prototyping: Author
Students:
T. Merickova, P. Jardzioch
Variant A
Daylight UDI 100 - 2000, > 2000 &
< 100 lux comparison;
Heating energy use development
(kWh/m
2
)
Test glazing areas,
materials, U-values,
and unit overshadowing
(conditioned & passive)
Versioning: compare two site
design variants; pick “best” one.
Metrics: average irradiance,
H/C energy demand (VIPER)
H. 89 H. 34
> 2k
43 %
19 %
100
- 2k
38 %
27 %
100
- 2k
48 %
> 2k
25 %
Baseline (~A) Final Variant
> 2k
42 %
H. 37 H. 18 18 %
100
- 2k
40 %
32 %
100
- 2k
45 %
> 2k
23 %
Baseline (~B) Final Variant
In parallel to systematic tests,
designs continue to develop
in a heuristic & design-driven
fashion, on multiple levels
Variant B
461 114
Summer Winter
Avrg. irradiation (exposed surfaces): kWh/m
2
529 135
Summer Winter
Variant A
495 117
Variant B
Inequal unit performance!
467 116
606 140
630 154
Final Var.
Final Var.
“Shaping”
Students:
O. A. Pearl, D. Gkougkoudi
H Y B R I D D A Y L I G H T M O D E L S I N A R C H . D E S I G N
p. 65 | Sweden (Östersund) Housing Design Performance Comparison
Design: O.A. Pearl, D. Gkougkoudi; T. Merickova, P. Jardzioch
Studio, Simulation Prof. + Prototyping: Author
E D U C A T I O N + I R R A D I A T I O N P R O T O T Y P E S
Students:
T. Merickova,
P. Jardzioch
Students:
O. A. Pearl, D. Gkougkoudi
PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
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H Y B R I D D A Y L I G H T M O D E L S I N A R C H . D E S I G N
p. 66 | Sweden (Östersund) Housing Design Performance Comparison
Design: O.A. Pearl, D. Gkougkoudi; T. Merickova, P. Jardzioch
Studio + Simulation Prof.: Author
E D U C A T I O N + I R R A D I A T I O N P R O T O T Y P E S
Unit perspective section Site perspective (looking East)
Unit section Site perspective (looking West)

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