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WITH AMMONIA EVAPORATION

,

Naghelli Ortega* °, Octavio García-Valladares*, Roberto Best*

*Centro de Investigación en Energía-UNAM, Apdo. Postal 34, 62580, Temixco, Morelos, México

°Centro de Investigación en Energía-UNAM, Posgrado en Ingeniería-Energía,

Apdo. Postal 34, 62580, Temixco, Morelos, México, noa@cie.unam.mx

ABSTRACT

A solar concentrator of the compound parabolic concentrator type was studied as a vapour generator in an ammonia-water

absorption solar refrigerator. A methodology was developed in order to analyse the evaporation process, where the

temperature lift associated with the ammonia evaporation and the forced convection two-phase flow were taken into

consideration.

The system was considered in steady state and a one-dimensional analysis was applied. In order to model the ammonia-

water mixture behaviour during the evaporation process, the local fluid temperature, the ammonia concentration in liquid and

vapour phases, and the vapour-liquid relation at the two-phase intermixture must be determined. Local thermodynamic

equilibrium between the liquid and vapour phases was supposed; since the mixture temperature changed with position, the

equilibrium conditions always changed.

A one-dimensional numerical simulation of the thermal and fluid-dynamic behaviour of two-phase flow had been

developed. The governing equations (continuity, momentum and energy) inside the tube, together with the energy equation in

the tube wall and the thermal analysis in the solar concentrator, were solved iteratively in a segregated manner. The discretized

governing equations in fluid flow were coupled using an implicit step-by-step method.

the order of 150°C and 300°C, respectively [5].

In great part of the world, the deficiencies in electric power Since 1990, solar parabolic troughs have been used to

supply have implications in refrigeration availability [1]. In evaporate water and to produce steam directly on the receiver

the last few years, there have been advances in research in [10]. The technology developed is known as direct steam

order to develop new refrigeration and cooling systems. The generation (DSG). The vapour produced is mainly applied for

main research line has been focused on thermal systems, power generation and, recently, for desalinisation processes

applying alternative energy sources, as residual, geothermal [11]. DSG presents many advantages compared to the oil

and solar energy. based technology, since DSG eliminates costly synthetic oil,

Solar energy has the advantage that the cooling load is intermediate heat transport piping, special type equipment to

generally required when solar radiation is available [2]. This run the high temperature oil, and oil to steam heat exchanger

feature represents the main reason for sustained research into [12].

solar cooling devices for three decades, which include the Based on the main advantages of DSG, a CPC was

combination of solar energy technologies with some thermal designed in order to directly evaporate ammonia [13]. The

cooling technologies as absorption, adsorption and desiccant ammonia vapour would be utilized in an ammonia-water

[2-4]. absorption solar refrigerator. To our knowledge, there is not

Solar thermal technologies can be divided in flat-plate another study about direct ammonia vapour generation in a

collectors, and concentrators. The main difference between solar concentrator.

them is the proportion among the aperture area and the In the present work, the evaporation process in the CPC

receptor area. In flat-plate collectors this relation is 1.0 and in designed was analysed. A detailed one-dimensional numerical

concentrators is higher than 1.0. This geometrical relation is simulation of the thermal and fluid-dynamic behaviour of

known as the concentration ratio. two-phase flow was developed.

Flat-plate collectors are mainly used for hot water

production in the residential and the commercial sectors, 2 COMPOUND PARABOLIC CONCENTRATOR

where the maximum temperature reached is approximately

80°C. This feature, in addition to its sensitivity to A trough CPC consists of three primary components:

environmental temperature and insolation, limits the reflector, receptor and cover. The reflector is developed by

application of these devices [5]. two segments, an involute section and a parabolic segment,

There are several types of solar concentrators, such as where the AB arc is the involute of the AT arc (Figure 1).

compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs), parabolic troughs,

Fresnel reflectors, and central receivers [6-9]. The main

differences between them are the concentration ratio that each

one can reach, and its applications, e.g. CPC and parabolic

4.1 Subcooled Liquid Region

calculate the heat transfer coefficient at the single-phase

region:

Where:

( f 8 )( Re− 1000 ) Pr k

α f ,l = (3)

1 + 12.7 ( f 8 ) ( Pr 2 3 − 1) Di

Figure 1. CPC with tubular receptor

f = (1.82 log10 Re− 1.64 )

reflector normal NP bisects the angle between the tangent to −2

(4)

the receptor PT and the line QP, which forms a θc acceptance

half-angle with the CPC axis. The CD line represents the

cover. The friction factor was evaluated from the expression

In the study case, the receptor was tubular and was located proposed by Churchill [17]. In the subcooled boiling region

on the focus of the CPC. (if it exists) the heat transfer coefficient was estimated

The CPC designed [13] had an inside and outside diameter according to Kandlikar [18].

tube of 0.0525m and 0.0603m, respectively; an acceptance

half-angle of 15° that corresponds to a concentration ratio of 4.2 Equilibrium Two-Phase Region

3.86, and a height of 1.66m.

If the CPC reflector is fully developed the ends almost do Separated two-phase flow was considered; the void

not contribute to concentrate the solar radiation, for this fraction was estimated from the semi-empirical equation of

reason the CPC was truncated up to a height of 0.76m that Premoli (cited by Rice [19]). For the convective heat transfer

corresponds to a real concentration ratio of 3.5. At this height coefficient, two different models were applied, the correlation

the cover width was 0.66m. proposed by Mishra, Varma, and Sharma with the coefficients

for ammonia-water mixture obtained by Rivera and Best [20];

3 MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION and the Zürcher, Thome and Favrat flow boiling model [21].

The friction factor was calculated from the same equation

Local knowledge of the shear stresses, the two-phase flow as in the case of subcooled liquid flow using a correction

structure and the heat transfer through the solar concentrator, factor (two-phase frictional multiplier Φ) according to Friedel

tube and fluid were necessary in order to achieve the one- [22].

dimensional model.

Since there was thermodynamic equilibrium in the 5 NUMERICAL RESOLUTION

subcooled liquid and two-phase regions, temperature, mass

fraction and all the thermodynamic properties could be

Figure 2 shows the receptor tube cross-section. The

calculated using matrix functions of the pressure and enthalpy, subcooled ammonia-water mixture enters the tube at position

i.e.: 0 with a mass flow m , and an inner temperature Tf,i. The

receptor tube receives a useful energy gain qu. Ammonia

φ = φ ( P, h) where φ = T , xg , ρ ,... (1) starts to evaporate at a certain length Ls, where saturation

temperature Tf,s is reached. Finally, the two-phase mixture is

For the ammonia-water mixture, these matrices were out at position L with an outside temperature Tf,o.

obtained using REFPROP v7.0 [14].

Some transport properties (thermal conductivity, and

viscosity) were calculated with the correlations proposed by

Selim and Elsayed [15], as functions of mass concentration

and temperature.

CPC was divided in two sections: a section where the

ammonia-water mixture was subcooled until it reached the Figure 2. Receptor tube cross-section

saturation temperature, and the two-phase section where

ammonia was evaporated and a two-phase mixture was The numerical analysis was carried out by means of a

obtained. control volume (CV) method on the receptor tube. The

The convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor discretized equations were coupled using a fully implicit step-

were calculated in different ways for each receptor tube by-step method in the flow direction. From the known values

section: subcooled liquid region and two-phase region. at the inlet section and guessed values of the wall boundary

conditions, the variable values at the outlet of each CV were

iteratively obtained from the discretized governing equations. Where, in terms of the mass flow rate, gas and liquid

This solution (outlet values) was the inlet values for the next velocities were:

CV. The procedure was carried out until the end of the

m (1 − xg )

receptor tube is reached. mxg

Vg = Vl = (13)

5.1 Discretization of Equations ρ g ε g At ρl (1 − ε g ) At

Fluid flow analysis. For each CV, a set of algebraic The energy governing equation was written as:

equations was obtained by governing equations discretization

(continuity, momentum and energy). ∂ P V2 ∂ Vx2

The transient terms of the governing equations were ρV h f − + x + m f

h + = qu (14)

discretized using the approximation: ∂t ρ 2 ∂x 2

∂φ ∂t ≅ (φ − φ o ) ∆t where φ = h, P, T , ρ ,... (5) The outlet enthalpy was calculated from the discretized of

Eq.(14), and Eq.(8):

Where superscript “o” indicates the value of the previous

( 2π Din ∆x ) qwall − ami + bmi −1 + cAt ∆x ∆t

instant. hi = (15)

The receptor tube was divided in N control volumes: mi + mi −1 + ρtpo At ∆x ∆t

mean between their inlet and outlet values:

a = xgVg + (1 − xg )Vl − hi −1

2

i

φi ≅ φi ≡ (φi + φi +1 ) 2 (7) (16)

b = xgVg + (1 − xg )Vl

2

− hi −1

i −1

Based on the numerical approaches indicated above, the

final form of the governing equations is given below.

c = 2 ( pi −1 − p o

i −1 ) − ρ (h o

tp i −1 ) (

− 2hi o−1 − ρVi −21 − ρ oVi o−12 )

The continuity governing equation was:

This formulation of conservation equations was applied to

∂ρ ∂ ρVx

+

(

=0

) (8)

transient two-phase flow, as well as particular cases of steady

flow or single-phase flow.

∂t ∂x

Receptor tube wall. The conduction in the internal tube

The outlet mass flow rate was obtained from the discretized wall was calculated assuming the following hypotheses: one-

of Eq.(8): dimensional transient temperature distribution. A

characteristic CV is shown in Figure 3, where P represents the

At ∆x central node, E and W indicate its neighbours. The CV-faces

mi = mi −1 −

∆t

( ρtp − ρtpo ) (9) are indicated by e, w, n and s.

ρtp = ε g ρ g + (1 − ε g ) ρl (10)

Figure 3. Discretized receptor tube wall

∂V ∂V ∂P ∂ 2V

ρ x + Vx x = − + µ 2x (11) Integrating the energy equation over this CV, the following

∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x

equation was obtained:

The outlet pressure was obtained from the discretized of ∂h

Eq.(11): (

)

qwall ps − qu pn ∆x + qw − qe Ata = m

∂t

( ) (17)

f m2 m − mo

π Din Φ + Where qwall was evaluated using the convective heat

4 2 ρtp At2 ∆t transfer coefficient in the fluid flow, and the conductive heat

∆x m

( )

Pi = Pi −1 − + xgVg + (1 − xg )Vl (12) fluxes were evaluated from the Fourier law, this was:

At ∆x i

m

∂T ∂T

( )

− xgVg + (1 − xg )Vl qe = −α e a qw = −α w a (18)

∆x i −1 ∂x e ∂x w

The following equation was obtained for each node of the

( )

grid: −1

α t−, a1 − c α t−, r1− ex + (α ra , r − c + α t , a − r )

−1

1

aTa ,i = bTa ,i +1 + cTa ,i −1 + d U L ,i = + (23)

(19) α t , c − ex α t−, a1 − c + α t−, r1− ex + (α ra , r − c + α t , a − r )−1

Where the coefficients were:

Where individual heat loss coefficients were:

k A k A A ∆x

a = w ta + e ta + α f ,i ps ∆x + ta ρ Cp α t ,c − ex = α co ,c − en + α ra ,c − sk

∆x ∆x ∆t

k A k A α t , r − ex = α co ,r − en + α ra , r − sk

b = e ta c = w ta (20) (24)

∆x ∆x α t , a − c = α co , a − c + α ra , a − c

Ata ∆x

d = (α f , i psT f , i + qu , i pn ) ∆x + ρ CpTwo,i α t , a − r = α co , a − r + α ra , a − r

∆t

Ac

The coefficients mentioned above were applicable for α co ,c − en = (5.7 + 3.8υ ) (25)

2 ≤ i ≤ N − 1 ; for i = 1 and i = N adequate coefficients were Aa

used to take into account the axial heat conduction or

temperature boundary conditions. The set of heat conduction Ar

discretized equations was solved using the algorithm TDMA α co , r − en = (5.7 + 3.8υ ) (26)

Aa

[23].

5.2 Boundary Conditions Where the reflector area Ar was calculated by:

π

The ammonia-water mixture was subcooled at the receptor

ϕinv

2 φ par + θ C + ϕ − cos (ϕ − θ C )

1

tube inlet, then mass flow, pressure, temperature and

composition were known, therefore inner enthalpy could be

Ar = Do ∆x + ∫ 2

2 φinv 1 + sen (ϕ − θ C )

32

dϕ

4

calculated. The heat flux or useful energy gain qu through the

receptor tube wall had to be known. The energy balance in (27)

the CPC components had to be work out in order to obtain

this heat flux. This value was calculated taken account the

solar energy transferred through the solar concentrator α co , a − r = 3.25 + 0.0085

(T a ,i − Tr , i )

(28)

components until the receptor tube wall. Next section details 2 Do

the procedure.

Ar

5.3 Useful Energy Gain (29)

Aa

The useful energy gain in each CV was calculated by [13]:

α ra , c − sk = ε cσ (Tc2,i + Tsk2 ) (Tc ,i + Tsk )

Ac

(30)

= c S − U L ,i (Ta ,i − Ten )

A Aa

qu ,i (21)

Aa

σ (Tc2,i + Tr2,i ) (Tc ,i + Tr ,i ) Ar

α ra , r − c = ⋅ (31)

1 − ε c (1 − ε r ) Ac Aa

Cover and receptor area were defined as:

+

Ac = w∆x Aa = π Do ∆x (22) εc ε r Ar

The useful energy gain depends on solar absorbed energy S σ (Ta2,i + Tc2,i ) (Ta ,i + Tc ,i )

that is equal to the incident solar energy reduced by optical α ra , a − c = (32)

losses in the concentrator [24]. Thereby, absorbed energy S is 1 Ac 1

+ − 1

distributed as useful energy gain and thermal losses in the ε c Aa ε a

cover, the reflector and the receptor tube, represented as the

overall heat loss coefficient UL.

α co , a − c = 3.25 + 0.0085

(T a ,i − Tc , i )

(33)

Solar absorbed energy. Solar absorbed energy S is a 2 Do

function of radiative properties of CPC components

σ (Ta2,i + Tr2,i ) (Ta ,i + Tr ,i )

(reflectance, emittance, absorptance, and transmittance) and

environmental conditions that depends on solar time (solar α ra , a − r = (34)

radiation, solar position, and environmental temperature). 1 − ε r (1 − ε a ) Ar

Solar absorber energy was calculated with the method showed +

εr ε a Aa

by Duffie and Beckman [24].

on temperatures of CPC components through the individual

heat loss coefficients:

Component temperatures. Temperatures of cover and established by the previous model [13]: an input temperature

reflector were necessary in order to resolve Eq.(21). Both of 60ºC, an initial ammonia concentration of 38.7% and a

were determined by means of the energy balances in each generator pressure of 1.1MPa. These conditions would allow

CPC component [13]: producing 6kW of cooling power in an average solar day of

operation. Analysis was made for a CPC installed in Temixco,

Tc ,i =

(α ra , a − c + α co, a − c )Ta ,i + α ra , c − sk Tsk

+

Morelos, Mexico (18°50.36’ N, 99°14.07’ W), and for March

15 at solar noon, when solar absorbed energy per unit of area

α ra , a − c + α co , a − c + α ra ,c − sk + α co ,c − en − α ra , r − c -2

is 649.3Wm (the day with the highest radiation level during

(35)

α co, c − enTen − α ra , r − cTr , i the 2000 year).

The materials specified for the CPC designed were: carbon

α ra , a − c + α co, a − c + α ra , c − sk + α co, c − en − α ra , r − c

steel for the receptor tube (thermal conductivity of 16.3W

-1

(mK) , absorptance of 0.85, and emittance of 0.80), glass for

the cover (absorptance of 0.05, emittance of 0.85, and

Tr ,i =

(α ra , a − r + α co , a − r )Ta ,i + α co ,r − enTen

+

reflectance of 0.05) and highly polished aluminium for the

reflectors (absorptance of 0.10, emittance of 0.03, and

α ra , a − r + α co , a − r + α co , r − en + α ra , r − sk − α ra , r − c

(36) reflectance of 0.85).

α ra , r − sk Tsk − α ra , r − cTc ,i The receptor tube length established for the analysis was

α ra , a − r + α co, a − r + α co, r − en + α ra , r − sk − α ra , r − c 45m, except for the cases were the evaporation process did

not start at 45m. The mass flow rate was of 0.048kg/s for all

the calculations, with exception of the length for the

5.4 Numerical Solver saturation analysis presented in Figure 7.

The component temperatures, mixture quality, convective

At each time step the solution process was carried out on heat transfer fluid coefficient, useful energy gain and overall

the basis of a global algorithm that, in each CV, solves in a heat loss coefficient were recorded for certain conditions. The

segregated manner the flow inside the receptor tube, the heat analysis shows that the pressure loss in the receptor tube is

conduction in the receptor tube wall and the heat transfer in not significant.

the solar concentrator, in order to calculate all the variables at Figure 4 shows the temperatures of the reflector, the cover,

the outlet section, with the known values at the inlet section the receptor tube wall and the ammonia-water mixture,

and the boundary conditions. calculated with Rivera and Best model. The temperature lift

The coupling between the three main subroutines was in the subcooled zone was about 40°C, this is because of the

performed iteratively for each time step following the low fluid mass rate, and the low thermal conductivity of the

procedure: receptor tube.

140

Fluid flow inside the internal tube. The equations were

solved considering the receptor tube wall temperature 120

distribution as boundary condition, evaluating the convective Ta

heat transfer in each CV.

TEMPERATURE / (° C)

100

60

heat transfer coefficient evaluated in the preceding step, and

Tr

considering the useful energy gain as boundary condition. 40

Tc

obtained by means of the thermal analysis in the CPC

components, and receptor tube wall temperatures calculated 0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

in the previous steps.

LENGTH / (m)

condition: Figure 4. Mixture and components temperatures for March 15.

1 − < δ (37) the fluid flow, calculated by the correlations of Rivera and Best

φi − φi −1 [20], and Zürcher et al. [21]. Figure 6 shows the useful energy

gain obtained from the CPC collector. From both figures it is

Where φ refers to the dependent variables of pressure and inferred that the value of the convective heat transfer

enthalpy; and φ* represents their values at the previous coefficient in the fluid flow produces small changes in the

iteration. overall heat losses coefficient at the CPC.

The global convergence was reached when between two Figure 7 shows the variation of the saturation length

consecutive loops of the three main subroutines Eq.(37) was (beginning of evaporation) as a function of the mass flow.

verified for all the CVs in the domain.

with a tilt angle of 15°, and with the characteristics

was developed. The designed compound parabolic

1600 concentrator for the evaporation of the ammonia-water

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT / (W / K M )

2 mixture was thermally analysed in order to calculate the

1400

RB

useful energy gain that reaches the receptor tube wall. The

1200 conduction in the internal tube wall was solved using the

algorithm TDMA.

1000

The numerical analysis was made with a control volume

800 method on the receptor tube, and the discretized equations

were coupled using a fully implicit step by step method in the

600 flow direction.

KTF

400 In order to resolve the one-dimensional model, the

thermodynamic properties of the ammonia-water mixture

200 were calculated using matrix functions of the pressure and

0

enthalpy, and some transport properties were estimated as

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 functions of mass concentration and temperature.

LENGTH / (m) Two distinct models were applied to calculate the two-

phase flow convective heat transfer coefficient, considering a

Rivera and Best (RB) Kattan, Thome and Favrat (KTF)

separated model.

Figure 5. Fluid heat transfer coefficient calculated by both The numerical algorithm resolves, for each control volume,

models: Rivera and Best [20], and Zürcher et al. [21], in three subroutines: for the flow inside the receptor tube, for the

March 15 at solar noon.

heat conduction in the receptor tube wall, and for the heat

transfer in the solar concentrator. All the variables at the

1600

RB

outlet section were calculated with the known values at the

1400

inlet section and the boundary conditions. The coupling

KTF

between the three main subroutines was performed iteratively

USEFUL ENERGY GAIN / (W / m )

2

The analysis was for a CPC with input temperature of

1000

60ºC, initial ammonia concentration of 38.7%, and pressure

800 of 1.1MPa.

The results show that the useful energy gain, and therefore

600

the overall heat loss coefficient, has small changes with the

400 two-phase convective heat transfer coefficient used.

>From Figure 7 is deduced that there is a direct correlation

200

between the mass flow and the saturation length. This is due

0 to the heat transfer and residence time of the fluid in the CV,

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 if the mass flow is low, Reynolds number is low and

LENGTH / (m) residence time is high and, if the mass flow is higher,

Rivera and Best (RB) Kattan, Thome and Favrat (KTF)

Reynolds number is higher and residence time is lower.

Figure 6. Useful energy gain obtained with both heat transfer

coefficient models, in March 15 at solar noon. 8 NOMENCLATURE

2

Aa receptor tube heat transfer area [m ]

70 2

Ac cover heat transfer area [m ]

2

Ar reflector heat transfer area [m ]

60 2

At cross section area of fluid flow [m ]

SATURATION LENGTH / (m)

2

50

Ata cross section area of receptor tube [m ]

-1 -1

Cp calorific capacity [J kg K ]

40 D diameter [m]

f friction factor

-1

30 h enthalpy [J kg ]

-1 -1

k thermal conductivity [W K m ]

20 L length [m]

-1

m mass flux [kg s ]

10

p perimeter [m]

P pressure [Pa]

0 -2

0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10 0,11 0,12 0,13 0,14 0,15 qu useful energy gain per unit of area [W m ]

-2

MASS FLOW / (kg / s) qwall heat flux per unit of area from fluid to wall [W m ]

-2

S solar absorbed energy per unit of area [W m ]

Figure 7. Length of receptor tube necessary to start the t time [s]

ammonia evaporation as a function of mass flow. T temperature [K]

-1 -2

UL overall heat loss coefficient [W K m ]

7 CONCLUSIONS V volume [m ]

3

-1

Vx velocity in the axial direction [m s ]

A detailed one-dimensional numerical simulation of the

thermal and fluid-dynamic behaviour of two-phase w cover width [m]

(evaporation process at a solar concentrator receptor tube) x axial coordinate

xg mass fraction (vapour quality) 3. R. Best and N. Ortega, Solar Refrigeration and Cooling,

Renewable Energy, vol. 16, pp. 685-690, 1999.

Greek letters 4. F. Ziegler, State of the Art in Sorption Heat Pumping and

α -1

heat transfer coefficient [W K m ]

-2

Cooling Technologies, Int. J. Refrigeration, vol. 25, pp.

δ convergence factor 450-459, 2002.

ε emittance 5. A. Rabl, Active Solar Collectors and Their Applications,

εg void fraction Oxford University Press, 1985.

φ generic dependent variable 6. J.M. Gordon and N.K. Choon, High-Efficiency Solar

Cooling, Solar Energy, vol. 68, pp. 23-31, 2000.

ϕ angle of involute generation [°]

7. P. Schild, Solar Thermal Power: European Perspective,

µ -1 -1

viscosity [kg m s ] Proc. Symp. Int. SolarPACES on Concentrated Solar

θC acceptance half-angle [°] Power and Chemical Energy Technologies, pp. 647-652,

ρ density [kg m ]

-3

2002.

σ Stefan-Boltzman constant [5.6697 × 10 W K m ]

-8 -4 -2

8. K. Sumathy, K.H. Yeung and L. Yong, Technology

υ velocity of the wind [m s ]

-1

Development in the Solar Adsorption Refrigeration

x spatial discretization step [m] Systems, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science,

t temporal discretization step [s] vol. 29, pp. 301-327, 2003.

Φ two-phase frictional multiplier 9. C. Grass, W. Schoelkopf, L. Staudacher and Z. Hacker,

Comparison of the Optics of Non-Tracking and Novel

Types of Tracking Solar Thermal Collectors for Process

Dimensionless numbers Heat Applications up to 300°C, Solar Energy, vol.76, pp.

Pr Prandtl number 207-215, 2004.

Re Reynolds number 10. R. Almanza, A. Lentz, and G. Jiménez, Receiver

Behaviour in Direct Steam Generation with Parabolic

Subscripts Troughs, Solar Energy, vol. 61, pp. 275-278, 1997.

a receptor tube 11. L. García-Rodriguez, A.I. Palmero-Marrero and C.

c cover Gómez-Camacho, Application of Direct Steam

co conductive Generation into a Solar Parabolic Trough Collector to

en environment Multieffect Distillation, Desalination, vol. 125, pp. 139-

ex external 145, 1999.

f fluid 12. S.D. Odeh, G.L. Morrison and M. Behnia, Modelling of

g gas Parabolic Trough Direct Steam Generation Solar

i inlet Collectors, Solar Energy, vol. 62, pp. 395–406, 1998.

in inner 13. N. Ortega and R. Best, Modelling of a Compound

inv involute Parabolic Concentrator with Direct Vapour Generation

l liquid phase for Refrigeration Applications, Proc. Symp. Int.

o outlet SolarPACES on Concentrated Solar Power and

par parabola Chemical Energy Technologies, pp. 621-627, 2002.

r reflector 14. REFPROP version7.0, Reference Fluid Thermodynamic

ra radiative and Transport Properties, NIST Standard Reference

s saturation Database 23 Gaithersbug, MD 20800, USA, 2002.

sk sky 15. A.M. Selim and M.M. Elsayed, Interfacial Mass Transfer

t total and Mass Transfer Coefficient in Aqua Ammonia Packed

tp two-phases Bed Absorber, Int. J. Refrigeration, vol. 22, pp. 263-274,

1999.

Superscripts 16. V. Gnielinski, New Equations for Heat and Mass

− arithmetical average over a CV Transfer in Turbulent Pipe and Channel Flow, Int.

∼ integral average over a CV Chemical Engineering, vol. 16, pp. 359-368, 1976.

value of previous instant 17. S.W. Churchill, Frictional Equation Spans all Fluid Flow

o

Regimes, Chemical Engineering, vol. 84, pp. 91-92,

1977.

9 ACKNOWLEDGES

18. S.G. Kandlikar, Heat transfer characteristics in partial

boiling, fully developed boiling and significant void flow

This work had been financed by DGAPA-UNAM through regions of subcooled flow boiling, Journal of Heat

of PAPIIT Project IN105602-3. The authors thank to Adrián Transfer, vol. 120, pp. 395-399, 1998.

Oskam Voorduin for its collaboration in the CPC design. 19. C.K. Rice, The effect of void fraction correlation and

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